Thomas Robert Malthus, 1766–1834
Economist, son of a landed proprietor, was born near Dorking, and ed. at Jesus College, Cambridge, of which he became a Fellow. Taking orders he became incumbent of Albury, Essex. He travelled much on the continent, collecting information as to the means of livelihood and mode of life of various peoples. In 1798 the first ed. of his famous Essay on Population appeared, and in 1803 a second greatly enlarged. Its leading proposition, supported by much learning, is that while population increases approximately in a geometrical ratio, the means of subsistence do so in an arithmetical ratio only, which, of course, opened up an appalling prospect for the race. It necessarily failed to take into account the then undreamed-of developments whereby the produce of the whole world has been made available for all nations. The work gave rise to a great deal of controversy, much of it based on misunderstanding. Malthus was Prof. of Political Economy at Haileybury.
- An essay on the principle of population, as it affects the future improvement of society with remarks on the speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other writers
- The Grounds of an Opinion on the Policy of Restricting the Importation of Foreign Corn; intended as an Appendix to Observations on the Corn Law
- An inquiry into the nature and progress of rent, and the principles by which it is regulated.
- Observations on the Effects of the Corn Laws, and of a Rise or Fall in the Price of Corn on the Agriculture and General Wealth of the Country