On the Improvement of the Understanding, by Benedict de Spinoza

Table of Contents



  1. On the Improvement of the Understanding
  2. Of the ordinary objects of men’s desires
  3. Of the true and final good
  4. Certain rules of life
  5. Of the four modes of perception
  6. Of the best mode of perception
  7. Of the instruments of the intellect, or true ideas
  8. Answers to objections

First part of method

  1. Distinction of true ideas from fictitious ideas
  2. And from false ideas
  3. Of doubt
  4. Of memory and forgetfulness
  5. Mental hindrances from words β€” and from the popular confusion of ready imagination with distinct understanding.

Second part of method:

  1. Its object, the acquisition of clear and distinct ideas
  2. Its means, good definitions Conditions of definition
  3. How to define understanding


Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:59