Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot


Alexander Pope

First published in 1735.

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Last updated Sun Apr 26 21:41:27 2015.

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Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot;

or, Prologue to the Satires.

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This paper is a sort of bill of complaint, begun many years since, and drawn up by snatches, as the several occasions offered. I had no thoughts of publishing it, till it pleased some persons of rank and fortune (the authors of ‘Verses to the Imitator of Horace,’ and of an ‘Epistle to a Doctor of Divinity from a Nobleman at Hampton Court’) to attack, in a very extraordinary manner, not only my writings (of which, being public, the public is judge) but my person, morals, and family, whereof, to those who know me not, a truer information may be requisite. Being divided between the necessity to say something of myself, and my own laziness to undertake so awkward a task, I thought it the shortest way to put the last hand to this epistle. If it have anything pleasing, it will be that by which I am most desirous to please, the truth and the sentiment; and if anything offensive, it will be only to those I am least sorry to offend, the vicious or the ungenerous.

Many will know their own pictures in it, there being not a circumstance but what is true; but I have, for the most part, spared their names, and they may escape being laughed at, if they please.

I would have some of them know, it was owing to the request of the learned and candid friend to whom it is inscribed, that I make not as free use of theirs as they have done of mine. However, I shall have this advantage and honour on my side, that whereas, by their proceeding, any abuse may be directed at any man, no injury can possibly be done by mine, since a nameless character can never be found out, but by its truth and likeness.

P. Shut, shut the door, good John!94 fatigued, I said,

Tie up the knocker, say I’m sick, I’m dead.

The Dog-star rages! nay, ’tis past a doubt,

All Bedlam, or Parnassus, is let out:

Fire in each eye, and papers in each hand,

They rave, recite, and madden round the land.

What walls can guard me, or what shades can hide?

They pierce my thickets, through my grot they glide,

By land, by water, they renew the charge,

They stop the chariot, and they board the barge. 10

No place is sacred, not the church is free,

Even Sunday shines no Sabbath-day to me:

Then from the Mint95 walks forth the man of rhyme,

Happy! to catch me, just at dinner-time.

Is there a parson, much bemused in beer,

A maudlin poetess, a rhyming peer,

A clerk, foredoom’d his father’s soul to cross,

Who pens a stanza, when he should engross?

Is there, who, lock’d from ink and paper, scrawls

With desperate charcoal round his darken’d walls? 20

All fly to Twit’nam, and in humble strain

Apply to me, to keep them mad or vain.

Arthur, whose giddy son neglects the laws,

Imputes to me and my damn’d works the cause:

Poor Cornus sees his frantic wife elope,

And curses wit, and poetry, and Pope.

Friend to my life! (which did not you prolong,

The world had wanted many an idle song)

What drop or nostrum can this plague remove?

Or which must end me, a fool’s wrath or love? 30

A dire dilemma! either way I’m sped,

If foes, they write, if friends, they read me dead.

Seized and tied down to judge, how wretched I!

Who can’t be silent, and who will not lie:

To laugh, were want of goodness and of grace,

And to be grave, exceeds all power of face.

I sit with sad civility, I read

With honest anguish, and an aching head;

And drop at last, but in unwilling ears,

This saving counsel, ‘Keep your piece nine years.’ 40

‘Nine years!’ cries he, who high in Drury-lane,

Lull’d by soft zephyrs through the broken pane,

Rhymes ere he wakes, and prints before Term ends,

Obliged by hunger, and request of friends:

‘The piece, you think, is incorrect? why take it,

I’m all submission, what you’d have it, make it.’

Three things another’s modest wishes bound,

My friendship, and a prologue, and ten pound.

Pitholeon96 sends to me: ‘You know his Grace,

I want a patron; ask him for a place.’ 50

Pitholeon libell’d me —‘But here’s a letter

Informs you, sir, ’twas when he knew no better.

Dare you refuse him? Curll invites to dine,

He’ll write a journal, or he’ll turn divine.’

Bless me! a packet. —”Tis a stranger sues,

A virgin tragedy, an orphan Muse.’

If I dislike it, ‘Furies, death, and rage!’

If I approve, ‘Commend it to the stage.’

There (thank my stars) my whole commission ends,

The players and I are, luckily, no friends. 60

Fired that the house reject him, ”Sdeath! I’ll print it,

And shame the fools — Your interest, sir, with Lintot.’

Lintot, dull rogue! will think your price too much:

‘Not, sir, if you revise it, and retouch.’

All my demurs but double his attacks;

At last he whispers, ‘Do; and we go snacks.’

Glad of a quarrel, straight I clap the door:

Sir, let me see your works and you no more.

’Tis sung, when Midas’ ears began to spring

(Midas, a sacred person and a king), 70

His very minister who spied them first,

(Some say his queen) was forced to speak, or burst.

And is not mine, my friend, a sorer case,

When every coxcomb perks them in my face?

A. Good friend, forbear! you deal in dangerous things.

I’d never name queens, ministers, or kings;

Keep close to ears, and those let asses prick,

’Tis nothing ——

P. Nothing? if they bite and kick?

Out with it, Dunciad! let the secret pass,

That secret to each fool, that he’s an ass: 80

The truth once told (and wherefore should we lie?)

The queen of Midas slept, and so may I.

You think this cruel? Take it for a rule,

No creature smarts so little as a fool.

Let peals of laughter, Codrus! round thee break,

Thou unconcern’d canst hear the mighty crack:

Pit, box, and gallery in convulsions hurl’d,

Thou stand’st unshook amidst a bursting world.

Who shames a scribbler? break one cobweb through,

He spins the slight, self-pleasing thread anew: 90

Destroy his fib or sophistry, in vain,

The creature’s at his dirty work again,

Throned in the centre of his thin designs,

Proud of a vast extent of flimsy lines!

Whom have I hurt? has poet yet, or peer,

Lost the arch’d eyebrow, or Parnassian sneer?

And has not Colly still his lord, and whore?

His butchers, Henley,97 his freemasons, Moore?98

Does not one table Bavius still admit?

Still to one bishop,99 Philips seem a wit 100

Still Sappho ——

A. Hold! for God-sake — you’ll offend,

No names — be calm — learn prudence of a friend:

I too could write, and I am twice as tall;

But foes like these ——

P. One flatterer’s worse than all.

Of all mad creatures, if the learn’d are right,

It is the slaver kills, and not the bite.

A fool quite angry is quite innocent:

Alas! ’tis ten times worse when they repent.

One dedicates in high heroic prose,

And ridicules beyond a hundred foes: 110

One from all Grub-street will my fame defend,

And, more abusive, calls himself my friend.

This prints my letters, that expects a bribe,

And others roar aloud, ‘Subscribe, subscribe!’

There are, who to my person pay their court:

I cough like Horace, and, though lean, am short,

Ammon’s great son one shoulder had too high,

Such Ovid’s nose, and, ‘Sir! you have an eye’—

Go on, obliging creatures! make me see

All that disgraced my betters, met in me. 120

Say for my comfort, languishing in bed,

‘Just so immortal Maro held his head:’

And, when I die, be sure you let me know

Great Homer died three thousand years ago.

Why did I write? what sin to me unknown

Dipp’d me in ink, my parents’, or my own?

As yet a child, nor yet a fool to fame,

I lisp’d in numbers, for the numbers came.

I left no calling for this idle trade,

No duty broke, no father disobey’d. 130

The Muse but served to ease some friend, not wife,

To help me through this long disease, my life,

To second, Arbuthnot! thy art and care,

And teach the being you preserved to bear.

But why then publish? Granville the polite,

And knowing Walsh, would tell me I could write;

Well-natured Garth inflamed with early praise,

And Congreve loved, and Swift endured my lays;

The courtly Talbot, Somers, Sheffield read,

Even mitred Rochester would nod the head, 140

And St John’s self (great Dryden’s friends before)

With open arms received one poet more.

Happy my studies, when by these approved!

Happier their author, when by these beloved!

From these the world will judge of men and books,

Not from the Burnets,100 Oldmixons, and Cookes.

Soft were my numbers; who could take offence

While pure description held the place of sense?

Like gentle Fanny’s was my flowery theme,

‘A painted mistress, or a purling stream.’ 150

Yet then did Gildon101 draw his venal quill;

I wish’d the man a dinner, and sat still.

Yet then did Dennis rave in furious fret;

I never answer’d — I was not in debt.

If want provoked, or madness made them print,

I waged no war with Bedlam or the Mint.

Did some more sober critic come abroad —

If wrong, I smiled; if right, I kiss’d the rod.

Pains, reading, study, are their just pretence,

And all they want is spirit, taste, and sense. 160

Commas and points they set exactly right,

And ’twere a sin to rob them of their mite.

Yet ne’er one sprig of laurel graced these ribalds,

From slashing Bentley down to piddling Tibbalds:

Each wight, who reads not, and but scans and spells,

Each word-catcher, that lives on syllables,

Even such small critics some regard may claim,

Preserved in Milton’s or in Shakspeare’s name.

Pretty! in amber to observe the forms

Of hairs, or straws, or dirt, or grubs, or worms! 170

The things, we know, are neither rich nor rare,

But wonder how the devil they got there.

Were others angry — I excused them too;

Well might they rage, I gave them but their due.

A man’s true merit ’tis not hard to find;

But each man’s secret standard in his mind,

That casting-weight pride adds to emptiness,

This, who can gratify for who can guess?

The bard whom pilfer’d Pastorals renown,

Who turns a Persian tale102 for half-a-crown, 180

Just writes to make his barrenness appear,

And strains from hard-bound brains eight lines a year;

He who, still wanting, though he lives on theft,

Steals much, spends little, yet has nothing left:

And he who, now to sense, now nonsense leaning,

Means not, but blunders round about a meaning:

And he, whose fustian’s so sublimely bad,

It is not poetry, but prose run mad:

All these, my modest satire bade translate,

And own’d that nine such poets made a Tate. 190

How did they fume, and stamp, and roar, and chafe!

And swear, not Addison himself was safe.

Peace to all such! but were there one whose fires

True genius kindles, and fair fame inspires;

Blest with each talent and each art to please,

And born to write, converse, and live with ease:

Should such a man, too fond to rule alone,

Bear, like the Turk, no brother near the throne,

View him with scornful, yet with jealous eyes,

And hate for arts that caused himself to rise; 200

Damn with faint praise, assent with civil leer,

And, without sneering, teach the rest to sneer;

Willing to wound, and yet afraid to strike,

Just hint a fault, and hesitate dislike;

Alike reserved to blame, or to commend,

A timorous foe, and a suspicious friend;

Dreading e’en fools, by flatterers besieged,

And so obliging, that he ne’er obliged;

Like Cato, give his little senate laws,

And sit attentive to his own applause; 210

While wits and Templars every sentence raise,

And wonder with a foolish face of praise —

Who but must laugh, if such a man there be?

Who would not weep, if Atticus were he?

What though my name stood rubric on the walls,

Or plaster’d posts, with claps, in capitals?

Or smoking forth, a hundred hawkers’ load,

On wings of winds came flying all abroad?

I sought no homage from the race that write;

I kept, like Asian monarchs, from their sight: 220

Poems I heeded (now berhymed so long)

No more than thou, great George! a birthday song.

I ne’er with wits or witlings pass’d my days,

To spread about the itch of verse and praise;

Nor like a puppy, daggled through the town,

To fetch and carry sing-song up and down;

Nor at rehearsals sweat, and mouth’d, and cried,

With handkerchief and orange at my side;

But sick of fops, and poetry, and prate,

To Bufo left the whole Castalian state. 230

Proud as Apollo on his forkèd hill,

Sat full-blown Bufo,103 puff’d by every quill;

Fed with soft dedication all day long,

Horace and he went hand in hand in song.

His library (where busts of poets dead

And a true Pindar stood without a head)

Received of wits an undistinguish’d race,

Who first his judgment ask’d, and then a place:

Much they extoll’d his pictures, much his seat,

And flatter’d every day, and some days eat: 240

Till, grown more frugal in his riper days,

He paid some bards with port, and some with praise,

To some a dry rehearsal was assign’d,

And others (harder still) he paid in kind.

Dryden alone (what wonder?) came not nigh,

Dryden alone escaped this judging eye:

But still the great have kindness in reserve,

He help’d to bury whom he help’d to starve.

May some choice patron bless each gray-goose quill!

May every Bavius have his Bufo still! 250

So when a statesman wants a day’s defence,

Or envy holds a whole week’s war with sense,

Or simple pride for flattery makes demands,

May dunce by dunce be whistled off my hands!

Bless’d be the great! for those they take away,

And those they left me; for they left me Gay;

Left me to see neglected genius bloom,

Neglected die, and tell it on his tomb:

Of all thy blameless life, the sole return

My verse, and Queensberry weeping o’er thy urn! 260

Oh let me live my own, and die so too!

(To live and die is all I have to do:)

Maintain a poet’s dignity and ease,

And see what friends, and read what books I please:

Above a patron, though I condescend

Sometimes to call a minister my friend.

I was not born for courts or great affairs;

I pay my debts, believe, and say my prayers;

Can sleep without a poem in my head,

Nor know if Dennis be alive or dead. 270

Why am I ask’d what next shall see the light?

Heavens! was I born for nothing but to write?

Has life no joys for me? or (to be grave)

Have I no friend to serve, no soul to save?

‘I found him close with Swift — Indeed? no doubt

(Cries prating Balbus) something will come out.’

’Tis all in vain, deny it as I will.

‘No, such a genius never can lie still;’

And then for mine obligingly mistakes

The first lampoon Sir Will104 or Bubo105 makes. 280

Poor guiltless I! and can I choose but smile,

When every coxcomb knows me by my style?

Cursed be the verse, how well soe’er it flow,

That tends to make one worthy man my foe,

Give virtue scandal, innocence a fear,

Or from the soft-eyed virgin steal a tear!

But he who hurts a harmless neighbour’s peace,

Insults fallen worth, or beauty in distress,

Who loves a lie, lame slander helps about,

Who writes a libel, or who copies out: 290

That fop, whose pride affects a patron’s name,

Yet, absent, wounds an author’s honest fame:

Who can your merit selfishly approve,

And show the sense of it without the love;

Who has the vanity to call you friend,

Yet wants the honour, injured, to defend;

Who tells whate’er you think, whate’er you say,

And, if he lie not, must at least betray:

Who to the dean, and silver bell106 can swear,

And sees at Canons what was never there; 300

Who reads, but — with a lust to misapply,

Make satire a lampoon, and fiction, lie;

A lash like mine no honest man shall dread,

But all such babbling blockheads in his stead.

Let Sporus107 tremble —

A. What? that thing of silk,

Sporus, that mere white curd of ass’s milk?

Satire or sense, alas! can Sporus feel?

Who breaks a butterfly upon a wheel?

P. Yet let me flap this bug with gilded wings,

This painted child of dirt, that stinks and stings; 310

Whose buzz the witty and the fair annoys,

Yet wit ne’er tastes, and beauty ne’er enjoys;

So well-bred spaniels civilly delight

In mumbling of the game they dare not bite.

Eternal smiles his emptiness betray,

As shallow streams run dimpling all the way.

Whether in florid impotence he speaks,

And, as the prompter breathes, the puppet squeaks;

Or at the ear of Eve, familiar toad!

Half-froth, half-venom, spits himself abroad, 320

In puns or politics, or tales, or lies,

Or spite, or smut, or rhymes, or blasphemies.

His wit all see-saw, between that and this,

Now high, now low, now master up, now miss,

And he himself one vile antithesis.

Amphibious thing! that, acting either part,

The trifling head, or the corrupted heart,

Fop at the toilet, flatterer at the board,

Now trips a lady, and now struts a lord.

Eve’s tempter thus the Rabbins have express’d, 330

A cherub’s face, a reptile all the rest,

Beauty that shocks you, parts that none will trust,

Wit that can creep, and pride that licks the dust.

Not Fortune’s worshipper, nor Fashion’s fool,

Not Lucre’s madman, nor Ambition’s tool,

Not proud, nor servile; be one poet’s praise,

That, if he pleased, he pleased by manly ways:

That flattery, even to kings, he held a shame,

And thought a lie in verse or prose the same.

That not in Fancy’s maze he wander’d long, 340

But stoop’d to Truth, and moralised his song:

That not for Fame, but Virtue’s better end,

He stood the furious foe, the timid friend,

The damning critic, half-approving wit,

The coxcomb hit, or fearing to be hit;

Laugh’d at the loss of friends he never had,

The dull, the proud, the wicked, and the mad;

The distant threats of vengeance on his head,

The blow unfelt, the tear he never shed;

The tale revived, the lie so oft o’erthrown,108 350

Th’ imputed trash,109 and dulness not his own;

The morals blacken’d when the writings ‘scape,

The libell’d person, and the pictured shape;

Abuse,110 on all he loved, or loved him, spread,

A friend in exile, or a father dead;

The whisper that, to greatness still too near,

Perhaps yet vibrates on his sovereign’s ear —

Welcome for thee, fair Virtue! all the past:

For thee, fair Virtue! welcome even the last!

A. But why insult the poor, affront the great? 360

P. A knave’s a knave, to me, in every state:

Alike my scorn, if he succeed or fail,

Sporus at court, or Japhet in a jail,

A hireling scribbler, or a hireling peer,

Knight of the post corrupt, or of the shire;

If on a pillory, or near a throne,

He gain his prince’s ear, or lose his own.

Yet soft by nature, more a dupe than wit,

Sappho111 can tell you how this man was bit:

This dreaded satirist Dennis will confess 370

Foe to his pride, but friend to his distress:

So humble, he has knock’d at Tibbald’s door,

Has drunk with Cibber, nay, has rhymed for Moore.

Full ten years slander’d, did he once reply?

Three thousand suns went down on Welsted’s112 lie.

To please a mistress one aspersed his life;

He lash’d him not, but let her be his wife:

Let Budgell113 charge low Grub-street on his quill,

And write whate’er he pleased, except his will;114

Let the two Curlls of town and court115 abuse 380

His father, mother, body, soul, and Muse.

Yet why that father held it for a rule,

It was a sin to call our neighbour fool:

That harmless mother thought no wife a whore:

Hear this, and spare his family, James Moore!

Unspotted names, and memorable long!

If there be force in virtue, or in song.

Of gentle blood (part shed in honour’s cause,

While yet in Britain honour had applause)

Each parent sprung ——

A. What fortune, pray? ——

P. Their own, 390

And better got, than Bestia’s from the throne.

Born to no pride, inheriting no strife,

Nor marrying discord in a noble wife,116

Stranger to civil and religious rage,

The good man walk’d innoxious through his age.

No courts he saw, no suits would ever try,

Nor dared an oath,117 nor hazarded a lie.

Unlearn’d, he knew no schoolman’s subtle art,

No language but the language of the heart.

By nature honest, by experience wise, 400

Healthy by temperance, and by exercise;

His life, though long, to sickness pass’d unknown,

His death was instant, and without a groan.

O grant me thus to live, and thus to die!

Who sprung from kings shall know less joy than I.

O friend! may each domestic bliss be thine!

Be no unpleasing melancholy mine:

Me, let the tender office long engage,

To rock the cradle of reposing age,

With lenient arts extend a mother’s breath, 410

Make languor smile, and smooth the bed of death,

Explore the thought, explain the asking eye,

And keep a while one parent from the sky!

On cares like these if length of days attend,

May Heaven, to bless those days, preserve my friend,

Preserve him social, cheerful, and serene,

And just as rich as when he served a Queen.

A. Whether that blessing be denied or given,

Thus far was right, the rest belongs to Heaven.

Variations.

After VER. 20 in the MS. —

Is there a bard in durance? turn them free,

With all their brandish’d reams they run to me:

Is there a ‘prentice, having seen two plays,

Who would do something in his semptress’ praise?

VER. 29 in the first edition —

Dear Doctor, tell me, is not this a curse?

Say, is their anger or their friendship worse?

VER. 53 in the MS. —

If you refuse, he goes, as fates incline,

To plague Sir Robert, or to turn divine.

VER. 60 in the former edition —

Cibber and I are luckily no friends.

VER. 111 in the MS. —

For song, for silence, some expect a bribe;

And others roar aloud, ‘Subscribe, subscribe!’

Time, praise, or money, is the least they crave;

Yet each declares the other fool or knave.

After VER. 124 in the MS. —

But, friend, this shape, which you and Curll118 admire

Came not from Ammon’s son, but from my sire:119

And for my head, if you’ll the truth excuse,

I had it from my mother,120 not the Muse.

Happy, if he, in whom these frailties join’d,

Had heir’d as well the virtues of the mind.

After VER. 208 in the MS. —

Who, if two wits on rival themes contest,

Approves of each, but likes the worst the best.

After VER. 234 in the MS. —

To bards reciting he vouchsafed a nod,

And snuff’d their incense like a gracious god.

Our ministers like gladiators live,

’Tis half their bus’ness blows to ward, or give;

The good their virtue would effect, or sense,

Dies between exigents and self-defence.

After VER. 270 in the MS. —

Friendships from youth I sought, and seek them still;

Fame, like the wind, may breathe where’er it will.

The world I knew, but made it not my school,

And in a course of flattery lived no fool.

After VER. 282 in the MS. —

P. What if I sing Augustus, great and good?

A. You did so lately, was it understood?

P. Be nice no more, but, with a mouth profound,
As rumbling D——s or a Norfolk hound;
With George and Fred’ric roughen every verse,
Then smooth up all and Caroline rehearse.

A. No — the high task to lift up kings to god
Leave to court-sermons, and to birthday odes.
On themes like these, superior far to thine,
Let laurell’d Cibber and great Arnal shine.

P. Why write at all?

A. Yes, silence if you keep,
The town, the court, the wits, the dunces weep.

VER. 368 in the MS. —

Once, and but once, his heedless youth was bit,

And liked that dangerous thing, a female wit:

Safe as he thought, though all the prudent chid.

He writ no libels, but my lady did:

Great odds in amorous or poetic game,

Where woman’s is the sin, and man’s the shame.

After VER. 405 in the MS. —

And of myself, too, something must I say?

Take then this verse, the trifle of a day.

And if it live, it lives but to commend

The man whose heart has ne’er forgot a friend,

Or head, an author: critic, yet polite,

And friend to learning, yet too wise to write.

94 ‘Good John:’ John Serle, his old and faithful servant.

95 ‘Mint:’ a place to which insolvent debtors retired, to enjoy an illegal protection, which they were there suffered to afford one another, from the persecution of their creditors. — P.

96 ‘Pitholeon:’ The name taken from a foolish poet of Rhodes, who pretended much to Greek. — P.

97 ‘Butchers, Henley:’ Orator Henley used to declaim to the butchers in Newport market.

98 ‘Freemasons, Moore:’ he was of this society, and frequently headed their processions.

99 ‘Bishop Boulter:’ friend of Ambrose Philips.

100 ‘Burnets, &c.:’ authors of secret and scandalous history.

101 ‘Gildon:’ a forgotten critic and dramatist — a bitter libeller of Pope.

102 ‘A Persian tale:’ Ambrose Philips translated a book called the ‘Persian Tales.’

103 ‘Bufo:’ most commentators refer this to Lord Halifax.

104 ‘Sir Will:’ Sir William Young.

105 ‘Bubo:’ Babb Dodington.

106 ‘Who to the dean, and silver bell:’ meaning the man who would have persuaded the Duke of Chandos that Mr P. meant him in those circumstances ridiculed in the ‘Epistle on Taste.’— P.

107 ‘Sporus:’ Lord Hervey.

108 ‘The lie so oft o’erthrown:’ as, that he received subscriptions for Shakspeare; that he set his name to Mr Broome’s verses, &c., which, though publicly disproved, were nevertheless shamelessly repeated. — P.

109 ‘The imputed trash:’ such as profane psalms, court-poems, and other scandalous things, printed in his name by Curll and others. — P.

110 ‘Abuse:’ namely, on the Duke of Buckingham, the Earl of Burlington, Lord Bathurst, Lord Bolingbroke, Bishop Atterbury, Dr Swift, Dr Arbuthnot, Mr Gay, his friends, his parents, and his very nurse, aspersed in printed papers, by James Moore, G. Ducket, L. Wolsted, Tho. Bentley, and other obscure persons. — P.

111 ‘Sappho:’ Lady M.W. Montague.

112 ‘Welsted:’ accused Pope of killing a lady by a satire.

113 ‘Budgell:’ Budgell, in a weekly pamphlet called The Bee, bestowed much abuse on him.

114 ‘Except his will:’ alluding to Tindal’s will, by which, and other indirect practices, Budgell, to the exclusion of the next heir, a nephew, got to himself almost the whole fortune of a man entirely unrelated to him. — P.

115 ‘Curlls of town and court:’ Lord Hervey.

116 ‘Noble wife:’ alluding to the fate of Dryden and Addison.

117 ‘An oath:’ Pope’s father was a nonjuror.

118 Curll set up his head for a sign.

119 His father was crooked.

120 His mother was much afflicted with headaches.

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The University of Adelaide Library
University of Adelaide
South Australia 5005