Symposium, by Xenophon


With these words the Syracusan made his exit, bent on organising his performance.263 As soon as he was gone, Socrates once more essayed a novel argument.264 He thus addressed them:

It were but reasonable, sirs, on our part not to ignore the mighty power here present,265 a divinity in point of age coequal with the everlasting gods, yet in outward form the youngest,266 who in magnitude embraces all things, and yet his shrine is planted in the soul of man. Love267 is his name! and least of all should we forget him who are one and all votaries of this god.268 For myself I cannot name the time at which I have not been in love with some one.269 And Charmides here has, to my knowledge, captivated many a lover, while his own soul has gone out in longing for the love of not a few himself.270 So it is with Critobulus also; the beloved of yesterday is become the lover of today. Ay, and Niceratus, as I am told, adores his wife, and is by her adored.271 As to Hermogenes, which of us needs to be told272 that the soul of this fond lover is consumed with passion for a fair ideal — call it by what name you will — the spirit blent of nobleness and beauty.273 See you not what chaste severity dwells on his brow;274 how tranquil his gaze;275 how moderate his words; how gentle his intonation; now radiant his whole character. And if he enjoys the friendship of the most holy gods, he keeps a place in his regard for us poor mortals. But how is it that you alone, Antisthenes, you misanthrope, love nobody?

Nay, so help me Heaven! (he replied), but I do love most desperately yourself, O Socrates!

Whereat Socrates, still carrying on the jest, with a coy, coquettish air,276 replied: Yes; only please do not bother me at present. I have other things to do, you see.

Antisthenes replied: How absolutely true to your own character, arch go-between!277 It is always either your familiar oracle won’t suffer you, that’s your pretext, and so you can’t converse with me; or you are bent upon something or somebody else.

Then Socrates: For Heaven’s sake, don’t carbonado278 me, Antisthenes, that’s all. Any other savagery on your part I can stand, and will stand, as a lover should. However (he added), the less we say about your love the better, since it is clearly an attachment not to my soul, but to my lovely person.

And then, turning to Callias: And that you, Callias, do love Autolycus, this whole city knows and half the world besides,279 if I am not mistaken; and the reason is that you are both sons of famous fathers, and yourselves illustrious. For my part I have ever admired your nature, but now much more so, when I see that you are in love with one who does not wanton in luxury or languish in effeminacy,280 but who displays to all his strength, his hardihood, his courage, and sobriety of soul. To be enamoured of such qualities as these is a proof itself of a true lover’s nature.

Whether indeed Aphrodite be one or twain281 in personality, the heavenly and the earthly, I cannot tell, for Zeus, who is one and indivisible, bears many titles.282 But this thing I know, that these twain have separate altars, shrines, and sacrifices,283 as befits their nature — she that is earthly, of a lighter and a laxer sort; she that is heavenly, purer and holier in type. And you may well conjecture, it is the earthly goddess, the common Aphrodite, who sends forth the bodily loves; while from her that is named of heaven, Ourania, proceed those loves which feed upon the soul, on friendship and on noble deeds. It is by this latter, Callias, that you are held in bonds, if I mistake not, Love divine.284 This I infer as well from the fair and noble character of your friend, as from the fact that you invite his father to share your life and intercourse.285 Since no part of these is hidden from the father by the fair and noble lover.

Hermogenes broke in: By Hera, Socrates, I much admire you for many things, and now to see how in the act of gratifying Callias you are training him in duty and true excellence.286

Why, yes (he said), if only that his cup of happiness may overflow, I wish to testify to him how far the love of soul is better than the love of body.

Without friendship,287 as we full well know, there is no society of any worth. And this friendship, what is it? On the part of those whose admiration288 is bestowed upon the inner disposition, it is well named a sweet and voluntary compulsion. But among those whose desire288 is for the body, there are not a few who blame, nay hate, the ways of their beloved ones. And even where attachment288 clings to both,289 even so the bloom of beauty after all does quickly reach its prime; the flower withers, and when that fails, the affection which was based upon it must also wither up and perish. But the soul, with every step she makes in her onward course towards deeper wisdom, grows ever worthier of love.

Ay, and in the enjoyment of external beauty a sort of surfeit is engendered. Just as the eater’s appetite palls through repletion with regard to meats,290 so will the feelings of a lover towards his idol. But the soul’s attachment, owing to its purity, knows no satiety.291 Yet not therefore, as a man might fondly deem, has it less of the character of loveliness.292 But very clearly herein is our prayer fulfilled, in which we beg the goddess to grant us words and deeds that bear the impress of her own true loveliness.293

That a soul whose bloom is visible alike in beauty of external form, free and unfettered, and an inner disposition, bashful, generous; a spirit294 at once imperial and affable,295 born to rule among its fellows — that such a being will, of course, admire and fondly cling to his beloved, is a thesis which needs no further argument on my part. Rather I will essay to teach you, how it is natural that this same type of lover should in turn be loved by his soul’s idol.296

How, in the first place, is it possible for him to hate a lover who, he knows, regards him as both beautiful and good?297 and, in the next place, one who, it is clear, is far more anxious to promote the fair estate of him he loves298 than to indulge his selfish joys? and above all, when he has faith and trust that neither dereliction,299 nor loss of beauty through sickness, nor aught else, will diminish their affection.

If, then, they own a mutual devotion,300 how can it but be, they will take delight in gazing each into the other’s eyes, hold kindly converse, trust and be trusted, have forethought for each other, in success rejoice together, in misfortune share their troubles; and so long as health endures make merry cheer, day in day out; or if either of them should fall on sickness, then will their intercourse be yet more constant; and if they cared for one another face to face, much more will they care when parted.301 Are not all these the outward tokens of true loveliness?302 In the exercise of such sweet offices, at any rate, they show their passion for holy friendship’s state, and prove its bliss, continuously pacing life’s path from youth to eld.

But the lover who depends upon the body,303 what of him? First, why should love-for-love be given to such a lover? because, forsooth, he bestows upon himself what he desires, and upon his minion things of dire reproach? or that what he hastens to exact, infallibly must separate that other from his nearest friends?

If it be pleaded that persuasion is his instrument, not violence; is that no reason rather for a deeper loathing? since he who uses violence304 at any rate declares himself in his true colours as a villain, while the tempter corrupts the soul of him who yields to his persuasions.

Ay, and how should he who traffics with his beauty love the purchaser, any more than he who keeps a stall in the market-place and vends to the highest bidder? Love springs not up, I trow, because the one is in his prime, and the other’s bloom is withered, because fair is mated with what is not fair, and hot lips are pressed to cold. Between man and woman it is different. There the wife at any rate shares with her husband in their nuptial joys; but here conversely, the one is sober and with unimpassioned eye regards his fellow, who is drunken with the wine of passion.305

Wherefore it is no marvel if, beholding, there springs up in his breast the bitterest contempt and scorn for such a lover. Search and you shall find that nothing harsh was ever yet engendered by attachment based on moral qualities; whilst shameless intercourse, time out of mind, has been the source of countless hateful and unhallowed deeds.306

I have next to show that the society of him whose love is of the body, not the soul, is in itself illiberal. The true educator who trains another in the path of virtue, who will teach us excellence, whether of speech or conduct,307 may well be honoured, even as Cheiron and Phoenix308 were honoured by Achilles. But what can he expect, who stretches forth an eager hand to clutch the body, save to be treated309 as a beggar? That is his character; for ever cringing and petitioning a kiss, or some other soft caress,310 this sorry suitor dogs his victims.

If my language has a touch of turbulence,311 do not marvel: partly the wine exalts me; partly that love which ever dwells within my heart of hearts now pricks me forward to use great boldness of speech312 against his base antagonist. Why, yes indeed, it seems to me that he who fixes his mind on outward beauty is like a man who has taken a farm on a short lease. He shows no anxiety to improve its value; his sole object being to take off it the largest crops he can himself. But he whose heart is set on loyal friendship resembles rather a man who has a farmstead of his own. At any rate, he scours the wide world to find what may enhance the value of his soul’s delight.313

Again, let us consider the effect upon the object of attachment. Let him but know his beauty is a bond sufficient to enthrall his lover,314 and what wonder if he be careless of all else and play the wanton. Let him discover, on the contrary, that if he would retain his dear affection he must himself be truly good and beautiful, and it is only natural he should become more studious of virtue. But the greatest blessing which descends on one beset with eager longing to convert the idol of his soul into a good man and true friend is this: necessity is laid upon himself to practise virtue; since how can he hope to make his comrade good, if he himself works wickedness? Is it conceivable that the example he himself presents of what is shameless and incontinent,315 will serve to make the beloved one temperate and modest?

I have a longing, Callias, by mythic argument316 to show you that not men only, but gods and heroes, set greater store by friendship of the soul than bodily enjoyment. Thus those fair women317 whom Zeus, enamoured of their outward beauty, wedded, he permitted mortal to remain; but those heroes whose souls he held in admiration, these he raised to immortality. Of whom are Heracles and the Dioscuri, and there are others also named.318 As I maintain, it was not for his body’s sake, but for his soul’s, that Ganymede319 was translated to Olympus, as the story goes, by Zeus. And to this his very name bears witness, for is it not written in Homer?

And he gladdens (ganutai) to hear his voice.320

This the poet says, meaning “he is pleased to listen to his words.”

And again, in another passage he says:

Knowing deep devices (medea) in his mind,321

which is as much as to say, “knowing wise counsels in his mind.” Ganymede, therefore, bears a name compounded of the two words, “joy” and “counsel,” and is honoured among the gods, not as one “whose body,” but “whose mind” “gives pleasure.”

Furthermore (I appeal to you, Niceratus),322 Homer makes Achilles avenge Patroclus in that brilliant fashion, not as his favourite, but as his comrade.323 Yes, and Orestes and Pylades,324 Theseus and Peirithous,325 with many another noble pair of demigods, are celebrated as having wrought in common great and noble deeds, not because they lay inarmed, but because of the admiration they felt for one another.

Nay, take the fair deeds of today: and you shall find them wrought rather for the sake of praise by volunteers in toil and peril, than by men accustomed to choose pleasure in place of honour. And yet Pausanias,326 the lover of the poet Agathon,327 making a defence in behalf328 of some who wallow in incontinence, has stated that an army composed of lovers and beloved would be invincible.329 These, in his opinion, would, from awe of one another, have the greatest horror of destruction. A truly marvellous argument, if he means that men accustomed to turn deaf ears to censure and to behave to one another shamelessly, are more likely to feel ashamed of doing a shameful deed. He adduced as evidence the fact that the Thebans and the Eleians330 recognise the very principle, and added: Though they sleep inarmed, they do not scruple to range the lover side by side with the beloved one in the field of battle. An instance which I take to be no instance, or at any rate one-sided,331 seeing that what they look upon as lawful with us is scandalous.332 Indeed, it strikes me that this vaunted battle-order would seem to argue some mistrust on their part who adopt it — a suspicion that their bosom friends, once separated from them, may forget to behave as brave men should. But the men of Lacedaemon, holding that “if a man but lay his hand upon the body and for lustful purpose, he shall thereby forfeit claim to what is beautiful and noble”— do, in the spirit of their creed, contrive to mould and fashion their “beloved ones” to such height of virtue,333 that should these find themselves drawn up with foreigners, albeit no longer side by side with their own lovers,334 conscience will make desertion of their present friends impossible. Self-respect constrains them: since the goddess whom the men of Lacedaemon worship is not “Shamelessness,” but “Reverence.”335

I fancy we should all agree with one another on the point in question, if we thus approached it. Ask yourself to which type of the two must he336 accord, to whom you would entrust a sum of money, make him the guardian of your children, look to find in him a safe and sure depositary of any favour?337 For my part, I am certain that the very lover addicted to external beauty would himself far sooner have his precious things entrusted to the keeping of one who has the inward beauty of the soul.338

Ah, yes! and you, my friend (he turned to Callias), you have good reason to be thankful to the gods who of their grace inspired you with love for your Autolycus. Covetous of honour,339 beyond all controversy, must he be, who could endure so many toils and pains to hear his name proclaimed340 victor in the “pankration.”

But what if the thought arose within him:341 his it is not merely to add lustre to himself and to his father, but that he has ability, through help of manly virtue, to benefit his friends and to exalt his fatherland, by trophies which he will set up against our enemies in war,342 whereby he will himself become the admired of all observers, nay, a name to be remembered among Hellenes and barbarians.343 Would he not in that case, think you, make much of344 one whom he regarded as his bravest fellow-worker, laying at his feet the greatest honours?

If, then, you wish to be well-pleasing in his eyes, you had best inquire by what knowledge Themistocles345 was able to set Hellas free. You should ask yourself, what keen wit belonged to Pericles345 that he was held to be the best adviser of his fatherland. You should scan346 the field of history to learn by what sage wisdom Solon347 established for our city her consummate laws. I would have you find the clue to that peculiar training by which the men of Lacedaemon have come to be regarded as the best of leaders.348 Is it not at your house that their noblest citizens are lodged as representatives of a foreign state?349

Be sure that our state of Athens would speedily entrust herself to your direction were you willing.350 Everything is in your favour. You are of noble family, “eupatrid” by descent, a priest of the divinities,351 and of Erechtheus’ famous line,352 which with Iacchus marched to encounter the barbarian.353 And still, at the sacred festival today, it is agreed that no one among your ancestors has ever been more fitted to discharge the priestly office than yourself; yours a person the goodliest to behold in all our city, and a frame adapted to undergo great toils.

But if I seem to any of you to indulge a vein more serious than befits the wine-cup, marvel not. It has long been my wont to share our city’s passion for noble-natured souls, alert and emulous in pursuit of virtue.

He ended, and, while the others continued to discuss the theme of his discourse, Autolycus sat regarding Callias. That other, glancing the while at the beloved one, turned to Socrates.

Call. Then, Socrates, be pleased, as go-between,354 to introduce me to the state, that I may employ myself in state affairs and never lapse from her good graces.355

Never fear (he answered), if only people see your loyalty to virtue is genuine,356 not of mere repute. A false renown indeed is quickly seen for what it is worth, being tested; but true courage357 (save only what some god hinder) perpetually amidst the storm and stress of circumstance358 pours forth a brighter glory.

263 sunekroteito, “on the composition of his piece.” Al. “amidst a round of plaudits.”

264 “Struck the keynote of a novel theme.” Cf. Plat. “Symp.” 177 E.

265 Cf. Shelley, “Hymn to Intellectual Beauty”:

266 Reading with L. D. after Blomfield (Aesch. “Ag.” p. 304), idrumenou, or if as vulg. isoumenou, transl. “but in soul is fashioned like to mortal man.”

267 “Eros.”

268 Or, “who are each and all of us members of his band.” For thiasotai cf. Aristot. “Eth. N.” viii. 9. 5; Aristoph. “Frogs,” 327.

269 Cf. Plat. “Symp.” 177 D: “No one will vote against you, Erysimachus, said Socrates; on the only subject [ta erotika] of which I profess to have any knowledge, I certainly cannot refuse to speak, nor, I presume, Agathon and Pasuanias; and there can be no doubt of Arisophanes, who is the constant servant of Dionysus and Aphrodite; nor will any one disagree of those I see around me” (Jowett).

270 Or, “has had many a passionate admirer, and been enamoured of more than one true love himself.” See Plat. “Charm.,” ad in.

271 For Love and Love-for-Love, eros and anteros, see Plat. “Phaedr.” 255 D. Cf. Aristot. “Eth. N.” ix. 1.

272 Lit. “which of us but knows his soul is melting away with passion.” Cf. Theocr. xiv. 26.

273 Lit. “beautiful and gentle manhood.”

274 Lit. “how serious are his brows.”

275 The phrases somehow remind one of Sappho’s famous ode:

phainetai moi kenos isos theoisin emmen oner, ostis enantios toi izanei, kai plasion adu phoneusas upakouei kai gelosas imeroen.

But there we must stop. Hermogenes is a sort of Sir Percivale, “such a courtesy spake thro’ the limbs and in the voice.”

276 Al. “like a true coquet.” Cf. Plat. “Phaedr.” 228 C.

277 See “Mem.” III. xi. 14.

278 Or, “tear and scratch me.”

279 Lit. “many a foreign visitor likewise.”

280 See the Attic type of character, as drawn by Pericles, Thuc. ii. 40.

281 For Aphrodite Ourania and Pandemos see Plat. “Symp.” 180.

282 Lit. “that is believed to be the same.” See Cic. “De N. D.” iii. 16. Cf. Aesch. “Prom.” 210 (of Themis and Gaia), pollon onomaton morphe mia.

283 e.g. to Aphrodite Pandemos a white goat, mekas leuke, but to Aphrodite Ourania a heifer, and thusiai nephaliai, offerings without wine, i.e. of water, milk, and honey. Schol. to Soph. “Oed. Col.” 100; Lucian, lxvii. “Dial. Mer.” 7. 1.

284 Lit. “by Eros.”

285 Cf. Plat. “Prot.” 318 A; Aristoph. “Thesmoph.” 21, “learned conversazioni.”

286 Lit. “teaching him what sort of man he ought to be.” This, as we know, is the very heart and essence of the Socratic (= XS) method. See “Mem.” I. ii. 3.

287 Lit. “That without love no intercourse is worth regarding, we all know.”

288 N.B. — agamenon, epithumounton, sterxosi. Here, as often, the author seems to have studied the orthoepeia of Prodicus. See “Mem.” II. i. 24.

289 i.e. “body and character.”

290 Cf. “Mem.” III. xi. 13.

291 Lit. “is more insatiate.” Cf. Charles Wesley’s hymn:

O Love Divine, how sweet Thou art! When shall I find my willing heart All taken up by Thee?

292 Lit. “is she, the soul, more separate from Aphrodite.”

293 Or, “stamped with the image of Aphrodite.” Zeune cf. Lucr. i. 24, addressing Venus, “te sociam studeo scribendis versibus esse,” “I would have thee for a helpmate in writing the verses . . .”; and below, 28, “quo magis aeternum da dictis, diva, leporem,” “Wherefore all the more, O lady, lend my lays an ever-living charm” (H. A. J. Munro).

294 Cf. Plat. “Phaedr.” 252 E.

295 The epithet philophron occurs “Mem.” III. i. 6, of a general; ib. III. v. 3 (according to the vulg. reading), of the Athenians.

296 Or, “the boy whom he cherishes.”

297 Or, “perfection.”

298 Lit. “the boy.”

299 Reading en para ti poiese. Al. “come what come may,” lit. “no alteration”; or if reading parebese transl. “although his May of youth should pass, and sickness should mar his features, the tie of friendship will not be weakened.”

300 For beauty of style (in the original) Zeune cf. “Mem.” II. vi. 28 foll.; III. xi. 10.

301 “Albeit absent from one another in the body, they are more present in the soul.” Cf. Virg. “Aen.” iv. 83, “illum absens absentem auditque videtque.”

302 Or, “bear the stamp of Aphrodite.”

303 Or, “is wholly taken up with.” Cf. Plat. “Laws,” 831 C.

304 Cf. “Hiero,” iii. 3; “Cyrop.” III. i. 39.

305 Lit. “by Aphrodite.” Cf. Plat. “Phaedr.” 240, “But the lover . . . when he is drunk” (Jowett); “Symp.” 214 C.

306 Zeune cf. Ael. “V. H.” viii. 9, re Archelaus king of Macedon, concerning whom Aristotle, “Pol.” v. 10. 1311 B: “Many conspiracies have originated in shameful attempts made by sovereigns on the persons of their subjects. Such was the attack of Crataeus upon Archelaus,” etc. (Jowett).

307 Phoenix addresses Achilles, “Il.” ix. 443:

muthon te reter’ emenai, prektera te ergon

Therefore sent he (Peleus) me to thee to teach thee all things,
To be both a speaker of words and a doer of deeds (W. Leaf).

308 See “Il.” xi. 831; “Hunting,” ch. i., as to Cheiron and his scholars, the last of whom is Achilles.

309 an periepoito. “He will be scurvily treated.” Cf. “Hell.” III. i. 19.

310 Cf. “Mem.” I. ii. 29.

311 Or, “wantonness”; and for the apology see Plat. “Phaedr.” 238: “I appear to be in a divine fury, for already I am getting into dithyrambics” (Jowett).

312 Lit. “to speak openly against that other sort of love which is its rival.”

313 Cf. Michelet, I think, as to the French peasant-farmer regarding his property as “sa femme.”

314 Or, “that by largess of beauty he can enthrall his lover.”

315 See Plat. “Symp.” 182 A, 192 A.

316 Or, “I have a desire to romance a little,” “for your benefit to explain by legendary lore.” Cf. Isocr. 120 C; Plat. “Rep.” 392 B.

317 e.g. Leda, Danae, Europa, Alcmena, Electra, Latona, Laodamia (Zeune).

318 See “Hunting,” i.; “Hell.” VI. iii. 6.

319 See Plat. “Phaedr.” 255 C; Cic. “Tusc.” i. 26, “nec Homerum audio . . . divina mallem ad nos,” a protest against anthropomorphism in religion.

320 Not in “our” version of Homer, but cf. “Il.” xx. 405, ganutai de te tois ‘Enosikhthon; “Il.” xiii. 493, ganutai d’ ara te phrena poimen.

321 Partly “Il.” xxiv. 674, pukina phresi mede’ ekhontes; and “Il.” xxiv. 424, phila phresi medea eidos. Cf. “Od.” vi. 192; xviii. 67, 87; xxii. 476.

322 As an authority on Homer.

323 Cf. Plat. “Symp.” 179 E: “The notion that Patroclus was the beloved one is a foolish error into which Aeschylus has fallen,” etc. (in his “Myrmidons”). See J. A. Symonds, “The Greek Poets,” 2nd series, “Achilles,” p. 66 foll.

324 Concerning whom Ovid (“Pont.” iii. 2. 70) says, “nomina fama tenet.”

325 See Plut. “Thes.” 30 foll. (Clough, i. p. 30 foll.); cf. Lucian, xli. “Toxaris,” 10.

326 See Cobet, “Pros. Xen.” p. 15; Plat. “Protag.” 315 D; Ael. “V. H.” ii. 21.

327 Ib.; Aristot. “Poet.” ix.

328 Or, “in his ‘Apology’ for.”

329 Plat. “Symp.” 179 E, puts the sentiment into the mouth of Phaedrus: “And if there were only some way of contriving that a state or an army should be made up of lovers and their loves, they would be the very best governors of their own city, abstaining from all dishonour, and emulating one another in honour; and when fighting at one another’s side, although not a mere handful, they would overcome the world. For what lover would not choose rather to be seen by all mankind than by his beloved, either when abandoning his post or throwing away his arms? He would be ready to die a thousand deaths rather than endure this. Or would desert his beloved or fail him in the hour of danger? The veriest coward would become an inspired hero, equal to the bravest, at such a time; Love would inspire him. That courage which, as Homer says, the god breathes into the soul of heroes, Love of his own nature infuses into the lover” (Jowett). Cf. “Hunting,” xii. 20; “Anab.” VII. iv. 7; “Cyrop.” VII. i. 30.

330 Sc. in their institutions. Cf. Plat. “Symp.” 182, “in Elis and Boeotia”; “Pol. Lac.” ii. 13; Ael. “V. H.” iii. 12, xiii. 5; Athen. xiii. 2. For the Theban Sacred Band see Plut. “Pelop.” 18, 19 (Clough, ii. 218).

331 Or, “not in pari materia, so to speak.”

332 Is not Xenophon imputing himself to Socrates? Henkel cf. Plat. “Crito,” 52 E. See Newman, op. cit. i. 396.

333 Or, “shape to so fine a manhood that . . .”

334 Reading en te aute taxei. Al. . . . polei, transl. “nor indeed in the same city.” Cf. “Hell.” V. iv. 33, re death of Cleonymus at Leuctra.

335 Lit. “Aidos not Anaideia.” See Paus. “Lac.” xx. 10; “Attica,” xvii. 1; Cic. “de Leg.” ii. 11, a reference which I owe to M. Eugene Talbot, “Xen.” i. 236.

336 He (the master-mistress of my passion).

337 kharitas = “kindly offices,” beneficia. Cf. “Ages.” iv. 4; “Mem.” IV. iv. 17. Al. = delicias, “to deposit some darling object.”

338 Or, “some one truly lovable in soul and heart.”

339 See “Mem.” II. iii. 16; “Isocr.” 189 C, ph. kai megalopsukhoi.

340 i.e. “by the public herald.”

341 Cf. Theogn. 947:

patrida kosmeso, liparen polin, out’ epi demo trepsas out’ adikois andrasi peithomenos.

342 Who in 421 B.C. were of course the Lacedaemonians and the allies. Autolycus was killed eventually by the Thirty to please the Lacedaemonian harmost. See Plut. “Lysand.” 15 (Clough, iii. 120); Paus. i. 18. 3; ix. 32. 8. Cf. “Hell.” II. iii. 14.

343 Cf. “Anab.” IV. i. 20; “Mem.” III. vi. 2.

344 periepein. Cf. “Cyrop.” IV. iv. 12; “Mem.” II. ix. 5.

345 See “Mem.” II. vi. 13; III. vi. 2; IV. ii. 2.

346 For the diction, skepteon, skepteon, aphreteon, ereuneteon, epistamenos, eidos, philosopheras, Xenophon’s rhetorical style imitates the orthoepeia of Prodicus.

347 See “Econ.” xiv. 4.

348 Or, “won for themselves at all hands the reputation of noblest generalship.” Cf. “Ages.” i. 3; “Pol. Lac.” xiv. 3.

349 Reading as vulg. proxenoi d’ ei . . . or if with Schenkl, proxenos d’ ei . . . transl. “You are their consul-general; at your house their noblest citizens are lodged from time to time.” As to the office, cf. Dem. 475. 10; 1237. 17; Thuc. ii. 29; Boeckh, “P. E. A.” 50. Callias appears as the Lac. proxenos (“Hell.” V. iv. 22) 378 B.C., and at Sparta, 371 B.C., as the peace commissioner (“Hell.” VI. iii. 3).

350 Cf. “Mem.” III. vii.

351 i.e. Demeter and Core. Callias (see “Hell.” VI. l.c.) was dadouchos (or torch-holder) in the mysteries.

352 Or, “whose rites date back to Erechtheus.” Cf. Plat. “Theag.” 122.

353 At Salamis. The tale is told by Herod. viii. 65, and Plut. “Themist.” 15; cf. Polyaen. “Strat.” iii. 11. 2. Just as Themistocles had won the battle of Salamis by help of Iacchus on the 16th Boedromion, the first day of the mysteries, so Chabrias won the sea-fight of Naxos by help of the day itself, to ‘Alade mustai, 376 B.C.

354 Lit. “as pander.”

355 So Critobulus in the conversation so often referred to. “Mem.” II. vi.

356 See “Mem.” I. vii. 1, passim; II. vi. 39; “Econ.” x. 9.

357 Cf. Thuc. ii. 42, andragathia, “true courage in the public service covers a multitude of private shortcomings.”

358 en tais praxesi. Cf. Plat. “Phaedr.” 271 D, “in actual life.”

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