HERE are listed the full title-pages of all the accessible editions of the Fable of the Bees, together with descriptions of the editions. In reproducing titles, I have indicated always whether the type is roman or italic, upper case or lower case, but, beyond this, no attempt has been made to differentiate type. All capitals, no matter what size, have been transliterated into small capitals, except that in words where an initial capital is followed by smaller capitals or lower case I have used a full capital for the initial letter. Long ‘s’ has been modernized. The German type used in the translations of 1761 and 1818 has been transliterated into roman. In the collations, although I have in general indicated all departures from normal folding, I have not noted the number of leaves in the last folding, since this is here sufficiently indicated by the pagination. Concerning the misprints in pagination which I have recorded, it should be remembered that any of these might have been corrected in the press in copies not seen by me. Where, in the collations, both the page-numbers delimiting a part of a book are enclosed within one pair of brackets (e.g., pp. [340–8]), none of the pages in the group are numbered in the original; where page-numbers are individually enclosed in brackets (e.g., pp. 1–24 or pp. 15–27), the intervening pages of the group are numbered in the original.
See the reproduction opposite (reduced from 127 × 180.5 mm.).
Collation: 4to. Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; Grumbling Hive, pp. 1–26. Signatures omitted on A sheet.
Copies in the Bodleain and in my possession.
Collation: 4to (half-sheet). Grumbling Hive, pp. 1 (A)–4.
This has no title-page. The above title heads the four double-columned pages of the pamphlet. At the end is stated, ‘Printed in the Year, 1705.’ This is the pirated edition (see Fable i. 4). Copy in the British Museum.
Collation: Format uncertain, signatures irregular (A2 on p. 5, B on p. 13, C on p. 17). Title, p. 1; blank, p. 2; Grumbling Hive, pp. 3–18(Cv).
Copy in the Library of Congress.
See the reproduction opposite.
Collation: 12 mo. Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [iii(A2)-xiv]; table of contents, pp. [xv-xxiii]; Errata, p. [xxiv]; Grumbling Hive, pp. 1(B)–20; introduction, pp. [21–2]; Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, pp. 23(†)–41; Remarks, pp. 42–228. Signature I3 misprinted ‘I2’.
The table of contents, which was not printed in any edition after the second, reads as follows:
|A Description of the glorious Beehive,||Page 1|
|The cause of their Greatness,||8|
|Their unreasonable Murmurings.||10|
|Jupiter makes them honest.||11|
|The effects of honesty upon Trade.||15|
|The reason why so few People understand themselves,||21|
|En Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue,||23|
|Man without Government is of all Creatures the most unfit for Society,||24|
|Mankind is for Emulations sake divided in two Classes,||26|
|What Animals discover the greatest Pride,||28|
|The first Rudiments of Morality were broach’d for the Ease of Governors||30|
|The Definitions of Virtue and Vice,||31|
|Moral Virtue not deriv’d from Religion,||32|
|What excited the Ancients to Heroick Virtues,||33|
|The various Arts of Flattery||34|
|What the Thirst after Fame consists in,||38|
|Pity no Virtue, and why,||39|
|Observations concerning Education,||42|
|No Traders strictly honest||46|
|A Story of two Merchants that both took Advantage of their Intelligences,||47|
|The genuine Signification of Honour,||50|
|A Definition of Shame,||51|
|What makes Men asham’d for the faults of others,||53|
|The Symptoms of Shame and Pride||54|
|Why all Tradesmen take such Pains to hide the Prime Cost of their Goods,||56|
|The reason why Gamesters conceal their Gettings before the Losers,||57|
|When the Reason alledg’d ceases,||59|
|How Virtue may be said to be made Friends with Vice,||61|
|The worst of the Society do something for the Publick Good,||62|
|The Clergy of different Perswasions are beneficial to one another,||63|
|Virtuous Women promote the Advantage of Prostitutes,||64|
|The Tolleration of Strumpets necessary to the Preservation of Chastity,||65|
|A Description of the Musick Houses at Amsterdam,||66|
|The Tolleration of Lewd Women in other Parts of the World,||69|
|The reason why Avarice is so much exclaim’d against||71|
|Avarice and Profuseness often joyn’d together,||73|
|Lavishness is a most beneficial Vice to the Publick,||74|
|The Body Politick compar’d to a Bowl of Punch,||77|
|Either every thing is Luxury, or else there is none at all,||79|
|Luxury not Destructive to the Wealth of a Nation,||81|
|The mischief proceeding from Bad Politicks are charg’d to Luxury,||85|
|Several maxims never to be departed from,||86|
|How Nations may swim in Luxury, and yet be a Warlike People,||89|
|What the Luxury of Military Men consists in,||94|
|A Definition of Pride,||98|
|By Pride and Luxury are more Hands set to work than could be employ’d without them,||99|
|The use of Cloaths,||102|
|The Encouragement obscure People have to Dress above their Condition,||103|
|All degrees of Men imitate those above them,||105|
|An Objection answer’d,||107|
|Several different Symptoms of Pride,||108|
|No body spends his Money to promote the Trade of others,||112|
|The highest good of Epicurus,||113|
|The Desires of the Sensual and Ambitious,||114|
|The highest good of the Stoicks||117|
|Men are to be judg’d by their Actions, and not from their Words,||119|
|The Self-denial observ’d in Religious Houses||121|
|The wishes of all the Reform’d Clergy in general,||123|
|Poverty brings none of the Clergy into Contempt but such as want Fortitude to bear it,||125|
|Nothing renders Man more glorious than a voluntary Poverty embrac’d with chearfulness,||126|
|The effects which the Self-denial of a good Pastor would have upon his Flock,||128|
|Marriage in a poor Priest is less pardonable than in a ’Prentice,||130|
|What we must judge of the Apology that is made for the Clergy,||131|
|The real Pleasures of Great Men, as well the Clergy as the Laity, in all Countries,||133|
|What must awe Men of abandon’d Principles,||135|
|Where there is real Power, no Temperance or Austerity of Life ever renders the Person contemptible in whom it is lodg’d,||137|
|The real Pleasures of all Men in Nature are Worldly and Sensual,||138|
|Most Men act against their Principle,||ibid|
|The Poor enjoy more of the Comforts of Life than formerly the Rich.||141|
|The Luxury there is in Woollen and Linnen Cloth,||142|
|Several other instances of real Luxury made use of among the Poor,||144|
|The Tyranny of Custom gives us not leave to judge of things as they really are,||145|
|What is counted very immodest one moment, is not so much as censur’d the next,||146|
|To use the Flesh of Animals for Food is a cruel piece of Luxury,||147|
|What raises our Compassion most effectually||ibid.|
|The Repugnancy of Nature to the killing of Animals||148|
|Why Surgeons are not allowed to be of any Jury upon Life and Death,||149|
|A fabulous Dialogue between a Man and a Lyon,||150|
|Man’s Excellency above other Animals,||151|
|There is little Sincerity in the esteem which Man pretends to have for his Species,||153|
|Why Man’s craving Flesh for Food is unnatural,||ibid.|
|We ought not to judge of Nature’s design, but from the effects she shews,||155|
|Man never acknowledges Superiority without Power,||156|
|The feeling of Brutes proved from several concurring Symptoms,||157|
|A Definition of Frugality,||158|
|What the Lavishness or Frugality of Nations depend upon,||159|
|Maxims to make a People great and flourishing.||162|
|To make a Society good and honest,||162|
|The present Grandeur of the Dutch is not owing to the Virtue and Frugality of their Ancestors,||164|
|The Hardships and Calamities they have suffered||164|
|Their natural Wants,||165|
|The Dutch not frugal by Principle||168|
|’Tis Policy and not Virtue that makes the Dutch encourage Frugality,||169|
|How they promote Lavishness when it suits with their Interest,||170|
|What the Consequence wou’d be of a National Frugality among us,||172|
|A Nation could more easily live without Money than without Poor,||174|
|Nations may be ruined by too much Money,||175|
|The effect too much Money has had upon the Spaniards,||177|
|The Labours of the People and the Fruits of the Earth, are Treasures beyond Gold or Silver.||178|
|All desires tend to Self-Preservation,||182|
|Fear not to be conquer’d by Reason,||183|
|Why Anger and Lust are the two fiercest Appetites,||184|
|What use Anger is of to all Creatures,||185|
|No Brutes fight obstinately, but what are either Voracious or Lustful.||187|
|Why Man is a timerous Animal,||190|
|Man is civiliz’d by his Fear,||191|
|Natural Courage proceeds from Anger,||192|
|Natural Courage of no use in Martial Discipline,||193|
|How artificial Courage is made,||195|
|That we fear things more than Death demonstrated from Suicide,||196|
|The force of Constitution,||198|
|Strong Liquors imitate Anger,||199|
|Use helps Constitution,||201|
|Atheism has had Mar [t]yrs,||202|
|Pride and other Passions are often mistaken for Courage,||204|
|The Art of rousing Man’s Pride,||205|
|Thoughts about Duelling,||208|
|Honour directly opposite to Religion,||211|
|The Frugality of the Spartans,||213|
|A Discourse upon Laziness,||215|
|Content is a Precarious Virtue,||223|
|A Definition of Industry,||224|
|The Impossibility of being a Great and a Virtuous Nation,||225|
|The World’s Conveniencies,||227|
For further information concerning this edition see the description below of the 1723 edition.
See the reproduction opposite.
Collation: 12mo; identical with that of the preceding edition, of which it is a page-for-page reprint. In this edition signature B3 is misprinted ‘B5’ and I 3, ‘I 2’.
That the edition here considered is the later of the two 1714 ones is shown by the fact that a misprint (p. 36, l. 12) noted in the Errata has been corrected in the text.
See the reproduction opposite p. 393.
Collation: 8vo (signatures A and Ee, four leaves). Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [iii(A2)-viii]; Grumbling Hive, pp. 1(B)–24(C4v); introduction, pp. [25–6]; Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, pp. 27–44; Remarks, pp. 45–284; Essay on Charity, pp. 285–370(Bbv); Search into the Nature of Society, pp. 371(Bb2)–428(Ff2v); index, pp. [429(Ff2)–439]; Errata, p. 439. Signature Ff3 is misprinted ‘Ff2’.
The variants show that Mandeville, in preparing this edition, used the first, not the second, edition of 1714 as a nucleus.
The following columns describe this edition by paralleling its structure with that of the edition of 1714, with the purpose of showing at what date the various parts of the Fable were first published.1
|Preface.||Preface. (A footnote is added on p.[iii], and a final sentence, to bring the work up to date.]|
|Table of contents. 3||[Omitted.]|
|The Grumbling Hive: pp. 1–20.||The Grumbling Hive: pp. 1–24.|
|Introduction: pp. 21–2||Introduction: pp. 25–6.|
|Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue: pp. 23–41.||Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue: pp. 27–44. [Brief addition, p. 41.]|
|Remark A: pp. 42–6.||Remark A: pp. 45–9.|
|Remark B: pp. 46–9.||Remark B: pp. 49–52.|
|Remark C: pp. 49–55.||Remark C: pp. 52–74. [New matter added, p. 57 to end of Remark.]|
|Remark D: pp. 55–6.||Remark D: pp. 74–5.|
|Remark E: pp. 56–61.||Remark E: pp. 76–80.|
|Remark F: pp. 61–2.||Remark F: pp. 80–1.|
|Remark G: pp. 62–3.||Remark G: pp. 82–92. [All except first paragraph is new.]|
|Remark H: pp. 63–70.||Remark H: pp. 93–9.|
|Remark I: pp. 70–4.||Remark I: pp. 100–3.|
|Remark K: pp. 74–9.||Remark K: pp. 103–8.|
|Remark L: pp. 79–97.||Remark L: pp. 108–25. [New paragraph added, p. 114.]|
|Remark M: pp. 98–113.||Remark M: pp. 125–39.|
|Remark N: pp. 139–56. [New.]|
|. . . . . . . . . . .||Remark N: pp. 113–40.||Remark O: pp. 156–81. [Slight additions, pp. 176 and 179.]|
|Remark O: pp. 141–58.||Remark P: pp. 181–97.|
|Remark P: pp. 158–79.||Remark Q: pp. 197–216. [Addition, p. 212.]|
|Remark Q: pp. 179–212.||Remark R: pp. 216–47.|
|Remark R: pp. 213–15.||Remark S: pp. 247–9.|
|. . . . . . . . . . .||Remark T: pp. 249–66. [New.]|
|Remark S: pp. 215–24.||Remark V: pp. 267–75.|
|Remark T: pp. 224–7.||Remark X: pp. 276–8.|
|Remark V: pp. 227–8.||Remark Y: pp. 278–84. [All but first paragraph is new.]|
|. . . . . . . . . . .||An Essay on Charity. [New.]|
|. . . . . . . . . . .||A Search into the Nature of Society. [New.]|
|. . . . . . . . . . .||Index. [New.]|
2Except for the preface and index the pagination of this edition is practically identical with that of 1732, and references to it may therefore be located in my edition by means of the marginal page-numbers.
3See above, ii. 389–91.
Collation: 8vo. Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [iii(A2)-xvi]; Grumbling Hive, pp. 1(B)–24(C4v); introduction, pp. [25–6]; Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, pp. 27–44; Remarks, pp. 45–284; Essay on Charity, pp. 285–370(Bbv); Search into the Nature of Society, pp. 371(Bb2)–428; index, pp. [429–40(Ff4v)]; half-title, p. 441; blank, p. 442; Vindication, pp. 443–477; Errata, p. 477. Signature Ff3 misprinted ‘F3’; p. 74 misnumbered ‘82’, p. 75, ‘83’, and p. 139, ‘193’.
The chief distinction between this edition and the preceding is the addition of the Vindication and the enlargement by two pages of the preface.
Collation: 8vo; identical with that of the preceding edition except that the list of errata is omitted, that, instead of the misprints noted in the collation of the 1724 edition, this edition has p. 400 misnumbered ‘352’, and that the Essay on Charity collates pp. 285(2)–370(Bbv).
Collation: 8vo; identical with that of the preceding edition, from which the variants show it to have been printed, except that, instead of the misprints noted in the collation of the 1725 edition, this edition has p. 21 misnumbered ‘12’, p. 80, ‘58’, and p. 447, ‘347’, and that the collation of the Essay on Charity is the same as in the edition of 1724.
Collation: 12mo (sheet A in sixes). Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp [iii(A2)-xi]; advertisement, p. [xii]; Grumbling Hive, pp. 1(B)–12; introduction, pp. [13–14]; Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, pp. 15–27(C2); Remarks, pp. 28 (C2v)–201(K5); Essay on Charity, pp. 202(K5v)–267(N2); Search into the Nature of Society, pp. 267(N2)–311; index, pp. [311–23]; Vindication, pp. 324–348. P. 51 is misnumbered ‘31’.
See the reproduction above, i. 1.
Collation: 8vo; identical with that of the edition of 1728, from which the variants show it to have been printed, except that, instead of the misprints noted in the collation of the 1728 edition, this edition has p. 106 misnumbered ‘107’, p. 107, ‘106’, and p. 333, ‘332’.
The Vindication, which now forms the last section of the first part of the Fable, is a compound of three articles, each originally issued separately. The Presentment of the Grand Jury was printed in the Evening Post 11 July 1723; the abusive Letter to Lord C. appeared 27 July in the London Journal; Mandeville’s letter of defence against these attacks came out in the same paper 10 Aug. These three documents, unified by a few connecting sentences, were published by Mandeville that year as a six-penny pamphlet in octavo (see above, i. 14, n. 2). I have found no copy of this pamphlet either separately or bound with the 1723 edition.
See the reproduction above, ii. 1.
Collation: 8vo (title-page and preface signed in fours, A, a-c; d, one leaf). Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [i](A2)-xxxi(d); Errata, p. [xxxii](dv); dialogues, pp. [i](B)–432; index, pp. [433(Ff)–456]. P. 4 is misnumbered ‘2’.
In some copies of this edition sheet O has been reset, and some minor Variants (indicated in my footnotes) have resulted. Evidently, there was a shortage of the original sheet O, either because of accident to both formes (unlikely), failure to print enough of sheet O originally, or accident to the printed sheets. Which of the two sheet O’s is the first printing? A clue to the answer is to be found in the ‘figures’ (numbers placed usually on the verso of some leaf in a sheet to indicate the division of labour among the presses; see R. W. Chapman, ‘Printing with Figures’, in the Library for 1922, 4th ser., iii. 175–6). One sheet O is without ‘figures’; the other is ‘figured’ in both formes —‘7’ on sign. Ov (inner forme) and ‘1’ on sign. O4v (outer forme). Let us inspect the rest of the book to see what bearing this matter of ‘figures’ has. In the body of the book we find four sheets with no ‘figures’, two sheets (H and X) with two ‘figures’, and the rest with one ‘figure’. (The preface — signed in half-sheets — has one ‘figure’— in the first half-sheet; the index shows no ‘figures’.) In the case of the two sheets ‘figured’ twice, the two ‘figures’ are identical for each sheet (two ‘5’s’ in H; two ‘2’s’ in X). The presence of double ‘figures’, therefore, is evidently the result of accidental duplication: only one press was used for both formes of sheets H and X. The ‘figured’ sheet O, consequently, is the only sheet of which the two formes were given to different presses. Examination of other books from the Roberts establishment confirms the presumption that giving one sheet to two presses was an exceptional performance. The ‘figured’ sheet O, accordingly, seems to have been printed under unusual circumstances — circumstances such as might have been due to a sudden shortage of the original printing of sheet O. Such shortage, indeed, with the resultant need for hasty duplication of the sheet, would be a very natural cause of dividing the sheet between two presses.
There is still another reason why the ‘figured’ sheet is the later. Inspection of books of the period shows that the same volume often contained both ‘figured’ and ‘unfigured’ sheets. It is very possible that several sheets were assigned to the same press, each batch of sheets assigned to one press being ‘figured’ once. There was no need to ‘figure’ each sheet, since the press from which it issued could be identified by the one ‘figured’ sheet in the group. On the other hand, for a sheet printed separately a ‘figure’ would be more necessary. Thus it would be not unnatural for the first printing of sheet O to be without ‘figures’, but abnormal for the second — and separate — printing to be without them. I have, therefore, assumed the ‘unfigured’ sheet O to be the original one, and have adopted it for my basic text.
In some exemplars of this edition, the ornamental initial which introduces the sixth dialogue differs.
Collation: 12mo. Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [i](A2)-xx (‡); dialogues, pp. 1–315(P); index, pp. 315(P)–341; advertisement of ‘BOOKS Printed by and for Samuel Fairbrother in Skinner-Row’, p. 342. There are two versions of the two leaves forming the Q gathering, which were apparently set in duplicate.
This book is printed from the same style type and has the same decorations as the 1729 edition of Part I.
Collation: 8vo (title-page and preface signed in fours, A, a-c). Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [i](A2)-xxx; dialogues, pp. [i](B)–432; index, pp. [433(Ff)–456]. P. 423 misnumbered ‘223’.
This edition was printed, the variants show, from that of 1729.
8vo. 2 vol. Price, 12s.
I have cited this edition, of which I can trace no exemplar, from a notice in the London Magazine for Dec. 1733, p. 647. That the book is dated 1734 is probable, first, because of the practice of dating ahead works published at the close of a year, and, secondly, because 1734 was the date placed on the ‘faked’ title-page of the 1755 edition (see discussion below of second issue of 1755 edition).
Collation: 12mo. Vol. 1: title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; pref., pp. [iii](A 2)-ix; blank, p. [x]; Grumbling Hive, pp. [i]–13; introduction, p. 14; Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, pp. 15(B)–28; Remarks, pp. 29–220; Essay on Charity, pp. 221–91; Search into the Nature of Society, pp. 292–339; index, pp. [340–8]; half-title, p. 349; Vindication, pp. 350–74. P. 51 misnumbered ‘5’. Vol. 2: title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [i](a2)-xxii; dialogues, pp. 1–345; index, pp. [346–72]. P. 306 misnumbered ‘303’. The leaf with pp. 1 and 2 is not included in the regular signatures and has been inserted between sheets a and B.
Dr. A. E. Case sends me the following explanation of this last irregularity: For some reason, the extra leaf carrying pp. 1 and 2 was printed as the last leaf of a half-sheet the first five leaves of which carried the end of the index. Chain-lines verify this in some copies; in others they do not, but, of course, if wholesale binding was being done, there is no reason why the single leaf and the last five leaves in each book should always be mates. In order to save time the printer set up this single leaf and the last five leaves twice, and printed with full sheets, cutting them afterwards. There are, therefore, two versions of the extra leaf and last five leaves.
One of the pair of final half-sheets was signed ‘R’ in error for ‘S’. Because of the apparent duplication of R sheets, therefore, in some copies of vol. 2 the last half-sheet is omitted. In one copy, to cover this up, ‘FINIS’ has been added with a hand-stamp at the close of the real R sheet.
Collation: 12mo. Identical with that of the preceding edition, of which this is merely a reissue with new title-page.
The reason for issuing this edition with a title-page announcing a false publisher and a date twenty-one years earlier than the real date may perhaps have been to avoid possible trouble over copyright in London sales made by the publishers or the bookseller to whom they may have sold the sheets. This supposition would lead us to infer that the ‘faked’ title-page was intended to imitate the genuine two-volume edition of Tonson.
The title-page of the second volume is identical, except for the substitution of ‘volume second’ for ‘volume first’.
Collation: 12mo (signed in sixes). Vol. 1: title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [iii](A2)-viii; Grumbling Hive, pp. 9–19; introduction, p. 20; Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, pp. 21–31; Remarks, pp. 32–186(Q3v); Essay on Charity, pp. 187–244(X2v); Search into the Nature of Society, pp. 245(X3)–284; index, pp. [285–92](Bb2v); half-title, p. 293(Bb3); Vindication, pp. 294(Bb3v)–316(Dd2v). Vol. 2: title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [iii](A2)-xxii; dialogues, pp. 23–298; index, pp. [299–315](Dd2).
Collation: 8vo (sign. a, four leaves, b, two leaves). Half-title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; table of contents, p. [iii](a2); blank, p. [iv] (a2v); preface, pp. [v]-ix(b); blank, p. [x](bv); half-title, p. [xi]; blank, p. [xii]; Grumbling Hive, pp. 1(B)–11; introduction, p. [:12]; Inquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, pp. 13–22(C3v); Remarks, pp. 23(C4)–153; blank, p. 154; Essay on Charity, pp. 155–203; blank, p. 204; Search into the Nature of Society, pp. 205–238(6v); Vindication, pp. 239–258(Sv); half-title, p. 259; blank, p. 260; preface, pp. 261(S3)–278(T3v); dialogues, pp. 279(T4)–519; blank, p. 520; index, pp. 521–534. P. 287 misnumbered ‘187’.
Collation: 8vo; identical with that of the preceding edition, being merely another issue with altered title-page. In the copy seen by me there was no preliminary half-title.
8vo. Collation: identical with that of the 1795 edition, of which this is merely a reissue with new title.page. The verso of the title-page states, ‘Edinburgh, printed by Mundell and Son.’
Volume 3 inserts on its title-page, after ‘Tome Troisieme’, the regulation motto from Cicero to Part II, omitting ‘enim’. Volume 4 has instead a quotation from Seneca: ‘Pars sanitatis, velle sanari, fuit. / Ann. Senec. Hypol. Act. I.’
Collation: 8vo. Vol. 1: title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; Avertissement des Libraires, pp. [i](*)–viiii(*4v); preface, pp. [ix](*5)–xxii(**3v); Errata, p. xxii (**3v); blank, pp. [xxiii-xxiv]; La Ruche Murmurante, pp. [i](A)–26(B5v); introduction, pp. 27–28; Remarks, pp. 29–333. Sign. **, four leaves. Vol. 2: title, p. [–]; blank, p. [–]; Recherches sur l’Origine de la Vertu Morale, pp. [i](A)–23(B4); Essaí sur la Charite’, pp. 24 (B4v)–138(I5v); Recherches sur la Nature de la Socie’te’, pp. 139–216(O4v); half-title of De’fense, p. 217(O5); blank, p. 218 (O5v); De’fense, pp. 219–67. Vol. 3: title, p. [–]; blank, p. [–]; preface to Part II, pp. [i](*)–xlviii; dialogues 1–4, pp. 1(A)–282(Tv). S gathering, four leaves. Vol. 4: title, p. [–]; blank, p. [–]; dialognes 5–6, pp. 1(A)–270.
Collation: 12mo, signed alternately in eights and fours, the groups of eight showing the watermark in the upper outer margin of the seventh and eighth leaves, the groups of four having a different watermark similarly placed on the third and fourth leaves; the chain-lines being horizontal.1 Vol. 1: half-title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; Avertissement des Libraires, pp. iii(*)-xiv; preface, pp. xv-xxxiiij; blank, p. [xxxiv]; La Ruche Murmurante, pp. 1(A)–34; introduction, pp. 35–6; Remarks, pp. 37–396. P. 354 misnumbered ‘4’. Vol. 2: half-title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; Recherches sur l’Origine de la Vertu Morale, pp. 1(A)–27(Cij); Essai sur la Charité, pp. 28(Cijv)–167; Recherches sur la Nature de la Sociéte’, pp. 168–261; blank, p. 262; half-title of Defense, p. 263; blank, p. 264; De’fense, pp. 265(Z)–321; index, pp. 322–62(Ffv); Errata, p. 362(Ffv). P. 278 misnumbered ‘778’. Vol. 3: half-title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface to Part II, pp. [iii](aij)-lxvj(fv); dialogues 1–4, pp. 1(A)–339. Sign. f, one leaf. P. 334 misnumbered ‘134’; p. 336, ‘356’. Vol. 4: half-title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; dialogues 5–6, pp. 1(A)–322; index, pp. 323–61(Hh); Errata, p. 362(Hhv). Signature Ddiiij misprinted ‘Ddiij’.
See above. i. xxxvii, n. 2.
Collation: 8vo (sign. a, seven leaves, unless plate part of sheet; b, three leaves). Plate, p [—v]; title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [iii(a2)-xviii(b2v)]; table of contents, p. [xix]; blank, p. [xx]; dialogues, pp. 1(A)–472; Einige Verbesserungen dieses Werkes, p. 473.3
This book is a translation of Part II only. A preface by the translator is substituted for Mandeville’s.
See above, i. xxxvii, n. 6.
Collation: 8vo. Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface [Ascher’s], pp. [iii(*2)–xiv; table of contents, pp. xv-xvi; half-title (Einleitung, oder Apologie des gesellschaftlichen Lebens), p. 1(A); motto p. 2(Av); introduction [Ascher’s], pp. 3(A2)–66(Ev); half-title (Die Bienen), p. 67(E2); Grumbling Hive, pp. 68(E2v)–99(G2) (English text on verso, German translation on recto throughout); blank, p. 100(G2v); half-title (Anmerkungen. Oder Beitra̔ge zur Apologie des gesellschaftlichen Lebens), p. 101; blank, p. 102; Remarks, pp. 103–246.
Collation: 8vo (sign. 11, seven leaves). Half-title, p. [I]; blank, p. [II]; title, p. [III]; blank, p. [IV]; Einleitung des Herausgebers, pp. V–XXX; half-title, p. 1; blank, p. 2; Vorwort, pp. 3(1*)–10; Der Unzufriedene Bienenstock, pp 11–23; blank, p. 24; Einleitung, pp. 25–6; Untersuchung über den Ursprung der Sittlichkeit, pp. 27–41; blank, p. 42; Anmerkungen, pp. 43–244 (16*v), half-title, p. 245; blank, p. 246; Abhandlung über Barmherzigkeit, pp. 247–88; half-title, p. 289; blank, p. 290; Untersuchung über das Wesen der Gesellschaft, pp. 291(19*)–337(22); blank, p. 338 (22v); half-title, p. 339; blank, p. 340; selection from Berkeley’s Alciphron, pp. 341–46; half-title, p. 347; blank, p. 348; Brief an Dion, pp. 349–98; Register, pp. 399–400; Inhaltsverzeichnis, p. 401; blank, p. 402; printer’s notice that 150 copies were printed on ‘holländisch Büttenpapier’, p. 403.
In this translation, Part II is omitted. Part I is given complete except for the excision of about a third of the Essay on Charity, the omission of Mandeville’s Vindication, and the condensation of his index. The edition includes a translation of Mandeville’s Letter to Dion, slightly condensed, and of §§4 and 5 from the second dialogue of Berkeley’s Alciphron.
1The page references are given as originally printed in the 1714 editions. To find the corresponding pages in the present edition see below, ii. 392.
1 Slight verbal changes are not noted. For such verbal changes see the variant readings of the present edition.
1 Dunkel’s Historisch-critische Nachrichten von verstorbenen Gelehrten (1753–7), i. 102, states: ‘Der französischen Druck ist zweifelsohne in Holland Veranstaltet worden, obgleich London auf dem Titel steht.’
1 The printer set up the book in 12mo; then cut off the last third of each sheet, having given this part a separate signature. The original sheets had a double watermark. That the groups signed in fours were cut from the same sheet as the preceding groups of eight is proved by the fact that the watermark which usually appears in the group of eight sometimes appears in the gathering signed in fours, and vice versa. This could not have happened if different sheets had been used for the two gatherings. I am indebted to Mr. Arundell Esdaile for this explanation.
2 Heinsius (Allgemeines Bücher-Lexikon, ed. 1812, iv. 97) and Kayser (Vollständiges Bücher-Lexicon, ed. 1834, i. 82) give Gebhard as publisher (possibly incorrectly for Gorbe), and Kayser also records a copy published by Hermann of Frankfort. The price was 1 reichsthaler, 4 groschen.
3 The title-page of this edition is from a photograph; the description was sent me by two independent scholars, whose accounts agree, and is checked by over a hundred rotographs. Some minor irregularities may, of course, have been overlooked.
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