The Art of Living in Australia, by Philip E. Muskett

Chapter XXI.

Fifty Recipes for Salads and Sauces

Curry Sauce

1 Onion

1 Apple

1/2 oz. Flour

Lemon Juice

Salt — 1d

1/2 oz. Curry Powder

1 oz. Butter or Dripping

1 pint Gravy — 1d

Total Cost — 2d.

Time — Half an Hour.

Peel and chop up the apple and onion. Put the butter or dripping into a saucepan, and when it is melted put in the apple and onion, and fry for a few minutes; sprinkle over the curry powder and the flour. Pour over the gravy and stir until it boils. Simmer for half an hour, then strain, flavour with lemon juice and salt, boil up, and it is ready. If this sauce is for fish, use milk or fish stock instead of gravy.

Maitre D’hotel Sauce

1/2 pint Milk — 1d.

1 oz. Butter — 1d.

Lemon Juice

1/2 oz. Flour

1 teaspoonful Parsley

Pepper and Salt. — 1d.

Total Cost — 3d.

Time — 5 Minutes.

Put the butter into a small saucepan, and when it is melted stir in the flour, and mix smoothly; pour in the milk and stir until it boils. Take the saucepan from the fire, add a few drops of lemon juice, a pinch of pepper and salt to taste, last of all the parsley. It is then ready to serve.

Onion Sauce

3 Small Onions — 1/2d.

1 oz. Butter — 1d.

Lemon Juice

1/2 pint Milk

1 oz. Bread Crumbs

Pepper and Salt — 1 1/2d.

Total Cost — 3d.

Time — 5 Minutes.

Peel the onions, put them into cold water, and let them boil for a minute. Strain away the water, cover again with cold water, boil up and cook till soft; take out the water, chop small. Put the butter and milk into a saucepan, and when it boils put in the bread crumbs and onions. Cook slowly for five minutes, season with pepper, salt, and a few drops of lemon juice, and it is ready to serve.

Cream Toast

4 Slices Toast — 1d.

Pepper and Salt

1/2 pint White Sauce — 2d.

Total Cost — 3d.

Time — 5 Minutes.

Make the toast and lay it in a dish. Make the sauce by directions given for white sauce. Season with pepper and salt, and pour over it; serve hot. If a richer dish is desired, a little butter may be put on the toast.

Jam Sauce

1 tablespoonful Jam — 1d.

1/2 pint Water

1 oz. Sugar

1 teaspoonful Cornflour

1/2 Lemon — 1d.

Total Cost — 2d.

Time — 5 Minutes.

Put the water, jam, lemon juice, and sugar into a small saucepan and boil it for five minutes. Mix the cornflour with a little cold water and pour it in; stir till it boils up. Strain the jam out, and it is ready to serve; a few drops of cochineal improve the colour.

To Clarify Dripping

When the joint is served pour the dripping into a basin and stand away till cold; then cut it out of the basin. The gravy that will be found at the bottom is an excellent addition to hash or mince. Cut the dripping into small pieces and pour over it sufficient boiling water to dissolve it. Stir it well and leave till it is a solid cake of fat. Cut it off the water, scrape the impurities from the bottom, and it will be ready for use.

To Clarify Fat

The fat from meat not required in dressing it, and the ends of chops, &c., make excellent shortening for pies and cakes. Cut it into small pieces and put it into an old saucepan with about one quart of water. Boil until all the water is evaporated; the fat will then begin to boil. Strain this melted fat into a basin, and continue to do so until all the fat is extracted. This is a good substitute for butter and lard.

Melted Butter Sauce

1/2 pint Water

1 oz. Butter

1/2 oz. Flour


Total Cost — 1 1/2 d.

Time — 5 Minutes.

Put half the butter into a small saucepan, and when it is dissolved stir in the flour and mix smoothly; pour in the cold water and stir until it boils. Take the saucepan from the fire, stir in the rest of the butter in small pieces, and some salt, it is then ready to serve.

To Boil Rice

Wash the rice well in two or three waters; have a large saucepan on the fire full of boiling water seasoned with salt. Throw in the rice and boil very quickly for five or six minutes. Take up a grain, and if it feels quite soft it is done; if not, boil another minute. Strain off the water and pour over it some clean hot water to separate the grains. If required immediately, put it back in the saucepan and toss over the fire till dry. If not, spread it on a sieve or dish and dry on the stove, covered with a cloth, or in the oven with the door open.

To Fry Parsley

The top or flower of parsley only should be used for frying. Pick it carefully and rub well in a damp cloth, and then in a dry cloth. Put into a frying basket and plunge into the fat when the fish, or whatever it is to be served with, has been fried; leave it in not more than one minute. Turn it on to some kitchen paper and stand for a minute on the stove to dry; it is then ready.

Frying Batter

1/4 lb. Flour — 1/2d.

1/2 gill Tepid Water

White of Egg

1 dessertspoonful Oil — 1d.

Total Cost — 11/2 d.

Time — 5 Minutes.

Sift the flour into a basin, pour over it the oil, then the water, and beat into a smooth batter; stand away for an hour, if possible in a cool place. Whip the white of the egg to a stiff froth, and stir it in, and it is ready to use. This batter is useful for fritters and many dishes both sweet and savoury.

Tomato Sauce

6 Tomatoes — 2d.

1 oz. Butter — 1d.

1 1/2 oz. Flour

1/2 spoonful Sugar

1/2 spoonful Salt — 1/2d.

Total Cost — 31/2 d.

Time — 5 Minutes.

If the tomatoes are ripe they need not be cooked; but if at all hard, boil them for five minutes. Then slice up and rub through a sieve. Put the butter into a small saucepan, and when it is dissolved stir in the flour and sugar; then pour in the tomato juice and stir until it boils; season with salt to taste. This is tomato sauce pure and simple; but it is often made with half stock and half tomato juice; it is suitable for chops, steaks, &c. If made thicker it is called a puree, and is served with braised and dressed meats.

White Sauce

1/2 pint Milk — 1d.

1 oz. Butter — 1d.

1/2 oz. Flour

Salt and Pepper — 1/2d.

Total Cost — 2 1/2 d.

Time Minutes.

Put the butter into a small saucepan, and when it is dissolved put in the flour; mix well and pour on the cold milk and stir till it boils. Let it boil for two minutes and it is ready. It may be served either as a sweet or savoury sauce, putting either sugar or pepper and salt, as required.

Brown Gravy

Brown gravy can be made from any kind of stock. If the stock is good, put it into a saucepan and thicken every pint with 1 oz of flour. If the stock is not very good, boil some vegetables in it with any trimmings of meat and poultry available, and thicken with butter and flour; a few drops of lemon juice will bring up the flavour. It should be of a rich brown colour. It can be coloured with a little sugar burnt in a spoon, or with a few drops of caramel, a recipe for which will be found elsewhere.

Brown Sauce

1 pint Stock

1 oz. Butter

1/2 oz. Flour — 1 1/2d.

1/2 Stalk of Celery

1 Carrot

1 Onion

1/2 Turnip

1 doz. Peppercorns — 1d.

Total Cost — 21/2 d.

Time — One Hour.

Put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is quite hot, slice up the vegetables and put them in with the peppercorns, and fry a good colour. Stir in the flour and brown that too, then pour in the stock and stir till it boils. Cover down and let it simmer slowly for an hour. Rub through a sieve, return to the saucepan; season with salt and lemon juice, boil up, and it is ready to serve.


Put half a pound of sugar into a frying-pan and let it get very brown. Pour over half a pint of water and stir till it boils; strain into a bottle. It will keep good a long time, and is very useful for colouring soup and gravies.

Veal Forcemeat

2 oz. Suet (Beef)— 1/2d.

3 oz. Bread Crumbs — 1/2d.

Pepper and Salt

1 Egg

1/2 teaspoonful Parsley

1/2 teaspoonful Sweet Herbs

Half a Lemon — 1 1/2d.

Total Cost — 21/2 d.

Shred the suet and mix it with the bread crumbs. Chop the parsley and sweet herbs very finely and stir them in, then the grated rind of half a lemon, and the pepper and salt; drop in the egg and bind into a paste, and it is ready to use. This forcemeat is suitable for fowls, turkeys, veal, and fish.

To Make Brown Crumbs

Cut up some very stale bread and bake it in the oven till a nice colour. Put these pieces through a sausage machine and then rum them through a sieve; keep in a bottle for use. They are excellent for many savoury dishes, and it is good way of using up stale pieces of bread.

Salad of Cold Vegetables

Take any cold vegetables that there may be in the larder — such as potatoes, cauliflowers, peas, beans, haricots, &c. Slice up the potatoes, branch the cauliflower, and mix in the peas and beans; put all into a salad bowl. Take oil and vinegar in the proportion of one of oil to two of vinegar, blend them together and season with salt and pepper. Pour this over the vegetables, slice up one or two hard boiled eggs into very thin slices, and lay round as a garnish.

Banana and Orange Salad

Peel and slice up some ripe bananas and oranges, removing the pips from the oranges, but saving the juice. Take a deep glass dish, lay at the bottom some bananas, then a layer of oranges. Sprinkle well with sugar, then some more bananas and oranges and sugar, until all the materials are used up. Cover and let it stand for an hour, then serve as a sweet.

Cosmopolitan Salad

Take any fruits in season, such as oranges, mandarins, passion fruit, apricots, nectarines, pineapples, bananas, &c. Peel and slice them up, and put them into a glass dish in layers, with plenty of sugar between each layer. Stand in a cool place for an hour covered over, and it is ready to serve.

Potato Salad

Slice up some cold boiled potatoes. Sprinkle with salt, pepper, and chopped parsley. Mix the oil and vinegar together in the proportion of two of oil to one of vinegar; pour this over, let it stand for an hour, and serve.

Venetian Rice

1/2 lb. Rice — 1d.

1/2 lb. Cheese — 2d.

1 pint Stock

1 oz. Butter

Pepper and Salt — 1d.

Total Cost — 4d.

Time — Three-quarters of an Hour.

Boil some rice, or take any cold rice that may be left, put it into a saucepan with the stock, and simmer till the stock is absorbed. Grate up some dry, hard pieces of cheese, stir them in with the butter, pepper and salt. Cover down by the side of the fire for about half an hour; pile on a dish, and serve.

Tomatoes and Eggs

4 Eggs — 4d.

1/2 pint Tomato Sauce — 2d.

Fried Bread

1 teaspoonful Parsley — 1d.

Total Cost — 7d.

Time — 5 Minutes.

Take some thick tomato sauce and pour it on to a hot dish. Poach the eggs carefully and lay them on the sauce. Garnish with parsley and fried bread, and serve hot.

Macaroni Cheese

2 oz. Macaroni — 1 1/2d.

1/2 pint White Sauce — 1 1/2d.

3 oz. Dry Cheese

Pepper and Salt — 1d.

Total Cost — 4d.

Time — 10 Minutes.

Put the macaroni into boiling salt and water, and boil for half an hour or until soft; strain off the water and cut into pieces about 1 1/2 inch long. Make the sauce by directions given elsewhere. Mix in half the cheese and some pepper and salt. Take a dish in which it can be served, and lay at the bottom some macaroni; then some sauce and a little of the dry cheese. Continue in this way till all the materials are used up, leaving plenty of dry cheese for the top. Put in the oven for five or ten minutes till a nice colour. Serve hot.


2 Eggs — 2d.

1 gill Oil — 2d.

1/2 gill Vinegar

Salt — 1/2d.

Total Cost — 41/2 d.

Time — Three-quarters of an Hour.

Put the yolks of the eggs into a basin, sprinkle over the salt, begin to stir them with a wooden spoon, dropping in the oil very slowly. The sauce must be kept thick, and the oil added very slowly. When it is quite thick and smooth, pour in the vinegar slowly, and it is ready for use. This is considered the finest of all salad dressings. If made some time before it is required for table, it must be kept cool. It ought to stand in ice, and the vinegar should be added just before serving. It may be used for any kind of salad instead of the ordinary dressing.

Hints on Salad

Salads form such a pleasant item in the menu, particularly during the hot season, that they should be regarded as a daily dish. There are no scraps of fish, poultry, meat, or cold boiled vegetables, but what can be turned to account in this way. If these are utilised, a great variety can be obtained at a very trifling cost; in fact these dainty tit-bits can often be made of food that otherwise would be thrown away. Cold cauliflowers, beans, peas, and potatoes are particularly nice in salads.

Fish Salad

Cold Boiled Fish — 4d.

1 Lettuce — 1/2d.

1 Egg — 1d.

Salad Dressing, or Remoulade Sauce — 4d.

Total Cost — 91/2 d.

Make a salad dressing the same as that given for lettuce salad; flake up the fish free from skin and bone. Wash and dry the lettuce and shred it up, mix the fish with the dressing. Put a layer of lettuce at the bottom of the bowl, then one of fish and dressing. Do this alternatively, leaving plenty of lettuce for the top; garnish with hard boiled eggs cut into slices.

Lettuce Salad

2 Lettuces — 1d.

1 tablespoonful Condensed Milk

2 teaspoonful Mustard — 1d.

2 Eggs — 2d.

1/2 gill Vinegar — 1/2d.

1/4 gill Oil

Pepper and Salt — 1/2d.

Total Cost — 5d.

Boil the eggs hard; take the yolk of one and put it into a basin and work it quite smooth with a spoon. Then add the mustard made with vinegar instead of water, the condensed milk, pepper, and salt, and then the oil slowly; last of all the vinegar. Mix it all very thoroughly. Cut off the outside leaves of the lettuce, and pull it all to pieces, wash in cold water and dry thoroughly in a cloth. Break into small pieces and put into a salad bowl, pour over the dressing. Garnish with the other egg and the white that was not used in the dressing. These should be cut into slices and placed round. A few of the best pieces of lettuce should be laid over the dressing.

Beetroot and Macaroni Salad

3 oz. Macaroni — 2d.

2 tablespoonsful Oil — 1d.

1 bunch Beetroot

Pepper and Salt

2 tablespoonful Vinegar — 2d.

Total Cost — 5d.

Boil both the macaroni and the beetroot by directions given elsewhere. When quite cold, peel and slice up the beetroot and cut the macaroni into pieces about two inches long; arrange them in alternate layers on a dish. Blend the oil and vinegar with the salt and pepper and pour it over; let it stand for an hour, basting continually with the oil and vinegar. By that time it should be of a bright red colour. It is then ready to serve.

Prawn Salad

1 pint Prawns — 9d.

6 Tomatoes — 2d.

Mayonnaise or Salad Dressing — 4d.

Total Cost — 1s. 3d.

Pick the prawns, leaving the skin on a few fine ones for a garnish. Peel and slice up the tomatoes and arrange them on a dish; put over them the prawns, and pour over all some mayonnaise or salad dressing. Place the other prawns round as a garnish with a few lettuce leaves broken up.

Salad of Corned Beef

Slices of Corned Beef

1 Lettuce — 1/2.

2 Eggs — 2d.

Mayonnaise or Salad Dressing — 4d.

Total Cost — 61/2 d.

Take some slices of cold corned beef, dip them in a salad dressing, and lay them in a dish with alternate layers of lettuce leaves. Garnish with hard boiled eggs cut in slices.

Egg Salad

6 Eggs — 6d.

1 Lettuce — 1d.

1 bunch Watercress — 1d.

Mayonnaise or Salad Dressing — 4d.

1 Beetroot — 1/2d.

Total Cost — 1s. 0 1/2 d.

Put the eggs into boiling water and boil fifteen minutes. Plunge into cold water till quite cold, peel and cut into quarters. Wash and cleanse the watercress and lettuce and cut into pieces. Put a layer of this at the bottom of the bowl, then one of eggs dipped in the dressing, then another of lettuce and egg until all are used up, leaving plenty of lettuce for the top. Garnish with sprigs of watercress and slices of beetroot alternately.

Celery Salad

1 Head of Celery — 1d.

1 Lettuce — 1/2d.

Salad Dressing — 4d.

Total Cost — 51/2 d.

Pull the celery to pieces, wash it, and cut into small pieces; shred up some lettuce and lay it at the bottom the dish. Stir the celery into the dressing and lay it on the top of the lettuce. Cover with more lettuce, and serve.

Sardine Salad

1/2 tin Sardines — 4d.

2 Eggs — 2d.

1 Lettuce — 1/2d.

Salad Dressings — 4d.

Total Cost — 101/2 d.

Split the sardines open and remove the bone. Break some of the lettuce into a bowl, lay on this the sardines. Chop up one of the eggs and sprinkle over them, pour on the dressing. Cover with the rest of the lettuce, and garnish with the other egg cut in slices, and a little watercress or beetroot.

Oyster Salad

1 bottle Oysters — 1s.

1 Lettuce — 1d.

Half a Lemon

Mayonnaise or Salad Dressing — 4d.

Total Cost — 1s. 5d.

Strain away the liquor from a bottle of oysters; put it into a saucepan, and when it boils put in the oysters and cook for five minutes; let them get cold in the liquor. Wash and break up the lettuce and put some of the bottom of a bowl. Strain the liquor from the oysters and mix a little with the dressing, stir in the oysters and spread over the lettuce. Cover with more lettuce and garnish with slices of lemon and red radishes.

Blue Cod Salad

Any remains of smoked blue cod that may have been left from a meal make an excellent salad either with just a simple dressing of oil and vinegar and a lettuce, or with a mayonnaise or salad dressing. Follow the directions for fish salad, but do not put any salt, as the fish is usually salt enough.

Italian Salad

1 Salt Herring

Cold slices of Meat

1 teaspoonful Mustard

1 Beetroot — 1 1/2d.

4 tablespoonsful Oil — 1d.

3 tablespoonsful Tarragon Vinegar

1/2 oz. Capers

3 Boiled Potatoes — 2d.

Total Cost — 4 1/2d.

Wash the herring in cold water and soak it in milk for an hour; cut it open and take out the bone and slice up both the fish and the meat. Arrange in a bowl, chop the capers and put over. Put the mustard into a basin, add gradually the oil and vinegar; pour this, when well mixed, over the fish and meat, and cover with slices of cold potatoes. Garnish with any cold vegetables in the larder or with some green pickles from a bottle of pickles, a little chopped parsley, and some small radishes.

Macaroni and Cheese Salad

1/4 lb. Macaroni — 2 1/2d.

1/4 lb. Cheese — 1 1/2d.

1 teaspoonful French Mustard

3 tablespoonsful Oil — 1d.

3 tablespoonsful Vinegar — 1/2d.

1/2 Head of Celery — 1/2d.

1/2 Lettuce — 1/2d.

Total Cost — 6 1/2 d.

Boil the macaroni, or use any cold that may be in the larder. Cut it into pieces about three inches long, cut the cheese into very thin slices, and cut the celery into very small pieces. Lay these alternately in a bowl with some shredded lettuce. Make a dressing of the mustard, oil, and vinegar, and pour it over. Garnish with a little beetroot, and serve.

Cheese Savoury

Take some dry, hard cheese and some dry crusts of bread. Pour a little boiling milk over the bread, cover it down till quite soft, then beat it with a fork; grate up the cheese and beat it in with the yolk of an egg and some pepper and salt. Beat the white of the egg to a stiff froth and stir it lightly in, pour into a buttered pie-dish and bake in a quick oven for twenty minutes. Serve hot.

Turnip Salad

4 Young Turnips

2 Spring Onions — 1 1/2d.

2 Boiled Potatoes — 1/2d.

Half a Lettuce — 1/2d.

Salad Dressing — 4d.

Total Cost — 6 1/2 d.

Peel and slice up the turnips and boil them for twenty minutes, or until soft. Let them get quite cold. Shred up very small the onions, and slice up the potatoes. Break up half a lettuce. Arrange these neatly in a bowl and pour over a simple salad dressing or remoulade sauce.

East Indian Salad Sauce

2 Eggs — 2d.

1 teaspoonful Curry Powder — 1/2d.

1/2 gill Oil

1/4 gill Vinegar — 1 1/2d.

Total Cost — 4d.

Boil the eggs hard; put the yolks into a bowl and work them till they are quite smooth. Work in gradually the curry powder, oil, and vinegar. Blend well, and it is ready. It may be used sometimes instead of mayonnaise or ordinary salad dressing.

Bread Salad

5 slices Stale Bread

1/2 gill Oil

3 Pickled Onions

1 piece Pickled Cauliflower — 2d.

2 Eggs — 2d.

1 Beetroot

2 slices Cold Mutton

1 tablespoonful Vinegar — 1d.

Mustard and Cress — 1/2d.

Total Cost — 51/2 d.

Trim off the crust and cut the bread into dice, put into a bowl and pour over the oil. Let it stand till all the oil is absorbed; then mince up the onion, cauliflower, eggs, and meat, and strew them over. Season with pepper and salt. Well wash the mustard and cress and arrange on the top. Cut the beetroot into neat shapes and arrange as a garnish.

Breakfast Salad

2 Tomatoes — 1/2d.

1 Cucumber — 2d.

1 tablespoonful Oil — 1/2d.

1 Spring Onion

Half a Lettuce

2 tablespoonsful Vinegar — 1/2d.

Total Cost — 31/2 d.

Scald the tomatoes and take off the skin, and put them into cold water or on to the ice until quite cold. Cut them up the same as an orange; peel and cut up the cucumber into very thin slices and mince up the onion. Sprinkle these with pepper and salt, pour over the oil and vinegar. Shred up the lettuce and lay on the top, it is then ready to serve.

Cauliflower Salad

1 Cauliflower — 3d.

Half a Lettuce — 1/2d.

2 Eggs — 2d.

1/2 gill Oil and Vinegar — 1d.

Total Cost — 61/2 d.

Boil the cauliflower by directions given elsewhere and branch it carefully. Boil the eggs hard, separate the whites from the yolks; chop the whites small and cut the yolks in slices. Shred up the lettuce in a bowl and put the branches of cauliflower all round it, and the slices of yolk of egg outside as a border. Pour on the salad dressing and put the white of egg in little heaps on the lettuce. It is then ready to serve.

Carrot Salad

2 or 3 Cold Boiled Carrots — 1/2d.

1/2 lb. Cold Boiled Mutton

1 stalk Celery

6 Capers — 1 1/2d.

Half a teaspoonful Parsley — 1/2d.

Salad Dressing — 3d.

Total Cost — 51/2 d.

Cut up some cold boiled mutton into small pieces and lay them in a salad bowl. Mince up the celery and capers and strew over it, then pour over the dressing. Slice up the cold carrots and lay them on top; garnish with the chopped parsley, and serve.

Calf’s Foot Salad

Calves’ feet that have been boiled down for jelly make a good salad. They must, of course, be boiled very thoroughly for at least eight hours. Strain off the stock, remove the bones, and put the meat on one side till quite cold. Then cut up into neat pieces and put into a salad bowl. Pour over a salad dressing or just oil and vinegar; shred over it a nice white lettuce, and garnish with sliced beetroot.

Remoulade Salad Dressing

This is a good dressing when mayonnaise is not liked. It is made in the same way as mayonnaise, using hard boiled eggs (yolks) instead of raw ones. Put the yolks into a basin and work very smoothly with the bowl of a wooden spoon; add the oil gradually, using about one gill to every two yolks. A little French mustard and vinegar may be added before using.

Soup Meat Salad

The meat which has been boiled down for soup makes a nice salad. When the stock has been poured off, press the meat into a basin with about a gill of jelly stock, and some salt and pepper. When cold and firm, cut it into neat pieces and lay in a salad bowl. Pour over it some remoulade sauce and shred on top some nice white lettuce leaves; it may be garnished with beetroot or hard boiled eggs.

Lamb Salad

Cold Roast Lamb

2 Lettuces — 1d.

1 Tomato — 1/2d.

12 Capers — 1/2d.

2 Eggs — 2d.

Remoulade Dressing — 3d.

Total Cost — 7d.

Cut the lamb into small pieces and lay it in a bowl. Cut the tomato into thin slices and lay it over, then the capers chopped small. Pour over the dressing, break up the lettuces and put over, and garnish with the hard boiled eggs cut in slices.

Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:58