(a) The Approach — When I was adolescent, and beginning to worry about myself and the universe, I was encouraged to read popular books on scientific subjects. I was not encouraged to read philosophy. In spite of the fact that my:education in science had been very slight, since I was made to concentrate on "English" subjects, I managed to glean in this way quite a lot of significant morsels of scientific knowledge, and to concoct a fairly nutritive mental diet for the growing mind. But though my "philosophy of life" seemed to me coherent, it was in fact very confused. I had no idea that the metaphysical assumptions of popular scientific culture needed to be brought to light and severely criticised. For I was discouraged from reading philosophy. But though I did not read philosophy I came in time to realise that there was in fact a great continent of thought which I had never explored. It was a continent which was at once enticing, forbidden, and forbidding. Whenever, with guilt, and with greed for mental gold, I dared to set foot upon its coast, I found myself at once faced with a dense jungle of technicalities and obscure ideas which, if they were not nonsense, were far beyond my comprehension. My youth and ill-equipped mind had no means of penetrating into the hinterland. In disheartenment I fled back to the familiar continent of science, where the outposts of scientific culture were rapidly spreading across the still undeveloped areas in a kind of "ribbon development."
Since those days many useful books have been written to help the novice in philosophy. I propose to make a few suggestions both as to the best way of using this introductory material, and as to somewhat more advanced reading in philosophy. Much depends, of course, on the individual's special temperament and circumstances. Those who have a real gift for philosophical thinking will "lap up" books which others regard as almost unreadable. Those who have plenty of time at their disposal can embark on a thorough and far-reaching campaign. Those who have little leisure need to plan their reading so as to secure a maximum result from as few books as possible. Again, some will approach philosophy through some particular subject in which they have come up against philosophical problems. Thus physical science, biology, psychology, art, religion, political aims, may for different kinds of people provide the incentive to philosophical study, first in the particular sphere of these interests, but later in all other philosophical fields. Some explorers, however, will want to begin with a more general approach. It is mainly for these that this book has been written, and for these that I append the following notes on reading.
I do so with grave hesitation, because, owing to an excessively late start, my own study of philosophy has been hasty and incomplete. Moreover, recently it has come almost to a standstill. I look forward with some apprehension to the comments of the thoroughly trained academic philosopher, toward whom I feel the respect due from the amateur to the professional. It is all too likely that my survey of philosophical literature for beginners ignores some important works, and gives a mistaken estimate of others. All that I can claim is that my list embraces many books that I myself have found helpful, and one or two that I now recognise as important though I have not yet read them.
For another reason also I hesitate to advise people about reading philosophy, namely, that I have so seldom taken such advice myself. Instead of holding to a well-planned course of study, I have nearly always inclined to "seize every hour, sip every flower." And whether or not it can be truly said of me that, like the sparrow, I "at all times was ready for love," it can certainly be said that at all times I was ready for philosophy. This readiness, in season and out of season, for philosophical discussion, reading, or thinking is one of the essential prerequisites for serious philosophical enquiry of any kind. The other is, of course, a tolerably keen intelligence. But I hasten to assure readers that, just as Einstein could be a great mathematician although he could not (according to the story) count his change, so it is possible to be fairly intelligent in philosophy even though one may be incompetent in some other spheres.
To sum the matter, I advise readers not to take my advice too seriously. With these words of caution I proceed.
(b) General Introductions — It would be a great mistake to begin by reading nothing but introductions, but some sort of map of the country to be explored, or at any rate some clear point of departure, is desirable at the outset. There are two kinds of introduction to philosophy. One is the development of one problem so as to show that it involves other problems. The other kind is a general summary of all problems. Starting with an introduction of one or the other type, the intelligent reader will probably find his interest concentrating on some particular set of problems raised, and will want to pursue that theme with all possible thoroughness. He may, for instance, specialise in the philosophy of science or in social philosophy. But first let him try one or other of the following introductions.
Bertrand Russell's The Problems of Philosophy (Home University Library), published in 1912, and many times reprinted, is a brilliant introduction which starts with the question whether we have any certain knowledge of anything. It is a small volume, but in it the author, one of the outstanding philosophers of our age, states with his accustomed lucidity the core of several modern philosophical problems, such as the status of the external world, the nature of knowledge, the status of universals. The reader should be warned that Russell subsequently modified in important respects the principles laid down in this book. In all his works he favours philosophical Realism, but his characteristic development of it as " Neutral Monism " occurred after he wrote this Introduction. Another very valuable introduction, also Realist in general tenor, but more comprehensive than Russell's little book, is C. E. M. Joad's Guide to Philosophy. Readers will find that I have made use of Joad's treatment of several subjects. .He has a surprising gift for expounding difficult ideas in such a manner that we are left wondering why people say philosophy is obscure. His much slighter Introduction to Modern Philosophy summarises Realism, recent Idealism, Pragmatism, and Bergson's views.
Of the second type of introduction, G. Watts-Cunningham's Problems of Philosophy is a useful introductory summary of opposing theories in all the great fields of philosophical study. It is far less stimulating than the introductions by Russell and Joad, but is useful as a textbook or book of reference.
It is impossible to understand modern philosophy without understanding how it arose out of the philosophy of previous ages.
Clement C. J. Webb's History of Philosophy (Home University Library) may be strongly recommended. It deals very briefly and clearly with the whole sequence of philosophical thought from Ancient Greece to the Nineteenth Century. The author's own philosophical position is Idealist. A more advanced and very useful textbook is A. K. Rogers's A Student's History of Philosophy. Once more the general temper is Idealist. Will Durant's The Story of Philosophy, a much larger volume, is a bright and typically American account of the lives and theories of all the outstanding philosophers of Europe and America.
John Laird's Recent Philosophy (Home University Library) is a brief survey of philosophical movements in the present century. It presupposes some knowledge of philosophy. For Greek philosophy, Joad's Guide contains chapters on the metaphysical thought of Plato and Aristotle. For those who wish to concentrate on ancient philosophy, John Burnet's Early Greek Philosophy is the standard survey. G. C. Field's Plato and his Contemporaries is of great interest to readers who wish to pursue this theme.
(c) General Development of Modern Philosophy — In whatever field the reader wishes to specialise he must make himself acquainted with the main works of the great philosophers of the last three centuries. All modern thought is a development of their thought, and is not fully intelligible without some first-hand knowledge of their work. In this connection the reader will find particularly useful the little philosophical volumes in The Modern Student's Library (Scribners). Each of these consists of carefully selected passages from one of the great philosophers and an introduction by an eminent authority. The list of volumes comprises Plato, Aristotle, Bacon, Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Hegel, and Schopenhauer. There are also two volumes on Mediaeval Philosophy. Very useful philosophical volumes occur also in Everyman's Library. Most of them have helpful introductions by A. D. Lindsay.
For practical purposes modern philosophy may be said to begin with Descartes. An Everyman volume contains his Discourse on Method and his other main works. He is quite readable. Unfortunately, Spinoza's famous Ethics (Everyman) is difficult, not only because of the difficulty of the thought, but also because of its strange presentation in the form of geometrical propositions. A short popular account of Spinoza's life and philosophy is given in J. A. Gunn's Benedict Spinoza. A more technical work is Leon Roth's Spinoza. John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding is, of course, another philosophical landmark. Locke is far more readable than Spinoza. His work is the embodiment of English common sense, with all its strength and weakness. Leibniz's works are much more difficult, because of the intrinsic difficulty of his theories. A volume of his writings is included in the Everyman's Library Series. Leibniz: The Monadology, etc., translated by R. Latta, with a long introduction on the philosopher's life and thought, contains all his important writings. Bertrand Russell's The Philosophy of Leibniz is a fine technical discussion which shows the importance of Leibniz for modern thought. Bishop Berkeley appears in the Everyman Library in the volume called A New Theory of Vision and other Writings. Berkeley is lucid. Two Everyman volumes give us David Hume's A Treatise of Human Nature, which has played so great a part in modern thought, and is fortunately written in a direct intelligible style.
Immanuel Kant is a very different kettle of fish. He is the most difficult, the most ponderous, the most self-contradictory, but according to some the most pregnant of modern philosophers. Others have regarded him as a philosophical disaster. His most famous work, The Critique of Pure Reason, translated by J. M. D. Meiklejohn (Bohn's Philosophical Library), was the supreme classic of modern philosophy throughout the long reign of philosophical Idealism. Innumerable books have been written about Kant's philosophy. The beginner should try A. D. Lindsay's little volume The Philosophy of Immanuel Kant (The People's Books). Use should also be made of the Modern Student's Library volume, Kant, Selections. The beginner should not attempt a serious attack on the Critique itself till he has ceased to be a beginner, and has read some of the later English Idealists. G. W. F. Hegel also is extremely difficult. For some he is the last word in philosophy, for others he is an even worse disaster than Kant. His Logic, which is not really logic at all, but an exposition of Absolute Idealism, has played a great part not only in Idealism but as the inspiration of Marx's very different system. The more or less advanced beginner should at first be content with the Modern Student's Library volume, Hegel, Selections.
The development of philosophy since Hegel is most conveniently dealt with piecemeal, in connection with special subjects. I will mention here only the three main streams of recent philosophical thought, namely, Idealism, Pragmatism, and Realism. A valuable little introduction to modern Idealism is R. F. A. Hoernlé's Idealism. Serious students may pass on to F. H. Bradley's Appearance and Reality, a difficult but well-written classic. Pragmatism may be represented first by a paper on that subject in Papers on Philosophy, by William James (Everyman), and, for more detailed study, by James's Pragmatism. The best introduction to Realism is Russell's Problems, already mentioned. More detailed works will be cited later.
This is a convenient point to say that serious students who have time and persistent interest may find it useful to read, as occasion demands, the essays contained in the two volumes of Contemporary British Philosophy (Allen and Unwin), in which many well-known philosophers have summarised their theories.
Serious students will also find that in the course of their reading they are again and again referred to important philosophical studies in the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, and in issues of Mind, and of Philosophy, and other technical journals. These essays and reviews of philosophical books are much too specialised for beginners.
(d) Specialisation — Let us suppose that the beginner has tackled Russell's Problems, or Joad's Guide, and Webb's little History. Let us suppose that he has also already embarked on a preliminary study of the great philosophers, with the aid of the Everyman volumes and others mentioned in the preceding section. He will have found his interest to some extent inclining in one direction rather than another. How is he to proceed? It is a good plan, I think, to continue one's general philosophical reading while also pursuing some particular theme with all possible thoroughness. Many readers, however, will not have time to devote to a two-fold plan of study. All they can do is to guard against undue specialisation by occasionally reading a general book; or against superficial catholicity by occasionally concentrating on their chosen theme.
I shall now make a few suggestions for reading in each of the main philosophical subjects. I shall always distinguish between elementary and more advanced works. So far as possible, but not invariably, I shall mention first, in each subject or subdivision of a subject, the shorter, easier books. Then I shall refer to a few more formidable technical works for the guidance of the minority who intend to become more than superficially acquainted with the particular subject.
Inevitably, the subjects have to be dealt with in some order. I follow in the main the sequence adopted in this book; but "Immortality" and "Mind and Body" are deposed from their leading place.
(e) The External World and I — This subject has its origins in the work of Descartes, Locke, Berkeley and Hume. Berkeley's Theory of Vision is the historical root of the Idealist theory. For the Realist view the beginner, having referred to Russell's Problems and Joad's Guide, may attempt Russell's Our Knowledge of the External World. An interesting technical study by a modern Idealist is N. Kemp-Smith's Prolegomena to an Idealist Theory of Knowledge. On the Realist side, John Laird's A Study in Realism is attractively written. The serious student should also read G. E. Moore's famous paper, "The Refutation of Idealism," reprinted in his Philosophical Studies. Two American volumes (by various authors), The New Realism and Essays in Critical Realism, present respectively Realism without, and Realism with, the "mental act" and universals. Russell's Analysis of Matter is another very technical work. More recent and equally technical, though extraordinarily lucid, are C. D. Broad's Perception, Physics and Reality and his Scientific Thought. These two books contain a wealth of minute and illuminating criticism and original analysis. H. H. Price's Perception is a still more recent and highly technical classic.
The sceptical view of the Logical Positivists is very simply expressed in the course of the last chapter of A. J. Ayer's little Language, Truth and Logic, which all beginners and advanced students should read. They should also read Rudolf Carnap's two small classics, The Unity of Science and Philosophy and Logical Syntax (Psyche Miniatures).
(f) Reasoning, its Nature and Scope — For the psychology of reasoning, W. Kohler's The Mentality of Apes is illuminating, and fascinating on its own account. Consult also any good textbook of psychology (see below, under Personality). E. Rignano's The Psychology of Reasoning is also helpful.
Those who are interested in formal logic will find W. S. Jevons's Elementary Lessons in Logic a useful little book. S. H. Mellone's An Introductory Text-book of Logic is fuller. H. W. B. Joseph's Logic is a bulky but well-written classic on the subject. Susan Stebbing's more recent A Modern Introduction to Logic is a very valuable but technical account of recent advances.
Idealism, Pragmatism, and Realism give very different accounts of the nature and validity of reason. Bernard Bosanquet's little book The Essentials of Logic gives the Idealist's interpretation. Bradley's Appearance and Reality contains a radical criticism of the power of human reason.
For Pragmatism, go to William James, the fountain head, and to the works referred to above. The serious student should pass on to read the whole of his book, Pragmatism. For a more subjectivistic version of Pragmatism read F. C. S.! Schiller's Humanism.
In Bertrand Russell's Mysticism and Logic the title essay clearly distinguishes between the mystical and the rational points of view. There is also an important essay on the difference between "knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description."
For the controversy about universal characters, the reader should contrast Russell's early views in the Problems with his later views in The Analysis of Mind. The Idealist theory of the "concrete universal " is given in Chapter II of Bernard Bosanquet's The Principle of Individuality and Value, but is obscure. For the "distributive unity" of universals, read the last chapter of G. F. Stout's Studies in Philosophy and Psychology. This book contains other very helpful essays.
For the Logical Positivist's view of reasoning, the best introduction is Ayer's little book, already mentioned. Carnap's two small volumes in the Psyche Miniatures Series are important authoritative statements. Very serious students will find the origin of the subject in Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. A technical critical study is J. R. Weinberg's An Examination of Logical Positivism. For the nature of mathematics, A. N. Whitehead's little book Mathematics (Home University Library) is invaluable. Russell's Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy is more difficult. L. Hogben's Mathematics for the Million is a mine of information.
(g) Science and Philosophy — A. Wolf's Essentials of Scientific Method is a useful little textbook. A. D. Ritchie's Scientific Method is much fuller, more philosophical, and more technical. C. D. Broad's Scientific Thought (already mentioned) should be read by all serious students who seek a real understanding of recent movements of thought on this subject. A very different book is A. N. Whitehead's Science and the Modern World, which has had a widespread effect on the contemporary attitude to our modern, science-inspired culture. The book is rather uneven, but it is the most readable and perhaps the most stimulating of Whitehead's books. The same author's earlier books are important for any thorough study of the philosophy of science and of mathematics. The Concept of Nature contains much interesting matter on the abstracting of points and instants from our concrete experience.
The attitude to science which is implied in Dialectical Materialism is very briefly expounded in John Lewis's minute Introduction to Philosophy (New People's Library), and more fully in H. Levy's A Philosophy for a Modern Man.
Anyone interested in the relations of philosophy and science will probably have read some of the works of Sir Arthur Eddington and Sir James Jeans. These brilliant astronomers and able popularisers of science have found in recent physical theory evidence for an Idealist metaphysic. A. S. Eddington's Swarthmore Lecture (1929), Science and the Unseen World, states briefly the outline of his theory. His The Nature of the Physical World (1928), and New Pathways in Science (1934), besides containing much fascinating scientific information, present a more detailed account of his views on the limitations of science, and on indeterminacy in its relation to physics and to free will. Sir James Jeans's The Universe Around Us (1929) gives much illuminating science and some very doubtful philosophy. His The Mysterious Universe (1930) is a Pelican Book. A short expression on the other side by another and no less famous scientist is Max Planck's Where is Science Going? Philosophical criticism of Eddington and Jeans is given by C. E. M. Joad with his usual lucid style in his Philosophical Aspects of Modern Science (1932). Susan Stebbing's Philosophy and the Physicists (1937) is at present the last word in the matter. All who have been beguiled by the philosophy of the two famous astronomers should read this book. It is not only a detailed exposure of the philosophical errors of the two astronomers but also a sympathetic account of the revolution caused in science itself by the "uncertainty principle." In particular the principles of causality and probability are helpfully discussed.
(h) The Irrational Determinants of Thought — Onthis subject the reader can consult, for the principle of distortion by unconscious motives, any modern psychological textbook (see below, under Personality), and for "social and economic determinants" he should read E. Westermarck's Ethical Relativity and any exposition of Marxism (see below, under Economic Determinism and Dialectical Materialism). For a general statement of the limitations of reason, and its relation to emotion, read John Macmurray's Reason and Emotion. See also the works on Bergson's philosophy, mentioned below, under Metaphysics.
(i) Ethics — C. E. M. Joad's Common Sense Ethics is a very useful introduction. E. F. Carritt's Morals and Politics admirably summarises the classical theories, and also discusses political philosophy. For the psychology of moral experience read J. A. Hadfield's Psychology and Morals. For the growth of modern ethical theory, begin with J. S. Mill's Utilitarianism (Everyman's Library). A brief account of Idealist ethics will be found in J. H. Muirhead's Elements of Ethics;a fuller textbook is J. S. Mackenzie's Manual of Ethics. For a criticism of Utilitarianism and a defence of intuition read G. E. Moore's Ethics (Home University Library), an example of minute logical analysis of moral experience. G. C. Field's Moral Theory gives an important criticism of Moore's position and is more readable. A valuable little book on the part played by reason in morality is Israel Levine's Reason and Morals. For ethical scepticism read E. Westermarck's Ethical Relativity, a very readable and cogent statement. This is a more bulky volume than those previously mentioned, but all students of ethics should read it. The Logical Positivist's view is contained in Ayer's little book, already mentioned, and in Carnap's Philosophy and Logical Syntax.
Those who intend to make a serious study of ethics should read also C. D. Broad's Five Types of Ethical Theory, which discusses minutely and lucidly the ethical theories of Spinoza, Butler, Hume, Kant, and Sidgwick. They should also read, as the historical starting-point of the whole study, Aristotle's treatise called The Nicomachean Ethics. And they should study: for Hedonism, Henry Sidgwick's The Methods of Ethics; for the Idealist "self-fulfilment" theory, F. H. Bradley's Ethical Studies; for Idealism's "transcendence of good and evil," Chapter XXV of Bradley's Appearance and Reality; for a full defence of Intuitionism, G. E. Moore's Principia Ethica, which is minutely analytic. L. J. Hobhouse's The Rational Good is a very valuable criticism and development of the Idealist theory of moral obligation. A readable survey of the whole field of ethics, written from the Realist point of view, is John Laird's A Study in Moral Theory. A more recent careful survey of moral experience is L. A. Reid's Creative Morality.
(j) Aesthetics — ThoughI have not had space to discuss aesthetic experience, I will mention one or two books on this difficult subject. Bernard Bosanquet's Three Lectures on Aesthetics states briefly the Idealist attitude. For a very different and more modern view read I. A. Richards's The Principles of Literary Criticism. Another valuable book is S. Alexander's Art and the Material. L. A. Reid's A Study in Aesthetics is a balanced survey of the whole field. Benedetto Croce's' difficult Aesthetic as Science of Expression gives the view of the Neo-Idealists.
(k) Personality — Thereare innumerable textbooks of psychology. In extra-mural classes I have found the following acceptable: A. E. Heath's very little volume How We Behave (W.E.A. Outlines), Susan S. Brierley's An Introduction to Psychology, R. S. Woodworth's Psychology, A Study of Mental Life. Useful also is Bernard Hart's little book The Psychology of Insanity. Another small and useful book is W. McDougall's Psychology (Home University Library). McDougall's Outline of Psychology is a much more advanced work, full of interesting, though sometimes controversial matter. Serious students should read, with acritical eye, J. B. Watson's Psychology from the Point of View of a Behaviorist. Sigmund Freud's famous The Interpretation of Dreams must also be read by serious students, who may then wish to pass on into the vast jungle of literature on psychoanalysis by Freud, Jung, Adler, and their followers. Such popular works as W. Trotter's Instincts of the Herd in War and Peace and A. G. Tansley's The New Psychology, which were much discussed after the War, should be read with sharply critical intelligence. Those who are impressed by the undoubted achievements of psycho-analysis and modern "instinct psychology" should read James Drever's Instinct in Man, a very thorough survey. For serious criticism of the whole matter they should make a point of reading the relevant chapters in G. C. Field's Studies in Philosophy. A slashing attack is given in A. Wohlgemuth's Critical Examination of Psycho-analysis. Ian Suttie's Origins of Love and Hate is a readable, temperate, and constructive criticism of psycho-analysis, though I have known it make an eminent psycho-analyst see red. It makes much of the distortion of modern thought by the "taboo on tenderness." Serious students should also read K. Koffka's The Principles of Gestalt Psychology. They may discover that some of the main principles of Gestalt Psychology were anticipated in G. F. Stout's classical Manual of Psychology. For the theory of sentiments they should read A. F. Shand's The Foundations of Character. For the diversity of character-types, C. G. Jung's Psychological Types is important. Joanna Field's A Life of One's Own is a delightful study of the sources of conscious motive. The very serious student should read Stout's big Analytic Psychology and James Ward's Psychological Principles. An interesting large volume on the evolution of mind is L. T. Hobhouse's Mind in Evolution. The most recent and impressive survey of the growth and present achievement of psychology is C. Spearman's Psychology down the Ages.
Those who are interested in the question of super-normal powers should read J. H. Rhine's Extra-Sensory Perception, J. W. Dunne's An Experiment with Time, and A. W. Osborn's The Superphysical. Whether all the claims put forward in these books will be finally established may still be doubted; but no serious student of human nature can afford to ignore them. The last deals with telepathy, pre-cognition, materialisation, telekinesis, survival, reincarnation, and mystical states. The fact that these subjects are still more or less "intellectually disreputable" makes it all the more important that the intellectually sincere student should take note of them.
On the relation between mind and body, read Henri Piéron's Thought and the Brain for a full technical statement of the materialist view. Bertrand Russell's The Analysis of Mind (1921) is a more philosophical study which has played an important part in the growth of ideas about the nature of mind. The most comprehensive, balanced, and lucid work on the general philosophy of mind, including the mind-body problem and survival and the structure of minds, is C. D. Broad's invaluable The Mind and its Place in Nature (1925).
(l) Social Psychology and Social Philosophy — W. McDougall's Introduction to Social Psychology has played a great part in the evolution of modern psychology, but does not deal much with the social aspect. R. H. Thouless's Social Psychology is a textbook that should be read by all. Trotter and Tansley (mentioned above) must be treated with caution. A useful small book on the nature of society is G. D. H. Cole's Social Theory. R. M. Maciver's Community is an important larger work. McDougall's The Group Mind is a full-dress discussion of that difficult subject. Morris Ginsberg's The Psychology of Society is a brief survey which includes effective criticisms of the fashionable over-emphasis on instinct, and also of the Idealist theory of the State.
For Individualism, read J. S. Mill's Utilitarianism and his essay On Liberty. For the Idealist view, presumably Bernard Bosanquet's The Philosophical Theory of the State is the official English exposition. Serious students should read this and also L. T. Hobhouse's criticisms in his The Metaphysical Theory of the State. His The Rational Good (mentioned above) criticises the group-mind theory, as well as the Idealist theory of political obligation. Criticism of the Idealist political theory is also contained in E. F. Carritt's Morals and Politics.
For the three kinds of social mentality, read Gerald Heard's The Ascent of Humanity, the central idea of which is very significant, though for my part I suspect that the book "telescopes" the process of psychological evolution into very much too short a period. Also, he never makes it clear to me whether the pre-individual kind of consciousness is literally a group mind or simply an un-self conscious way of experiencing on the part of the individual. The latter, I hope.
At this point it is appropriate to refer to the works of Professor John Macmurray, one of whose books has already been mentioned. I should describe his central theme as the contention that religion has become lifeless because it has ceased to be inspired by Christian friendship and the will for true community. Though I find his work sometimes ambiguous, I urge all readers to take note of his very significant books, Creative Society and The Structure of Religious Experience.
For a lucid and brief account ofEconomic Determinism read Part IV of John Strachey's excellent The Theory and Practice of Socialism. This book contains a useful Bibliographical Appendix on the literature of Marxism. G. D. H. Cole's What Marx Really Meant should also be read. Criticisms of Economic Determinism are contained in E. F. Carritt's little Morals and Politics and in Israel Levine's also little Reason and Morals. Serious students of Marxism will consult A Handbook of Marxism (Gollancz). Everyman's Library contains Karl Marx's Capital, in two volumes. For the moment I shall say no more on this subject, as it is more conveniently treated under the later heading of Dialectical Materialism.
(m) Metaphysics — The Introduction to Bradley's Appearance and Reality claims to be a defence of metaphysical enquiry, but the upshot of his kind of Absolute Idealism is that human reason is incapable of making fully true propositions about reality. The Introduction to Broad's Scientific Thought distinguishes between "critical" and "speculative" philosophy, and points out that the latter is mostly guess-work. The Logical Positivist's view is, as usual, clearly explained in Ayer's Language, Truth and Logic, and in Carnap's two little books. A much more technical account occurs in Weinberg's Examination of Logical Positivism.
I have already referred to the works of the great modern metaphysical philosophers, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Kant, Hegel. A brief survey of modern metaphysical thought is C. E. M. Joad's Mind and Matter. R. F. A. Hoemlé's Idealism is also relevant here. For a thorough study of metaphysical Idealism serious students, but not beginners, should read, besides Appearance and Reality, T. H. Green's Prolegomena to Ethics, and Bernard Bosanquet's The Principle of Individuality and Value. By far the most precise and technically brilliant study in Idealist metaphysics is J. McT. E. McTaggart's The Nature of Existence. This famous work is an amazing logical structure based on premises which some readers will feel to be inadequate. C. D. Broad has written an important Examination of McTaggart's Philosophy. Those who wish to study Italian Neo-Idealism should read H. Wildon Carr's The Philosophy of Benedetto Croce, and then, if they are prepared for difficult stuff, they may pass on to Croce's four-volume The Philosophy of Spirit, and to Giovanni Gentile's The Theory of Mind as Pure Act.
For Realist criticism of Idealist metaphysics the reader should consult Bertrand Russell's works, already mentioned. For a comprehensive account of his own recent position, read his An Outline of Philosophy. S. Alexander's Space, Time and Deity is an impressive Realist metaphysical system. For the foundations of philosophical materialism, and also for the early influence of biological ideas, the serious student must study Herbert Spencer's Synthetic Philosophy. A very interesting commentary on him, and also on the relations of Dialectical Materialism and biology, is contained in Joseph Needham's short Herbert Spencer Lecture, called Integrative evels: A Revaluation of the Idea of Progress.
For Dialectical Materialism the reader should study (in addition to the works referred to under Economic Determinism) the brief exposition and criticism in Joad's Guide; but he should also study the works of the Dialectical Materialists themselves. He might begin with John Lewis's Textbook of Marx's Philosophy, and pass on to Aspects of Dialectical Materialism, a co-operative volume by H. Levy and others. He should certainly read H. Levy's A Philosophy for a Modern Man. This volume contains a brilliant analysis of the appearance of new qualities in scientific fields of study, and a striking account of social evolution. Philosophically, however, it seems to me to be rather obscure and ambiguous about the basic ideas of Dialectical Materialism.
For an introduction to Bergson, the beginner will find J. A. Gunn's Bergson and his Philosophy a useful summary. H. Wildon Carr's The Philosophy of Change is a more technical study. Translations of Bergson's famous books bear the titles Time and Free Will, Matter and Memory, Creative Evolution (the most famous), and Mind Energy. The theory of Emergence is given in C. Lloyd Morgan's Emergent Evolution. S. Alexander's Space, Time and Deity also makes use of Emergence. For A. N. Whitehead's philosophy, the beginner should read Science and the Modern World, omitting the more technical chapters. Whitehead's main metaphysical work is Process and Reality, which is very difficult, but full of thought-provoking matter.
On the special subject of Time, the beginner should first grasp the observable characteristics of ordinary temporal experience, as described, for instance, in Stout's Manual of Psychology, Book III, Chapter V. Modern ideas about time are largely derived from Bergson's works (mentioned above). The serious student should read, in the philosophical journal Mind, 1908, p. 457, and 1909, p. 343, two important articles by McTaggart. The subject is also, of course, discussed in his The Nature of Existence, mentioned above. C. D. Broad's Scientific Thought contains criticisms of McTaggart's views, together with import- ant ideas of his own. Dunne's An Experiment with Time and Osborn's The Superphysical should, of course, be read for supernormal temporal experience.
Mystical experience, also, is discussed by Osborn. The most comprehensive and readable survey is Evelyn Underhill's Mysticism. Rudolf Otto's The Idea of the Holy is a short book which stresses awe as an element in religious experience, and is important as a corrective to the much commoner idea that the essence of religion is the conviction of the deity's friendliness. A sceptical, yet in a sense curiously mystical, attitude, reminiscent of Spinoza's "intellectual love of God," is admirably expressed in G. Santayana's Platonism and the Spiritual Life. Bertrand Russell's Religion and Science (Home University Library) is a concise summary of the sceptical view of religion. All who are interested in the psychology of religion should read William James's classic, The Varieties of Religious Experience. A useful and brief modern survey is R. H. Thouless's An Introduction to the Psychology of Religion.
(n) Practical Upshot — I will close by mentioning some books, of very different types, which have influenced me in forming ideas about the crisis of the modern world. I am conscious that, though for one reason or another all of them seem to me valuable, their authors are in some respects strongly opposed to one another. Stephen Spender's Forward from Liberalism, though rather hastily written, is a sincere expression of the author's gradual discovery that the old political doctrines were insufficient. John Strachey's The Theory and Practice of Socialism (mentioned above) is a brilliant account of the case for far-reaching social change. G. D. H. Cole's The People's Front urges combined action by all progressive forces to preserve democracy. Complementary to these exhortations to political action is Aldous Huxley's Ends and Means, which, though I regard a good deal of it as very questionable, does stress the fundamental importance of the free critical intelligence, of kindliness, and of individual responsibility. John Macmurray's Creative Society and The Structure of Religious Experience, already mentioned, are important because they stress the fact that religion must be base if it fails to issue in vigorous action to create a better social order. Naomi Mitchison's The Moral Basis of Politics is a sincere and unconventional attempt to lay bare the fundamental motives of moral and political action, and to consider dispassionately the moral aims both of Fascists and Socialists. She seeks to combine the spirit of sympathetic understanding of the more reputable motives of Fascists with the spirit of uncompromising resistance to the attack on our liberties.
Since this appendix went to press the following books have appeared, all of which are relevant to one or other aspect of our theme: L. Hogben's Science for the Citizen, C. E. M. Joad's Guide to the Philosophy of Morals, G. N. M. Tyrrell's Science and Psychical Phenomena, J. B. S. Haldane's The Marxist Philosophy and the Sciences, Bertrand Russell's Power, a New Social Analysis, Christopher Caudwell's Studies in a Dying Culture, John Macmurray's The Clue to History.
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