The idea Shelley had formed of Prince Athanase was a good deal modelled on “Alastor”. In the first sketch of the poem, he named it “Pandemos and Urania”. Athanase seeks through the world the One whom he may love. He meets, in the ship in which he is embarked, a lady who appears to him to embody his ideal of love and beauty. But she proves to be Pandemos, or the earthly and unworthy Venus; who, after disappointing his cherished dreams and hopes, deserts him. Athanase, crushed by sorrow, pines and dies. ‘On his deathbed, the lady who can really reply to his soul comes and kisses his lips’ (“The Deathbed of Athanase”). The poet describes her [in the words of the final fragment, page 164]. This slender note is all we have to aid our imagination in shaping out the form of the poem, such as its author imagined.
[Mrs. Shelley’s Note.]
There was a youth, who, as with toil and travel,
Had grown quite weak and gray before his time;
Nor any could the restless griefs unravel
Which burned within him, withering up his prime
And goading him, like fiends, from land to land.
Not his the load of any secret crime,
For nought of ill his heart could understand,
But pity and wild sorrow for the same; —
Not his the thirst for glory or command,
Baffled with blast of hope-consuming shame;
Nor evil joys which fire the vulgar breast,
And quench in speedy smoke its feeble flame,
Had left within his soul their dark unrest:
Nor what religion fables of the grave
Feared he — Philosophy’s accepted guest.
For none than he a purer heart could have,
Or that loved good more for itself alone;
Of nought in heaven or earth was he the slave.
What sorrow, strange, and shadowy, and unknown,
Sent him, a hopeless wanderer, through mankind? —
If with a human sadness he did groan,
He had a gentle yet aspiring mind;
Just, innocent, with varied learning fed;
And such a glorious consolation find
In others’ joy, when all their own is dead:
He loved, and laboured for his kind in grief,
And yet, unlike all others, it is said
That from such toil he never found relief.
Although a child of fortune and of power,
Of an ancestral name the orphan chief,
His soul had wedded Wisdom, and her dower
Is love and justice, clothed in which he sate
Apart from men, as in a lonely tower,
Pitying the tumult of their dark estate. —
Yet even in youth did he not e’er abuse
The strength of wealth or thought, to consecrate
Those false opinions which the harsh rich use
To blind the world they famish for their pride;
Nor did he hold from any man his dues,
But, like a steward in honest dealings tried,
With those who toiled and wept, the poor and wise,
His riches and his cares he did divide.
Fearless he was, and scorning all disguise,
What he dared do or think, though men might start,
He spoke with mild yet unaverted eyes;
Liberal he was of soul, and frank of heart,
And to his many friends — all loved him well —
Whate’er he knew or felt he would impart,
If words he found those inmost thoughts to tell;
If not, he smiled or wept; and his weak foes
He neither spurned nor hated — though with fell
And mortal hate their thousand voices rose,
They passed like aimless arrows from his ear —
Nor did his heart or mind its portal close
To those, or them, or any, whom life’s sphere
May comprehend within its wide array.
What sadness made that vernal spirit sere? —
He knew not. Though his life, day after day,
Was failing like an unreplenished stream,
Though in his eyes a cloud and burthen lay,
Through which his soul, like Vesper’s serene beam
Piercing the chasms of ever rising clouds,
Shone, softly burning; though his lips did seem
Like reeds which quiver in impetuous floods;
And through his sleep, and o’er each waking hour,
Thoughts after thoughts, unresting multitudes,
Were driven within him by some secret power,
Which bade them blaze, and live, and roll afar,
Like lights and sounds, from haunted tower to tower
O’er castled mountains borne, when tempest’s war
Is levied by the night-contending winds,
And the pale dalesmen watch with eager ear; —
Though such were in his spirit, as the fiends
Which wake and feed an everliving woe —
What was this grief, which ne’er in other minds
A mirror found — he knew not — none could know;
But on whoe’er might question him he turned
The light of his frank eyes, as if to show
He knew not of the grief within that burned,
But asked forbearance with a mournful look;
Or spoke in words from which none ever learned
The cause of his disquietude; or shook
With spasms of silent passion; or turned pale:
So that his friends soon rarely undertook
To stir his secret pain without avail; —
For all who knew and loved him then perceived
That there was drawn an adamantine veil
Between his heart and mind — both unrelieved
Wrought in his brain and bosom separate strife.
Some said that he was mad, others believed
That memories of an antenatal life
Made this, where now he dwelt, a penal hell;
And others said that such mysterious grief
From God’s displeasure, like a darkness, fell
On souls like his, which owned no higher law
Than love; love calm, steadfast, invincible
By mortal fear or supernatural awe;
And others — ’’Tis the shadow of a dream
Which the veiled eye of Memory never saw,
‘But through the soul’s abyss, like some dark stream
Through shattered mines and caverns underground,
Rolls, shaking its foundations; and no beam
‘Of joy may rise, but it is quenched and drowned
In the dim whirlpools of this dream obscure;
Soon its exhausted waters will have found
‘A lair of rest beneath thy spirit pure,
O Athanase! — in one so good and great,
Evil or tumult cannot long endure.
So spake they: idly of another’s state
Babbling vain words and fond philosophy;
This was their consolation; such debate
Men held with one another; nor did he,
Like one who labours with a human woe,
Decline this talk: as if its theme might be
Another, not himself, he to and fro
Questioned and canvassed it with subtlest wit;
And none but those who loved him best could know
That which he knew not, how it galled and bit
His weary mind, this converse vain and cold;
For like an eyeless nightmare grief did sit
Upon his being; a snake which fold by fold
Pressed out the life of life, a clinging fiend
Which clenched him if he stirred with deadlier hold; —
And so his grief remained — let it remain — untold. 
Prince Athanase had one beloved friend,
An old, old man, with hair of silver white,
And lips where heavenly smiles would hang and blend
With his wise words; and eyes whose arrowy light
Shone like the reflex of a thousand minds.
He was the last whom superstition’s blight
Had spared in Greece — the blight that cramps and blinds —
And in his olive bower at Oenoe
Had sate from earliest youth. Like one who finds
A fertile island in the barren sea,
One mariner who has survived his mates
Many a drear month in a great ship — so he
With soul-sustaining songs, and sweet debates
Of ancient lore, there fed his lonely being:—
‘The mind becomes that which it contemplates,’—
And thus Zonoras, by for ever seeing
Their bright creations, grew like wisest men;
And when he heard the crash of nations fleeing
A bloodier power than ruled thy ruins then,
O sacred Hellas! many weary years
He wandered, till the path of Laian’s glen
Was grass-grown — and the unremembered tears
Were dry in Laian for their honoured chief,
Who fell in Byzant, pierced by Moslem spears:—
And as the lady looked with faithful grief
From her high lattice o’er the rugged path,
Where she once saw that horseman toil, with brief
And blighting hope, who with the news of death
Struck body and soul as with a mortal blight,
She saw between the chestnuts, far beneath,
An old man toiling up, a weary wight;
And soon within her hospitable hall
She saw his white hairs glittering in the light
Of the wood fire, and round his shoulders fall;
And his wan visage and his withered mien,
Yet calm and gentle and majestical.
And Athanase, her child, who must have been
Then three years old, sate opposite and gazed
In patient silence.
Such was Zonoras; and as daylight finds
One amaranth glittering on the path of frost,
When autumn nights have nipped all weaker kinds,
Thus through his age, dark, cold, and tempest-tossed,
Shone truth upon Zonoras; and he filled
From fountains pure, nigh overgrown and lost,
The spirit of Prince Athanase, a child,
With soul-sustaining songs of ancient lore
And philosophic wisdom, clear and mild.
And sweet and subtle talk they evermore,
The pupil and the master, shared; until,
Sharing that undiminishable store,
The youth, as shadows on a grassy hill
Outrun the winds that chase them, soon outran
His teacher, and did teach with native skill
Strange truths and new to that experienced man;
Still they were friends, as few have ever been
Who mark the extremes of life’s discordant span.
So in the caverns of the forest green,
Or on the rocks of echoing ocean hoar,
Zonoras and Prince Athanase were seen
By summer woodmen; and when winter’s roar
Sounded o’er earth and sea its blast of war,
The Balearic fisher, driven from shore,
Hanging upon the peaked wave afar,
Then saw their lamp from Laian’s turret gleam,
Piercing the stormy darkness, like a star
Which pours beyond the sea one steadfast beam,
Whilst all the constellations of the sky
Seemed reeling through the storm . . . They did but seem —
For, lo! the wintry clouds are all gone by,
And bright Arcturus through yon pines is glowing,
And far o’er southern waves, immovably
Belted Orion hangs — warm light is flowing
From the young moon into the sunset’s chasm. —
‘O, summer eve! with power divine, bestowing
‘On thine own bird the sweet enthusiasm
Which overflows in notes of liquid gladness,
Filling the sky like light! How many a spasm
‘Of fevered brains, oppressed with grief and madness,
Were lulled by thee, delightful nightingale —
And these soft waves, murmuring a gentle sadness —
‘And the far sighings of yon piny dale
Made vocal by some wind we feel not here. —
I bear alone what nothing may avail
‘To lighten — a strange load!’— No human ear
Heard this lament; but o’er the visage wan
Of Athanase, a ruffling atmosphere
Of dark emotion, a swift shadow, ran,
Like wind upon some forest-bosomed lake,
Glassy and dark. — And that divine old man
Beheld his mystic friend’s whole being shake,
Even where its inmost depths were gloomiest —
And with a calm and measured voice he spake,
And, with a soft and equal pressure, pressed
That cold lean hand:—‘Dost thou remember yet
When the curved moon then lingering in the west
‘Paused, in yon waves her mighty horns to wet,
How in those beams we walked, half resting on the sea?
’Tis just one year — sure thou dost not forget —
‘Then Plato’s words of light in thee and me
Lingered like moonlight in the moonless east,
For we had just then read — thy memory
‘Is faithful now — the story of the feast;
And Agathon and Diotima seemed
From death and dark forgetfulness released . . . ’
And when the old man saw that on the green
Leaves of his opening . . . a blight had lighted
He said: ‘My friend, one grief alone can wean
A gentle mind from all that once delighted:—
Thou lovest, and thy secret heart is laden
With feelings which should not be unrequited.’
And Athanase . . . then smiled, as one o’erladen
With iron chains might smile to talk (?) of bands
Twined round her lover’s neck by some blithe maiden,
And said . . .
’Twas at the season when the Earth upsprings
From slumber, as a sphered angel’s child,
Shadowing its eyes with green and golden wings,
Stands up before its mother bright and mild,
Of whose soft voice the air expectant seems —
So stood before the sun, which shone and smiled
To see it rise thus joyous from its dreams,
The fresh and radiant Earth. The hoary grove
Waxed green — and flowers burst forth like starry beams; —
The grass in the warm sun did start and move,
And sea-buds burst under the waves serene:—
How many a one, though none be near to love,
Loves then the shade of his own soul, half seen
In any mirror — or the spring’s young minions,
The winged leaves amid the copses green; —
How many a spirit then puts on the pinions
Of fancy, and outstrips the lagging blast,
And his own steps — and over wide dominions
Sweeps in his dream-drawn chariot, far and fast,
More fleet than storms — the wide world shrinks below,
When winter and despondency are past.
’Twas at this season that Prince Athanase
Passed the white Alps — those eagle-baffling mountains
Slept in their shrouds of snow; — beside the ways
The waterfalls were voiceless — for their fountains
Were changed to mines of sunless crystal now,
Or by the curdling winds — like brazen wings
Which clanged along the mountain’s marble brow —
Warped into adamantine fretwork, hung
And filled with frozen light the chasms below.
Vexed by the blast, the great pines groaned and swung
Under their load of [snow]—
. . .
. . .
Such as the eagle sees, when he dives down
From the gray deserts of wide air, [beheld]
[Prince] Athanase; and o’er his mien (?) was thrown
The shadow of that scene, field after field,
Purple and dim and wide . . .
Thou art the wine whose drunkenness is all
We can desire, O Love! and happy souls,
Ere from thy vine the leaves of autumn fall,
Catch thee, and feed from their o’erflowing bowls
Thousands who thirst for thine ambrosial dew; —
Thou art the radiance which where ocean rolls
Investeth it; and when the heavens are blue
Thou fillest them; and when the earth is fair
The shadow of thy moving wings imbue
Its deserts and its mountains, till they wear
Beauty like some light robe; — thou ever soarest
Among the towers of men, and as soft air
In spring, which moves the unawakened forest,
Clothing with leaves its branches bare and bleak,
Thou floatest among men; and aye implorest
That which from thee they should implore:— the weak
Alone kneel to thee, offering up the hearts
The strong have broken — yet where shall any seek
A garment whom thou clothest not? the darts
Of the keen winter storm, barbed with frost,
Which, from the everlasting snow that parts
The Alps from Heaven, pierce some traveller lost
In the wide waved interminable snow
Ungarmented, . . .
Yes, often when the eyes are cold and dry,
And the lips calm, the Spirit weeps within
Tears bitterer than the blood of agony
Trembling in drops on the discoloured skin
Of those who love their kind and therefore perish
In ghastly torture — a sweet medicine
Of peace and sleep are tears, and quietly
Them soothe from whose uplifted eyes they fall
But . . .
Her hair was brown, her sphered eyes were brown,
And in their dark and liquid moisture swam,
Like the dim orb of the eclipsed moon;
Yet when the spirit flashed beneath, there came
The light from them, as when tears of delight
Double the western planet’s serene flame.
[Written at Marlow in 1817, towards the close of the year; first published in “Posthumous Poems”, 1824. Part 1 is dated by Mrs. Shelley, ‘December, 1817,’ the remainder, ‘Marlow, 1817.’ The verses were probably rehandled in Italy during the following year. Sources of the text are (1) “Posthumous Poems”, 1824; (2) “Poetical Works” 1839, editions 1st and 2nd; (3) a much-tortured draft amongst the Bodleian manuscripts, collated by Mr. C.D. Locock. For (1) and (2) Mrs. Shelley is responsible. Our text (enlarged by about thirty lines fro the Bodleian manuscript) follows for the most part the “Poetical Works”, 1839; verbal exceptions are pointed out in the footnotes. See also the Editor’s Notes at the end of this volume, and Mr. Locock’s “Examination of Shelley Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library”, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1903.]
_19 strange edition 1839; deep edition 1824.
_74 feed an Bodleian manuscript; feed on editions 1824, 1839.
_124 [1. The Author was pursuing a fuller development of the ideal character of Athanase, when it struck him that in an attempt at extreme refinement and analysis, his conceptions might be betrayed into the assuming a morbid character. The reader will judge whether he is a loser or gainer by this diffidence. [Shelley’s Note.] Footnote diffidence cj. Rossetti (1878); difference editions 1824, 1839.]
_154 beneath editions 1824, 1839; between Bodleian manuscript.
_165 One Bodleian manuscript edition 1839; An edition 1824.
_167 Thus thro’ Bodleian manuscript (?) edition 1839; Thus had edition 1824.
_173 talk they edition 1824, Bodleian manuscript; talk now edition 1839.
_175 that edition 1839; the edition 1824.
_182 So edition 1839; And edition 1824.
_183 Or on Bodleian manuscript; Or by editions 1824, 1839.
_199 eve Bodleian manuscript edition 1839; night edition 1824.
_212 emotion, a swift editions 1824, 1839; emotion with swift Bodleian manuscript.
_250 under edition 1824, Bodleian manuscript; beneath edition 1839.
_256 outstrips editions 1824, 1839; outrides Bodleian manuscript.
_259 Exulting, while the wide Bodleian manuscript.
_262 mountains editions 1824, 1839; crags Bodleian manuscript.
_264 fountains editions 1824, 1839; springs Bodleian manuscript.
_269 chasms Bodleian manuscript; chasm editions 1824, 1839.
_283 thine Bodleian manuscript; thy editions 1824, 1839.
_285 Investeth Bodleian manuscript; Investest editions 1824, 1839.
_289 light Bodleian manuscript; bright editions 1824, 1839.
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