The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo

Appendix L. — Sundry Supplementary Notes on Special Subjects. —(H.C.)

1. — The Polos at Acre.
2. — Sorcery in Kashmir.
3. — Paonano Pao.
4. — Pamir.
5. — Number of Pamirs.
6. — Site of Pein.
7. — Fire-arms.
8. — La Couvade.
9. — Alacan.
10. — Champa.
11. — Ruck Quills.
12. — A Spanish Edition of Marco Polo.
13. — Sir John Mandeville.

1. — The Polos at Acre. (Vol. i. p. 19. Int.)

M. le Comte Riant (Itin. à Jérusalem, p. xxix.) from various data thinks the two sojourns of the Polos at Acre must have been between the 9th May, 1271, date of the arrival of Edward of England and of Tedaldo Visconti, and the 18th November, 1271, time of the departure of Tedaldo. Tedaldo was still in Paris on the 28th December, 1269, and he appears to have left for the Holy Land after the departure of S. Lewis for Tunis (2nd July, 1270). — H.C.

2. — Sorcery in Kashmir. (Vol. i. p. 166.)

In Kalhanda’s Rajatarangini, A Chronicle of the Kings of Kásmir translated by M.A. Stein, we read (Bk. IV. 94, p. 128): “Again the Brahman’s wife addressed him: ‘O king, as he is famous for his knowledge of charms (Kharkhodavidya), he can get over an ordeal with ease.’” Dr. Stein adds the following note: “The practice of witchcraft and the belief in its efficiency have prevailed in Kásmir from early times, and have survived to some extent to the present day; comp. Bühler, Report, p. 24. . . . The term Kharkhoda, in the sense of a kind of deadly charm or witchcraft, recurs in v. 239, and is found also in the Vijayésvaramah (Adipur.), xi. 25. In the form Kharkota it is quoted by the N. P.W. from Caraka, vi. 23. Kharkhota appears as the designation of a sorcerer or another kind of uncanny persons in Haracar., ii. 125, along with Krtyas and Vetalas. . . . ”

3. — Paonano Pao. (Vol. i. p. 173.)

In his paper on Zoroastrian Deities on Indo–Scythians’ Coins (Babylonian and Oriental Record, August, 1887, pp. 155–166; rep. in the Indian Antiquary, 1888), Dr. M.A. Stein has demonstrated that the legend PAONANO PAO on the coins of the Yue–Chi or Indo–Scythian Kings (Kanishka, Huvishka, Vasudeva), is the exact transcription of the old Iranian title Shahanan Shah (Persian Shahan-shah), “King of Kings”; the letter P, formerly read as P(r), has since been generally recognised, in accordance with his interpretation as a distinct character expressing the sound sh.

4. — Pamir. (Vol. i. pp. 174–175.)

I was very pleased to find that my itinerary agrees with that of Dr. M.A. Stein; this learned traveller sends me the following remarks: “The remark about the absence of birds (pp. 174–175) might be a reflex of the very ancient legend (based probably on the name zend Upairi-saena, pehlevi Aparsin, ‘higher than the birds’) which represents the Hindu Kush range proper as too high for birds to fly over. The legend can be traced by successive evidence in the case of the range north of Kabul.”— Regarding the route (p. 175) from the Wakhjir (sic) Pass down the Taghdum-bash Pamir, then viâ Tash-kurghan, Little Karakul, Bulun Kul, Gez Daria to Tashmalik and Kashgar, Dr. Stein says that he surveyed it in July, 1900, and he refers for the correct phonetic spelling of local names along it to his map to be published in J.R.G.S., in December, 1902. He says in his Prel. Report, p. 10: “The Wakhjir Pass, only some 12 miles to the south-west of Kök-török, connects the Taghdumbash Pamir and the Sarikol Valleys with the head-waters of the Oxus. So I was glad that the short halt, which was unavoidable for survey purposes, permitted me to move a light camp close to the summit of the Wakhjir Pass (circ. 16,200 feet). On the following day, 2nd July, I visited the head of Ab-i-Panja Valley, near the great glaciers which Lord Curzon first demonstrated to be the true source of the River Oxus. It was a strange sensation for me in this desolate mountain waste to know that I had reached at last the eastern threshold of that distant region, including Bactria and the Upper Oxus Valley, which as a field of exploration had attracted me long before I set foot in India. Notwithstanding its great elevation, the Wakhjir Pass and its approaches both from west and east are comparatively easy. Comparing the topographical facts with Hiuen–Tsiang’s account in the Si yu-ki, I am led to conclude that the route followed by the great Chinese Pilgrim, when travelling about A.D. 649 from Badakshan towards Khotan, through ‘the valley of Po-mi-lo (Pamir)’ into Sarikol, actually traversed this Pass.”

Dr. Stein adds in his notes to me that “Marco Polo’s description of the forty days’ journey to the E.N.E. of Vokhan as through tracts of wilderness can well be appreciated by any one who has passed through the Pamir Region, in the direction of the valleys W. and N. of Muztagh Ata. After leaving Táshkurghan and Tagharma, where there is some precarious cultivation, there is no local produce to be obtained until the oasis of Tashmalik is reached in the open Kashgar plains. In the narrow valley of the Yamanyar River (Gez Defile) there is scarcely any grazing; its appearance is far more desolate than that of the elevated Pamirs.”—“Marco Polo’s praise (p. 181) of the gardens and vine-yards of Kashgar is well deserved; also the remark about the trading enterprise of its merchants still holds good, if judged by the standard of Chinese Turkestan. Kashgar traders visit Khotan far more frequently than vice versa. It is strange that no certain remains of Nestorian worship can be traced now.”—“My impression [Dr. Stein’s] of the people of the Khotan oasis (p. 188) was that they are certainly a meeker and more docile race than e.g. the average ‘Kashgarlik’ or Yarkandi. The very small number of the Chinese garrison of the districts Khotan and Keria (only about 200 men) bears out this impression.”

We may refer for the ancient sites, history, etc., of Khotan to the Preliminary Report of Dr. Stein and to his paper in the Geographical Journal for December, 1902, actually in the press.

5. — Number of Pamirs. (Vol. i. p. 176.)

Lord Curzon gives the following list of the “eight claimants to the distinction and title of a Pamir”: (1) Taghdumbash, or Supreme Head of the Mountains Pamir, lying immediately below and to the north of the Kilik Pass. (2) The Pamir-i-Wakhan. (3) The Pamir-i-Khurd, or Little Pamir. (4) The Pamir-i-Kalan, or Great Pamir. (5) The Alichur Pamir. (6) The Sarez Pamir. (7) The Rang Kul Pamir. (8) The Khargosh or Hare Pamir, which contains the basin of the Great Kara Kul. See this most valuable paper, The Pamirs and the Source of the Oxus, reprinted from the Geographical Journal of 1896, in 1896, 1898, and 1899.

Illustration: Some of the objects found by Dr. M.A. Stein in Central Asia.

6. — Pein. (Vol. i. p. 192.)

Dr. M.A. Stein, of the Indian Educational Service, appears to have exactly identified the site of Pein, during his recent archaeological researches in Central Asia; he writes (Prel. Report on a Journey of Archaeological and Topog. Exploration in Chinese Turkestan, Lond., 1901, pp. 58–59): “Various antiquarian and topographical considerations made me anxious to identify the position of the town of Pi-mo, which Hiuen–Tsiang describes as some 300 li to the east of the Khotan capital. It was probably the same place as the Pein, visited by Marco Polo. After marching back along the Keriya River for four days, I struck to the south-west, and, after three more marches, arrived in the vicinity of Lachin–Ata Mazar, a desolate little shrine in the desert to the north of the Khotan–Keriya route. Though our search was rendered difficult by the insufficiency of guides and the want of water, I succeeded during the following few days in tracing the extensive ruined site which previous information had led me to look for in that vicinity. ‘Uzun–Tati’ (‘the distant Tati,’) as the débris-covered area is locally designated, corresponds in its position and the character of its remains exactly to the description of Pi-mo. Owing to far-advanced erosion and the destruction dealt by treasure-seekers, the structural remains are very scanty indeed. But the débris, including bits of glass, pottery, china, small objects in brass and stone, etc., is plentiful enough, and in conjunction with the late Chinese coins found here, leaves no doubt as to the site having been occupied up to the Middle Ages.”

Our itinerary should therefore run from Khotan to Uzun Tati, and thence to Nia, leaving Kiria to the south; indeed Kiria is not an ancient place. — H.C.


Mr. E.J. Rapson, of the British Museum, with the kind permission of Dr. Stein, has sent me a photograph (which we reproduce) of coins and miscellaneous objects found at Uzun Tati. Coin (1) bears the nien-hao (title of reign) Pao Yuen (1038–1040) of the Emperor Jen Tsung, of the Sung Dynasty; Coin (2) bears the nien-hao, K’ien Yuen (758–760) of the Emperor Su Tsung of the T’ang Dynasty; Coin (3) is of the time of the Khan of Turkestan, Muhammad Arslan Khan, about 441 A.H. = 1049 A.D. From the description sent to me by Mr. Rapson and written by Mr. Andrews, I note that the miscellaneous objects include: “Two fragments of fine Chinese porcelain, highly glazed and painted with Chinese ornament in blue. That on the left is painted on both sides, and appears to be portion of rim of a bowl. Thickness 3/32 of an inch. That to the right is slightly coarser, and is probably portion of a larger vessel. Thickness 1/4 inch (nearly). A third fragment of porcelain, shown at bottom of photo, is decorated roughly in a neutral brown colour, which has imperfectly ‘fluxed.’ It, also, appears to be Chinese. Thickness 1/8 inch (nearly). — A brass or bronze object, cast. Probably portion of a clasp or buckle. — A brass finger ring containing a piece of mottled green glass held loosely in place by a turned-over denticulated rim. The metal is very thin.”— H.C.

7. — Fire-Arms. (Vol. i. p. 342.)

From a paper on Siam’s Intercourse with China, published by Lieutenant–Colonel Gerini in the Asiatic Quarterly Review for October, 1902, it would appear that fire-arms were mentioned for the first time in Siamese Records during the Lau invasion and the siege of Swankhalôk (from 1085 to 1097 A.D.); it is too early a date for the introduction of fire-arms, though it would look “much more like an anachronism were the advent of these implements of warfare [were] placed, in blind reliance upon the Northern Chronicles, still a few centuries back. The most curious of it all is, however, the statement as to the weapons in question having been introduced into the country from China.” Following W.F. Mayers in his valuable contributions to the Jour. North–China B.R.A.S., 1869–1870, Colonel Gerini, who, of course, did not know of Dr. Schlegel’s paper, adds: “It was not until the reign of the Emperor Yung Lê, and on occasion of the invasion of Tonkin in A.D. 1407, that the Chinese acquired the knowledge of the propulsive effect of gunpowder, from their vanquished enemies.”

8. — La Couvade. (Vol. ii. p. 91.)

Mr. H. Ling Roth has given an interesting paper entitled On the Signification of Couvade, in the Journ. Anthropological Institute, XXII. 1893, pp. 204–243. He writes (pp. 221–222):—“From this survey it would seem in the first place that we want a great deal more information about the custom in the widely isolated cases where it has been reported, and secondly, that the authenticity of some of the reported cases is doubtful in consequence of authors repeating their predecessors’ tales, as Colquhoun did Marco Polo’s, and V. der Haart did Schouten’s. I should not be at all surprised if ultimately both Polo’s and Schouten’s accounts turned out to be myths, both these travellers making their records at a time when the Old World was full of the tales of the New, so that in the end, we may yet find the custom is not, nor ever has been, so widespread as is generally supposed to have been the case.”

I do not very well see how Polo, in the 13th and 14th centuries could make his record at a time when the Old World was full of the tales of the New, discovered at the end of the 15th century! Unless Mr. Ling Roth supposes the Venetian Traveller acquainted with the various theories of the Pre–Columbian discovery of America!!

9. — Alacan. (Vol. ii. pp. 255 and 261.)

Dr. G. Schlegel writes, in the T’oung Pao (May, 1898, p. 153): “Abakan or Abachan ought to be written Alahan. His name is written by the Chinese Ats’zehan and by the Japanese Asikan; but this is because they have both confounded the character lah with the character ts’ze; the old sound of [the last] character [of the name] was kan and is always used by the Chinese when wanting to transcribe the title Khan or Chan. Marco Polo’s Abacan is a clerical error for Alacan.”

10. — Champa. (Vol. ii. p. 268.)

In Ma Huan’s account of the Kingdom of Siam, transl. by Mr. Phillips (Jour. China B.R.A.S., XXI. 1886, pp. 35–36) we read: “Their marriage ceremonies are as follows:— They first invite the priest to conduct the bridegroom to the bride’s house, and on arrival there the priest exacts the ‘droit seigneurial,’ and then she is introduced to the bridegroom.”

11. — Ruck Quills. (Vol. ii. p. 421.)

Regarding Ruck Quills, Sir H. Yule wrote in the Academy, 22nd March, 1884, pp. 204–405:—

“I suggested that this might possibly have been some vegetable production, such as a great frond of the Ravenala (Urania speciosa) cooked to pass as a ruc’s quill. (Marco Polo, first edition, ii. 354; second edition, ii. 414.) Mr. Sibree, in his excellent book on Madagascar (The Great African Island, 1880) noticed this, but said:

“‘It is much more likely that they [the ruc’s quills] were the immensely long midribs of the leaves of the rofia palm. These are from twenty to thirty feet long, and are not at all unlike an enormous quill stripped of the feathering portion’” (p. 55).

In another passage he describes the palm, Sagus ruffia (? raphia):

“The rofia has a trunk of from thirty to fifty feet in height, and at the head divides into seven or eight immensely long leaves. The midrib of these leaves is a very strong, but extremely light and straight pole. . . . These poles are often twenty feet or more in length, and the leaves proper consist of a great number of fine and long pinnate leaflets, set at right angles to the midrib, from eighteen to twenty inches long, and about one and a half broad,” etc. (pp. 74, 75).

When Sir John Kirk came home in 1881–1882, I spoke to him on the subject, and he felt confident that the rofia or raphia palm-fronds were the original of the ruc’s quills. He also kindly volunteered to send me a specimen on his return to Zanzibar. This he did not forget, and some time ago there arrived at the India Office not one, but four of these ruc’s quills. In the letter which announced this despatch Sir John says:—

“I send today per s.s. Arcot . . . four fronds of the Raphia palm, called here ‘Moale.’ They are just as sold and shipped up and down the coast. No doubt they were sent in Marco Polo’s time in exactly the same state, i.e. stripped of their leaflets, and with the tip broken off. They are used for making stages and ladders, and last long if kept dry. They are also made into doors, by being cut into lengths, and pinned through. The stages are made of three, like tripods, and used for picking cloves from the higher branches.”

The largest of the four midribs sent (they do not differ much) is 25 feet 4 inches long, measuring 12 inches in girth at the butt, and 5 inches at the upper end. I calculate that if it originally came to a point the whole length would be 45 feet, but, as this would not be so, we may estimate it at 35 to 40 feet. The thick part is deeply hollowed on the upper (?) side, leaving the section of the solid butt in form a thick crescent. The leaflets are all gone, but when entire, the object must have strongly resembled a Brobdingnagian feather. Compare this description with that of Padre Bolivar in Ludolf, referred to above.

“In aliquibus . . . regionibus vidi pennas alae istius avis prodigiosae, licet avem non viderim, Penna illa, prout ex formâ colligebatur, erat ex mediocribus, longitudine 28 palmorum, latitudine trium. Calamus vero a radice usque ad extremitatem longitudine quinque palmorum, densitatis instar brachii moderati, robustissimus erat et durus. Pennulae inter se aequales et bene compositae, ut vix ab invicem nisi cum violentiâ divellerentur. Colore erant valdè nigro, calamus colore albo.” (Ludolfi, ad suam Hist. Aethiop., Comment., p. 164.)

The last particular, as to colour, I am not able to explain: the others correspond well. The palmus in this passage may be anything from 9 to 10 inches.

I see this tree is mentioned by Captain R.F. Burton in his volume on the Lake Regions (vol. xxix. of the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, p. 34),12 and probably by many other travellers.

I ought to mention here that some other object has been shown at Zanzibar as part of the wings of a great bird. Sir John Kirk writes that this (which he does not describe particularly) was in the possession of the Roman Catholic priests at Bagamoyo, to whom it had been given by natives of the interior, who declared that they had brought it from Tanganyika, and that it was part of the wing of a gigantic bird. On another occasion they repeated this statement, alleging that this bird was known in the Udoe (?) country near the coast. These priests were able to communicate directly with their informants, and certainly believed the story. Dr. Hildebrand, also, a competent German naturalist, believed in it. But Sir John Kirk himself says that “what the priests had to show was most undoubtedly the whalebone of a comparatively small whale.”

12. — A Spanish Edition of Marco Polo.

As we go to press we receive the newly published volume, El Libro de Marco Polo — Aus dem vermächtnis des Dr. Hermann Knust nach der Madrider Handschrift herausgegeben von Dr. R. Stuebe. Leipzig, Dr. Seele & Co., 1902, 8vo., pp. xxvi.-114. It reproduces the old Spanish text of the manuscript Z-I-2 of the Escurial Library from a copy made by Señor D. José Rodriguez for the Society of the Spanish Bibliophiles, which, being unused, was sold by him to Dr. Hermann Knust, who made a careful comparison of it with the original manuscript. This copy, found among the papers of Dr. Knust after his death, is now edited by Dr. Stuebe. The original 14th century MS., written in a good hand on two columns, includes 312 leaves of parchment, and contains several works; among them we note: 1°, a Collection entitled Flor de las Ystorias de Oriente (fol. 1–104), made on the advice of Juan Fernandez de Heredia, Grand Master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (1377), of which Marco Polo (fol. 50–104) is a part; 2° and Secretum Secretorum (fol. 254 r-fol. 312 v.); this MS. is not mentioned in our List, App. F., II. p. 546, unless it be our No. 60.

The manuscript includes 68 chapters, the first of which is devoted to the City of Lob and Sha-chau, corresponding to our Bk. I., ch. 39 and 40 (our vol. i. pp. 196 seqq.) ch. 65 (p. 111) corresponds approximatively to our ch. 40, Bk. III. (vol. ii. p. 451); chs. 66, 67, and the last, 68, would answer to our chs. 2, 3, and 4 of Bk. I. (vol i., pp. 45 seqq.). A concordance of this Spanish text, with Pauthier’s, Yule’s, and the Geographic Texts, is carefully given at the beginning of each of the 68 chapters of the Book.

Of course this edition does not throw any new light on the text, and this volume is but a matter of curiosity.

13. — Sir John Mandeville.

One of the last questions in which Sir Henry Yule13 took an interest in, was the problem of the authorship of the book of Travels which bears the name of SIR JOHN MANDEVILLE, the worthy Knight, who, after being for a long time considered as the “Father of English Prose” has become simply “the name claimed by the compiler of a singular book of Travels, written in French, and published between 1357 and 1371.”14

It was understood that “JOHAN MAUNDEUILLE, chiualer, ia soit ceo qe ieo ne soie dignes, neez et norriz Dengleterre de la ville Seint Alban,” crossed the sea “lan millesme ccc’me vintisme et secund, le jour de Seint Michel,”15 that he travelled since across the whole of Asia during the 14th century, that he wrote the relation of his travels as a rest after his fatiguing peregrinations, and that he died on the 17th of November, 1372, at Liège, when he was buried in the Church of the Guillemins.

No work has enjoyed a greater popularity than Mandeville’s; while we describe but eighty-five manuscripts of Marco Polo’s, and I gave a list of seventy-three manuscripts of Friar Odoric’s relation,16 it is by hundreds that Mandeville’s manuscripts can be reckoned. As to the printed editions, they are, so to speak, numberless; Mr. Carl Schönborn17 gave in 1840, an incomplete bibliography; Tobler in his Bibliographia geographica Palestinae (1867),18 and Röhricht19 after him compiled a better bibliography, to which may be added my own lists in the Bibliotheca Sinica20 and in the T’oung-Pao.21

Campbell, Ann. de la Typog. néerlandaise, 1874, p. 338, mentions a Dutch edition: Reysen int heilighe lant, s.l.n.d., folio, of which but two copies are known, and which must be dated as far back as 1470 [see p. 600], I believed hitherto (I am not yet sure that Campbell is right as to his date) that the first printed edition was German, s.l.n.d., very likely printed at Basel, about 1475, discovered by Tross, the Paris Bookseller.22 The next editions are the French of the 4th April, 1480,23 and 8th February of the same year,24 Easter being the 2nd of April, then the Latin,25 Dutch,26 and Italian27 editions, and after the English editions of Pynson and Wynkin de Worde.

In what tongue was Mandeville’s Book written?

The fact that the first edition of it was printed either in German or in Dutch, only shows that the scientific progress was greater and printing more active in such towns as Basel, Nuremberg and Augsburg than in others. At first, one might believe that there were three original texts, probably in French, English, and vulgar Latin; the Dean of Tongres, Radulphus of Rivo, a native of Breda, writes indeed in his Gesta Pontificum Leodiensium, 1616, p. 17: “Hoc anno Ioannes Mandeuilius natione Anglus vir ingenio, & arte medendi eminens, qui toto fere terrarum orbe peragrato, tribus linguis peregrinationem suam doctissime conscripsit, in alium orbê nullis finibus clausum, lögeque hoc quietiorem, & beatiorem migrauit 17. Nouembris. Sepultus in Ecclesia Wilhelmitarum non procul à moenibus Ciuitatis Leodiensis.” The Dean of Tongres died in 1483;28 Mr. Warner, on the authority of the Bulletin de l’Inst. Archéol. Liégeois, xvi. 1882, p. 358, gives 1403 as the date of the death of Radulphus. However, Mandeville himself says (Warner, Harley, 4383) at the end of his introduction, p. 3:—“Et sachez qe ieusse cest escript mis en latyn pur pluis briefment deuiser; mes, pur ceo qe plusours entendent mieltz romantz qe latin, ieo lay mys en romance, pur ceo qe chescun lentende et luy chiualers et les seignurs et lez autres nobles homes qi ne sciuent point de latin ou poy, et qount estee outre meer, sachent et entendent, si ieo dye voir ou noun, et si ieo erre en deuisant par noun souenance ou autrement, qils le puissent adresser et amender, qar choses de long temps passez par la veue tornent en obly, et memorie de homme ne puet mye tot retenir ne comprendre.” From this passage and from the Latin text: “Incipit itinerarius a terra Angliae ad partes Iherosolimitanas et in ulteriores transmarinas, editus primo in lingua gallicana a milite suo autore anno incarnacionis Domini m. ccc. lv, in civitate Leodiensi, et paulo post in eadem civitate translatus in hanc formam latinam.” (P. 33 of the Relation des Mongols ou Tartars par le frère Jean du Plan de Carpin, Paris, 1838). D’Avezac long ago was inclined to believe in an unique French version. The British Museum, English MS. (Cott., Titus. C. xvi.), on the other hand, has in the Prologue (cf. ed. 1725, p. 6): “And zee schulle undirstonde, that I have put this Boke out of Latyn into Frensche, and translated it azen out of Frensche into Englyssche, that every Man of my Nacioun may undirstonde it. . . . ”29

But we shall see that — without taking into account the important passage in French quoted above, and probably misunderstood by the English translator — the English version, a sentence of which, not to be found in the Latin manuscripts, has just been given, is certainly posterior to the French text, and therefore that the abstract of Titus C. xvi, has but a slight value. There can be some doubt only for the French and the Latin texts.

Dr. Carl Schönborn30 and Herr Eduard Mätzner,31 “respectively seem to have been the first to show that the current Latin and English texts cannot possibly have been made by Mandeville himself. Dr. J. Vogels states the same of unprinted Latin versions which he has discovered in the British Museum, and he has proved it as regards the Italian version.”32

“In Latin, as Dr. Vogels has shown, there are five independent versions. Four of them, which apparently originated in England (one manuscript, now at Leyden, being dated in 1390) have no special interest; the fifth, or vulgate Latin text, was no doubt made at Liège, and has an important bearing on the author’s identity. It is found in twelve manuscripts, all of the 15th century, and is the only Latin version as yet printed.”33

The universal use of the French language at the time would be an argument in favour of the original text being in this tongue, if corrupt proper names, abbreviations in the Latin text, etc., did not make the fact still more probable.

The story of the English version, as it is told by Messrs. Nicholson and Warner, is highly interesting: The English version was made from a “mutilated archetype,” in French (Warner, p. x.) of the beginning of the 15th century, and was used for all the known English manuscripts, with the exception of the Cotton and Egerton volumes — and also for all the printed editions until 1725. Mr. Nicholson34 pointed out that it is defective in the passage extending from p. 36, l. 7: “And there were to ben 5 Soudans,” to p. 62, l. 25: “the Monkes of the Abbeye of ten tyme,” in Halliwell’s edition (1839) from Titus C. xvi, which corresponds to Mr. Warner’s Egerton text, p. 18, l. 21: “for the Sowdan,” and p. 32, l. 16, “synges oft tyme.” It is this bad text which, until 1725,35 has been printed as we just said, with numerous variants, including the poor edition of Mr. Ashton36 who has given the text of East instead of the Cotton text under the pretext that the latter was not legible.37

Two revisions of the English version were made during the first quarter of the 15th century; one is represented by the British Museum Egerton MS. 1982 and the abbreviated Bodleian MS. e. Mus. 116; the other by the Cotton MS. Titus C. xvi. This last one gives the text of the edition of 1725 often reprinted till Halliwell’s (1839 and 1866).38 The Egerton MS. 1982 has been reproduced in a magnificent volume edited in 1889 for the Roxburghe Club par Mr. G.F. Warner, of the British Museum;39 this edition includes also the French text from the Harley MS. 4383 which, being defective from the middle of chap. xxii. has been completed with the Royal MS. 20 B.X. Indeed the Egerton MS. 1982 is the only complete English manuscript of the British Museum,40 as, besides seven copies of the defective text, three leaves are missing in the Cotton MS. after f. 53, the text of the edition of 1725 having been completed with the Royal MS. 17 B.41

Notwithstanding its great popularity, Mandeville’s Book could not fail to strike with its similarity with other books of travels, with Friar Odoric’s among others. This similarity has been the cause that occasionally the Franciscan Friar was given as a companion to the Knight of St. Albans, for instance, in the manuscripts of Mayence and Wolfenbüttel.42 Some Commentators have gone too far in their appreciation and the Udine monk has been treated either as a plagiary or a liar! Old Samuel Purchas, in his address to the Reader printed at the beginning of Marco Polo’s text (p. 65), calls his countryman! Mandeville the greatest Asian traveller next (if next) to Marco Polo, and he leaves us to understand that the worthy knight has been pillaged by some priest!43 Astley uses strong language; he calls Odoric a great liar!44

Others are fair in their judgment, Malte–Brun, for instance, marked what Mandeville borrowed from Odoric, and La Renaudière is also very just in the Biographie Universelle. But what Malte–Brun and La Renaudière showed in a general manner, other learned men, such as Dr. S. Bormans, Sir Henry Yule, Mr. E.W.B. Nicholson,45 Dr. J. Vogels,46 M. Léopold Delisle, Herr A. Bovenschen,47 and last, not least, Dr. G.F. Warner, have in our days proved that not only has the book bearing Mandeville’s name been compiled from the works of Vincent of Beauvais, Jacques of Vitry, Boldensel, Carpini, Odoric, etc., but that it was written neither by a Knight of St. Albans, by an Englishman, or by a Sir John Mandeville, but very likely by the physician John of Burgundy or John a Beard.

In a repertory of La Librairie de la Collégiale de Saint Paul à Liège au XV’e. Siècle, published by Dr. Stanislas Bormans, in the Bibliophile Belge, Brussels, 1866, p. 236, is catalogued under No. 240: Legenda de Joseph et Asseneth ejus uxore, in papiro. In eodem itinerarium Johannis de Mandevilla militis, apud guilhelmitanos Leodienses sepulti.

Dr. S. Bormans has added the following note: “Jean Mandeville, ou Manduith, théologien et mathématicien, était né à St. Alban en Angleterre d’une famille noble. On le surnomma pour un motif inconnu, ad Barbam et magnovillanus. En 1322, il traversa la France pour aller en Asie, servit quelque temps dans les troupes du Sultan d’Egypte et revint seulement en 1355 en Angleterre. Il mourut à Liège chez les Guilhemins, le 17th Novembre, 1372. Il laissa au dit monastère plusieurs MSS. de ses oeuvres fort vantés, tant de ses voyages que de la médecine, écrits de sa main; il y avait encore en ladite maison plusieurs meubles qu’il leur laissa pour mémoire. Il a laissé quelques livres de médecine qui n’ont jamais été imprimés, des tabulae astronomicae, de chorda recta et umbra, de doctrina theologica. La relation de son voyage est en latin, français et anglais; il raconte, en y mêlant beaucoup de fables, ce qu’il a vu de curieux en Egypte, en Arabie et en Perse.”

Then is inserted, an abstract from Lefort, Liège Herald, at the end of the 17th century, from Jean d’Outremeuse, which we quote from another publication of Dr. Bormans’ as it contains the final sentence: “Mort enfin, etc.” not to be found in the paper of the Bibliophile Belge.

In his introduction to the Chronique et geste de Jean des Preis dit d’Outremeuse, Brussels, F. Hayez, 1887 (Collection des Chroniques belges inédites), Dr. Stanislas Bormans writes, pp. cxxxiii.-cxxxiv.: “L’an M.CCC.LXXII, mourut à Liège, le 12 Novembre, un homme fort distingué par sa naissance, avant de s’y faire connoître sous le nom de Jean de Bourgogne dit à la Barbe. Il s’ouvrit néanmoins au lit de la mort à Jean d’Outremeuse, son compère, et institué son exécuteur testamentaire. De vrai il se titra, dans le précis de sa dernière volonté, messire Jean de Mandeville, chevalier, comte de Montfort en Angleterre, et seigneur de l’isle de Campdi et du château Perouse. Ayant cependant eu le malheur de tuer, en son pays, un comte qu’il ne nomme pas, il s’engagea à parcourir les trois parties du monde. Vint à Liège en 1343. Tout sorti qu’il étoit d’une noblesse très-distinguée, il aima de s’y tenir caché. Il étoit, au reste, grand naturaliste, profond philosophe et astrologue, y joint en particulier une connoissance très singulière de la physique, se trompant rarement lorsqu’il disoit son sentiment à l’égard d’un malade, s’il en reviendroit ou pas. Mort enfin, on l’enterra aux F.F. Guillelmins, au faubourg d’Avroy, comme vous avez vu plus amplement cydessous.”

It is not the first time that the names Jean de Mandeville and Jean à la Barbe are to be met with, as Ortelius, in his description of Liège, included in his Itinerary of Belgium, has given the epitaph of the knightly physician:[37(1)]

“Leodium primo aspectu ostentat in sinistra ripa (nam dextra vinetis plena est,) magna, & populosa suburbia ad collium radices, in quorum iugis multa sunt, & pulcherrima Monasteria, inter quae magnificum illud ac nobile D. Laurentio dicatum ab Raginardo episcopo, vt habet Sigebertus, circa ann. sal. M XXV aedificatum est in hac quoq. regione Guilelmitaru Coenobium in quo epitaphiu hoc Ioannis à Mandeuille excepimus: Hic iacet vir nobilis Dns Ioes de Mandeville al Dcus ad barbam miles dns de Capdi natus de Anglia medicie pfessor deuotissimus orator et bonorum largissimus paupribus erogator qui toto quasi orbe lustrato leodii diem vite sue clausit extremum ano Dni M CCC° LXXI°[37(2)] mensis novebr die XVII.[37(3)]

“Haec in lapide, in quo caelata viri armati imago, leonem calcantis, barba bifurcata, ad caput manus benedicens, & vernacula haec verba: vos ki paseis sor mi pour lamour deix proies por mi. Clypeus erat vacuus, in quo olim laminam fuisse dicebant aeream, & eius in ea itidem caelata insignia, leonem videlicet argenteum, cui ad pectus lunula rubea, in campo caeruleo, quem limbus ambiret denticulatus ex auro, eius nobis ostendebat & cultros, ephippiaque, & calcaria, quibus vsum fuisse asserebat in peragrando toto fere terrarum orbe, vt clarius eius testatur itinerarium, quod typis etiam excusum passim habetur.”48

Dr. Warner writes in the National Biography:

“There is abundant proof that the tomb of the author of the Travels was to be seen in the Church of the Guillemins or Guillelmites at Liège down to the demolition of the building in 1798. The fact of his burial there, with the date of his death, 17th November, 1372, was published by Bale in 1548 (Summarium f. 149 b), and was confirmed independently by Jacob Meyer (Annales rerum Flandric. 1561, p. 165) and Lud. Guicciardini. (Paesi Bassi, 1567, p. 281.)”

In a letter dated from Bodley’s Library, 17th March, 1884, to The Academy, 12th April, 1884, No. 623, Mr. Edward B. Nicholson drew attention to the abstract from Jean d’Ontremeuse, and came to the conclusion that the writer of Mandeville’s relation was a profound liar, and that he was the Liège Professor of Medicine, John of Burgundy or à la Barbe. He adds: “If, in the matter of literary honesty, John a Beard was a bit of a knave, he was very certainly no fool.”

On the other hand, M. Léopold Delisle,49 has shown that two manuscripts, Nouv. acq. franç. 4515 (Barrois, 24) and Nouv. acq. franç. 4516 (Barrois, 185), were part formerly of one volume copied in 1371 by Raoulet of Orleans and given in the same year to King Charles V. by his physician Gervaise Crestien, viz. one year before the death of the so-called Mandeville; one of these manuscripts — now separate — contains the Book of Jehan de Mandeville, the other one, a treatise of “la preservacion de epidimie, minucion ou curacion d’icelle faite de maistre Jehan de Bourgoigne, autrement dit à la Barbe, professeur en médicine et cytoien du Liège,” in 1365. This bringing together is certainly not fortuitous.

Sir Henry Yule traces thus the sources of the spurious work: “Even in that part of the book which may be admitted with probability to represent some genuine experience, there are distinct traces that another work has been made use of, more or less, as an aid in the compilation, we might almost say, as a framework to fill up. This is the itinerary of the German knight William of Boldensele, written in 1336 at the desire of Cardinal Talleyrand de Perigord. A cursory comparison of this with Mandeville leaves no doubt of the fact that the latter has followed its thread, using its suggestions, and on many subjects its expressions, though digressing and expanding on every side, and too often eliminating the singular good sense of the German traveller. After such a comparison we may indicate as examples Boldensele’s account of Cyprus (Mandeville, Halliwell’s ed. 1866, p. 28, and p. 10), of Tyre and the coast of Palestine (Mandeville, 29, 30, 33, 34), of the journey from Gaza to Egypt (34), passages about Babylon of Egypt (40), about Mecca (42), the general account of Egypt (45), the pyramids (52), some of the particular wonders of Cairo, such as the slave-market, the chicken-hatching stoves, and the apples of Paradise, i.e. plantains (49), the Red Sea (57), the convent on Sinai (58, 60), the account of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (74–76), etc.”

He adds: “It is curious that no passage in Mandeville can be plausibly traced to Marco Polo, with one exception. This is (Halliwell’s ed., p. 163) where he states that at Ormus the people, during the great heat, lie in water — a circumstance mentioned by Polo, though not by Odoric. We should suppose it most likely that this fact had been interpolated in the copy of Odoric used by Mandeville; for, if he had borrowed it direct from Polo, he would have borrowed more.” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, p. 474.)

“Leaving this question, there remains the more complex one whether the book contains, in any measure, facts and knowledge acquired by actual travels and residence in the East. We believe that it may, but only as a small portion of the whole, and that confined entirely to the section of the work which treats of the Holy Land, and of the different ways of getting thither, as well as of Egypt, and in general of what we understand by the Levant.” (Ibid. p. 473.)

Dr. Warner deals the final blow in the National Biography: “The alphabets which he gives have won him some credit as a linguist, but only the Greek and the Hebrew (which were readily accessible) are what they pretend to be, and that which he calls Saracen actually comes from the Cosmographia of aethicus! His knowledge of Mohammedanism and its Arabic formulae impressed even Yule. He was, however, wholly indebted for that information to the Liber de Statu Saracenorum of William of Tripoli (circa 1270), as he was to the Historiae Orientis of Hetoum, the Armenian (1307), for much of what he wrote about Egypt. In the last case, indeed, he shows a rare sign of independence, for he does not, with Hetoum, end his history of the sultanate about 1300, but carries it onto the death of En-Násir (1341), and names two of his successors. Although his statements about them are not historically accurate, this fact and a few other details suggest that he may really have been in Egypt, if not at Jerusalem, but the proportion of original matter is so very far short of what might be expected that even this is extremely doubtful.”

With this final quotation, we may take leave of John of Mandeville, aliàs John a Beard.


12 “The raphia, here called the ‘Devil’s date,’ is celebrated as having the largest leaf in the vegetable Kingdom,” etc. In his translation of Lacerda’s journey he calls it Raphia vinifera.

13 MANDEVILLE, Jehan de [By Edward Byron Nicholson, M.A., and Colonel Henry Yule, C.B.] Ext. from the Encyclopaed. Britan. 9th ed., xv. 1883, ppt. 4to., pp. 4.

14 Encyclop. Brit. xv. p. 473.

15 British Museum, Harley, 4383, f. 1 verso.

16 Les Voyages en Asie an XIV’e siècle du Bienheureux frère Odoric de

Pordenone. Paris, 1891, p. cxvi.

17 Bibliographische Untersuchungen über die Reise–Beschreibung des Sir John Maundeville. — Dem Herrn Samuel Gottfried Reiche, Rector und Professor des Gymnasiums zu St. Elisabet in Breslau und Vice–Präses der Schlesischen Gesellschaft für Vaterländische Cultur, Ritter des rothen Adlerordens, zur Feier Seines Amts–Jubelfestes am 30. October 1840 im Namen des Gymnasiums zu St. Maria Magdalena gewidmet von Dr. Carl. Schönborn, Director, Rector und Professor. — Breslau, gedruckt bei Grass, Barth und Comp., ppt. 4to. pp. 24.

18 Bibliographia geographica Palaestinae. Zunächst kritische Uebersicht gedruckter und ungedruckter Beschreibungen der Reisen ins heilige Land. Von Titus Tobler. — Leipzig, Verlag von S. Hirzel. 1867, 8vo., pp. iv.-265.: C. 1336 (1322–1356). Der englische ritter John Maundeville, pp. 36–39.

19 Bibliotheca geographica Palestinae. Chronologisches Verzeichniss der auf die Geographie des Heiligen Landes bezüglichen Literatur von 333 bis 1878 und Versuch einer Cartographie. Herausgegeben von Reinhold Röhricht. Berlin, H. Reuther, 1890, 8vo, pp. xx-742.

20 Bibliotheca Sinica. — Dictionnaire bibliographique des ouvrages relatif sà l’empire chinois par Henri Cordier. Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1878–1895, 3 vol. 8vo. col. 943–959, 1921–1927, 2201.

21 Jean de Mandeville. Ext. du T’oung Pao, vol. ii. No. 4, Leide, E.J. Brill, 1891, 8vo, pp. 38.

22 Jch Otto von diemeringen ein || Thumherre zu Metz in Lothoringen. han dises buch verwandelvsz || welschs vnd vsz latin zu tütsch durch das die tütschen lüte ouch mogent || dar inne lesen von menigen wunderlichen sachen die dor inne geschribe || sind. von fremden landen vn fremden tieren von fremden lüten vnd von || irem glouben von. iren wesen von iren kleidern. vnd vo vil andern wun || deren als hie noch in den capitelen geschriben stat. Und ist das buch in || fünf teil geteilt vnd saget das erst buch von den landen vnd von den we || gen vsz tütschen nider landen gen Jerusalem zu varen. vnd zu sant Ka | || therine grab vnd zu dem berg Synai. vnd von den landen vnd von den || wundern die man vnterwegen do zwischen vinden mag. Jtem von des || herren gewalt vnd herrschafft der do heisset der Soldan vnd von sinem || wesen. Das ander buch saget ob ymant wolt alle welt vmbfaren was || lands vnd was wunders er vinden mocht. Jn manchen steten vn in vil || insulen dor inne er kame. vnd saget ouch von den wegen vnd von den la || den vn lüten was in des grossen herre land ist. & do heisset zu latin Ma || gnus canis | das ist zu tütsch der grosz hunt. der ist so gar gewaltig vnd || so rich das im vff erden an gold an edlem gestein vnan anderm richtum || niemant gelichen mag. on allein priester Johann von Jndia. Das drit || buch saget von des vor genanten herren des grossen hunds glowben vn || gewonheit vnd wie er von erst her komen ist vnd von andern sachen vil || Das vierde buch saget von jndia vnd von priester Johann vnd von siner || herschafft. von sinem vrsprung vnd von siner heiligkeit von sinem glou | || ben von siner gewonheit vnd vil andern wundern die in sinem lande sind || Das fünfft buch saget von manchen heydischen glouben vnd ir gewon | || heit vn ouch von menigerlei cristen glouben die gensit mers sint die doch || nit gar vnsern glouben hand. Jtem von menigerlei Jüden glouben vnd || wie vil cristen land sint vnd doch nicht vnsern glouben haltend noch re | || chte cristen sind. Folio; black letter.

23 Ce liure est eppelle ma deuille et fut fait i compose par monsieur iehan de man deuille cheualier natif dagle terre de la uille de saict alei Et parle de la terre de pro mission cest assavoir de ieru salem et de pluseurs autres isles de mer et les diuerses i estranges choses qui sont es dites isles.

Ends recto f°. 88: Cy finist ce tres plaisant liure nome Mandeville par lanc moult autentiquement du pays et terre d’oultre mer Et fut fait La Mil cccc lxxx le iiii lour dauril, s.l., without any printer’s name; small folio; ff. 88; sig. a (7 ff.)— l. (9 ff.); others 8 ff. — Grenville Library, 6775.

24 F. 1 recto: Ce liure est appelle mandeuille et fut fait et compose par monsieur iehan de mandeuille che ualier natif dangleterre de la uille de sainct alein Et parle de la terre de promission cest assavoir de iherusalem et de plu seurs autres isles de mer et les diuerses et estran ges choses qui sont esd’ isles. — Ends verso f. 93: Cy finist ce tresplay sant liure nome Mande cccclxxx le viii iour de freuier a la requeste de Maistre Bartholomieu Buyer bourgoys du dit lyon. Small folio.

25 F. 1 recto. Jtinerarius domini Johanis de madeville militis. — F. 2 recto: Tabula capitulorum in itinerarium ad partes Jhe= rosolimitanas. & ad vlterio res trasmarinas domini Johannis de Mandeville militis Jncipit feliciter. — F. 4. recto: Jncipit Itinerarius a terra Anglie in ptes Jherosoli =mitanas. & in vlteriores trasmarinas. editus primo in ligua gallicana a milite suo autore Anno incarnatonis dni M. ccc. lv. in ciuitate Leodi ensi. & paulo post in eade ciuitate traslatus in hanc forma latinam.

Ends f. 71 verso: Explicit itinerarius domini Johannis de Mandeville militis. Small 4to, black letter, ff. 71 on a col., sig. a-i iij; a-h by 8 = 64 ff.; i, 7 ff.

26 Reysen. — s.l.n.d., without printer’s name; fol. 108 ff. on 2 col. black letter, without sig., etc.

F. 1 recto: Dit is die tafel van desen boecke (D)at eerste capittel van desen boeck is Hoe dat Jan vamandauille schyet wt enghelat. . . . f. 108 v° 26th line: regneert in allen tiden Amen ¶ Laus deo in altissimo.

See Campbell, supra, p. 599.

27 F. 1 verso: Tractato de le piu marauegliose cosse e piu notabile che se trouano in le parte del modo redute & collecte soto breuita in el presente copedio dal strenuissimo caualer spero doro Johanne de Mandauilla anglico nato ne la Cita de sancto albano el quale secodo dio prñcialmente uisi tato quali tute le parte habitabel de el modo cossi fidelm te a notato tute quelle piu degne cosse che la trouato e veduto in esse parte & chi bene discorre qsto libro auerra p fecta cognitione de tuti li reami puincie natione e populi gente costumi leze hystorie & degne antiquitate co breuitade le quale pte da altri non sono tractate & parte piu cosusamete dalchu gran ualente homini son state tocate & amagiore fede el psato auctore in psona e stato nel 1322. inyerusalem Jn Asia menore chiamata Turchia i Armenia grande e in la picola. Jn Scythia zoe in Tartaria in persia Jn Syria o uero suria Jn Arabia in egipto alto & in lo inferiore in libia in la parte grande de ethiopia in Caldea in amazonia in india mazore in la meza & in la menore in div’se sette de latini greci iudei e barbari christiani & infideli & i molte altre prouincie como appare nel tractato de sotto. — Ends f. 114 verso: Explicit Johannes d’Madeuilla impressus Mediolani ductu & auspicijs Magistri Petri de corneno pre die Callendas augusti M.CCCCLXXX. Johane Galeazo Maria Sfortia Vicecomitte Duce no     stro inuictissimo ac principe Jucondissimo. Small 4to; ff. 114; sig. a-o × 8 = 112 ff.; 1 f. between a and b.

28 Gesta Pont. Leodiensium. — Vita Radvlphi de Rivo ex eius scriptis: “Obijt Radulphus anno, 1483.”

29 This passage is not to be found in the Egerton MS. 1982, nor in the Latin versions.

30 Bib. Untersuchungen.

31 Altenglische Sprachproben nebst einem Wörterbuche unter Mitwirkung von Karl Goldbeck herausgegeben von Eduard Mätzner. Erster Band: Sprachproben. Zweite Abtheilung: Prosa. Berlin. Weidmannsche Buchhandlung. (Vol. i. 1869, large 8vo, pp. 415; vol. i., John Maundeville, pp. 152–221.)

32 Encyclopaedia. Brit., p. 475.

33 Nat. Biog. p. 23–24.

34 The Academy, x. p. 477. — Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed., XV., p. 475.

35 The Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundevile, kt. Which Treateth of the Way to Hierusalem; and of Marvayles of Inde, With other Ilands and Countryes. — Now publish’d entire from an Original MS. in the Cotton Library. — London: Printed for J. Woodman, and D. Lyon, in Russel–Street, Covent–Garden, and C. Davis, in Hatton–Garden. 1725, 8vo, 5. ff. n. c.+pp. xvi. — 384+4 ff. n. c.

36 The Voiage and Travayle of Sir John Maundeville Knight which treateth of the way towards Hierosallun and of marvayles of Inde with other ilands and countreys. Edited, Annotated, and Illustrated in Facsimile by John Ashton. . . . London, Pickering & Chatto, 1887, large 8vo., pp. xxiv.-289.

37 L.c. p. vi.

38 The Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundevile, Kt. which treateth of the way to Hierusalem; and of Marvayles of Inde, with other ilands and countryes. Reprinted from the Edition of A.D. 1725. With an introduction, additional notes, and Glossary. By J.O. Halliwell. Esq., F.S.A., F.R.A.S. London: Published by Edward Lumley, M.D.CCC.XXXIX., 8vo, pp. xvii.-xii.-326.

The Voiage and Travaille of Sir John Maundevile . . . By J.O. Halliwell, London: F.S. Ellis, MDCCCLXVI., 8vo, pp xxxi.-326.

39 The Buke of John Maundeuill being the Travels of sir John Mandeville, knight 1322–1356 a hitherto unpublished English version from the unique copy (Egerton Ms. 1982) in the British Museum edited together with the French text, notes, and an introduction by George F. Warner, M.A., F.S.A., assistant-keeper of Manuscripts in the British Museum. Illustrated with twenty-eight miniatures reproduced in facsimile from the additional MS. 24,189. Printed for the Roxburghe Club. Westminster, Nichols and Sons. . . . MDCCCLXXXIX., large 4to, pp. xlvi.+232+28 miniatures.

40 There are in the British Museum twenty-nine MSS. of Mandeville, of which ten are French, nine English, six Latin, three German, and one Irish. Cf. Warner, p. x.

41 Cf. Warner, p. 61.

42 Mayence, Chapter’s Library: “Incipit Itinerarius fidelis Fratris ODERICI, socii Militis Mendavil, per Indiam.”— Wolfenbüttel, Ducal Library, No. 40, Weissemburg: “Incipit itinerarius fratris ODERICI socii militis Mandauil per Indiam.”— HENRI CORDIER, Odoric de Pordenone, p. lxxii. and p. lxxv.

43 Purchas, His Pilgrimes, 3rd Pt., London, 1625: “and, O that it were possible to doe as much for our Countriman Mandeuil, who next (if next) was the greatest Asian Traueller that euer the World had, & hauing falne amongst theeues, neither Priest, nor Leuite can know him, neither haue we hope of a Samaritan to releeue him.”

44 Astley (iv. p. 620): “The next Traveller we meet with into Tartary, and the Eastern Countries, after Marco Polo, is Friar Odoric, of Udin in Friuli, a Cordelier; who set-about the Year 1318, and at his Return the Relation of it was drawn-up, from his own Mouth, by Friar William of Solanga, in 1330. Ramusio has inserted it in Italian, in the second Volume of his Collection; as Hakluyt, in his Navigations, has done the Latin, with an English Translation. This is a most superficial Relation, and full of Lies; such as People with the Heads of Beasts, and Valleys haunted with Spirits: In one of which he pretends to have entered, protected by the Sign of the Cross; yet fled for Fear, at the Sight of a Face that grinned at him. In short, though he relates some Things on the Tartars and Manci (as he writes Manji) which agree with Polo’s Account; yet it seems plain, from the Names of Places and other Circumstances, that he never was in those Countries, but imposed on the Public the few Informations he had from others, mixed with the many Fictions of his own. He set out again for the East in 1331; but warned, it seems, by an Apparition a few Miles from Padua, he returned thither, and died.” And a final blow in the index: “Oderic, Friar, Travels of, iv. 620 a. A great liar!!

45 E.B. Nicholson. — Letters to the Academy, 11th November, 1876; 12th February, 1881. E.B.N. and Henry Yule, MANDEVILLE, in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed., 1883, pp. 472–475.

46 Die ungedruckten Lateinischen Versionen Mandeville’s. (Beilage zum Programm des Gymnasiums zu Crefeld.) 1886.

47 Untersuchungen über Johan von Mandeville und die Quellen seiner Reisebeschreibung. Von Albert Bovenschen. (Zeitschrift d. Ges. für Erdkunde zu Berlin, XXIII. Bd., 3 u. 4 Hft. No. 135, 136, pp. 177–306.)

48 (1) Itinerarivm per nonnv. las Galliae Belgicae partes, Abrahami Ortelii et Ioannis Viviani. Ad Gerardvm Mercatorem, Cosmographvm. Antverpiae, Ex officina Christophori Plantini. clo. lo. lxxxiv. small 8vo, pp. 15–16.

(2) Read 1372.

(3) Purchas, His Pilgrimes, 3rd Pt., Lond., 1625, reproduces it on p. 128: “Hic jacet vir nobilis, D. Ioannes de Mandeville, aliter dictus ad Barbam, Miles, Dominus de Campdi, natus de Anglia, Medicinae Professor, deuotissimus, orator, & bonorum largissimus pauperibus erogator qui toto quasi orbe lustrato, Leodij diem vitae suae clausit extremum. Anno Dom. 1371, Mensis Nouembris, die 17.”

49 Bibliothèque nationale:— Catalogue des manuscrits des fonds Libri et Barrois. Paris, 1888. 8vo. cf. pp. 251–253.

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