Leon Trotsky, 1879-1940
Russian Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician and statesman, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army.
Trotsky was initially a supporter of the Menshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. He joined the Bolsheviks immediately prior to the 1917 October Revolution, and eventually became a leader within the Party, second only to Vladimir Lenin. During the early days of the Soviet Union, he served first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army, and People's Commissar of War. He was a major figure in the Bolshevik victory in the 1917–1922 Russian Civil War. He was also among the first members of the Politburo.
After leading a failed struggle of the Left Opposition against the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s and the increasing role of bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, Trotsky was successively removed from power, expelled from the Communist Party, deported from the Soviet Union and assassinated on Stalin's orders. An early advocate of Red Army intervention against European fascism, Trotsky also opposed Stalin's non-aggression pact with Adolf Hitler in the late 1930s.
As the head of the Fourth International, Trotsky continued in exile to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, and was eventually assassinated in Mexico, by Ramón Mercader, a Soviet agent. Trotsky's ideas thus form the basis of Trotskyism, a major school of Marxist thought that is opposed to the theories of Stalinism. He was one of the few Soviet political figures who was never rehabilitated by the government of Mikhail Gorbachev.
- The Year 1905 
- War and the International 
- Autobiography, 1879–1917.
- Our Revolution 
- From October to Brest-Litovsk 
- Terrorism and Communism 
- Trotsky's Military Writings, Volume 3 
- Trotsky's Military Writings, Volume 4 
- Trotsky's Military Writings, Volume 5 
- Between Red and White 
- The New Course 
- Literature and Revolution 
- The First Five Years of the Communist International, Volume 1 
- The First Five Years of the Communist International, Volume 2 
- The Lessons of October 
- Platform of the Joint Opposition 
- The Third International After Lenin 
- History of the Russian Revolution 
- My Life 
- Permanent Revolution & Results and Prospects 
- In Defence of October 
- Problems of the Chinese Revolution 
- The Revolution Betrayed: what is the Soviet Union and where is it going? / translated by Max Eastman 
- The Stalin School of Falsification 
- The Case of Leon Trotsky 
- Their Morals and Ours 
- The Transitional Program for Socialist Revolution 
- In Defence of Marxism 
- Fascism What It Is and How To Fight It