(ll. 1-25) From the Heliconian Muses let us begin to sing, who hold the great and holy mount of Helicon, and dance on soft feet about the deep-blue spring and the altar of the almighty son of Cronos, and, when they have washed their tender bodies in Permessus or in the Horse’s Spring or Olmeius, make their fair, lovely dances upon highest Helicon and move with vigorous feet. Thence they arise and go abroad by night, veiled in thick mist, and utter their song with lovely voice, praising Zeus the aegis-holder and queenly Hera of Argos who walks on golden sandals and the daughter of Zeus the aegis-holder bright-eyed Athene, and Phoebus Apollo, and Artemis who delights in arrows, and Poseidon the earth-holder who shakes the earth, and reverend Themis and quick-glancing 1 Aphrodite, and Hebe with the crown of gold, and fair Dione, Leto, Iapetus, and Cronos the crafty counsellor, Eos and great Helius and bright Selene, Earth too, and great Oceanus, and dark Night, and the holy race of all the other deathless ones that are for ever. And one day they taught Hesiod glorious song while he was shepherding his lambs under holy Helicon, and this word first the goddesses said to me — the Muses of Olympus, daughters of Zeus who holds the aegis:
(ll. 26-28) ‘Shepherds of the wilderness, wretched things of shame, mere bellies, we know how to speak many false things as though they were true; but we know, when we will, to utter true things.’
(ll. 29-35) So said the ready-voiced daughters of great Zeus, and they plucked and gave me a rod, a shoot of sturdy laurel, a marvellous thing, and breathed into me a divine voice to celebrate things that shall be and things there were aforetime; and they bade me sing of the race of the blessed gods that are eternally, but ever to sing of themselves both first and last. But why all this about oak or stone? 2
(ll. 36-52) Come thou, let us begin with the Muses who gladden the great spirit of their father Zeus in Olympus with their songs, telling of things that are and that shall be and that were aforetime with consenting voice. Unwearying flows the sweet sound from their lips, and the house of their father Zeus the loud-thunderer is glad at the lily-like voice of the goddesses as it spread abroad, and the peaks of snowy Olympus resound, and the homes of the immortals. And they uttering their immortal voice, celebrate in song first of all the reverend race of the gods from the beginning, those whom Earth and wide Heaven begot, and the gods sprung of these, givers of good things. Then, next, the goddesses sing of Zeus, the father of gods and men, as they begin and end their strain, how much he is the most excellent among the gods and supreme in power. And again, they chant the race of men and strong giants, and gladden the heart of Zeus within Olympus, — the Olympian Muses, daughters of Zeus the aegis-holder.
(ll. 53-74) Them in Pieria did Mnemosyne (Memory), who reigns over the hills of Eleuther, bear of union with the father, the son of Cronos, a forgetting of ills and a rest from sorrow. For nine nights did wise Zeus lie with her, entering her holy bed remote from the immortals. And when a year was passed and the seasons came round as the months waned, and many days were accomplished, she bare nine daughters, all of one mind, whose hearts are set upon song and their spirit free from care, a little way from the topmost peak of snowy Olympus. There are their bright dancing-places and beautiful homes, and beside them the Graces and Himerus (Desire) live in delight. And they, uttering through their lips a lovely voice, sing the laws of all and the goodly ways of the immortals, uttering their lovely voice. Then went they to Olympus, delighting in their sweet voice, with heavenly song, and the dark earth resounded about them as they chanted, and a lovely sound rose up beneath their feet as they went to their father. And he was reigning in heaven, himself holding the lightning and glowing thunderbolt, when he had overcome by might his father Cronos; and he distributed fairly to the immortals their portions and declared their privileges.
(ll. 75-103) These things, then, the Muses sang who dwell on Olympus, nine daughters begotten by great Zeus, Cleio and Euterpe, Thaleia, Melpomene and Terpsichore, and Erato and Polyhymnia and Urania and Calliope 3, who is the chiefest of them all, for she attends on worshipful princes: whomsoever of heaven-nourished princes the daughters of great Zeus honour, and behold him at his birth, they pour sweet dew upon his tongue, and from his lips flow gracious words. All the people look towards him while he settles causes with true judgements: and he, speaking surely, would soon make wise end even of a great quarrel; for therefore are there princes wise in heart, because when the people are being misguided in their assembly, they set right the matter again with ease, persuading them with gentle words. And when he passes through a gathering, they greet him as a god with gentle reverence, and he is conspicuous amongst the assembled: such is the holy gift of the Muses to men. For it is through the Muses and far-shooting Apollo that there are singers and harpers upon the earth; but princes are of Zeus, and happy is he whom the Muses love: sweet flows speech from his mouth. For though a man have sorrow and grief in his newly-troubled soul and live in dread because his heart is distressed, yet, when a singer, the servant of the Muses, chants the glorious deeds of men of old and the blessed gods who inhabit Olympus, at once he forgets his heaviness and remembers not his sorrows at all; but the gifts of the goddesses soon turn him away from these.
(ll. 104-115) Hail, children of Zeus! Grant lovely song and celebrate the holy race of the deathless gods who are for ever, those that were born of Earth and starry Heaven and gloomy Night and them that briny Sea did rear. Tell how at the first gods and earth came to be, and rivers, and the boundless sea with its raging swell, and the gleaming stars, and the wide heaven above, and the gods who were born of them, givers of good things, and how they divided their wealth, and how they shared their honours amongst them, and also how at the first they took many-folded Olympus. These things declare to me from the beginning, ye Muses who dwell in the house of Olympus, and tell me which of them first came to be.
(ll. 116-138) Verily at the first Chaos came to be, but next wide-bosomed Earth, the ever-sure foundations of all 4 the deathless ones who hold the peaks of snowy Olympus, and dim Tartarus in the depth of the wide-pathed Earth, and Eros (Love), fairest among the deathless gods, who unnerves the limbs and overcomes the mind and wise counsels of all gods and all men within them. From Chaos came forth Erebus and black Night; but of Night were born Aether 5 and Day, whom she conceived and bare from union in love with Erebus. And Earth first bare starry Heaven, equal to herself, to cover her on every side, and to be an ever-sure abiding-place for the blessed gods. And she brought forth long Hills, graceful haunts of the goddess-Nymphs who dwell amongst the glens of the hills. She bare also the fruitless deep with his raging swell, Pontus, without sweet union of love. But afterwards she lay with Heaven and bare deep-swirling Oceanus, Coeus and Crius and Hyperion and Iapetus, Theia and Rhea, Themis and Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoebe and lovely Tethys. After them was born Cronos the wily, youngest and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire.
(ll. 139-146) And again, she bare the Cyclopes, overbearing in spirit, Brontes, and Steropes and stubborn-hearted Arges 6, who gave Zeus the thunder and made the thunderbolt: in all else they were like the gods, but one eye only was set in the midst of their fore-heads. And they were surnamed Cyclopes (Orb-eyed) because one orbed eye was set in their foreheads. Strength and might and craft were in their works.
(ll. 147-163) And again, three other sons were born of Earth and Heaven, great and doughty beyond telling, Cottus and Briareos and Gyes, presumptuous children. From their shoulders sprang an hundred arms, not to be approached, and each had fifty heads upon his shoulders on their strong limbs, and irresistible was the stubborn strength that was in their great forms. For of all the children that were born of Earth and Heaven, these were the most terrible, and they were hated by their own father from the first.
And he used to hide them all away in a secret place of Earth so soon as each was born, and would not suffer them to come up into the light: and Heaven rejoiced in his evil doing. But vast Earth groaned within, being straitened, and she made the element of grey flint and shaped a great sickle, and told her plan to her dear sons. And she spoke, cheering them, while she was vexed in her dear heart:
(ll. 164-166) ‘My children, gotten of a sinful father, if you will obey me, we should punish the vile outrage of your father; for he first thought of doing shameful things.’
(ll. 167-169) So she said; but fear seized them all, and none of them uttered a word. But great Cronos the wily took courage and answered his dear mother:
(ll. 170-172) ‘Mother, I will undertake to do this deed, for I reverence not our father of evil name, for he first thought of doing shameful things.’
(ll. 173-175) So he said: and vast Earth rejoiced greatly in spirit, and set and hid him in an ambush, and put in his hands a jagged sickle, and revealed to him the whole plot.
(ll. 176-206) And Heaven came, bringing on night and longing for love, and he lay about Earth spreading himself full upon her 7.
Then the son from his ambush stretched forth his left hand and in his right took the great long sickle with jagged teeth, and swiftly lopped off his own father’s members and cast them away to fall behind him. And not vainly did they fall from his hand; for all the bloody drops that gushed forth Earth received, and as the seasons moved round she bare the strong Erinyes and the great Giants with gleaming armour, holding long spears in their hands and the Nymphs whom they call Meliae 8 all over the boundless earth. And so soon as he had cut off the members with flint and cast them from the land into the surging sea, they were swept away over the main a long time: and a white foam spread around them from the immortal flesh, and in it there grew a maiden. First she drew near holy Cythera, and from there, afterwards, she came to sea-girt Cyprus, and came forth an awful and lovely goddess, and grass grew up about her beneath her shapely feet. Her gods and men call Aphrodite, and the foam-born goddess and rich-crowned Cytherea, because she grew amid the foam, and Cytherea because she reached Cythera, and Cyprogenes because she was born in billowy Cyprus, and Philommedes 9 because sprang from the members. And with her went Eros, and comely Desire followed her at her birth at the first and as she went into the assembly of the gods. This honour she has from the beginning, and this is the portion allotted to her amongst men and undying gods, — the whisperings of maidens and smiles and deceits with sweet delight and love and graciousness.
(ll. 207-210) But these sons whom he begot himself great Heaven used to call Titans (Strainers) in reproach, for he said that they strained and did presumptuously a fearful deed, and that vengeance for it would come afterwards.
(ll. 211-225) And Night bare hateful Doom and black Fate and Death, and she bare Sleep and the tribe of Dreams. And again the goddess murky Night, though she lay with none, bare Blame and painful Woe, and the Hesperides who guard the rich, golden apples and the trees bearing fruit beyond glorious Ocean. Also she bare the Destinies and ruthless avenging Fates, Clotho and Lachesis and Atropos 10, who give men at their birth both evil and good to have, and they pursue the transgressions of men and of gods: and these goddesses never cease from their dread anger until they punish the sinner with a sore penalty. Also deadly Night bare Nemesis (Indignation) to afflict mortal men, and after her, Deceit and Friendship and hateful Age and hard-hearted Strife.
(ll. 226-232) But abhorred Strife bare painful Toil and Forgetfulness and Famine and tearful Sorrows, Fightings also, Battles, Murders, Manslaughters, Quarrels, Lying Words, Disputes, Lawlessness and Ruin, all of one nature, and Oath who most troubles men upon earth when anyone wilfully swears a false oath.
(ll. 233-239) And Sea begat Nereus, the eldest of his children, who is true and lies not: and men call him the Old Man because he is trusty and gentle and does not forget the laws of righteousness, but thinks just and kindly thoughts. And yet again he got great Thaumas and proud Phorcys, being mated with Earth, and fair-cheeked Ceto and Eurybia who has a heart of flint within her.
(ll. 240-264) And of Nereus and rich-haired Doris, daughter of Ocean the perfect river, were born children 11, passing lovely amongst goddesses, Ploto, Eucrante, Sao, and Amphitrite, and Eudora, and Thetis, Galene and Glauce, Cymothoe, Speo, Thoe and lovely Halie, and Pasithea, and Erato, and rosy-armed Eunice, and gracious Melite, and Eulimene, and Agaue, Doto, Proto, Pherusa, and Dynamene, and Nisaea, and Actaea, and Protomedea, Doris, Panopea, and comely Galatea, and lovely Hippothoe, and rosy-armed Hipponoe, and Cymodoce who with Cymatolege 12 and Amphitrite easily calms the waves upon the misty sea and the blasts of raging winds, and Cymo, and Eione, and rich-crowned Alimede, and Glauconome, fond of laughter, and Pontoporea, Leagore, Euagore, and Laomedea, and Polynoe, and Autonoe, and Lysianassa, and Euarne, lovely of shape and without blemish of form, and Psamathe of charming figure and divine Menippe, Neso, Eupompe, Themisto, Pronoe, and Nemertes 13 who has the nature of her deathless father. These fifty daughters sprang from blameless Nereus, skilled in excellent crafts.
(ll. 265-269) And Thaumas wedded Electra the daughter of deep-flowing Ocean, and she bare him swift Iris and the long-haired Harpies, Aello (Storm-swift) and Ocypetes (Swift-flier) who on their swift wings keep pace with the blasts of the winds and the birds; for quick as time they dart along.
(ll 270-294) And again, Ceto bare to Phorcys the fair-cheeked Graiae, sisters grey from their birth: and both deathless gods and men who walk on earth call them Graiae, Pemphredo well-clad, and saffron-robed Enyo, and the Gorgons who dwell beyond glorious Ocean in the frontier land towards Night where are the clear-voiced Hesperides, Sthenno, and Euryale, and Medusa who suffered a woeful fate: she was mortal, but the two were undying and grew not old. With her lay the Dark-haired One 14 in a soft meadow amid spring flowers. And when Perseus cut off her head, there sprang forth great Chrysaor and the horse Pegasus who is so called because he was born near the springs (pegae) of Ocean; and that other, because he held a golden blade (aor) in his hands. Now Pegasus flew away and left the earth, the mother of flocks, and came to the deathless gods: and he dwells in the house of Zeus and brings to wise Zeus the thunder and lightning. But Chrysaor was joined in love to Callirrhoe, the daughter of glorious Ocean, and begot three-headed Geryones. Him mighty Heracles slew in sea-girt Erythea by his shambling oxen on that day when he drove the wide-browed oxen to holy Tiryns, and had crossed the ford of Ocean and killed Orthus and Eurytion the herdsman in the dim stead out beyond glorious Ocean.
(ll. 295-305) And in a hollow cave she bare another monster, irresistible, in no wise like either to mortal men or to the undying gods, even the goddess fierce Echidna who is half a nymph with glancing eyes and fair cheeks, and half again a huge snake, great and awful, with speckled skin, eating raw flesh beneath the secret parts of the holy earth. And there she has a cave deep down under a hollow rock far from the deathless gods and mortal men. There, then, did the gods appoint her a glorious house to dwell in: and she keeps guard in Arima beneath the earth, grim Echidna, a nymph who dies not nor grows old all her days.
(ll. 306-332) Men say that Typhaon the terrible, outrageous and lawless, was joined in love to her, the maid with glancing eyes. So she conceived and brought forth fierce offspring; first she bare Orthus the hound of Geryones, and then again she bare a second, a monster not to be overcome and that may not be described, Cerberus who eats raw flesh, the brazen-voiced hound of Hades, fifty-headed, relentless and strong. And again she bore a third, the evil-minded Hydra of Lerna, whom the goddess, white-armed Hera nourished, being angry beyond measure with the mighty Heracles. And her Heracles, the son of Zeus, of the house of Amphitryon, together with warlike Iolaus, destroyed with the unpitying sword through the plans of Athene the spoil-driver. She was the mother of Chimaera who breathed raging fire, a creature fearful, great, swift-footed and strong, who had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion; in her hinderpart, a dragon; and in her middle, a goat, breathing forth a fearful blast of blazing fire. Her did Pegasus and noble Bellerophon slay; but Echidna was subject in love to Orthus and brought forth the deadly Sphinx which destroyed the Cadmeans, and the Nemean lion, which Hera, the good wife of Zeus, brought up and made to haunt the hills of Nemea, a plague to men. There he preyed upon the tribes of her own people and had power over Tretus of Nemea and Apesas: yet the strength of stout Heracles overcame him.
(ll. 333-336) And Ceto was joined in love to Phorcys and bare her youngest, the awful snake who guards the apples all of gold in the secret places of the dark earth at its great bounds. This is the offspring of Ceto and Phorcys.
(ll. 334-345) And Tethys bare to Ocean eddying rivers, Nilus, and Alpheus, and deep-swirling Eridanus, Strymon, and Meander, and the fair stream of Ister, and Phasis, and Rhesus, and the silver eddies of Achelous, Nessus, and Rhodius, Haliacmon, and Heptaporus, Granicus, and Aesepus, and holy Simois, and Peneus, and Hermus, and Caicus fair stream, and great Sangarius, Ladon, Parthenius, Euenus, Ardescus, and divine Scamander.
(ll. 346-370) Also she brought forth a holy company of daughters 15 who with the lord Apollo and the Rivers have youths in their keeping — to this charge Zeus appointed them — Peitho, and Admete, and Ianthe, and Electra, and Doris, and Prymno, and Urania divine in form, Hippo, Clymene, Rhodea, and Callirrhoe, Zeuxo and Clytie, and Idyia, and Pasithoe, Plexaura, and Galaxaura, and lovely Dione, Melobosis and Thoe and handsome Polydora, Cerceis lovely of form, and soft eyed Pluto, Perseis, Ianeira, Acaste, Xanthe, Petraea the fair, Menestho, and Europa, Metis, and Eurynome, and Telesto saffron-clad, Chryseis and Asia and charming Calypso, Eudora, and Tyche, Amphirho, and Ocyrrhoe, and Styx who is the chiefest of them all. These are the eldest daughters that sprang from Ocean and Tethys; but there are many besides. For there are three thousand neat-ankled daughters of Ocean who are dispersed far and wide, and in every place alike serve the earth and the deep waters, children who are glorious among goddesses. And as many other rivers are there, babbling as they flow, sons of Ocean, whom queenly Tethys bare, but their names it is hard for a mortal man to tell, but people know those by which they severally dwell.
(ll. 371-374) And Theia was subject in love to Hyperion and bare great Helius (Sun) and clear Selene (Moon) and Eos (Dawn) who shines upon all that are on earth and upon the deathless Gods who live in the wide heaven.
(ll. 375-377) And Eurybia, bright goddess, was joined in love to Crius and bare great Astraeus, and Pallas, and Perses who also was eminent among all men in wisdom.
(ll. 378-382) And Eos bare to Astraeus the strong-hearted winds, brightening Zephyrus, and Boreas, headlong in his course, and Notus, — a goddess mating in love with a god. And after these Erigenia 16 bare the star Eosphorus (Dawn-bringer), and the gleaming stars with which heaven is crowned.
(ll. 383-403) And Styx the daughter of Ocean was joined to Pallas and bare Zelus (Emulation) and trim-ankled Nike (Victory) in the house. Also she brought forth Cratos (Strength) and Bia (Force), wonderful children. These have no house apart from Zeus, nor any dwelling nor path except that wherein God leads them, but they dwell always with Zeus the loud-thunderer. For so did Styx the deathless daughter of Ocean plan on that day when the Olympian Lightener called all the deathless gods to great Olympus, and said that whosoever of the gods would fight with him against the Titans, he would not cast him out from his rights, but each should have the office which he had before amongst the deathless gods. And he declared that he who was without office and rights as is just. So deathless Styx came first to Olympus with her children through the wit of her dear father. And Zeus honoured her, and gave her very great gifts, for her he appointed to be the great oath of the gods, and her children to live with him always. And as he promised, so he performed fully unto them all. But he himself mightily reigns and rules.
(ll. 404-452) Again, Phoebe came to the desired embrace of Coeus.
Then the goddess through the love of the god conceived and brought forth dark-gowned Leto, always mild, kind to men and to the deathless gods, mild from the beginning, gentlest in all Olympus. Also she bare Asteria of happy name, whom Perses once led to his great house to be called his dear wife. And she conceived and bare Hecate whom Zeus the son of Cronos honoured above all. He gave her splendid gifts, to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. She received honour also in starry heaven, and is honoured exceedingly by the deathless gods. For to this day, whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favour according to custom, he calls upon Hecate. Great honour comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favourably, and she bestows wealth upon him; for the power surely is with her. For as many as were born of Earth and Ocean amongst all these she has her due portion. The son of Cronos did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds, as the division was at the first from the beginning, privilege both in earth, and in heaven, and in sea. Also, because she is an only child, the goddess receives not less honour, but much more still, for Zeus honours her. Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judgement, and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people. And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men, then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will. Good is she also when men contend at the games, for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy, and brings glory to his parents. And she is good to stand by horsemen, whom she will: and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea, and who pray to Hecate and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker, easily the glorious goddess gives great catch, and easily she takes it away as soon as seen, if so she will. She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock. The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy sheep, if she will, she increases from a few, or makes many to be less. So, then. albeit her mother’s only child 17, she is honoured amongst all the deathless gods. And the son of Cronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Dawn. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young, and these are her honours.
(ll. 453-491) But Rhea was subject in love to Cronos and bare splendid children, Hestia 18, Demeter, and gold-shod Hera and strong Hades, pitiless in heart, who dwells under the earth, and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker, and wise Zeus, father of gods and men, by whose thunder the wide earth is shaken. These great Cronos swallowed as each came forth from the womb to his mother’s knees with this intent, that no other of the proud sons of Heaven should hold the kingly office amongst the deathless gods. For he learned from Earth and starry Heaven that he was destined to be overcome by his own son, strong though he was, through the contriving of great Zeus 19. Therefore he kept no blind outlook, but watched and swallowed down his children: and unceasing grief seized Rhea. But when she was about to bear Zeus, the father of gods and men, then she besought her own dear parents, Earth and starry Heaven, to devise some plan with her that the birth of her dear child might be concealed, and that retribution might overtake great, crafty Cronos for his own father and also for the children whom he had swallowed down. And they readily heard and obeyed their dear daughter, and told her all that was destined to happen touching Cronos the king and his stout-hearted son. So they sent her to Lyetus, to the rich land of Crete, when she was ready to bear great Zeus, the youngest of her children. Him did vast Earth receive from Rhea in wide Crete to nourish and to bring up. Thither came Earth carrying him swiftly through the black night to Lyctus first, and took him in her arms and hid him in a remote cave beneath the secret places of the holy earth on thick-wooded Mount Aegeum; but to the mightily ruling son of Heaven, the earlier king of the gods, she gave a great stone wrapped in swaddling clothes. Then he took it in his hands and thrust it down into his belly: wretch! he knew not in his heart that in place of the stone his son was left behind, unconquered and untroubled, and that he was soon to overcome him by force and might and drive him from his honours, himself to reign over the deathless gods.
(ll. 492-506) After that, the strength and glorious limbs of the prince increased quickly, and as the years rolled on, great Cronos the wily was beguiled by the deep suggestions of Earth, and brought up again his offspring, vanquished by the arts and might of his own son, and he vomited up first the stone which he had swallowed last. And Zeus set it fast in the wide-pathed earth at goodly Pytho under the glens of Parnassus, to be a sign thenceforth and a marvel to mortal men 20. And he set free from their deadly bonds the brothers of his father, sons of Heaven whom his father in his foolishness had bound. And they remembered to be grateful to him for his kindness, and gave him thunder and the glowing thunderbolt and lightening: for before that, huge Earth had hidden these. In them he trusts and rules over mortals and immortals.
(ll. 507-543) Now Iapetus took to wife the neat-ankled mad Clymene, daughter of Ocean, and went up with her into one bed. And she bare him a stout-hearted son, Atlas: also she bare very glorious Menoetius and clever Prometheus, full of various wiles, and scatter-brained Epimetheus who from the first was a mischief to men who eat bread; for it was he who first took of Zeus the woman, the maiden whom he had formed. But Menoetius was outrageous, and far-seeing Zeus struck him with a lurid thunderbolt and sent him down to Erebus because of his mad presumption and exceeding pride. And Atlas through hard constraint upholds the wide heaven with unwearying head and arms, standing at the borders of the earth before the clear-voiced Hesperides; for this lot wise Zeus assigned to him. And ready-witted Prometheus he bound with inextricable bonds, cruel chains, and drove a shaft through his middle, and set on him a long-winged eagle, which used to eat his immortal liver; but by night the liver grew as much again everyway as the long-winged bird devoured in the whole day. That bird Heracles, the valiant son of shapely-ankled Alcmene, slew; and delivered the son of Iapetus from the cruel plague, and released him from his affliction — not without the will of Olympian Zeus who reigns on high, that the glory of Heracles the Theban-born might be yet greater than it was before over the plenteous earth. This, then, he regarded, and honoured his famous son; though he was angry, he ceased from the wrath which he had before because Prometheus matched himself in wit with the almighty son of Cronos. For when the gods and mortal men had a dispute at Mecone, even then Prometheus was forward to cut up a great ox and set portions before them, trying to befool the mind of Zeus. Before the rest he set flesh and inner parts thick with fat upon the hide, covering them with an ox paunch; but for Zeus he put the white bones dressed up with cunning art and covered with shining fat. Then the father of men and of gods said to him:
(ll. 543-544) ‘Son of Iapetus, most glorious of all lords, good sir, how unfairly you have divided the portions!’
(ll. 545-547) So said Zeus whose wisdom is everlasting, rebuking him. But wily Prometheus answered him, smiling softly and not forgetting his cunning trick:
(ll. 548-558) ‘Zeus, most glorious and greatest of the eternal gods, take which ever of these portions your heart within you bids.’ So he said, thinking trickery. But Zeus, whose wisdom is everlasting, saw and failed not to perceive the trick, and in his heart he thought mischief against mortal men which also was to be fulfilled. With both hands he took up the white fat and was angry at heart, and wrath came to his spirit when he saw the white ox-bones craftily tricked out: and because of this the tribes of men upon earth burn white bones to the deathless gods upon fragrant altars. But Zeus who drives the clouds was greatly vexed and said to him:
(ll. 559-560) ‘Son of Iapetus, clever above all! So, sir, you have not yet forgotten your cunning arts!’
(ll. 561-584) So spake Zeus in anger, whose wisdom is everlasting; and from that time he was always mindful of the trick, and would not give the power of unwearying fire to the Melian 21 race of mortal men who live on the earth. But the noble son of Iapetus outwitted him and stole the far-seen gleam of unwearying fire in a hollow fennel stalk. And Zeus who thunders on high was stung in spirit, and his dear heart was angered when he saw amongst men the far-seen ray of fire. Forthwith he made an evil thing for men as the price of fire; for the very famous Limping God formed of earth the likeness of a shy maiden as the son of Cronos willed. And the goddess bright-eyed Athene girded and clothed her with silvery raiment, and down from her head she spread with her hands a broidered veil, a wonder to see; and she, Pallas Athene, put about her head lovely garlands, flowers of new-grown herbs. Also she put upon her head a crown of gold which the very famous Limping God made himself and worked with his own hands as a favour to Zeus his father. On it was much curious work, wonderful to see; for of the many creatures which the land and sea rear up, he put most upon it, wonderful things, like living beings with voices: and great beauty shone out from it.
(ll. 585-589) But when he had made the beautiful evil to be the price for the blessing, he brought her out, delighting in the finery which the bright-eyed daughter of a mighty father had given her, to the place where the other gods and men were. And wonder took hold of the deathless gods and mortal men when they saw that which was sheer guile, not to be withstood by men.
(ll. 590-612) For from her is the race of women and female kind: of her is the deadly race and tribe of women who live amongst mortal men to their great trouble, no helpmeets in hateful poverty, but only in wealth. And as in thatched hives bees feed the drones whose nature is to do mischief — by day and throughout the day until the sun goes down the bees are busy and lay the white combs, while the drones stay at home in the covered skeps and reap the toil of others into their own bellies — even so Zeus who thunders on high made women to be an evil to mortal men, with a nature to do evil. And he gave them a second evil to be the price for the good they had: whoever avoids marriage and the sorrows that women cause, and will not wed, reaches deadly old age without anyone to tend his years, and though he at least has no lack of livelihood while he lives, yet, when he is dead, his kinsfolk divide his possessions amongst them. And as for the man who chooses the lot of marriage and takes a good wife suited to his mind, evil continually contends with good; for whoever happens to have mischievous children, lives always with unceasing grief in his spirit and heart within him; and this evil cannot be healed.
(ll. 613-616) So it is not possible to deceive or go beyond the will of Zeus; for not even the son of Iapetus, kindly Prometheus, escaped his heavy anger, but of necessity strong bands confined him, although he knew many a wile.
(ll. 617-643) But when first their father was vexed in his heart with Obriareus and Cottus and Gyes, he bound them in cruel bonds, because he was jealous of their exceeding manhood and comeliness and great size: and he made them live beneath the wide-pathed earth, where they were afflicted, being set to dwell under the ground, at the end of the earth, at its great borders, in bitter anguish for a long time and with great grief at heart. But the son of Cronos and the other deathless gods whom rich-haired Rhea bare from union with Cronos, brought them up again to the light at Earth’s advising. For she herself recounted all things to the gods fully, how that with these they would gain victory and a glorious cause to vaunt themselves. For the Titan gods and as many as sprang from Cronos had long been fighting together in stubborn war with heart-grieving toil, the lordly Titans from high Othyrs, but the gods, givers of good, whom rich-haired Rhea bare in union with Cronos, from Olympus. So they, with bitter wrath, were fighting continually with one another at that time for ten full years, and the hard strife had no close or end for either side, and the issue of the war hung evenly balanced. But when he had provided those three with all things fitting, nectar and ambrosia which the gods themselves eat, and when their proud spirit revived within them all after they had fed on nectar and delicious ambrosia, then it was that the father of men and gods spoke amongst them:
(ll. 644-653) ‘Hear me, bright children of Earth and Heaven, that I may say what my heart within me bids. A long while now have we, who are sprung from Cronos and the Titan gods, fought with each other every day to get victory and to prevail. But do you show your great might and unconquerable strength, and face the Titans in bitter strife; for remember our friendly kindness, and from what sufferings you are come back to the light from your cruel bondage under misty gloom through our counsels.’
(ll. 654-663) So he said. And blameless Cottus answered him again: ‘Divine one, you speak that which we know well: nay, even of ourselves we know that your wisdom and understanding is exceeding, and that you became a defender of the deathless ones from chill doom. And through your devising we are come back again from the murky gloom and from our merciless bonds, enjoying what we looked not for, O lord, son of Cronos. And so now with fixed purpose and deliberate counsel we will aid your power in dreadful strife and will fight against the Titans in hard battle.’
(ll. 664-686) So he said: and the gods, givers of good things, applauded when they heard his word, and their spirit longed for war even more than before, and they all, both male and female, stirred up hated battle that day, the Titan gods, and all that were born of Cronos together with those dread, mighty ones of overwhelming strength whom Zeus brought up to the light from Erebus beneath the earth. An hundred arms sprang from the shoulders of all alike, and each had fifty heads growing upon his shoulders upon stout limbs. These, then, stood against the Titans in grim strife, holding huge rocks in their strong hands. And on the other part the Titans eagerly strengthened their ranks, and both sides at one time showed the work of their hands and their might. The boundless sea rang terribly around, and the earth crashed loudly: wide Heaven was shaken and groaned, and high Olympus reeled from its foundation under the charge of the undying gods, and a heavy quaking reached dim Tartarus and the deep sound of their feet in the fearful onset and of their hard missiles. So, then, they launched their grievous shafts upon one another, and the cry of both armies as they shouted reached to starry heaven; and they met together with a great battle-cry.
(ll. 687-712) Then Zeus no longer held back his might; but straight his heart was filled with fury and he showed forth all his strength. From Heaven and from Olympus he came forthwith, hurling his lightning: the bolts flew thick and fast from his strong hand together with thunder and lightning, whirling an awesome flame. The life-giving earth crashed around in burning, and the vast wood crackled loud with fire all about. All the land seethed, and Ocean’s streams and the unfruitful sea. The hot vapour lapped round the earthborn Titans: flame unspeakable rose to the bright upper air: the flashing glare of the thunder-stone and lightning blinded their eyes for all that there were strong. Astounding heat seized Chaos: and to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears it seemed even as if Earth and wide Heaven above came together; for such a mighty crash would have arisen if Earth were being hurled to ruin, and Heaven from on high were hurling her down; so great a crash was there while the gods were meeting together in strife. Also the winds brought rumbling earthquake and duststorm, thunder and lightning and the lurid thunderbolt, which are the shafts of great Zeus, and carried the clangour and the warcry into the midst of the two hosts. An horrible uproar of terrible strife arose: mighty deeds were shown and the battle inclined. But until then, they kept at one another and fought continually in cruel war.
(ll. 713-735) And amongst the foremost Cottus and Briareos and Gyes insatiate for war raised fierce fighting: three hundred rocks, one upon another, they launched from their strong hands and overshadowed the Titans with their missiles, and buried them beneath the wide-pathed earth, and bound them in bitter chains when they had conquered them by their strength for all their great spirit, as far beneath the earth to Tartarus. For a brazen anvil falling down from heaven nine nights and days would reach the earth upon the tenth: and again, a brazen anvil falling from earth nine nights and days would reach Tartarus upon the tenth. Round it runs a fence of bronze, and night spreads in triple line all about it like a neck-circlet, while above grow the roots of the earth and unfruitful sea. There by the counsel of Zeus who drives the clouds the Titan gods are hidden under misty gloom, in a dank place where are the ends of the huge earth. And they may not go out; for Poseidon fixed gates of bronze upon it, and a wall runs all round it on every side. There Gyes and Cottus and great-souled Obriareus live, trusty warders of Zeus who holds the aegis.
(ll. 736-744) And there, all in their order, are the sources and ends of gloomy earth and misty Tartarus and the unfruitful sea and starry heaven, loathsome and dank, which even the gods abhor.
It is a great gulf, and if once a man were within the gates, he would not reach the floor until a whole year had reached its end, but cruel blast upon blast would carry him this way and that. And this marvel is awful even to the deathless gods.
(ll. 744-757) There stands the awful home of murky Night wrapped in dark clouds. In front of it the son of Iapetus 22 stands immovably upholding the wide heaven upon his head and unwearying hands, where Night and Day draw near and greet one another as they pass the great threshold of bronze: and while the one is about to go down into the house, the other comes out at the door.
And the house never holds them both within; but always one is without the house passing over the earth, while the other stays at home and waits until the time for her journeying come; and the one holds all-seeing light for them on earth, but the other holds in her arms Sleep the brother of Death, even evil Night, wrapped in a vaporous cloud.
(ll. 758-766) And there the children of dark Night have their dwellings, Sleep and Death, awful gods. The glowing Sun never looks upon them with his beams, neither as he goes up into heaven, nor as he comes down from heaven. And the former of them roams peacefully over the earth and the sea’s broad back and is kindly to men; but the other has a heart of iron, and his spirit within him is pitiless as bronze: whomsoever of men he has once seized he holds fast: and he is hateful even to the deathless gods.
(ll. 767-774) There, in front, stand the echoing halls of the god of the lower-world, strong Hades, and of awful Persephone. A fearful hound guards the house in front, pitiless, and he has a cruel trick. On those who go in he fawns with his tail and both his ears, but suffers them not to go out back again, but keeps watch and devours whomsoever he catches going out of the gates of strong Hades and awful Persephone.
(ll. 775-806) And there dwells the goddess loathed by the deathless gods, terrible Styx, eldest daughter of back-flowing 23 Ocean. She lives apart from the gods in her glorious house vaulted over with great rocks and propped up to heaven all round with silver pillars. Rarely does the daughter of Thaumas, swift-footed Iris, come to her with a message over the sea’s wide back.
But when strife and quarrel arise among the deathless gods, and when any of them who live in the house of Olympus lies, then Zeus sends Iris to bring in a golden jug the great oath of the gods from far away, the famous cold water which trickles down from a high and beetling rock. Far under the wide-pathed earth a branch of Oceanus flows through the dark night out of the holy stream, and a tenth part of his water is allotted to her. With nine silver-swirling streams he winds about the earth and the sea’s wide back, and then falls into the main 24; but the tenth flows out from a rock, a sore trouble to the gods. For whoever of the deathless gods that hold the peaks of snowy Olympus pours a libation of her water is forsworn, lies breathless until a full year is completed, and never comes near to taste ambrosia and nectar, but lies spiritless and voiceless on a strewn bed: and a heavy trance overshadows him. But when he has spent a long year in his sickness, another penance and an harder follows after the first. For nine years he is cut off from the eternal gods and never joins their councils of their feasts, nine full years. But in the tenth year he comes again to join the assemblies of the deathless gods who live in the house of Olympus. Such an oath, then, did the gods appoint the eternal and primaeval water of Styx to be: and it spouts through a rugged place.
(ll. 807-819) And there, all in their order, are the sources and ends of the dark earth and misty Tartarus and the unfruitful sea and starry heaven, loathsome and dank, which even the gods abhor.
And there are shining gates and an immoveable threshold of bronze having unending roots and it is grown of itself 25. And beyond, away from all the gods, live the Titans, beyond gloomy Chaos. But the glorious allies of loud-crashing Zeus have their dwelling upon Ocean’s foundations, even Cottus and Gyes; but Briareos, being goodly, the deep-roaring Earth-Shaker made his son-inlaw, giving him Cymopolea his daughter to wed.
(ll. 820-868) But when Zeus had driven the Titans from heaven, huge Earth bare her youngest child Typhoeus of the love of Tartarus, by the aid of golden Aphrodite. Strength was with his hands in all that he did and the feet of the strong god were untiring. From his shoulders grew an hundred heads of a snake, a fearful dragon, with dark, flickering tongues, and from under the brows of his eyes in his marvellous heads flashed fire, and fire burned from his heads as he glared. And there were voices in all his dreadful heads which uttered every kind of sound unspeakable; for at one time they made sounds such that the gods understood, but at another, the noise of a bull bellowing aloud in proud ungovernable fury; and at another, the sound of a lion, relentless of heart; and at another, sounds like whelps, wonderful to hear; and again, at another, he would hiss, so that the high mountains re-echoed. And truly a thing past help would have happened on that day, and he would have come to reign over mortals and immortals, had not the father of men and gods been quick to perceive it. But he thundered hard and mightily: and the earth around resounded terribly and the wide heaven above, and the sea and Ocean’s streams and the nether parts of the earth. Great Olympus reeled beneath the divine feet of the king as he arose and earth groaned thereat. And through the two of them heat took hold on the dark-blue sea, through the thunder and lightning, and through the fire from the monster, and the scorching winds and blazing thunderbolt. The whole earth seethed, and sky and sea: and the long waves raged along the beaches round and about, at the rush of the deathless gods: and there arose an endless shaking. Hades trembled where he rules over the dead below, and the Titans under Tartarus who live with Cronos, because of the unending clamour and the fearful strife. So when Zeus had raised up his might and seized his arms, thunder and lightning and lurid thunderbolt, he leaped from Olympus and struck him, and burned all the marvellous heads of the monster about him. But when Zeus had conquered him and lashed him with strokes, Typhoeus was hurled down, a maimed wreck, so that the huge earth groaned. And flame shot forth from the thunder-stricken lord in the dim rugged glens of the mount 26, when he was smitten. A great part of huge earth was scorched by the terrible vapour and melted as tin melts when heated by men’s art in channelled 27 crucibles; or as iron, which is hardest of all things, is softened by glowing fire in mountain glens and melts in the divine earth through the strength of Hephaestus 28. Even so, then, the earth melted in the glow of the blazing fire. And in the bitterness of his anger Zeus cast him into wide Tartarus.
(ll. 869-880) And from Typhoeus come boisterous winds which blow damply, except Notus and Boreas and clear Zephyr. These are a god-sent kind, and a great blessing to men; but the others blow fitfully upon the seas. Some rush upon the misty sea and work great havoc among men with their evil, raging blasts; for varying with the season they blow, scattering ships and destroying sailors. And men who meet these upon the sea have no help against the mischief. Others again over the boundless, flowering earth spoil the fair fields of men who dwell below, filling them with dust and cruel uproar.
(ll. 881-885) But when the blessed gods had finished their toil, and settled by force their struggle for honours with the Titans, they pressed far-seeing Olympian Zeus to reign and to rule over them, by Earth’s prompting. So he divided their dignities amongst them.
(ll. 886-900) Now Zeus, king of the gods, made Metis his wife first, and she was wisest among gods and mortal men. But when she was about to bring forth the goddess bright-eyed Athene, Zeus craftily deceived her with cunning words and put her in his own belly, as Earth and starry Heaven advised. For they advised him so, to the end that no other should hold royal sway over the eternal gods in place of Zeus; for very wise children were destined to be born of her, first the maiden bright-eyed Tritogeneia, equal to her father in strength and in wise understanding; but afterwards she was to bear a son of overbearing spirit, king of gods and men. But Zeus put her into his own belly first, that the goddess might devise for him both good and evil.
(ll. 901-906) Next he married bright Themis who bare the Horae (Hours), and Eunomia (Order), Dike (Justice), and blooming Eirene (Peace), who mind the works of mortal men, and the Moerae (Fates) to whom wise Zeus gave the greatest honour, Clotho, and Lachesis, and Atropos who give mortal men evil and good to have.
(ll. 907-911) And Eurynome, the daughter of Ocean, beautiful in form, bare him three fair-cheeked Charites (Graces), Aglaea, and Euphrosyne, and lovely Thaleia, from whose eyes as they glanced flowed love that unnerves the limbs: and beautiful is their glance beneath their brows.
(ll. 912-914) Also he came to the bed of all-nourishing Demeter, and she bare white-armed Persephone whom Aidoneus carried off from her mother; but wise Zeus gave her to him.
(ll. 915-917) And again, he loved Mnemosyne with the beautiful hair: and of her the nine gold-crowned Muses were born who delight in feasts and the pleasures of song.
(ll. 918-920) And Leto was joined in love with Zeus who holds the aegis, and bare Apollo and Artemis delighting in arrows, children lovely above all the sons of Heaven.
(ll. 921-923) Lastly, he made Hera his blooming wife: and she was joined in love with the king of gods and men, and brought forth Hebe and Ares and Eileithyia.
(ll. 924-929) But Zeus himself gave birth from his own head to bright-eyed Tritogeneia 29, the awful, the strife-stirring, the host-leader, the unwearying, the queen, who delights in tumults and wars and battles. But Hera without union with Zeus — for she was very angry and quarrelled with her mate — bare famous Hephaestus, who is skilled in crafts more than all the sons of Heaven.
(ll. 929a-929t) 30 But Hera was very angry and quarrelled with her mate. And because of this strife she bare without union with Zeus who holds the aegis a glorious son, Hephaestus, who excelled all the sons of Heaven in crafts. But Zeus lay with the fair-cheeked daughter of Ocean and Tethys apart from Hera. . . . ((LACUNA)) . . . . deceiving Metis (Thought) although she was full wise. But he seized her with his hands and put her in his belly, for fear that she might bring forth something stronger than his thunderbolt: therefore did Zeus, who sits on high and dwells in the aether, swallow her down suddenly. But she straightway conceived Pallas Athene: and the father of men and gods gave her birth by way of his head on the banks of the river Trito. And she remained hidden beneath the inward parts of Zeus, even Metis, Athena’s mother, worker of righteousness, who was wiser than gods and mortal men. There the goddess (Athena) received that 31 whereby she excelled in strength all the deathless ones who dwell in Olympus, she who made the host-scaring weapon of Athena. And with it (Zeus) gave her birth, arrayed in arms of war.
(ll. 930-933) And of Amphitrite and the loud-roaring Earth-Shaker was born great, wide-ruling Triton, and he owns the depths of the sea, living with his dear mother and the lord his father in their golden house, an awful god.
(ll. 933-937) Also Cytherea bare to Ares the shield-piercer Panic and Fear, terrible gods who drive in disorder the close ranks of men in numbing war, with the help of Ares, sacker of towns: and Harmonia whom high-spirited Cadmus made his wife.
(ll. 938-939) And Maia, the daughter of Atlas, bare to Zeus glorious Hermes, the herald of the deathless gods, for she went up into his holy bed.
(ll. 940-942) And Semele, daughter of Cadmus was joined with him in love and bare him a splendid son, joyous Dionysus, — a mortal woman an immortal son. And now they both are gods.
(ll. 943-944) And Alcmena was joined in love with Zeus who drives the clouds and bare mighty Heracles.
(ll. 945-946) And Hephaestus, the famous Lame One, made Aglaea, youngest of the Graces, his buxom wife.
(ll. 947-949) And golden-haired Dionysus made brown-haired Ariadne, the daughter of Minos, his buxom wife: and the son of Cronos made her deathless and unageing for him.
(ll. 950-955) And mighty Heracles, the valiant son of neat-ankled Alcmena, when he had finished his grievous toils, made Hebe the child of great Zeus and gold-shod Hera his shy wife in snowy Olympus. Happy he! For he has finished his great works and lives amongst the undying gods, untroubled and unageing all his days.
(ll. 956-962) And Perseis, the daughter of Ocean, bare to unwearying Helios Circe and Aeetes the king. And Aeetes, the son of Helios who shows light to men, took to wife fair-cheeked Idyia, daughter of Ocean the perfect stream, by the will of the gods: and she was subject to him in love through golden Aphrodite and bare him neat-ankled Medea.
(ll. 963-968) And now farewell, you dwellers on Olympus and you islands and continents and thou briny sea within. Now sing the company of goddesses, sweet-voiced Muses of Olympus, daughter of Zeus who holds the aegis, — even those deathless one who lay with mortal men and bare children like unto gods.
(ll. 969-974) Demeter, bright goddess, was joined in sweet love with the hero Iasion in a thrice-ploughed fallow in the rich land of Crete, and bare Plutus, a kindly god who goes everywhere over land and the sea’s wide back, and him who finds him and into whose hands he comes he makes rich, bestowing great wealth upon him.
(ll. 975-978) And Harmonia, the daughter of golden Aphrodite, bare to Cadmus Ino and Semele and fair-cheeked Agave and Autonoe whom long haired Aristaeus wedded, and Polydorus also in rich-crowned Thebe.
(ll. 979-983) And the daughter of Ocean, Callirrhoe was joined in the love of rich Aphrodite with stout hearted Chrysaor and bare a son who was the strongest of all men, Geryones, whom mighty Heracles killed in sea-girt Erythea for the sake of his shambling oxen.
(ll. 984-991) And Eos bare to Tithonus brazen-crested Memnon, king of the Ethiopians, and the Lord Emathion. And to Cephalus she bare a splendid son, strong Phaethon, a man like the gods, whom, when he was a young boy in the tender flower of glorious youth with childish thoughts, laughter-loving Aphrodite seized and caught up and made a keeper of her shrine by night, a divine spirit.
(ll. 993-1002) And the son of Aeson by the will of the gods led away from Aeetes the daughter of Aeetes the heaven-nurtured king, when he had finished the many grievous labours which the great king, over bearing Pelias, that outrageous and presumptuous doer of violence, put upon him. But when the son of Aeson had finished them, he came to Iolcus after long toil bringing the coy-eyed girl with him on his swift ship, and made her his buxom wife. And she was subject to Iason, shepherd of the people, and bare a son Medeus whom Cheiron the son of Philyra brought up in the mountains. And the will of great Zeus was fulfilled.
(ll. 1003-1007) But of the daughters of Nereus, the Old man of the Sea, Psamathe the fair goddess, was loved by Aeacus through golden Aphrodite and bare Phocus. And the silver-shod goddess Thetis was subject to Peleus and brought forth lion-hearted Achilles, the destroyer of men.
(ll. 1008-1010) And Cytherea with the beautiful crown was joined in sweet love with the hero Anchises and bare Aeneas on the peaks of Ida with its many wooded glens.
(ll. 1011-1016) And Circe the daughter of Helius, Hyperion’s son, loved steadfast Odysseus and bare Agrius and Latinus who was faultless and strong: also she brought forth Telegonus by the will of golden Aphrodite. And they ruled over the famous Tyrenians, very far off in a recess of the holy islands.
(ll. 1017-1018) And the bright goddess Calypso was joined to Odysseus in sweet love, and bare him Nausithous and Nausinous.
(ll. 1019-1020) These are the immortal goddesses who lay with mortal men and bare them children like unto gods.
(ll. 1021-1022) But now, sweet-voiced Muses of Olympus, daughters of Zeus who holds the aegis, sing of the company of women.
1 The epithet probably indicates coquettishness.
2 A proverbial saying meaning, ‘why enlarge on irrelevant topics?’
3 ‘She of the noble voice’: Calliope is queen of Epic poetry.
4 Earth, in the cosmology of Hesiod, is a disk surrounded by the river Oceanus and floating upon a waste of waters. It is called the foundation of all (the qualification ‘the deathless ones . . . ’ etc. is an interpolation), because not only trees, men, and animals, but even the hills and seas (ll. 129, 131) are supported by it.
5 Aether is the bright, untainted upper atmosphere, as distinguished from Aer, the lower atmosphere of the earth.
6 Brontes is the Thunderer; Steropes, the Lightener; and Arges, the Vivid One.
7 The myth accounts for the separation of Heaven and Earth. In Egyptian cosmology Nut (the Sky) is thrust and held apart from her brother Geb (the Earth) by their father Shu, who corresponds to the Greek Atlas.
8 Nymphs of the ash-trees, as Dryads are nymphs of the oak-trees. Cp. note on “Works and Days”, l. 145.
9 ‘Member-loving’: the title is perhaps only a perversion of the regular PHILOMEIDES (laughter-loving).
10 Cletho (the Spinner) is she who spins the thread of man’s life; Lachesis (the Disposer of Lots) assigns to each man his destiny; Atropos (She who cannot be turned) is the ‘Fury with the abhorred shears.’
11 Many of the names which follow express various qualities or aspects of the sea: thus Galene is ‘Calm’, Cymothoe is the ‘Wave-swift’, Pherusa and Dynamene are ‘She who speeds (ships)’ and ‘She who has power’.
12 The ‘Wave-receiver’ and the ‘Wave-stiller’.
13 ‘The Unerring’ or ‘Truthful’; cp. l. 235.
14 i.e. Poseidon.
15 Goettling notes that some of these nymphs derive their names from lands over which they preside, as Europa, Asia, Doris, Ianeira (‘Lady of the Ionians’), but that most are called after some quality which their streams possessed: thus Xanthe is the ‘Brown’ or ‘Turbid’, Amphirho is the ‘Surrounding’ river, Ianthe is ‘She who delights’, and Ocyrrhoe is the ‘Swift-flowing’.
16 i.e. Eos, the ‘Early-born’.
17 Van Lennep explains that Hecate, having no brothers to support her claim, might have been slighted.
18 The goddess of the hearth (the Roman “Vesta”), and so of the house. Cp. “Homeric Hymns” v.22 ff.; xxxix.1 ff.
19 The variant reading ‘of his father’ (sc. Heaven) rests on inferior MS. authority and is probably an alteration due to the difficulty stated by a Scholiast: ‘How could Zeus, being not yet begotten, plot against his father?’ The phrase is, however, part of the prophecy. The whole line may well be spurious, and is rejected by Heyne, Wolf, Gaisford and Guyet.
20 Pausanias (x. 24.6) saw near the tomb of Neoptolemus ‘a stone of no great size’, which the Delphians anointed every day with oil, and which he says was supposed to be the stone given to Cronos.
21 A Scholiast explains: ‘Either because they (men) sprang from the Melian nymphs (cp. l. 187); or because, when they were born (?), they cast themselves under the ash-trees, that is, the trees.’ The reference may be to the origin of men from ash-trees: cp. “Works and Days”, l. 145 and note.
22 sc. Atlas, the Shu of Egyptian mythology: cp. note on line 177.
23 Oceanus is here regarded as a continuous stream enclosing the earth and the seas, and so as flowing back upon himself.
24 The conception of Oceanus is here different: he has nine streams which encircle the earth and then flow out into the ‘main’ which appears to be the waste of waters on which, according to early Greek and Hebrew cosmology, the disk-like earth floated.
25 i.e. the threshold is of ‘native’ metal, and not artificial.
26 According to Homer Typhoeus was overwhelmed by Zeus amongst the Arimi in Cilicia. Pindar represents him as buried under Aetna, and Tzetzes reads Aetna in this passage.
27 The epithet (which means literally ‘well-bored’) seems to refer to the spout of the crucible.
28 The fire god. There is no reference to volcanic action: iron was smelted on Mount Ida; cp. “Epigrams of Homer”, ix. 2-4.
29 i.e. Athena, who was born ‘on the banks of the river Trito’ (cp. l. 929l)
30 Restored by Peppmuller. The nineteen following lines from another recension of lines 889-900, 924-9 are quoted by Chrysippus (in Galen).
31 sc. the aegis. Line 929s is probably spurious, since it disagrees with l. 929q and contains a suspicious reference to Athens.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iii. 1086:
That Deucalion was the son of Prometheus and Pronoea, Hesiod states in the first “Catalogue”, as also that Hellen was the son of Deucalion and Pyrrha.
Ioannes Lydus 2, de Mens. i. 13:
They came to call those who followed local manners Latins, but those who followed Hellenic customs Greeks, after the brothers Latinus and Graecus; as Hesiod says: ‘And in the palace Pandora the daughter of noble Deucalion was joined in love with father Zeus, leader of all the gods, and bare Graecus, staunch in battle.’
Constantinus Porphyrogenitus 3, de Them. 2 p. 48B:
The district Macedonia took its name from Macedon the son of Zeus and Thyia, Deucalion’s daughter, as Hesiod says: ‘And she conceived and bare to Zeus who delights in the thunderbolt two sons, Magnes and Macedon, rejoicing in horses, who dwell round about Pieria and Olympus. . . . ((LACUNA)) . . . . And Magnes again (begot) Dictys and godlike Polydectes.’
Plutarch, Mor. p. 747; Schol. on Pindar Pyth. iv. 263:
‘And from Hellen the war-loving king sprang Dorus and Xuthus and Aeolus delighting in horses. And the sons of Aeolus, kings dealing justice, were Cretheus, and Athamas, and clever Sisyphus, and wicked Salmoneus and overbold Perieres.’
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 266:
Those who were descended from Deucalion used to rule over Thessaly as Hecataeus and Hesiod say.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 482:
Aloiadae. Hesiod said that they were sons of Aloeus, — called so after him, — and of Iphimedea, but in reality sons of Poseidon and Iphimedea, and that Alus a city of Aetolia was founded by their father.
Berlin Papyri, No. 7497; Oxyrhynchus Papyri, 421 4:
(ll. 1-24) ‘. . . . Eurynome the daughter of Nisus, Pandion’s son, to whom Pallas Athene taught all her art, both wit and wisdom too; for she was as wise as the gods. A marvellous scent rose from her silvern raiment as she moved, and beauty was wafted from her eyes. Her, then, Glaucus sought to win by Athena’s advising, and he drove oxen 5 for her. But he knew not at all the intent of Zeus who holds the aegis. So Glaucus came seeking her to wife with gifts; but cloud-driving Zeus, king of the deathless gods, bent his head in oath that the. . . . son of Sisyphus should never have children born of one father 6. So she lay in the arms of Poseidon and bare in the house of Glaucus blameless Bellerophon, surpassing all men in. . . . over the boundless sea. And when he began to roam, his father gave him Pegasus who would bear him most swiftly on his wings, and flew unwearying everywhere over the earth, for like the gales he would course along. With him Bellerophon caught and slew the fire-breathing Chimera. And he wedded the dear child of the great-hearted Iobates, the worshipful king. . . . lord (of). . . . and she bare. . . . ’
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodes, Arg. iv. 57:
Hesiod says that Endymion was the son of Aethlius the son of Zeus and Calyee, and received the gift from Zeus: ‘(To be) keeper of death for his own self when he was ready to die.’
Scholiast Ven. on Homer, Il. xi. 750:
The two sons of Actor and Molione . . . Hesiod has given their descent by calling them after Actor and Molione; but their father was Poseidon.
Porphyrius 7, Quaest. Hom. ad Iliad. pert., 265: But Aristarchus is informed that they were twins, not. . . . such as were the Dioscuri, but, on Hesiod’s testimony, double in form and with two bodies and joined to one another.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 156:
But Hesiod says that he changed himself in one of his wonted shapes and perched on the yoke-boss of Heracles’ horses, meaning to fight with the hero; but that Heracles, secretly instructed by Athena, wounded him mortally with an arrow. And he says as follows: ‘ . . . and lordly Periclymenus. Happy he! For earth-shaking Poseidon gave him all manner of gifts. At one time he would appear among birds, an eagle; and again at another he would be an ant, a marvel to see; and then a shining swarm of bees; and again at another time a dread relentless snake. And he possessed all manner of gifts which cannot be told, and these then ensnared him through the devising of Athene.’
Stephanus of Byzantium 8, s.v.:
‘(Heracles) slew the noble sons of steadfast Neleus, eleven of them; but the twelfth, the horsemen Gerenian Nestor chanced to be staying with the horse-taming Gerenians. ((LACUNA)) Nestor alone escaped in flowery Gerenon.’
Eustathius 9, Hom. 1796.39:
‘So well-girded Polycaste, the youngest daughter of Nestor, Neleus’ son, was joined in love with Telemachus through golden Aphrodite and bare Persepolis.’
Scholiast on Homer, Od. xii. 69:
Tyro the daughter of Salmoneus, having two sons by Poseidon, Neleus and Pelias, married Cretheus, and had by him three sons, Aeson, Pheres and Amythaon. And of Aeson and Polymede, according to Hesiod, Iason was born: ‘Aeson, who begot a son Iason, shepherd of the people, whom Chiron brought up in woody Pelion.’
Petrie Papyri (ed. Mahaffy), Pl. III. 3:
‘. . . . of the glorious lord . . . . fair Atalanta, swift of foot, the daughter of Schoeneus, who had the beaming eyes of the Graces, though she was ripe for wedlock rejected the company of her equals and sought to avoid marriage with men who eat bread.’
Scholiast on Homer, Iliad xxiii. 683: Hesiod is therefore later in date than Homer since he represents Hippomenes as stripped when contending with Atalanta 10.
Papiri greci e latini, ii. No. 130 (2nd-3rd century) 11: (ll. 1-7) ‘Then straightway there rose up against him the trim-ankled maiden (Atalanta), peerless in beauty: a great throng stood round about her as she gazed fiercely, and wonder held all men as they looked upon her. As she moved, the breath of the west wind stirred the shining garment about her tender bosom; but Hippomenes stood where he was: and much people was gathered together. All these kept silence; but Schoeneus cried and said:
(ll. 8-20) ‘“Hear me all, both young and old, while I speak as my spirit within my breast bids me. Hippomenes seeks my coy-eyed daughter to wife; but let him now hear my wholesome speech. He shall not win her without contest; yet, if he be victorious and escape death, and if the deathless gods who dwell on Olympus grant him to win renown, verily he shall return to his dear native land, and I will give him my dear child and strong, swift-footed horses besides which he shall lead home to be cherished possessions; and may he rejoice in heart possessing these, and ever remember with gladness the painful contest. May the father of men and of gods (grant that splendid children may be born to him)’ 12
(ll. 21-27) ‘on the right. . . . and he, rushing upon her,. . . . drawing back slightly towards the left. And on them was laid an unenviable struggle: for she, even fair, swift-footed Atalanta, ran scorning the gifts of golden Aphrodite; but with him the race was for his life, either to find his doom, or to escape it. Therefore with thoughts of guile he said to her:
(ll. 28-29) ‘“O daughter of Schoeneus, pitiless in heart, receive these glorious gifts of the goddess, golden Aphrodite . . . ’
(ll. 30-36) ‘But he, following lightly on his feet, cast the first apple 13: and, swiftly as a Harpy, she turned back and snatched it. Then he cast the second to the ground with his hand. And now fair, swift-footed Atalanta had two apples and was near the goal; but Hippomenes cast the third apple to the ground, and therewith escaped death and black fate. And he stood panting and . . . ’
Strabo 14, i. p. 42:
‘And the daughter of Arabus, whom worthy Hermaon begat with Thronia, daughter of the lord Belus.’
Eustathius, Hom. 461. 2:
‘Argos which was waterless Danaus made well-watered.’
Hecataeus 15 in Scholiast on Euripides, Orestes, 872:
Aegyptus himself did not go to Argos, but sent his sons, fifty in number, as Hesiod represented.
Strabo, viii. p. 370:
And Apollodorus says that Hesiod already knew that the whole people were called both Hellenes and Panhellenes, as when he says of the daughters of Proetus that the Panhellenes sought them in marriage.
Apollodorus, ii. 2.1.4: Acrisius was king of Argos and Proetus of Tiryns. And Acrisius had by Eurydice the daughter of Lacedemon, Danae; and Proetus by Stheneboea ‘Lysippe and Iphinoe and Iphianassa’. And these fell mad, as Hesiod states, because they would not receive the rites of Dionysus.
Probus 17 on Vergil, Eclogue vi. 48: These (the daughters of Proetus), because they had scorned the divinity of Juno, were overcome with madness, such that they believed they had been turned into cows, and left Argos their own country. Afterwards they were cured by Melampus, the son of Amythaon.
Suidas, s.v.: ‘Because of their hideous wantonness they lost their tender beauty. . . . ’
Eustathius, Hom. 1746.7: ‘. . . . For he shed upon their heads a fearful itch: and leprosy covered all their flesh, and their hair dropped from their heads, and their fair scalps were made bare.’
Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1358 fr. 1 (3rd cent. A.D.): 19
(ll. 1-32) ‘. . . . So she (Europa) crossed the briny water from afar to Crete, beguiled by the wiles of Zeus. Secretly did the Father snatch her away and gave her a gift, the golden necklace, the toy which Hephaestus the famed craftsman once made by his cunning skill and brought and gave it to his father for a possession. And Zeus received the gift, and gave it in turn to the daughter of proud Phoenix. But when the Father of men and of gods had mated so far off with trim-ankled Europa, then he departed back again from the rich-haired girl. So she bare sons to the almighty Son of Cronos, glorious leaders of wealthy men — Minos the ruler, and just Rhadamanthys and noble Sarpedon the blameless and strong. To these did wise Zeus give each a share of his honour. Verily Sarpedon reigned mightily over wide Lycia and ruled very many cities filled with people, wielding the sceptre of Zeus: and great honour followed him, which his father gave him, the great-hearted shepherd of the people. For wise Zeus ordained that he should live for three generations of mortal men and not waste away with old age. He sent him to Troy; and Sarpedon gathered a great host, men chosen out of Lycia to be allies to the Trojans. These men did Sarpedon lead, skilled in bitter war. And Zeus, whose wisdom is everlasting, sent him forth from heaven a star, showing tokens for the return of his dear son. . . . . . . . for well he (Sarpedon) knew in his heart that the sign was indeed from Zeus. Very greatly did he excel in war together with man-slaying Hector and brake down the wall, bringing woes upon the Danaans. But so soon as Patroclus had inspired the Argives with hard courage. . . . ’
Scholiast on Homer, Il. xii. 292:
Zeus saw Europa the daughter of Phoenix gathering flowers in a meadow with some nymphs and fell in love with her. So he came down and changed himself into a bull and breathed from his mouth a crocus 20. In this way he deceived Europa, carried her off and crossed the sea to Crete where he had intercourse with her. Then in this condition he made her live with Asterion the king of the Cretans. There she conceived and bore three sons, Minos, Sarpedon and Rhadamanthys. The tale is in Hesiod and Bacchylides.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 178:
But according to Hesiod (Phineus) was the son of Phoenix, Agenor’s son and Cassiopea.
Apollodorus 21, iii. 14.4.1:
But Hesiod says that he (Adonis) was the son of Phoenix and Alphesiboea.
Porphyrius, Quaest. Hom. ad Iliad. pert. p. 189:
As it is said in Hesiod in the “Catalogue of Women” concerning Demodoce the daughter of Agenor: ‘Demodoce whom very many of men on earth, mighty princes, wooed, promising splendid gifts, because of her exceeding beauty.’
Apollodorus, iii. 5.6.2:
Hesiod says that (the children of Amphion and Niobe) were ten sons and ten daughters.
Aelian 22, Var. Hist. xii. 36: But Hesiod says they were nine boys and ten girls; — unless after all the verses are not Hesiod but are falsely ascribed to him as are many others.
Scholiast on Homer, Il. xxiii. 679:
And Hesiod says that when Oedipus had died at Thebes, Argea the daughter of Adrastus came with others to the funeral of Oedipus.
Herodian 23 in Etymologicum Magnum, p. 60, 40:
Tityos the son of Elara.
Argument: Pindar, Ol. xiv:
Cephisus is a river in Orchomenus where also the Graces are worshipped. Eteoclus the son of the river Cephisus first sacrificed to them, as Hesiod says.
Scholiast on Homer, Il. ii. 522: ‘which from Lilaea spouts forth its sweet flowing water. . . . ’
Strabo, ix. 424: ‘. . . . And which flows on by Panopeus and through fenced Glechon and through Orchomenus, winding like a snake.’
Scholiast on Homer, Il. vii. 9:
For the father of Menesthius, Areithous was a Boeotian living at Arnae; and this is in Boeotia, as also Hesiod says.
Stephanus of Byzantium:
Onchestus: a grove 24. It is situate in the country of Haliartus and was founded by Onchestus the Boeotian, as Hesiod says.
Stephanus of Byzantium:
There is also a plain of Aega bordering on Cirrha, according to Hesiod.
Apollodorus, ii. 1.1.5:
But Hesiod says that Pelasgus was autochthonous.
Strabo, v. p. 221:
That this tribe (the Pelasgi) were from Arcadia, Ephorus states on the authority of Hesiod; for he says: ‘Sons were born to god-like Lycaon whom Pelasgus once begot.’
Stephanus of Byzantium:
Pallantium. A city of Arcadia, so named after Pallas, one of Lycaon’s sons, according to Hesiod.
‘Famous Meliboea bare Phellus the good spear-man.’
Herodian, On Peculiar Diction, p. 18:
In Hesiod in the second Catalogue: ‘Who once hid the torch 25 within.’
Herodian, On Peculiar Diction, p. 42:
Hesiod in the third Catalogue writes: ‘And a resounding thud of feet rose up.’
Apollonius Dyscolus 26, On the Pronoun, p. 125:
‘And a great trouble to themselves.’
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 45:
Neither Homer nor Hesiod speak of Iphiclus as amongst the Argonauts.
‘Eratosthenes’ 27, Catast. xix. p. 124:
The Ram.] — This it was that transported Phrixus and Helle. It was immortal and was given them by their mother Nephele, and had a golden fleece, as Hesiod and Pherecydes say.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 181:
Hesiod in the “Great Eoiae” says that Phineus was blinded because he revealed to Phrixus the road; but in the third “Catalogue”, because he preferred long life to sight.
Hesiod says he had two sons, Thynus and Mariandynus.
Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1358 fr. 2 (3rd cent. A.D.): 30
((LACUNA— Slight remains of 7 lines))
(ll. 8-35) ‘(The Sons of Boreas pursued the Harpies) to the lands of the Massagetae and of the proud Half-Dog men, of the Underground-folk and of the feeble Pygmies; and to the tribes of the boundless Black-skins and the Libyans. Huge Earth bare these to Epaphus — soothsaying people, knowing seercraft by the will of Zeus the lord of oracles, but deceivers, to the end that men whose thought passes their utterance 31 might be subject to the gods and suffer harm — Aethiopians and Libyans and mare-milking Scythians. For verily Epaphus was the child of the almighty Son of Cronos, and from him sprang the dark Libyans, and high-souled Aethiopians, and the Underground-folk and feeble Pygmies. All these are the offspring of the lord, the Loud-thunderer. Round about all these (the Sons of Boreas) sped in darting flight. . . . . . . . of the well-horsed Hyperboreans — whom Earth the all-nourishing bare far off by the tumbling streams of deep-flowing Eridanus. . . . . . . . of amber, feeding her wide-scattered offspring — and about the steep Fawn mountain and rugged Etna to the isle Ortygia and the people sprung from Laestrygon who was the son of wide-reigning Poseidon. Twice ranged the Sons of Boreas along this coast and wheeled round and about yearning to catch the Harpies, while they strove to escape and avoid them. And they sped to the tribe of the haughty Cephallenians, the people of patient-souled Odysseus whom in aftertime Calypso the queenly nymph detained for Poseidon. Then they came to the land of the lord the son of Ares. . . . . . . . they heard. Yet still (the Sons of Boreas) ever pursued them with instant feet. So they (the Harpies) sped over the sea and through the fruitless air . . . ’
Strabo, vii. p. 300:
‘The Aethiopians and Ligurians and mare-milking Scythians.’
Apollodorus, i. 9.21.6:
As they were being pursued, one of the Harpies fell into the river Tigris, in Peloponnesus which is now called Harpys after her. Some call this one Nicothoe, and others Aellopus. The other who was called Ocypete, or as some say Ocythoe (though Hesiod calls her Ocypus), fled down the Propontis and reached as far as to the Echinades islands which are now called because of her, Strophades (Turning Islands).
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 297:
Hesiod also says that those with Zetes 32 turned and prayed to Zeus: ‘There they prayed to the lord of Aenos who reigns on high.’
Apollonius indeed says it was Iris who made Zetes and his following turn away, but Hesiod says Hermes.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 296: Others say (the islands) were called Strophades, because they turned there and prayed Zeus to seize the Harpies. But according to Hesiod . . . they were not killed.
Philodemus 33, On Piety, 10:
Nor let anyone mock at Hesiod who mentions. . . . or even the Troglodytes and the Pygmies.
Strabo, i. p. 43:
No one would accuse Hesiod of ignorance though he speaks of the Half-dog people and the Great-Headed people and the Pygmies.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 284:
But Hesiod says they (the Argonauts) had sailed in through the Phasis.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 259: But Hesiod (says). . . . they came through the Ocean to Libya, and so, carrying the Argo, reached our sea.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iii. 311:
Apollonius, following Hesiod, says that Circe came to the island over against Tyrrhenia on the chariot of the Sun. And he called it Hesperian, because it lies toward the west.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 892:
He (Apollonius) followed Hesiod who thus names the island of the Sirens: ‘To the island Anthemoessa (Flowery) which the son of Cronos gave them.’
And their names are Thelxiope or Thelxinoe, Molpe and Aglaophonus 34.
Scholiast on Homer, Od. xii. 168: Hence Hesiod said that they charmed even the winds.
Scholiast on Homer, Od. i. 85:
Hesiod says that Ogygia is within towards the west, but Ogygia lies over against Crete: ‘ . . . the Ogygian sea and . . . . . . the island Ogygia.’
Scholiast on Homer, Od. vii. 54:
Hesiod regarded Arete as the sister of Alcinous.
Scholiast on Pindar, Ol. x. 46:
Her Hippostratus (did wed), a scion of Ares, the splendid son of Phyetes, of the line of Amarynces, leader of the Epeians.
Apollodorus, i. 8.4.1:
When Althea was dead, Oeneus married Periboea, the daughter of Hipponous. Hesiod says that she was seduced by Hippostratus the son of Amarynces and that her father Hipponous sent her from Olenus in Achaea to Oeneus because he was far away from Hellas, bidding him kill her.
‘She used to dwell on the cliff of Olenus by the banks of wide Peirus.’
Diodorus 35 v. 81:
Macareus was a son of Crinacus the son of Zeus as Hesiod says . . . and dwelt in Olenus in the country then called Ionian, but now Achaean.
Scholiast on Pindar, Nem. ii. 21:
Concerning the Myrmidons Hesiod speaks thus: ‘And she conceived and bare Aeacus, delighting in horses. Now when he came to the full measure of desired youth, he chafed at being alone. And the father of men and gods made all the ants that were in the lovely isle into men and wide-girdled women. These were the first who fitted with thwarts ships with curved sides, and the first who used sails, the wings of a sea-going ship.’
Polybius, v. 2:
‘The sons of Aeacus who rejoiced in battle as though a feast.’
Porphyrius, Quaest. Hom. ad Iliad. pertin. p. 93:
He has indicated the shameful deed briefly by the phrase ‘to lie with her against her will’, and not like Hesiod who recounts at length the story of Peleus and the wife of Acastus.
Scholiast on Pindar, Nem. iv. 95:
‘And this seemed to him (Acastus) in his mind the best plan; to keep back himself, but to hide beyond guessing the beautiful knife which the very famous Lame One had made for him, that in seeking it alone over steep Pelion, he (Peleus) might be slain forthwith by the mountain-bred Centaurs.’
Voll. Herculan. (Papyri from Herculaneum), 2nd Collection, viii.
The author of the “Cypria” 36 says that Thetis avoided wedlock with Zeus to please Hera; but that Zeus was angry and swore that she should mate with a mortal. Hesiod also has the like account.
Strassburg Greek Papyri 55 (2nd century A.D.):
(ll. 1-13) ‘Peleus the son of Aeacus, dear to the deathless gods, came to Phthia the mother of flocks, bringing great possessions from spacious Iolcus. And all the people envied him in their hearts seeing how he had sacked the well-built city, and accomplished his joyous marriage; and they all spake this word: “Thrice, yea, four times blessed son of Aeacus, happy Peleus! For far-seeing Olympian Zeus has given you a wife with many gifts and the blessed gods have brought your marriage fully to pass, and in these halls you go up to the holy bed of a daughter of Nereus. Truly the father, the son of Cronos, made you very pre-eminent among heroes and honoured above other men who eat bread and consume the fruit of the ground.”’
Origen, Against Celsus, iv. 79:
‘For in common then were the banquets, and in common the seats of deathless gods and mortal men.’
Scholiast on Homer, Il. xvi. 175:
. . . whereas Hesiod and the rest call her (Peleus’ daughter) Polydora.
Eustathius, Hom. 112. 44 sq:
It should be observed that the ancient narrative hands down the account that Patroclus was even a kinsman of Achilles; for Hesiod says that Menoethius the father of Patroclus, was a brother of Peleus, so that in that case they were first cousins.
Scholiast on Pindar, Ol. x. 83:
Some write ‘Serus the son of Halirrhothius’, whom Hesiod mentions: ‘He (begot) Serus and Alazygus, goodly sons.’ And Serus was the son of Halirrhothius Perieres’ son, and of Alcyone.
Pausanias 38, ii. 26. 7:
This oracle most clearly proves that Asclepius was not the son of Arsinoe, but that Hesiod or one of Hesiod’s interpolators composed the verses to please the Messenians.
Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. iii. 14: Some say (Asclepius) was the son of Arsinoe, others of Coronis. But Asclepiades says that Arsinoe was the daughter of Leucippus, Perieres’ son, and that to her and Apollo Asclepius and a daughter, Eriopis, were born: ‘And she bare in the palace Asclepius, leader of men, and Eriopis with the lovely hair, being subject in love to Phoebus.’
And of Arsinoe likewise: ‘And Arsinoe was joined with the son of Zeus and Leto and bare a son Asclepius, blameless and strong.’ 39
Scholiast on Euripides, Orestes 249:
Steischorus says that while sacrificing to the gods Tyndareus forgot Aphrodite and that the goddess was angry and made his daughters twice and thrice wed and deserters of their husbands. . . . And Hesiod also says:
(ll. 1-7) ‘And laughter-loving Aphrodite felt jealous when she looked on them and cast them into evil report. Then Timandra deserted Echemus and went and came to Phyleus, dear to the deathless gods; and even so Clytaemnestra deserted god-like Agamemnon and lay with Aegisthus and chose a worse mate; and even so Helen dishonoured the couch of golden-haired Menelaus.’
Berlin Papyri, No. 9739:
(ll. 1-10) ‘. . . . Philoctetes sought her, a leader of spearmen, . . . . most famous of all men at shooting from afar and with the sharp spear. And he came to Tyndareus’ bright city for the sake of the Argive maid who had the beauty of golden Aphrodite, and the sparkling eyes of the Graces; and the dark-faced daughter of Ocean, very lovely of form, bare her when she had shared the embraces of Zeus and the king Tyndareus in the bright palace. . . . (And. . . . sought her to wife offering as gifts)
(ll. 11-15) . . . . and as many women skilled in blameless arts, each holding a golden bowl in her hands. And truly Castor and strong Polydeuces would have made him 41 their brother perforce, but Agamemnon, being son-inlaw to Tyndareus, wooed her for his brother Menelaus.
(ll. 16-19) And the two sons of Amphiaraus the lord, Oecleus’ son, sought her to wife from Argos very near at hand; yet. . . . fear of the blessed gods and the indignation of men caused them also to fail.
(l. 20) . . . but there was no deceitful dealing in the sons of Tyndareus.
(ll. 21-27) And from Ithaca the sacred might of Odysseus, Laertes son, who knew many-fashioned wiles, sought her to wife. He never sent gifts for the sake of the neat-ankled maid, for he knew in his heart that golden-haired Menelaus would win, since he was greatest of the Achaeans in possessions and was ever sending messages 42 to horse-taming Castor and prize-winning Polydeuces.
(ll. 28-30) And. . . . on’s son sought her to wife (and brought) . . . . bridal-gifts. . . . . . . . cauldrons. . . .
(ll. 31-33) . . . to horse-taming Castor and prize-winning Polydeuces, desiring to be the husband of rich-haired Helen, though he had never seen her beauty, but because he heard the report of others.
(ll. 34-41) And from Phylace two men of exceeding worth sought her to wife, Podarces son of Iphiclus, Phylacus’ son, and Actor’s noble son, overbearing Protesilaus. Both of them kept sending messages to Lacedaemon, to the house of wise Tyndareus, Oebalus’ son, and they offered many bridal-gifts, for great was the girl’s renown, brazen. . . . . . . . golden. . . .
(l. 42) . . . (desiring) to be the husband of rich-haired Helen.
(ll. 43-49) From Athens the son of Peteous, Menestheus, sought her to wife, and offered many bridal-gifts; for he possessed very many stored treasures, gold and cauldrons and tripods, fine things which lay hid in the house of the lord Peteous, and with them his heart urged him to win his bride by giving more gifts than any other; for he thought that no one of all the heroes would surpass him in possessions and gifts.
(ll. 50-51) There came also by ship from Crete to the house of the son of Oebalus strong Lycomedes for rich-haired Helen’s sake.
Berlin Papyri, No. 10560: (ll. 52-54) . . . sought her to wife. And after golden-haired Menelaus he offered the greatest gifts of all the suitors, and very much he desired in his heart to be the husband of Argive Helen with the rich hair.
(ll. 55-62) And from Salamis Aias, blameless warrior, sought her to wife, and offered fitting gifts, even wonderful deeds; for he said that he would drive together and give the shambling oxen and strong sheep of all those who lived in Troezen and Epidaurus near the sea, and in the island of Aegina and in Mases, sons of the Achaeans, and shadowy Megara and frowning Corinthus, and Hermione and Asine which lie along the sea; for he was famous with the long spear.
(ll. 63-66) But from Euboea Elephenor, leader of men, the son of Chalcodon, prince of the bold Abantes, sought her to wife. And he offered very many gifts, and greatly he desired in his heart to be the husband of rich-haired Helen.
(ll. 67-74) And from Crete the mighty Idomeneus sought her to wife, Deucalion’s son, offspring of renowned Minos. He sent no one to woo her in his place, but came himself in his black ship of many thwarts over the Ogygian sea across the dark wave to the home of wise Tyndareus, to see Argive Helen and that no one else should bring back for him the girl whose renown spread all over the holy earth.
(l. 75) And at the prompting of Zeus the all-wise came.
((LACUNA— Thirteen lines lost.))
(ll. 89-100) But of all who came for the maid’s sake, the lord Tyndareus sent none away, nor yet received the gift of any, but asked of all the suitors sure oaths, and bade them swear and vow with unmixed libations that no one else henceforth should do aught apart from him as touching the marriage of the maid with shapely arms; but if any man should cast off fear and reverence and take her by force, he bade all the others together follow after and make him pay the penalty. And they, each of them hoping to accomplish his marriage, obeyed him without wavering. But warlike Menelaus, the son of Atreus, prevailed against them all together, because he gave the greatest gifts.
(ll. 100-106) But Chiron was tending the son of Peleus, swift-footed Achilles, pre-eminent among men, on woody Pelion; for he was still a boy. For neither warlike Menelaus nor any other of men on earth would have prevailed in suit for Helen, if fleet Achilles had found her unwed. But, as it was, warlike Menelaus won her before.
(ll. 1-2) And she (Helen) bare neat-ankled Hermione in the palace, a child unlooked for.
(ll. 2-13) Now all the gods were divided through strife; for at that very time Zeus who thunders on high was meditating marvellous deeds, even to mingle storm and tempest over the boundless earth, and already he was hastening to make an utter end of the race of mortal men, declaring that he would destroy the lives of the demi-gods, that the children of the gods should not mate with wretched mortals, seeing their fate with their own eyes; but that the blessed gods henceforth even as aforetime should have their living and their habitations apart from men. But on those who were born of immortals and of mankind verily Zeus laid toil and sorrow upon sorrow.
((LACUNA— Two lines missing.))
(ll. 16-30) . . . . nor any one of men. . . . . . . . should go upon black ships. . . . . . . . to be strongest in the might of his hands. . . . . . . . of mortal men declaring to all those things that were, and those that are, and those that shall be, he brings to pass and glorifies the counsels of his father Zeus who drives the clouds. For no one, either of the blessed gods or of mortal men, knew surely that he would contrive through the sword to send to Hades full many a one of heroes fallen in strife. But at that time he knew not as yet the intent of his father’s mind, and how men delight in protecting their children from doom. And he delighted in the desire of his mighty father’s heart who rules powerfully over men.
(ll. 31-43) From stately trees the fair leaves fell in abundance fluttering down to the ground, and the fruit fell to the ground because Boreas blew very fiercely at the behest of Zeus; the deep seethed and all things trembled at his blast: the strength of mankind consumed away and the fruit failed in the season of spring, at that time when the Hairless One 44 in a secret place in the mountains gets three young every three years. In spring he dwells upon the mountain among tangled thickets and brushwood, keeping afar from and hating the path of men, in the glens and wooded glades. But when winter comes on, he lies in a close cave beneath the earth and covers himself with piles of luxuriant leaves, a dread serpent whose back is speckled with awful spots.
(ll. 44-50) But when he becomes violent and fierce unspeakably, the arrows of Zeus lay him low. . . . Only his soul is left on the holy earth, and that fits gibbering about a small unformed den. And it comes enfeebled to sacrifices beneath the broad-pathed earth. . . . and it lies. . . . ’
((LACUNA— Traces of 37 following lines.))
Tzetzes 45, Exeg. Iliad. 68. 19H:
Agamemnon and Menelaus likewise according to Hesiod and Aeschylus are regarded as the sons of Pleisthenes, Atreus’ son. And according to Hesiod, Pleisthenes was a son of Atreus and Aerope, and Agamemnon, Menelaus and Anaxibia were the children of Pleisthenes and Cleolla the daughter of Dias.
Laurentian Scholiast on Sophocles’ Electra, 539:
‘And she (Helen) bare to Menelaus, famous with the spear, Hermione and her youngest-born, Nicostratus, a scion of Ares.’
Pausanias, i. 43. 1:
I know that Hesiod in the “Catalogue of Women” represented that Iphigeneia was not killed but, by the will of Artemis, became Hecate 46.
Eustathius, Hom. 13. 44. sq:
Butes, it is said, was a son of Poseidon: so Hesiod in the “Catalogue”.
Pausanias, ii. 6. 5:
Hesiod represented Sicyon as the son of Erechtheus.
Plato, Minos, p. 320. D:
‘(Minos) who was most kingly of mortal kings and reigned over very many people dwelling round about, holding the sceptre of Zeus wherewith he ruled many.’
The athletic contest in memory of Eurygyes Melesagorus says that Androgeos the son of Minos was called Eurygyes, and that a contest in his honour is held near his tomb at Athens in the Ceramicus. And Hesiod writes: ‘And Eurygyes 48, while yet a lad in holy Athens . . . ’
Plutarch, Theseus 20:
There are many tales. . . . about Ariadne. . . ., how that she was deserted by Theseua for love of another woman: ‘For strong love for Aegle the daughter of Panopeus overpowered him.’ For Hereas of Megara says that Peisistratus removed this verse from the works of Hesiod.
Athenaeus 49, xiii. 557 A: But Hesiod says that Theseus wedded both Hippe and Aegle lawfully.
Strabo, ix. p. 393:
The snake of Cychreus: Hesiod says that it was brought up by Cychreus, and was driven out by Eurylochus as defiling the island, but that Demeter received it into Eleusis, and that it became her attendant.
Argument I. to the Shield of Heracles:
But Apollonius of Rhodes says that it (the “Shield of Heracles”) is Hesiod’s both from the general character of the work and from the fact that in the “Catalogue” we again find Iolaus as charioteer of Heracles.
Scholiast on Soph. Trach., 266:
(ll. 1-6) ‘And fair-girdled Stratonica conceived and bare in the palace Eurytus her well-loved son. Of him sprang sons, Didaeon and Clytius and god-like Toxeus and Iphitus, a scion of Ares. And after these Antiope the queen, daughter of the aged son of Nauboius, bare her youngest child, golden-haired Iolea.’
Herodian in Etymologicum Magnum:
‘Who bare Autolycus and Philammon, famous in speech. . . . All things that he (Autolyeus) took in his hands, he made to disappear.’
Apollonius, Hom. Lexicon:
‘Aepytus again, begot Tlesenor and Peirithous.’
Strabo, vii. p. 322:
‘For Locrus truly was leader of the Lelegian people, whom Zeus the Son of Cronos, whose wisdom is unfailing, gave to Deucalion, stones gathered out of the earth. So out of stones mortal men were made, and they were called people.’ 50
Tzetzes, Schol. in Exeg. Iliad. 126:
‘ . . . Ileus whom the lord Apollo, son of Zeus, loved. And he named him by his name, because he found a nymph complaisant 51 and was joined with her in sweet love, on that day when Poseidon and Apollo raised high the wall of the well-built city.’
Scholiast on Homer, Od. xi. 326:
Clymene the daughter of Minyas the son of Poseidon and of Euryanassa, Hyperphas’ daughter, was wedded to Phylacus the son of Deion, and bare Iphiclus, a boy fleet of foot. It is said of him that through his power of running he could race the winds and could move along upon the ears of corn 52. . . . The tale is in Hesiod: ‘He would run over the fruit of the asphodel and not break it; nay, he would run with his feet upon wheaten ears and not hurt the fruit.’
Choeroboscus 53, i. 123, 22H:
‘And she bare a son Thoas.’
Eustathius, Hom. 1623. 44:
Maro 54, whose father, it is said, Hesiod relates to have been Euanthes the son of Oenopion, the son of Dionysus.
Athenaeus, x. 428 B, C:
‘Such gifts as Dionysus gave to men, a joy and a sorrow both. Who ever drinks to fullness, in him wine becomes violent and binds together his hands and feet, his tongue also and his wits with fetters unspeakable: and soft sleep embraces him.’
Strabo, ix. p. 442:
‘Or like her (Coronis) who lived by the holy Twin Hills in the plain of Dotium over against Amyrus rich in grapes, and washed her feet in the Boebian lake, a maid unwed.’
Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. iii. 48:
‘To him, then, there came a messenger from the sacred feast to goodly Pytho, a crow 55, and he told unshorn Phoebus of secret deeds, that Ischys son of Elatus had wedded Coronis the daughter of Phlegyas of birth divine.
Athenagoras 56, Petition for the Christians, 29:
Concerning Asclepius Hesiod says: ‘And the father of men and gods was wrath, and from Olympus he smote the son of Leto with a lurid thunderbolt and killed him, arousing the anger of Phoebus.’
Philodemus, On Piety, 34:
But Hesiod (says that Apollo) would have been cast by Zeus into Tartarus 57; but Leto interceded for him, and he became bondman to a mortal.
Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. ix. 6:
‘Or like her, beautiful Cyrene, who dwelt in Phthia by the water of Peneus and had the beauty of the Graces.’
Servius on Vergil, Georg. i. 14:
He invoked Aristaeus, that is, the son of Apollo and Cyrene, whom Hesiod calls ‘the shepherd Apollo.’ 58
Scholiast on Vergil, Georg. iv. 361:
‘But the water stood all round him, bowed into the semblance of a mountain.’ This verse he has taken over from Hesiod’s “Catalogue of Women”.
Scholiast on Homer, Iliad ii. 469:
‘Or like her (Antiope) whom Boeotian Hyria nurtured as a maid.’
Palaephatus 59, c. 42:
Of Zethus and Amphion. Hesiod and some others relate that they built the walls of Thebes by playing on the lyre.
Scholiast on Soph. Trach., 1167:
(ll. 1-11) ‘There is a land Ellopia with much glebe and rich meadows, and rich in flocks and shambling kine. There dwell men who have many sheep and many oxen, and they are in number past telling, tribes of mortal men. And there upon its border is built a city, Dodona 60; and Zeus loved it and (appointed) it to be his oracle, reverenced by men. . . . . . . . And they (the doves) lived in the hollow of an oak. From them men of earth carry away all kinds of prophecy, — whosoever fares to that spot and questions the deathless god, and comes bringing gifts with good omens.’
Berlin Papyri, No. 9777: 61
(ll. 1-22) ‘. . . . strife. . . . Of mortals who would have dared to fight him with the spear and charge against him, save only Heracles, the great-hearted offspring of Alcaeus? Such an one was (?) strong Meleager loved of Ares, the golden-haired, dear son of Oeneus and Althaea. From his fierce eyes there shone forth portentous fire: and once in high Calydon he slew the destroying beast, the fierce wild boar with gleaming tusks. In war and in dread strife no man of the heroes dared to face him and to approach and fight with him when he appeared in the forefront. But he was slain by the hands and arrows of Apollo 62, while he was fighting with the Curetes for pleasant Calydon. And these others (Althaea) bare to Oeneus, Porthaon’s son; horse-taming Pheres, and Agelaus surpassing all others, Toxeus and Clymenus and godlike Periphas, and rich-haired Gorga and wise Deianeira, who was subject in love to mighty Heracles and bare him Hyllus and Glenus and Ctesippus and Odites. These she bare and in ignorance she did a fearful thing: when (she had received). . . . the poisoned robe that held black doom. . . . ’
Scholiast on Homer, Iliad. xxiii. 679:
And yet Hesiod says that after he had died in Thebes, Argeia the daughter of Adrastus together with others (cp. frag. 99) came to the lamentation over Oedipus.
Papyri greci e latine, No. 131 (2nd-3rd century): 64
(ll. 1-10) ‘And (Eriphyle) bare in the palace Alcmaon 65, shepherd of the people, to Amphiaraus. Him (Amphiaraus) did the Cadmean (Theban) women with trailing robes admire when they saw face to face his eyes and well-grown frame, as he was busied about the burying of Oedipus, the man of many woes. . . . . Once the Danai, servants of Ares, followed him to Thebes, to win renown. . . . . . . . for Polynices. But, though well he knew from Zeus all things ordained, the earth yawned and swallowed him up with his horses and jointed chariot, far from deep-eddying Alpheus.
(ll. 11-20) But Electyron married the all-beauteous daughter of Pelops and, going up into one bed with her, the son of Perses begat. . . . . . . . and Phylonomus and Celaeneus and Amphimachus and. . . . . . . . and Eurybius and famous. . . . All these the Taphians, famous shipmen, slew in fight for oxen with shambling hoofs,. . . . . . . . in ships across the sea’s wide back. So Alcmena alone was left to delight her parents. . . . . . . . and the daughter of Electryon. . . .
(l. 21) . . . . who was subject in love to the dark-clouded son of Cronos and bare (famous Heracles).’
Argument to the Shield of Heracles, i:
The beginning of the “Shield” as far as the 56th verse is current in the fourth “Catalogue”.
Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1359 fr. 1 (early 3rd cent. A.D.):
((LACUNA— Slight remains of 3 lines))
(ll. 4-17) ‘ . . . if indeed he (Teuthras) delayed, and if he feared to obey the word of the immortals who then appeared plainly to them. But her (Auge) he received and brought up well, and cherished in the palace, honouring her even as his own daughters.
And Auge bare Telephus of the stock of Areas, king of the Mysians, being joined in love with the mighty Heracles when he was journeying in quest of the horses of proud Laomedon — horses the fleetest of foot that the Asian land nourished, — and destroyed in battle the tribe of the dauntless Amazons and drove them forth from all that land. But Telephus routed the spearmen of the bronze-clad Achaeans and made them embark upon their black ships. Yet when he had brought down many to the ground which nourishes men, his own might and deadliness were brought low. . . . ’
Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1359 fr. 2 (early 3rd cent. A.D.):
((LACUNA— Remains of 4 lines))
(ll. 5-16) ‘. . . . Electra. . . . was subject to the dark-clouded Son of Cronos and bare Dardanus. . . . and Eetion. . . . who once greatly loved rich-haired Demeter. And cloud-gathering Zeus was wroth and smote him, Eetion, and laid him low with a flaming thunderbolt, because he sought to lay hands upon rich-haired Demeter. But Dardanus came to the coast of the mainland — from him Erichthonius and thereafter Tros were sprung, and Ilus, and Assaracus, and godlike Ganymede, — when he had left holy Samothrace in his many-benched ship.
Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1359 fr. 3 (early 3rd cent. A.D.): (ll. 17-24) 66 . . . . Cleopatra . . . . the daughter of. . . . . . . . But an eagle caught up Ganymede for Zeus because he vied with the immortals in beauty. . . . . . . . rich-tressed Diomede; and she bare Hyacinthus, the blameless one and strong. . . . . . . . whom, on a time Phoebus himself slew unwittingly with a ruthless disk. . . .
1 A catalogue of heroines each of whom was introduced with the words E OIE, ‘Or like her’.
2 An antiquarian writer of Byzantium, c. 490-570 A.D.
3 Constantine VII. ‘Born in the Porphyry Chamber’, 905-959 A.D.
4 “Berlin Papyri”, 7497 (left-hand fragment) and “Oxyrhynchus Papyri”, 421 (right-hand fragment). For the restoration see “Class. Quart.” vii. 217-8.
5 As the price to be given to her father for her: so in “Iliad” xviii. 593 maidens are called ‘earners of oxen’. Possibly Glaucus, like Aias (fr. 68, ll. 55 ff.), raided the cattle of others.
6 i.e. Glaucus should father the children of others. The curse of Aphrodite on the daughters of Tyndareus (fr. 67) may be compared.
7 Porphyry, scholar, mathematician, philosopher and historian, lived 233-305 (?) A.D. He was a pupil of the neo-Platonist Plotinus.
8 Author of a geographical lexicon, produced after 400 A.D., and abridged under Justinian.
9 Archbishop of Thessalonica 1175-1192 (?) A.D., author of commentaries on Pindar and on the “Iliad” and “Odyssey”.
10 In the earliest times a loin-cloth was worn by athletes, but was discarded after the 14th Olympiad.
11 Slight remains of five lines precede line 1 in the original: after line 20 an unknown number of lines have been lost, and traces of a verse preceding line 21 are here omitted. Between lines 29 and 30 are fragments of six verses which do not suggest any definite restoration.
12 The end of Schoeneus’ speech, the preparations and the beginning of the race are lost.
13 Of the three which Aphrodite gave him to enable him to overcome Atalanta.
14 The geographer; fl. c.24 B.C.
15 Of Miletus, flourished about 520 B.C. His work, a mixture of history and geography, was used by Herodotus.
16 The Hesiodic story of the daughters of Proetus can be reconstructed from these sources. They were sought in marriage by all the Greeks (Pauhellenes), but having offended Dionysus (or, according to Servius, Juno), were afflicted with a disease which destroyed their beauty (or were turned into cows). They were finally healed by Melampus.
17 Fl. 56-88 A.D.: he is best known for his work on Vergil.
18 This fragment as well as fragments #40A, #101, and #102 were added by Mr. Evelyn-White in an appendix to the second edition (1919). They are here moved to the “Catalogues” proper for easier use by the reader.
19 For the restoration of ll. 1-16 see “Ox. Pap.” pt. xi. pp. 46-7: the supplements of ll. 17-31 are by the Translator (cp. “Class. Quart.” x. (1916), pp. 65-67).
20 The crocus was to attract Europa, as in the very similar story of Persephone: cp. “Homeric Hymns” ii. lines 8 ff.
21 Apollodorus of Athens (fl. 144 B.C.) was a pupil of Aristarchus. He wrote a Handbook of Mythology, from which the extant work bearing his name is derived.
22 Priest at Praeneste. He lived c. 170-230 A.D.
23 Son of Apollonius Dyscolus, lived in Rome under Marcus Aurelius. His chief work was on accentuation.
24 Sacred to Poseidon. For the custom observed there, cp. “Homeric Hymns” iii. 231 ff.
25 The allusion is obscure.
26 Apollonius ‘the Crabbed’ was a grammarian of Alexandria under Hadrian. He wrote largely on Grammar and Syntax.
27 275-195 (?) B.C., mathematician, astronomer, scholar, and head of the Library of Alexandria.
28 Of Cyme. He wrote a universal history covering the period between the Dorian Migration and 340 B.C.
29 i.e. the nomad Scythians, who are described by Herodotus as feeding on mares’ milk and living in caravans.
30 The restorations are mainly those adopted or suggested in “Ox. Pap.” pt. xi. pp. 48 ff.: for those of ll. 8-14 see “Class. Quart.” x. (1916) pp. 67-69.
31 i.e. those who seek to outwit the oracle, or to ask of it more than they ought, will be deceived by it and be led to ruin: cp. “Hymn to Hermes”, 541 ff.
32 Zetes and Calais, sons of Boreas, who were amongst the Argonauts, delivered Phineus from the Harpies. The Strophades (‘Islands of Turning’) are here supposed to have been so called because the sons of Boreas were there turned back by Iris from pursuing the Harpies.
33 An Epicurean philosopher, fl. 50 B.C.
34 ‘Charming-with-her-voice’ (or ‘Charming-the-mind’), ‘Song’, and ‘Lovely-sounding’.
35 Diodorus Siculus, fl. 8 B.C., author of an universal history ending with Caesar’s Gallic Wars.
36 The first epic in the “Trojan Cycle”; like all ancient epics it was ascribed to Homer, but also, with more probability, to Stasinus of Cyprus.
37 This fragment is placed by Spohn after “Works and Days” l. 120.
38 A Greek of Asia Minor, author of the “Description of Greece” (on which he was still engaged in 173 A.D.).
39 Wilamowitz thinks one or other of these citations belongs to the Catalogue.
40 Lines 1-51 are from Berlin Papyri, 9739; lines 52-106 with B. 1-50 (and following fragments) are from Berlin Papyri, 10560. A reference by Pausanias (iii. 24. 10) to ll. 100 ff. proves that the two fragments together come from the “Catalogue of Women”. The second book (the beginning of which is indicated after l. 106) can hardly be the second book of the “Catalogues” proper: possibly it should be assigned to the EOIAI, which were sometimes treated as part of the “Catalogues”, and sometimes separated from it. The remains of thirty-seven lines following B. 50 in the Papyrus are too slight to admit of restoration.
41 sc. the Suitor whose name is lost.
42 Wooing was by proxy; so Agamemnon wooed Helen for his brother Menelaus (ll. 14-15), and Idomeneus, who came in person and sent no deputy, is specially mentioned as an exception, and the reasons for this — if the restoration printed in the text be right — is stated (ll. 69 ff.).
43 The Papyrus here marks the beginning of a second book (“B”), possibly of the EOIAE. The passage (ll. 2-50) probably led up to an account of the Trojan (and Theban?) war, in which, according to “Works and Days” ll. 161-166, the Race of Heroes perished. The opening of the “Cypria” is somewhat similar. Somewhere in the fragmentary lines 13-19 a son of Zeus — almost certainly Apollo — was introduced, though for what purpose is not clear. With l. 31 the destruction of man (cp. ll. 4-5) by storms which spoil his crops begins: the remaining verses are parenthetical, describing the snake ‘which bears its young in the spring season’.
44 i.e. the snake; as in “Works and Days” l. 524, the “Boneless One” is the cuttle-fish.
45 c. 1110-1180 A.D. His chief work was a poem, “Chiliades”, in accentual verse of nearly 13,000 lines.
46 According to this account Iphigeneia was carried by Artemis to the Taurie Chersonnese (the Crimea). The Tauri (Herodotus iv. 103) identified their maiden-goddess with Iphigeneia; but Euripides (“Iphigeneia in Tauris”) makes her merely priestess of the goddess.
47 Of Alexandria. He lived in the 5th century, and compiled a Greek Lexicon.
48 For his murder Minos exacted a yearly tribute of boys and girls, to be devoured by the Minotaur, from the Athenians.
49 Of Naucratis. His “Deipnosophistae” (“Dons at Dinner”) is an encyclopaedia of miscellaneous topics in the form of a dialogue. His date is c. 230 A.D.
50 There is a fancied connection between LAAS (‘stone’) and LAOS (‘people’). The reference is to the stones which Deucalion and Pyrrha transformed into men and women after the Flood.
51 Eustathius identifies Ileus with Oileus, father of Aias. Here again is fanciful etymology, ILEUS being similar to ILEOS (complaisant, gracious).
52 Imitated by Vergil, “Aeneid” vii. 808, describing Camilla.
53 c. 600 A.D., a lecturer and grammarian of Constantinople.
54 Priest of Apollo, and, according to Homer, discoverer of wine. Maronea in Thrace is said to have been called after him.
55 The crow was originally white, but was turned black by Apollo in his anger at the news brought by the bird.
56 A philosopher of Athens under Hadrian and Antonius. He became a Christian and wrote a defence of the Christians addressed to Antoninus Pius.
57 Zeus slew Asclepus (fr. 90) because of his success as a healer, and Apollo in revenge killed the Cyclopes (fr. 64). In punishment Apollo was forced to serve Admetus as herdsman. (Cp. Euripides, “Alcestis”, 1-8)
58 For Cyrene and Aristaeus, cp. Vergil, “Georgics”, iv. 315 ff.
59 A writer on mythology of uncertain date.
60 In Epirus. The oracle was first consulted by Deucalion and Pyrrha after the Flood. Later writers say that the god responded in the rustling of leaves in the oaks for which the place was famous.
61 The fragment is part of a leaf from a papyrus book of the 4th century A.D.
62 According to Homer and later writers Meleager wasted away when his mother Althea burned the brand on which his life depended, because he had slain her brothers in the dispute for the hide of the Calydonian boar. (Cp. Bacchylides, “Ode” v. 136 ff.)
63 The fragment probably belongs to the “Catalogues” proper rather than to the Eoiae; but, as its position is uncertain, it may conveniently be associated with Frags. 99A and the “Shield of Heracles”.
64 Most of the smaller restorations appear in the original publication, but the larger are new: these last are highly conjectual, there being no definite clue to the general sense.
65 Alcmaon (who took part in the second of the two heroic Theban expeditions) is perhaps mentioned only incidentally as the son of Amphiaraus, who seems to be clearly indicated in ll. 7-8, and whose story occupies ll. 5-10. At l. 11 the subject changes and Electryon is introduced as father of Alcmena.
66 The association of ll. 1-16 with ll. 17-24 is presumed from the apparent mention of Erichthonius in l. 19. A new section must then begin at l. 21. See “Ox. Pap.” pt. xi. p. 55 (and for restoration of ll. 5-16, ib. p. 53). ll. 19-20 are restored by the Translator.
(ll. 1-27) Or like her who left home and country and came to Thebes, following warlike Amphitryon, — even Alcmena, the daughter of Electyron, gatherer of the people. She surpassed the tribe of womankind in beauty and in height; and in wisdom none vied with her of those whom mortal women bare of union with mortal men. Her face and her dark eyes wafted such charm as comes from golden Aphrodite. And she so honoured her husband in her heart as none of womankind did before her. Verily he had slain her noble father violently when he was angry about oxen; so he left his own country and came to Thebes and was suppliant to the shield-carrying men of Cadmus. There he dwelt with his modest wife without the joys of love, nor might he go in unto the neat-ankled daughter of Electyron until he had avenged the death of his wife’s great-hearted brothers and utterly burned with blazing fire the villages of the heroes, the Taphians and Teleboans; for this thing was laid upon him, and the gods were witnesses to it. And he feared their anger, and hastened to perform the great task to which Zeus had bound him. With him went the horse-driving Boeotians, breathing above their shields, and the Locrians who fight hand to hand, and the gallant Phocians eager for war and battle. And the noble son of Alcaeus led them, rejoicing in his host.
(ll. 27-55) But the father of men and gods was forming another scheme in his heart, to beget one to defend against destruction gods and men who eat bread. So he arose from Olympus by night pondering guile in the deep of his heart, and yearned for the love of the well-girded woman. Quickly he came to Typhaonium, and from there again wise Zeus went on and trod the highest peak of Phicium 1: there he sat and planned marvellous things in his heart. So in one night Zeus shared the bed and love of the neat-ankled daughter of Electyron and fulfilled his desire; and in the same night Amphitryon, gatherer of the people, the glorious hero, came to his house when he had ended his great task. He hastened not to go to his bondmen and shepherds afield, but first went in unto his wife: such desire took hold on the shepherd of the people. And as a man who has escaped joyfully from misery, whether of sore disease or cruel bondage, so then did Amphitryon, when he had wound up all his heavy task, come glad and welcome to his home. And all night long he lay with his modest wife, delighting in the gifts of golden Aphrodite. And she, being subject in love to a god and to a man exceeding goodly, brought forth twin sons in seven-gated Thebe. Though they were brothers, these were not of one spirit; for one was weaker but the other a far better man, one terrible and strong, the mighty Heracles. Him she bare through the embrace of the son of Cronos lord of dark clouds and the other, Iphiclus, of Amphitryon the spear-wielder — offspring distinct, this one of union with a mortal man, but that other of union with Zeus, leader of all the gods.
(ll. 57-77) And he slew Cycnus, the gallant son of Ares. For he found him in the close of far-shooting Apollo, him and his father Ares, never sated with war. Their armour shone like a flame of blazing fire as they two stood in their car: their swift horses struck the earth and pawed it with their hoofs, and the dust rose like smoke about them, pounded by the chariot wheels and the horses’ hoofs, while the well-made chariot and its rails rattled around them as the horses plunged. And blameless Cycnus was glad, for he looked to slay the warlike son of Zeus and his charioteer with the sword, and to strip off their splendid armour. But Phoebus Apollo would not listen to his vaunts, for he himself had stirred up mighty Heracles against him. And all the grove and altar of Pagasaean Apollo flamed because of the dread god and because of his arms; for his eyes flashed as with fire. What mortal men would have dared to meet him face to face save Heracles and glorious Iolaus? For great was their strength and unconquerable were the arms which grew from their shoulders on their strong limbs. Then Heracles spake to his charioteer strong Iolaus:
(ll. 78-94) ‘O hero Iolaus, best beloved of all men, truly Amphitryon sinned deeply against the blessed gods who dwell on Olympus when he came to sweet-crowned Thebe and left Tiryns, the well-built citadel, because he slew Electryon for the sake of his wide-browned oxen. Then he came to Creon and long-robed Eniocha, who received him kindly and gave him all fitting things, as is due to suppliants, and honoured him in their hearts even more. And he lived joyfully with his wife the neat-ankled daughter of Electyron: and presently, while the years rolled on, we were born, unlike in body as in mind, even your father and I. From him Zeus took away sense, so that he left his home and his parents and went to do honour to the wicked Eurystheus — unhappy man! Deeply indeed did he grieve afterwards in bearing the burden of his own mad folly; but that cannot be taken back. But on me fate laid heavy tasks.
(ll. 95-101) ‘Yet, come, friend, quickly take the red-dyed reins of the swift horses and raise high courage in your heart and guide the swift chariot and strong fleet-footed horses straight on. Have no secret fear at the noise of man-slaying Ares who now rages shouting about the holy grove of Phoebus Apollo, the lord who shoots form afar. Surely, strong though he be, he shall have enough of war.’
(ll. 102-114) And blameless Iolaus answered him again: ‘Good friend, truly the father of men and gods greatly honours your head and the bull-like Earth-Shaker also, who keeps Thebe’s veil of walls and guards the city, — so great and strong is this fellow they bring into your hands that you may win great glory. But come, put on your arms of war that with all speed we may bring the car of Ares and our own together and fight; for he shall not frighten the dauntless son of Zeus, nor yet the son of Iphiclus: rather, I think he will flee before the two sons of blameless Alcides who are near him and eager to raise the war cry for battle; for this they love better than a feast.’
(ll. 115-117) So he said. And mighty Heracles was glad in heart and smiled, for the other’s words pleased him well, and he answered him with winged words:
(ll. 118-121) ‘O hero Iolaus, heaven-sprung, now is rough battle hard at hand. But, as you have shown your skill at other-times, so now also wheel the great black-maned horse Arion about every way, and help me as you may be able.’
(ll. 122-138) So he said, and put upon his legs greaves of shining bronze, the splendid gift of Hephaestus. Next he fastened about his breast a fine golden breast-plate, curiously wrought, which Pallas Athene the daughter of Zeus had given him when first he was about to set out upon his grievous labours. Over his shoulders the fierce warrior put the steel that saves men from doom, and across his breast he slung behind him a hollow quiver. Within it were many chilling arrows, dealers of death which makes speech forgotten: in front they had death, and trickled with tears; their shafts were smooth and very long; and their butts were covered with feathers of a brown eagle. And he took his strong spear, pointed with shining bronze, and on his valiant head set a well-made helm of adamant, cunningly wrought, which fitted closely on the temples; and that guarded the head of god-like Heracles.
(ll. 139-153) In his hands he took his shield, all glittering: no one ever broke it with a blow or crushed it. And a wonder it was to see; for its whole orb was a-shimmer with enamel and white ivory and electrum, and it glowed with shining gold; and there were zones of cyanus 2 drawn upon it. In the centre was Fear worked in adamant, unspeakable, staring backwards with eyes that glowed with fire. His mouth was full of teeth in a white row, fearful and daunting, and upon his grim brow hovered frightful Strife who arrays the throng of men: pitiless she, for she took away the mind and senses of poor wretches who made war against the son of Zeus. Their souls passed beneath the earth and went down into the house of Hades; but their bones, when the skin is rotted about them, crumble away on the dark earth under parching Sirius.
(ll. 154-160) Upon the shield Pursuit and Flight were wrought, and Tumult, and Panic, and Slaughter. Strife also, and Uproar were hurrying about, and deadly Fate was there holding one man newly wounded, and another unwounded; and one, who was dead, she was dragging by the feet through the tumult. She had on her shoulders a garment red with the blood of men, and terribly she glared and gnashed her teeth.
(ll. 160-167) And there were heads of snakes unspeakably frightful, twelve of them; and they used to frighten the tribes of men on earth whosoever made war against the son of Zeus; for they would clash their teeth when Amphitryon’s son was fighting: and brightly shone these wonderful works. And it was as though there were spots upon the frightful snakes: and their backs were dark blue and their jaws were black.
(ll. 168-177) Also there were upon the shield droves of boars and lions who glared at each other, being furious and eager: the rows of them moved on together, and neither side trembled but both bristled up their manes. For already a great lion lay between them and two boars, one on either side, bereft of life, and their dark blood was dripping down upon the ground; they lay dead with necks outstretched beneath the grim lions. And both sides were roused still more to fight because they were angry, the fierce boars and the bright-eyed lions.
(ll. 178-190) And there was the strife of the Lapith spearmen gathered round the prince Caeneus and Dryas and Peirithous, with Hopleus, Exadius, Phalereus, and Prolochus, Mopsus the son of Ampyce of Titaresia, a scion of Ares, and Theseus, the son of Aegeus, like unto the deathless gods. These were of silver, and had armour of gold upon their bodies. And the Centaurs were gathered against them on the other side with Petraeus and Asbolus the diviner, Arctus, and Ureus, and black-haired Mimas, and the two sons of silver, and they had pinetrees of gold in their hands, and they were rushing together as though they were alive and striking at one another hand to hand with spears and with pines.
(ll. 191-196) And on the shield stood the fleet-footed horses of grim Ares made gold, and deadly Ares the spoil-winner himself. He held a spear in his hands and was urging on the footmen: he was red with blood as if he were slaying living men, and he stood in his chariot. Beside him stood Fear and Flight, eager to plunge amidst the fighting men.
(ll. 197-200) There, too, was the daughter of Zeus, Tritogeneia who drives the spoil 3. She was like as if she would array a battle, with a spear in her hand, and a golden helmet, and the aegis about her shoulders. And she was going towards the awful strife.
(ll. 201-206) And there was the holy company of the deathless gods: and in the midst the son of Zeus and Leto played sweetly on a golden lyre. There also was the abode of the gods, pure Olympus, and their assembly, and infinite riches were spread around in the gathering, the Muses of Pieria were beginning a song like clear-voiced singers.
(ll. 207-215) And on the shield was a harbour with a safe haven from the irresistible sea, made of refined tin wrought in a circle, and it seemed to heave with waves. In the middle of it were many dolphins rushing this way and that, fishing: and they seemed to be swimming. Two dolphins of silver were spouting and devouring the mute fishes. And beneath them fishes of bronze were trembling. And on the shore sat a fisherman watching: in his hands he held a casting net for fish, and seemed as if about to cast it forth.
(ll. 216-237) There, too, was the son of rich-haired Danae, the horseman Perseus: his feet did not touch the shield and yet were not far from it — very marvellous to remark, since he was not supported anywhere; for so did the famous Lame One fashion him of gold with his hands. On his feet he had winged sandals, and his black-sheathed sword was slung across his shoulders by a cross-belt of bronze. He was flying swift as thought. The head of a dreadful monster, the Gorgon, covered the broad of his back, and a bag of silver — a marvel to see — contained it: and from the bag bright tassels of gold hung down. Upon the head of the hero lay the dread cap 4 of Hades which had the awful gloom of night. Perseus himself, the son of Danae, was at full stretch, like one who hurries and shudders with horror. And after him rushed the Gorgons, unapproachable and unspeakable, longing to seize him: as they trod upon the pale adamant, the shield rang sharp and clear with a loud clanging. Two serpents hung down at their girdles with heads curved forward: their tongues were flickering, and their teeth gnashing with fury, and their eyes glaring fiercely. And upon the awful heads of the Gorgons great Fear was quaking.
(ll. 237-270) And beyond these there were men fighting in warlike harness, some defending their own town and parents from destruction, and others eager to sack it; many lay dead, but the greater number still strove and fought. The women on well-built towers of bronze were crying shrilly and tearing their cheeks like living beings — the work of famous Hephaestus. And the men who were elders and on whom age had laid hold were all together outside the gates, and were holding up their hands to the blessed gods, fearing for their own sons. But these again were engaged in battle: and behind them the dusky Fates, gnashing their white fangs, lowering, grim, bloody, and unapproachable, struggled for those who were falling, for they all were longing to drink dark blood. So soon as they caught a man overthrown or falling newly wounded, one of them would clasp her great claws about him, and his soul would go down to Hades to chilly Tartarus. And when they had satisfied their souls with human blood, they would cast that one behind them, and rush back again into the tumult and the fray. Clotho and Lachesis were over them and Atropos less tall than they, a goddess of no great frame, yet superior to the others and the eldest of them. And they all made a fierce fight over one poor wretch, glaring evilly at one another with furious eyes and fighting equally with claws and hands. By them stood Darkness of Death, mournful and fearful, pale, shrivelled, shrunk with hunger, swollen-kneed. Long nails tipped her hands, and she dribbled at the nose, and from her cheeks blood dripped down to the ground. She stood leering hideously, and much dust sodden with tears lay upon her shoulders.
(ll. 270-285) Next, there was a city of men with goodly towers; and seven gates of gold, fitted to the lintels, guarded it. The men were making merry with festivities and dances; some were bringing home a bride to her husband on a well-wheeled car, while the bridal-song swelled high, and the glow of blazing torches held by handmaidens rolled in waves afar. And these maidens went before, delighting in the festival; and after them came frolicsome choirs, the youths singing soft-mouthed to the sound of shrill pipes, while the echo was shivered around them, and the girls led on the lovely dance to the sound of lyres. Then again on the other side was a rout of young men revelling, with flutes playing; some frolicking with dance and song, and others were going forward in time with a flute player and laughing. The whole town was filled with mirth and dance and festivity.
(ll. 285-304) Others again were mounted on horseback and galloping before the town. And there were ploughmen breaking up the good soil, clothed in tunics girt up. Also there was a wide cornland and some men were reaping with sharp hooks the stalks which bended with the weight of the cars — as if they were reaping Demeter’s grain: others were binding the sheaves with bands and were spreading the threshing floor. And some held reaping hooks and were gathering the vintage, while others were taking from the reapers into baskets white and black clusters from the long rows of vines which were heavy with leaves and tendrils of silver. Others again were gathering them into baskets. Beside them was a row of vines in gold, the splendid work of cunning Hephaestus: it had shivering leaves and stakes of silver and was laden with grapes which turned black 5. And there were men treading out the grapes and others drawing off liquor. Also there were men boxing and wrestling, and huntsmen chasing swift hares with a leash of sharp-toothed dogs before them, they eager to catch the hares, and the hares eager to escape.
(ll 305-313) Next to them were horsemen hard set, and they contended and laboured for a prize. The charioteers standing on their well-woven cars, urged on their swift horses with loose rein; the jointed cars flew along clattering and the naves of the wheels shrieked loudly. So they were engaged in an unending toil, and the end with victory came never to them, and the contest was ever unwon. And there was set out for them within the course a great tripod of gold, the splendid work of cunning Hephaestus.
(ll. 314-317) And round the rim Ocean was flowing, with a full stream as it seemed, and enclosed all the cunning work of the shield. Over it swans were soaring and calling loudly, and many others were swimming upon the surface of the water; and near them were shoals of fish.
(ll. 318-326) A wonderful thing the great strong shield was to see — even for Zeus the loud-thunderer, by whose will Hephaestus made it and fitted it with his hands. This shield the valiant son of Zeus wielded masterly, and leaped upon his horse-chariot like the lightning of his father Zeus who holds the aegis, moving lithely. And his charioteer, strong Iolaus, standing upon the car, guided the curved chariot.
(ll. 327-337) Then the goddess grey-eyed Athene came near them and spoke winged words, encouraging them: ‘Hail, offspring of far-famed Lynceus! Even now Zeus who reigns over the blessed gods gives you power to slay Cycnus and to strip off his splendid armour. Yet I will tell you something besides, mightiest of the people. When you have robbed Cycnus of sweet life, then leave him there and his armour also, and you yourself watch man-slaying Ares narrowly as he attacks, and wherever you shall see him uncovered below his cunningly-wrought shield, there wound him with your sharp spear. Then draw back; for it is not ordained that you should take his horses or his splendid armour.’
(ll. 338-349) So said the bright-eyed goddess and swiftly got up into the car with victory and renown in her hands. Then heaven-nurtured Iolaus called terribly to the horses, and at his cry they swiftly whirled the fleet chariot along, raising dust from the plain; for the goddess bright-eyed Athene put mettle into them by shaking her aegis. And the earth groaned all round them.
And they, horse-taming Cycnus and Ares, insatiable in war, came on together like fire or whirlwind. Then their horses neighed shrilly, face to face; and the echo was shivered all round them. And mighty Heracles spoke first and said to that other:
(ll. 350-367) ‘Cycnus, good sir! Why, pray, do you set your swift horses at us, men who are tried in labour and pain? Nay, guide your fleet car aside and yield and go out of the path. It is to Trachis I am driving on, to Ceyx the king, who is the first in Trachis for power and for honour, and that you yourself know well, for you have his daughter dark-eyed Themistinoe to wife. Fool! For Ares shall not deliver you from the end of death, if we two meet together in battle. Another time ere this I declare he has made trial of my spear, when he defended sandy Pylos and stood against me, fiercely longing for fight. Thrice was he stricken by my spear and dashed to earth, and his shield was pierced; but the fourth time I struck his thigh, laying on with all my strength, and tare deep into his flesh. And he fell headlong in the dust upon the ground through the force of my spear-thrust; then truly he would have been disgraced among the deathless gods, if by my hands he had left behind his bloody spoils.’
(ll. 368-385) So said he. But Cycnus the stout spearman cared not to obey him and to pull up the horses that drew his chariot. Then it was that from their well-woven cars they both leaped straight to the ground, the son of Zeus and the son of the Lord of War. The charioteers drove near by their horses with beautiful manes, and the wide earth rang with the beat of their hoofs as they rushed along. As when rocks leap forth from the high peak of a great mountain, and fall on one another, and many towering oaks and pines and long-rooted poplars are broken by them as they whirl swiftly down until they reach the plain; so did they fall on one another with a great shout: and all the town of the Myrmidons, and famous Iolcus, and Arne, and Helice, and grassy Anthea echoed loudly at the voice of the two. With an awful cry they closed: and wise Zeus thundered loudly and rained down drops of blood, giving the signal for battle to his dauntless son.
(ll. 386-401) As a tusked boar, that is fearful for a man to see before him in the glens of a mountain, resolves to fight with the huntsmen and white tusks, turning sideways, while foam flows all round his mouth as he gnashes, and his eyes are like glowing fire, and he bristles the hair on his mane and around his neck — like him the son of Zeus leaped from his horse-chariot. And when the dark-winged whirring grasshopper, perched on a green shoot, begins to sing of summer to men — his food and drink is the dainty dew — and all day long from dawn pours forth his voice in the deadliest heat, when Sirius scorches the flesh (then the beard grows upon the millet which men sow in summer), when the crude grapes which Dionysus gave to men — a joy and a sorrow both — begin to colour, in that season they fought and loud rose the clamour.
(ll. 402-412) As two lions 6 on either side of a slain deer spring at one another in fury, and there is a fearful snarling and a clashing also of teeth — like vultures with crooked talons and hooked beak that fight and scream aloud on a high rock over a mountain goat or fat wild-deer which some active man has shot with an arrow from the string, and himself has wandered away elsewhere, not knowing the place; but they quickly mark it and vehemently do keen battle about it — like these they two rushed upon one another with a shout.
(ll. 413-423) Then Cycnus, eager to kill the son of almighty Zeus, struck upon his shield with a brazen spear, but did not break the bronze; and the gift of the god saved his foe. But the son of Amphitryon, mighty Heracles, with his long spear struck Cycnus violently in the neck beneath the chin, where it was unguarded between helm and shield. And the deadly spear cut through the two sinews; for the hero’s full strength lighted on his foe. And Cycnus fell as an oak falls or a lofty pine that is stricken by the lurid thunderbolt of Zeus; even so he fell, and his armour adorned with bronze clashed about him.
(ll. 424-442) Then the stout hearted son of Zeus let him be, and himself watched for the onset of manslaying Ares: fiercely he stared, like a lion who has come upon a body and full eagerly rips the hide with his strong claws and takes away the sweet life with all speed: his dark heart is filled with rage and his eyes glare fiercely, while he tears up the earth with his paws and lashes his flanks and shoulders with his tail so that no one dares to face him and go near to give battle. Even so, the son of Amphitryon, unsated of battle, stood eagerly face to face with Ares, nursing courage in his heart. And Ares drew near him with grief in his heart; and they both sprang at one another with a cry. As it is when a rock shoots out from a great cliff and whirls down with long bounds, careering eagerly with a roar, and a high crag clashes with it and keeps it there where they strike together; with no less clamour did deadly Ares, the chariot-borne, rush shouting at Heracles. And he quickly received the attack.
(ll. 443-449) But Athene the daughter of aegis-bearing Zeus came to meet Ares, wearing the dark aegis, and she looked at him with an angry frown and spoke winged words to him. ‘Ares, check your fierce anger and matchless hands; for it is not ordained that you should kill Heracles, the bold-hearted son of Zeus, and strip off his rich armour. Come, then, cease fighting and do not withstand me.’
(ll. 450-466) So said she, but did not move the courageous spirit of Ares. But he uttered a great shout and waving his spears like fire, he rushed headlong at strong Heracles, longing to kill him, and hurled a brazen spear upon the great shield, for he was furiously angry because of his dead son; but bright-eyed Athene reached out from the car and turned aside the force of the spear.
Then bitter grief seized Ares and he drew his keen sword and leaped upon bold-hearted Heracles. But as he came on, the son of Amphitryon, unsated of fierce battle, shrewdly wounded his thigh where it was exposed under his richly-wrought shield, and tare deep into his flesh with the spear-thrust and cast him flat upon the ground. And Panic and Dread quickly drove his smooth-wheeled chariot and horses near him and lifted him from the wide-pathed earth into his richly-wrought car, and then straight lashed the horses and came to high Olympus.
(ll. 467-471) But the son of Alcmena and glorious Iolaus stripped the fine armour off Cycnus’ shoulders and went, and their swift horses carried them straight to the city of Trachis. And bright-eyed Athene went thence to great Olympus and her father’s house.
(ll. 472-480) As for Cycnus, Ceyx buried him and the countless people who lived near the city of the glorious king, in Anthe and the city of the Myrmidons, and famous Iolcus, and Arne, and Helice: and much people were gathered doing honour to Ceyx, the friend of the blessed gods. But Anaurus, swelled by a rain-storm, blotted out the grave and memorial of Cycnus; for so Apollo, Leto’s son, commanded him, because he used to watch for and violently despoil the rich hecatombs that any might bring to Pytho.
1 A mountain peak near Thebes which took its name from the Sphinx (called in “Theogony” l. 326 PHIX).
2 Cyanus was a glass-paste of deep blue colour: the ‘zones’ were concentric bands in which were the scenes described by the poet. The figure of Fear (l. 44) occupied the centre of the shield, and Oceanus (l. 314) enclosed the whole.
3 ‘She who drives herds,’ i.e. ‘The Victorious’, since herds were the chief spoil gained by the victor in ancient warfare.
4 The cap of darkness which made its wearer invisible.
5 The existing text of the vineyard scene is a compound of two different versions, clumsily adapted, and eked out with some makeshift additions.
6 The conception is similar to that of the sculptured group at Athens of Two Lions devouring a Bull (Dickens, “Cat. of the Acropolis Museaum”, No. 3).
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 128:
Hesiod in the “Marriage of Ceyx” says that he (Heracles) landed (from the Argo) to look for water and was left behind in Magnesia near the place called Aphetae because of his desertion there.
Zenobius 1, ii. 19:
Hesiod used the proverb in the following way: Heracles is represented as having constantly visited the house of Ceyx of Trachis and spoken thus: ‘Of their own selves the good make for the feasts of good.’
Scholiast on Homer, Il. xiv. 119:
‘And horse-driving Ceyx beholding . . . ’
Athenaeus, ii. p. 49b:
Hesiod in the “Marriage of Ceyx” — for though grammar-school boys alienate it from the poet, yet I consider the poem ancient — calls the tables tripods.
Gregory of Corinth, On Forms of Speech (Rhett. Gr. vii. 776):
‘But when they had done with desire for the equal-shared feast, even then they brought from the forest the mother of a mother (sc. wood), dry and parched, to be slain by her own children’ (sc. to be burnt in the flames).
1 A Greek sophist who taught rhetoric at Rome in the time of Hadrian. He is the author of a collection of proverbs in three books.
Pausanius, ii. 26. 3:
Epidaurus. According to the opinion of the Argives and the epic poem, the “Great Eoiae”, Argos the son of Zeus was father of Epidaurus.
Anonymous Comment. on Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, iii. 7:
And, they say, Hesiod is sufficient to prove that the word PONEROS (bad) has the same sense as ‘laborious’ or ‘ill-fated’; for in the “Great Eoiae” he represents Alcmene as saying to Heracles: ‘My son, truly Zeus your father begot you to be the most toilful as the most excellent . . . ’; and again: ‘The Fates (made) you the most toilful and the most excellent . . . ’
Scholiast on Pindar, Isthm. v. 53:
The story has been taken from the “Great Eoiae”; for there we find Heracles entertained by Telamon, standing dressed in his lion-skin and praying, and there also we find the eagle sent by Zeus, from which Aias took his name 1.
Pausanias, iv. 2. 1:
But I know that the so-called “Great Eoiae” say that Polycaon the son of Butes married Euaechme, daughter of Hyllus, Heracles’ son.
Pausanias, ix. 40. 6:
‘And Phylas wedded Leipephile the daughter of famous Iolaus: and she was like the Olympians in beauty. She bare him a son Hippotades in the palace, and comely Thero who was like the beams of the moon. And Thero lay in the embrace of Apollo and bare horse-taming Chaeron of hardy strength.’
Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. iv. 35:
‘Or like her in Hyria, careful-minded Mecionice, who was joined in the love of golden Aphrodite with the Earth-holder and Earth-Shaker, and bare Euphemus.’
Pausanias, ix. 36. 7:
‘And Hyettus killed Molurus the dear son of Aristas in his house because he lay with his wife. Then he left his home and fled from horse-rearing Argos and came to Minyan Orchomenus. And the hero received him and gave him a portion of his goods, as was fitting.’
Pausanias, ii. 2. 3:
But in the “Great Eoiae” Peirene is represented to be the daughter of Oebalius.
Pausanias, ii. 16. 4:
The epic poem, which the Greek call the “Great Eoiae”, says that she (Mycene) was the daughter of Inachus and wife of Arestor: from her, then, it is said, the city received its name.
Pausanias, vi. 21. 10:
According to the poem the “Great Eoiae”, these were killed by Oenomaus 2: Alcathous the son of Porthaon next after Marmax, and after Alcathous, Euryalus, Eurymachus and Crotalus. The man killed next after them, Aerias, we should judge to have been a Lacedemonian and founder of Aeria. And after Acrias, they say, Capetus was done to death by Oenomaus, and Lycurgus, Lasius, Chalcodon and Tricolonus. . . . And after Tricolonus fate overtook Aristomachus and Prias on the course, as also Pelagon and Aeolius and Cronius.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 57:
In the “Great Eoiae” it is said that Endymion was transported by Zeus into heaven, but when he fell in love with Hera, was befooled with a shape of cloud, and was cast out and went down into Hades.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 118:
In the “Great Eoiae” it is related that Melampus, who was very dear to Apollo, went abroad and stayed with Polyphantes. But when the king had sacrificed an ox, a serpent crept up to the sacrifice and destroyed his servants. At this the king was angry and killed the serpent, but Melampus took and buried it. And its offspring, brought up by him, used to lick his ears and inspire him with prophecy. And so, when he was caught while trying to steal the cows of Iphiclus and taken bound to the city of Aegina, and when the house, in which Iphiclus was, was about to fall, he told an old woman, one of the servants of Iphiclus, and in return was released.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 828:
In the “Great Eoiae” Scylla is the daughter of Phoebus and Hecate.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 181:
Hesiod in the “Great Eoiae” says that Phineus was blinded because he told Phrixus the way 3.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 1122:
Argus. This is one of the children of Phrixus. These. . . . . . . . Hesiod in the “Great Eoiae” says were born of Iophossa the daughter of Aeetes. And he says there were four of them, Argus, Phrontis, Melas, and Cytisorus.
Antoninus Liberalis, xxiii:
Battus. Hesiod tells the story in the “Great Eoiae”. . . . . . . . Magnes was the son of Argus, the son of Phrixus and Perimele, Admetus’ daughter, and lived in the region of Thessaly, in the land which men called after him Magnesia. He had a son of remarkable beauty, Hymenaeus. And when Apollo saw the boy, he was seized with love for him, and would not leave the house of Magnes. Then Hermes made designs on Apollo’s herd of cattle which were grazing in the same place as the cattle of Admetus. First he cast upon the dogs which were guarding them a stupor and strangles, so that the dogs forgot the cows and lost the power of barking. Then he drove away twelve heifers and a hundred cows never yoked, and the bull who mounted the cows, fastening to the tail of each one brushwood to wipe out the footmarks of the cows.
He drove them through the country of the Pelasgi, and Achaea in the land of Phthia, and through Locris, and Boeotia and Megaris, and thence into Peloponnesus by way of Corinth and Larissa, until he brought them to Tegea. From there he went on by the Lycaean mountains, and past Maenalus and what are called the watch-posts of Battus. Now this Battus used to live on the top of the rock and when he heard the voice of the heifers as they were being driven past, he came out from his own place, and knew that the cattle were stolen. So he asked for a reward to tell no one about them. Hermes promised to give it him on these terms, and Battus swore to say nothing to anyone about the cattle. But when Hermes had hidden them in the cliff by Coryphasium, and had driven them into a cave facing towards Italy and Sicily, he changed himself and came again to Battus and tried whether he would be true to him as he had vowed. So, offering him a robe as a reward, he asked of him whether he had noticed stolen cattle being driven past. And Battus took the robe and told him about the cattle. But Hermes was angry because he was double-tongued, and struck him with his staff and changed him into a rock. And either frost or heat never leaves him 4.
1 When Heracles prayed that a son might be born to Telamon and Eriboea, Zeus sent forth an eagle in token that the prayer would be granted. Heracles then bade the parents call their son Aias after the eagle (‘aietos’).
2 Oenomaus, king of Pisa in Elis, warned by an oracle that he should be killed by his son-inlaw, offered his daughter Hippodamia to the man who could defeat him in a chariot race, on condition that the defeated suitors should be slain by him. Ultimately Pelops, through the treachery of the charioteer of Oenomaus, became victorious.
3 sc. to Scythia.
4 In the Homeric “Hymn to Hermes” Battus almost disappears from the story, and a somewhat different account of the stealing of the cattle is given.
Strabo, xiv. p. 642:
It is said that Calchis the seer returned from Troy with Amphilochus the son of Amphiaraus and came on foot to this place 1. But happening to find near Clarus a seer greater than himself, Mopsus, the son of Manto, Teiresias’ daughter, he died of vexation. Hesiod, indeed, works up the story in some form as this: Calchas set Mopsus the following problem:
‘I am filled with wonder at the quantity of figs this wild fig-tree bears though it is so small. Can you tell their number?’
And Mopsus answered: ‘Ten thousand is their number, and their measure is a bushel: one fig is left over, which you would not be able to put into the measure.’
So said he; and they found the reckoning of the measure true. Then did the end of death shroud Calchas.
Tzetzes on Lycophron, 682:
But now he is speaking of Teiresias, since it is said that he lived seven generations — though others say nine. He lived from the times of Cadmus down to those of Eteocles and Polyneices, as the author of “Melampodia” also says: for he introduces Teiresias speaking thus:
‘Father Zeus, would that you had given me a shorter span of life to be mine and wisdom of heart like that of mortal men! But now you have honoured me not even a little, though you ordained me to have a long span of life, and to live through seven generations of mortal kind.’
Scholiast on Homer, Odyssey, x. 494:
They say that Teiresias saw two snakes mating on Cithaeron and that, when he killed the female, he was changed into a woman, and again, when he killed the male, took again his own nature. This same Teiresias was chosen by Zeus and Hera to decide the question whether the male or the female has most pleasure in intercourse. And he said:
‘Of ten parts a man enjoys only one; but a woman’s sense enjoys all ten in full.’
For this Hera was angry and blinded him, but Zeus gave him the seer’s power.
Athenaeus, ii. p. 40:
‘For pleasant it is at a feast and rich banquet to tell delightful tales, when men have had enough of feasting; . . . ’
Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis vi. 2 26: ‘ . . . and pleasant also it is to know a clear token of ill or good amid all the signs that the deathless ones have given to mortal men.’
Athenaeus, xi. 498. A:
‘And Mares, swift messenger, came to him through the house and brought a silver goblet which he had filled, and gave it to the lord.’
Athenaeus, xi. 498. B:
‘And then Mantes took in his hands the ox’s halter and Iphiclus lashed him upon the back. And behind him, with a cup in one hand and a raised sceptre in the other, walked Phylacus and spake amongst the bondmen.’
Athenaeus, xiii. p. 609 e:
Hesiod in the third book of the “Melampodia” called Chalcis in Euboea ‘the land of fair women’.
Strabo, xiv. p. 676:
But Hesiod says that Amphilochus was killed by Apollo at Soli.
Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis, v. p. 259:
‘And now there is no seer among mortal men such as would know the mind of Zeus who holds the aegis.’
1 sc. Colophon. Proclus in his abstract of the “Returns” (sc. of the heroes from Troy) says Calchas and his party were present at the death of Teiresias at Colophon, perhaps indicating another version of this story.
2 ll. 1-2 are quoted by Athenaeus, ii. p. 40; ll. 3-4 by Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis vi. 2. 26. Buttman saw that the two fragments should be joined.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iii. 587:
But the author of the “Aegimius” says that he (Phrixus) was received without intermediary because of the fleece 1. He says that after the sacrifice he purified the fleece and so: ‘Holding the fleece he walked into the halls of Aeetes.’
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 816:
The author of the “Aegimius” says in the second book that Thetis used to throw the children she had by Peleus into a cauldron of water, because she wished to learn where they were mortal. . . . . . . . And that after many had perished Peleus was annoyed, and prevented her from throwing Achilles into the cauldron.
Apollodorus, ii. 1.3.1:
Hesiod and Acusilaus say that she (Io) was the daughter of Peiren. While she was holding the office of priestess of Hera, Zeus seduced her, and being discovered by Hera, touched the girl and changed her into a white cow, while he swore that he had no intercourse with her. And so Hesiod says that oaths touching the matter of love do not draw down anger from the gods: ‘And thereafter he ordained that an oath concerning the secret deeds of the Cyprian should be without penalty for men.’
Herodian in Stephanus of Byzantium:
‘(Zeus changed Io) in the fair island Abantis, which the gods, who are eternally, used to call Abantis aforetime, but Zeus then called it Euboea after the cow.’ 2
Scholiast on Euripides, Phoen. 1116:
‘And (Hera) set a watcher upon her (Io), great and strong Argus, who with four eyes looks every way. And the goddess stirred in him unwearying strength: sleep never fell upon his eyes; but he kept sure watch always.’
Scholiast on Homer, Il. xxiv. 24:
‘Slayer of Argus’. According to Hesiod’s tale he (Hermes) slew (Argus) the herdsman of Io.
Athenaeus, xi. p. 503:
And the author of the “Aegimius”, whether he is Hesiod or Cercops of Miletus (says): ‘There, some day, shall be my place of refreshment, O leader of the people.’
Hesiod (says there were so called) because they settled in three groups: ‘And they all were called the Three-fold people, because they divided in three the land far from their country.’ For (he says) that three Hellenic tribes settled in Crete, the Pelasgi, Achaeans and Dorians. And these have been called Three-fold People.
Diogenes Laertius, viii. 1. 26:
‘So Urania bare Linus, a very lovely son: and him all men who are singers and harpers do bewail at feasts and dances, and as they begin and as they end they call on Linus. . . . ’
Clement of Alexandria, Strom. i. p. 121: ‘. . . . who was skilled in all manner of wisdom.’
Scholiast on Homer, Odyssey, iv. 232:
‘Unless Phoebus Apollo should save him from death, or Paean himself who knows the remedies for all things.’
Clement of Alexandria, Protrept, c. vii. p. 21:
‘For he alone is king and lord of all the undying gods, and no other vies with him in power.’
Anecd. Oxon (Cramer), i. p. 148:
‘(To cause?) the gifts of the blessed gods to come near to earth.’
Clement of Alexandria, Strom. i. p. 123:
‘Of the Muses who make a man very wise, marvellous in utterance.’
Strabo, x. p. 471:
‘But of them (sc. the daughters of Hecaterus) were born the divine mountain Nymphs and the tribe of worthless, helpless Satyrs, and the divine Curetes, sportive dancers.’
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 824:
‘Beseeching the offspring of glorious Cleodaeus.’
‘For the Olympian gave might to the sons of Aeacus, and wisdom to the sons of Amythaon, and wealth to the sons of Atreus.’
Scholiast on Homer, Iliad, xiii. 155:
‘For through his lack of wood the timber of the ships rotted.’
‘No longer do they walk with delicate feet.’
Scholiast on Homer, Iliad, xxiv. 624:
‘First of all they roasted (pieces of meat), and drew them carefully off the spits.’
Chrysippus, Fragg. ii. 254. 11:
‘For his spirit increased in his dear breast.’
Chrysippus, Fragg. ii. 254. 15:
‘With such heart grieving anger in her breast.’
Strabo, vii. p. 327:
‘He went to Dodona and the oak-grove, the dwelling place of the Pelasgi.’
Anecd. Oxon (Cramer), iii. p. 318. not.:
‘With the pitiless smoke of black pitch and of cedar.’
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 757:
‘But he himself in the swelling tide of the rain-swollen river.’
Stephanus of Byzantium:
(The river) Parthenius, ‘Flowing as softly as a dainty maiden goes.’
Scholiast on Theocritus, xi. 75:
‘Foolish the man who leaves what he has, and follows after what he has not.’
‘The deeds of the young, the counsels of the middle-aged, and the prayers of the aged.’
Porphyr, On Abstinence, ii. 18. p. 134:
‘Howsoever the city does sacrifice, the ancient custom is best.’
Scholiast on Nicander, Theriaca, 452:
‘But you should be gentle towards your father.’
Plato, Epist. xi. 358:
‘And if I said this, it would seem a poor thing and hard to understand.’
Bacchylides, v. 191-3:
Thus spake the Boeotian, even Hesiod 1, servant of the sweet Muses: ‘whomsoever the immortals honour, the good report of mortals also followeth him.’
1 cp. Hesiod “Theogony” 81 ff. But Theognis 169, ‘Whomso the god honour, even a man inclined to blame praiseth him’, is much nearer.
Galen, de plac. Hipp. et Plat. i. 266:
‘And then it was Zeus took away sense from the heart of Athamas.’
Scholiast on Homer, Od. vii. 104:
‘They grind the yellow grain at the mill.’
Scholiast on Pindar, Nem. ii. 1:
‘Then first in Delos did I and Homer, singers both, raise our strain — stitching song in new hymns — Phoebus Apollo with the golden sword, whom Leto bare.’
Julian, Misopogon, p. 369:
‘But starvation on a handful is a cruel thing.’
Servius on Vergil, Aen. iv. 484:
Hesiod says that these Hesperides. . . . . . . . daughters of Night, guarded the golden apples beyond Ocean: ‘Aegle and Erythea and ox-eyed Hesperethusa.’ 1
Plato, Republic, iii. 390 E:
‘Gifts move the gods, gifts move worshipful princes.’
Clement of Alexandria, Strom. v. p. 256:
‘On the seventh day again the bright light of the sun. . . . ’
Apollonius, Lex. Hom.:
‘He brought pure water and mixed it with Ocean’s streams.’
Stephanus of Byzantium:
‘Aspledon and Clymenus and god-like Amphidocus.’ (sons of Orchomenus).
Scholiast on Pindar, Nem. iii. 64:
‘Telemon never sated with battle first brought light to our comrades by slaying blameless Melanippe, destroyer of men, own sister of the golden-girdled queen.’
Last updated Tuesday, August 25, 2015 at 14:09