The Western Canon, by Harold Bloom

C. The Democratic Age

“I have located Vico's Democratic Age in the post-Goethean nineteenth century, when the literature of Italy and Spain ebbs, yielding eminence to England with its renaissance of the Renaissance in Romanticism, and to a lesser degree to France and Germany.

“This is also the era where the strength of both Russian and American literature begins.” (p. 540)


Ugo Foscolo
On Sepulchres; Last Letters of Jacopo Ortis; Odes and The Graces.
Alessandro Manzoni
The Betrothed; On the Historical Novel.
Giacomo Leopardi
Essays and Dialogues; Poems; The Moral Essays.
Belli, Giuseppe Gioacchino.
Roman Sonnets.
Giosué Carducci,
Hymn to Satan; Barbarian Odes; Rhymes and Rhythms.
Giovanni Verga, 1840-1922
Little Novels of Sicily; Mastro-Don Gesualdo; The House by the Medlar Tree; The She-Wolf and Other Stories.

Spain and Portugal

Bécquer, Gustavo Adolpho.
Galdós, Benito Pérez.
Fortunata and Jacinta.
(Clarín), Leopoldo Alas.
La Regenta.
Queirós, José Maria de Eça de.
The Maias.


Benjamin Constant
Adolphe; The Red Notebook.
François-Auguste-René de Chateaubriand,
Attala; René; The Genius of Christianity.
Alphonse de Lamartine
Alfred de Vigny
Chatterton; Poems.
Victor Hugo, 1802-1885
The Distance, the Shadows: Selected Poems; Les Misérables; Notre-Dame of Paris; William Shakespeare; The Toilers of the Sea; The End of Satan; God.
Alfred de Musset
Poems; Lorenzaccio.
Nerval, Gérard de.
The Chimeras; Sylvie; Aurelia.
Gautier, Théophile, 1811–1872
Mademoiselle de Maupin; Enamels and Cameos.
Balzac, Honoré de, 1799-1850
The Girl with the Golden Eyes; Louis Lambert; The Wild Ass's Skin; Old Goriot; Cousin Bette; A Harlot High and Low; Eugénie Grandet; Ursule Mirouet.
Stendhal, 1783-1842
On Love; The Red and the Black; The Charterhouse of Parma.
Gustave Flaubert, 1821-1880
Madame Bovary; Sentimental Education; Salammbô; A Simple Soul.
George Sand, 1804-1876
The Haunted Pool.
Charles Baudelaire, 1821-1867
Flowers of Evil; Paris Spleen.
Mallarmé, Stéphane.
Selected Poetry and Prose.
Paul Verlaine
Selected Poems.
Arthur Rimbaud
Complete Works.
Corbière, Tristan.
Les Armours Jaunes.
Jules Laforgue
Selected Writings.
Guy de Maupassant, 1850-1893
Selected Short Stories.
Emile Zola, 1840-1902
Germinal; L'Assommoir; Nana.


Henrik Ibsen, 1828-1906
Brand; Peer Gynt; Emperor and Galilean; Hedda Gabler; The Master Builder; The Lady from the Sea; When We Dead Awaken.
August Strindberg
To Damascus; Miss Julie; The Father; The Dance of Death; The Ghost Sonata; A Dream Play.

Great Britain

Robert Burns
William Blake, 1757-1827
Complete Poetry and Prose.
William Wordsworth, 1770–1850
Poems; The Prelude.
Walter Scott, 1771-1832
Waverley; The Heart of Midlothian; Redgauntlet; Old Mortality.
Jane Austen, 1775-1817
Pride and Prejudice; Emma; Mansfield Park; Persuasion.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 1772–1834
Poems and Prose.
Dorothy Wordsworth
The Grasmere Journal.
Hazlitt, William, 1778-1830
Essays and Criticism.
George Byron, 1788-1824
Don Juan; P oems.
Walter Savage Landor
Poems; Imaginary Conversations.
Thomas de Quincey, 1785–1859
Confessions of an English Opium Eater; Selected Prose.
Charles Lamb
Maria Edgeworth, 1767-1849
Castle Rackrent.
John Galt
The Entail.
Elizabeth Gaskell, 1810-1865
Cranford; Mary Barton; North and South.
James Hogg
The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner.
Charles Robert Maturin, 1782–1824
Melmoth the Wanderer.
Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1792-1822
Poems; A Defence of Poetry.
Mary Shelley, 1797-1851
John Clare
John Keats, 1795-1821
Poems and Letters.
Beddoes, Thomas Lovell.
Death's Jest-Book; Poems.
George Darley
Nepenthe; Poems.
Thomas Hood
Thomas Wade
Robert Browning, 1812–1889
Poems; The Ring and the Book.
Charles Dickens, 1812-1870
The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club; David Copperfield; The Adventures of Oliver Twist; A Tale of Two Cities; Bleak House; Hard Times; Nicholas Nickleby; Dombey and Son; Great Expectations; Martin Chuzzlewit; Christmas Stories; Little Dorrit; Our Mutual Friend; The Mystery of Edwin Drood.
Alfred Tennyson, 1809-1892
Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1828-1882
Poems and Translations.
Matthew Arnold, 1822-1888
Poems; Essays.
Clough, Arthur Hugh.
Christina Georgina Rossetti, 1830-1894.
Thomas Love Peacock, 1785–1866
Nightmare Abbey; Gryll Grange.
Hopkins, Gerald Manley.
Poems and Prose.
Thomas Carlyle, 1795–1881
Selected Prose; Sartor Resartus.
John Ruskin, 1819-1900
Modern Painters; The Stones of Venice; Unto This Last; The Queen of the Air.
Walter Pater
Studies in the History of the Renaissance; Appreciations; Imaginary Portraits; Marius the Epicurean.
FitzGerald, Edward.
The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.
John Stuart Mill, 1806–1873
On Liberty; Autobiography.
Newman, John Henry.
Apologia pro Vita Sua; A Grammar of Assent; The Idea of a University.
Anthony Trollope, 1815-1882
The Barsetshire Novels; The Palliser Novels; Orley Farm; The Way We Live Now.
Lewis Carroll, 1832-1898
Complete Works.
Edward Lear
Complete Nonsense.
George Gissing, 1857-1903
New Grub Street.
Swinburne, Algernon Charles.
Poems and Letters.
Charlotte Bronte, 1816-1855
Jane Eyre; Villette.
Emily Bronte, 1818-1848
Poems; Wuthering Heights.
Anne Bronte, 1820-1849
William Makepeace Thackeray, 1811-1863
Vanity Fair; The History of Henry Esmond.
George Meredith, 1828-1909
Poems; The Egoist.
Francis Thompson
Lionel Johnson
Robert Bridges
Chesterton, G. K. (Gilbert Keith), 1874-1936
Collected Poems; The Man Who Was Thursday.
Samuel Butler, 1835-1902
Erewhon; The Way of All Flesh.
Gilbert, W.S.
Complete Plays of Gilbert and Sullivan; Bab Ballads.
Wilkie Collins, 1824-1889
The Moonstone; The Woman in White; No Name.
Coventry Patmore
Thomson, James, 1834–1882
The City of the Dreadful Night.
Oscar Wilde, 1854-1900
Plays; The Picture of Dorian Gray; The Artist as Critic; Letters.
John Davidson
Ballads and Songs.
Ernest Dowson
Complete Poems.
George Eliot, 1819-1880
Adam Bede; Silas Marner; The Mill on the Floss; Middlemarch; Daniel Deronda.
Robert Louis Stevenson, 1850-1894
Essays; Kidnapped; Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde; Treasure Island; The New Arabian Nights; The Master of Ballantrae; Weir of Hermiston.
William Morris, 1834-1896
Early Romances; Poems; The Earthly Paradise; The Well at the World's End; News from Nowhere.
Bram Stoker, 1847-1912
George MacDonald, 1824-1905
Lilith; At the Back of the North Wind.


Novalis (Friedrich von Hardenburg).
Hymns to the Night; Aphorisms.
Jakob Grimm, 1785–1863 and Grimm, Wilhelm, 1786–1859
Fairy Tales.
Mörike, Eduard.
Selected Poems; Mozart on His Way to Prague.
Theodor Storm
Immensee; Poems.
Gottfried Keller
Green Henry; Tales.
Hoffmann, E. T. A. (Ernst Theodor Amadeus), 1776-1822
The Devil's Elixir; Tales.
Jeremias Gotthelf
The Black Spider.
Adalbert Stifter
Indian Summer; Tales.
Friedrich Schlegel
Criticism and Aphorisms.
Büchner, Georg.
Danton's Death; Woyzeck.
Heinrich Heine
Complete Poems.
Richard Wagner
The Ring of the Nibelung.
Friedrich Nietzsche, 1844–1900
The Birth of Tragedy; Beyond Good and Evil; On the Genealogy of Morals; The Will to Power.
Theodor Fontane
Effi Briest.
Stefan George
Selected Poems.


Aleksandr Pushkin, 1799-1837
Complete Prose Tales; Complete Poetry; Eugene Onegin; Narrative Poems; Boris Godunov.
Nikolai Gogol, 1809-1852
The Complete Tales; Dead Souls; The Government Inspector.
Mikhail Lermontov, 1814-1841
Narrative Poems; A Hero of Our Time.
Segey Aksakov
A Family Chronicle.
Aleksandr Herzen
My Past and Thoughts; From the Other Shore.
Ivan Goncharov
The Frigate Pallada; Oblomov.
Ivan Turgenev, 1818-1883
A Sportsman's Notebook; A Month in the Country; Fathers and Sons; On the Eve; First Love.
Fyodor Dostoyevsky, 1821-1881
Notes from the Underground; Crime and Punishment; The Idiot; The Possessed (The Devils); The Brothers Karamazov; Short Novels.
Leo Tolstoy, 1828-1910
The Cossacks; War and Peace; Anna Karenina; A Confession; The Power of Darkness; Short Novels.
Nikolay Leskov
Aleksandr Ostrovsky
The Storm.
Nikolay Chernyshevsky
What is to Be Done?.
Aleksandr Blok
The Twelve and Other Poems.
Anton Chekhov, 1860-1904
The Tales; The Major Plays.

The United States

Washington Irving, 1783-1859
The Sketch Book.
Bryant, William Cullen.
Collected Poems.
James Fenimore Cooper, 1789–1851.
The Deerslayers.
Whittier, John Greenleaf.
Collected Poems.
Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1803–1882
Nature; Essays; Representative Men; The Conduct of Life; Journals; Poems.
Emily Dickinson, 1830–1886
Complete Poems.
Walt Whitman
Leaves of Grass, first edition; Leaves of Grass, third edition; The Complete Poems; Specimen Days.
Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1804-1864
The Scarlet Letter; Tales and Sketches; The Marble Faun; Notebooks.
Herman Melville, 1819-1891
Moby-Dick; The Piazza Tales; Billy Budd; Collected Poems; Clarel.
Edgar Allan Poe, 1809-1849
Poetry and Tales; Essays and Reviews; The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym; Eureka.
Jones Very
Essays and Poems.
Tuckerman, Frederick Goddard.
The Cricket and Other Poems.
Henry David Thoreau, 1817–1862
Walden; Poems; Essays.
Dana, Richard Henry.
Two Years Before the Mast.
Frederick Douglass
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1807–1882
Selected Poems.
Sidney Lanier
Francis Parkman
France and England in North America; The California and Oregon Trail.
Henry Adams
The Education of Henry Adams; Mont Saint-Michel and Chartres.
Ambrose Bierce, 1842-1913
Collected Writings.
Louisa May Alcott, 1832–1888
Little Women.
Chesnutt, Charles W.
The Short Fiction.
Kate Chopin, 1850-1904
The Awakening.
William Dean Howells, 1837-1920
The Rise of Silas Lapham; A Modern Instance.
Stephen Crane
The Red Badge of Courage; Stories and Poems.
Henry James, 1843-1916
The Portrait of a Lady; The Bostonians; The Princess Casamassima; The Awkward Age; Short Novels and Tales; The Ambassadors; The Wings of the Dove; The Golden Bowl.
Harold Frederic
The Damnation of Theron Ware.
Mark Twain, 1835-1910
Complete Short Stories; The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; The Devil's Racetrack; Number Forty-Four: The Mysterious Stranger; Pudd'nhead Wilson; A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court.
William James, 1842–1910
The Varieties of Religious Experience; Pragmatism.
Frank Norris
The Octopus.
Jewett, Sarah Orne.
The Country of the Pointed Firs and Other Stories.
Trumbull Stickney

Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:56