The Libel of English Policie

Extracted from Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation, collected by Richard Hakluyt edited by Edmund Goldsmid. Volume I.

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Table of Contents

Here beginneth the Prologue of the processe of the Libel of English policie, exhorting all England to keepe the sea, and namely the narrowe sea shewing what profite commeth thereof, and also what worship and saluation to England, and to all English-men.

Incipit liber de custodia Maris præsertim arcti inter Doueram & Galisiam.

The true processe of English policie

Of vtterward to keepe this regne in rest

Of our England, that no man may deny,

Ner say of sooth but it is one of the best,

Is this, that who seeth South, North, East and West,

Cherish Marchandise, keepe the admiraltie,

That wee bee Masters of the narrowe see

For Sigismond the great Emperour,

Wich yet reigneth, when he was in this land1

With king Henry the fift, Prince of honour

Here much glory, as him thought, he found,

A mightie land which had take in hand

To werre in France and make mortalitie,

And euer well kept round about the see.

Videns imperator Sigismundus duas villas inter cæteras Anglie scilicet Calisiam & Doueream ponens suos duos digitos super duos suos oculos ait regi: Frater custodite istas duas villas sicut duos vestros oculos.

And to the king thus hee sayd: My brother,

(When hee perceiued two Townes Caleis and Douer)

Of all your Townes to chuse of one and other,

To keepe the sea and soone to come ouer

To werre outwards and your regne to recouer:

Keepe these two Townes sure, and your Maiestee

As your tweyne eyne: so keepe the narrowe see.

For if this sea bee kept in time of werre,

Who can heere passe without danger and woe

Who may escape, who may mischiefe differre

What Marchandie may forby bee agoe:

For needs hem must take trewes euery foe:

Flanders and Spaine, and other, trust to mee,

Or ellis hindred all for this Narrow see.

Therefore I cast mee by a little writing

To shew at eye this conclusion,

For conscience and for mine acquiting

Against God and ageyne abusion,

And cowardise, and to our enemies confusion.

For foure things our Noble 2 sheweth to me,

King, Ship, and Swerd, and power of the see

Where ben our ships, where ben our swerds become:

Our enemies bed for the ship set a sheepe.

Alas our rule halteth, it is benome.

Who dare well say that lordship should take keepe:

I will assay, though mine heart ginne to weepe,

To doe this werke, if wee will euer thee,

For very shame to keepe about the see.

Shall any Prince, what so be his name,

Which hath Nobles much leche ours,

Bee Lord of see: and Flemings to our blame,

Stop vs, take vs, and so make fade the flowers

Of English state, and disteyne our honours:

For cowardise alas it should so bee

Therefore I ginne to write nowe of the see.

Of the commodities of Spaine and of Flanders. The first Chapter

Knowe well all men that profits in certaine

Commodities called comming out of Spaine

And Marchandie, who so will weete what it is,

Bene Figs, Raisins, wine Bastard, and Datis,

And Licoris, Siuill oyle, and graine,

White Pastill Sope, and Waxe is not vayne.

Yron, Wooll, Wadmolle, Gotefell, Kidfell also:

For Poynt-makers full needefull bene they tweyn

Saffron, Quickesiluer, which owne Spaine Marchandy,

Is into Flanders shipped full craftily,

Vnto Bruges as to her staple fayre:

The Hauen of Scluse hir Hauen for her repayre

Which is cleped Swyn tho shippes giding:

Where many vessels and fayre are abiding.

But these marchandes with their shippes great,

And such chaffare as they bye and get

By the weyes must nede take on hand

By the coasts to passe of our England,

Betwixt Douer and Caleis, this is no doubt.

Who can well els such matter bring about?

Flemish cloth made of English Wooll.

And when these sayd Marchants discharged bee

Of Marchandie in Flanders nere the see,

Then they bee charged againe with Marchandy,

That to Flanders bougeth full richly.

Fine cloth of Ypre that named is better than ours,

Cloth of Curtrike, 3 fine cloth of all colours,

Much Fustian, and also Linen cloth.

But Flemings, if yee bee not wroth,

The great substance of your cloth at the full

Yee wot ye make it of our English woll.

The necessarie coniunction of Spaine and Flanders.

Then may it not sinke in mannis brayne,

But that it must this Marchandy of Spaine

Both out and in by our costes passe:

Hee that sayd nay in witte was like an asse.

Wee should haue peace with the grounds tweyne

Thus if this see were kept, I dare well sayne.

For Spaine and Flanders is as eche other brother,

And neither may well liue without other:

They may not liuen to maintaine their degrees,

Without our English commodities:

Wolle and Tynne: for the woolle of England

Susteineth the Commons Flemings I vnderstand.

Then if England would her wolle restraine

From Flanders, this followeth in certaine,

Flanders of nede must with vs haue peace,

Or els shee is destroyed without lees.

Also if Flanders thus destroyed bee:

Some Marchandy of Spaine will neuer ythee:

For destroyed it is, and as in cheeffe

The wolle of Spaine it commeth not to preeffe,

But if it be costed and menged well

Amongst the English wolle the greter delle.

For Spanish wooll in Flaunders draped is,

And euer hath bee, that men haue minde of this:

And yet Wooll is one of the chiefe Marchandy

That longeth to Spaine: who so will espie,

It is of little value, trust vnto mee,

With English wooll but if it menged bee.

Thus if the sea be kept, than herken hether,

If these two lands comen not together:

So that the Fleete of Flanders passe nought

That in the narrowe see it be not brought

Into the Rochelle to fetch the famose wine,

Ner into Bytonuse Bay for salt so fine,

What is then Spaine? What is Flanders also?

As who sayd, nought, the thrift is agoe

For the little land of Flanders is

But a staple to other lands ywis:

And all that groweth in Flanders graine and seede

May not a Moneth finde hem meate and brede.

What hath then Flanders, bee Flemings lieffe or loth,

But a little Mader and Flemish Cloth:

By Drapering of our wooll in substance

Liuen her commons, this is her gouernance,

Without which they may not liue at ease.

Thus must hem sterue, or with vs must haue peace.

Of the commodities of Portugal. The second Chapter.

The Marchandy also of Portugal

By diuers lands turne into sale.

Portugalers with vs haue troth in hand:

Whose Marchandy commeth much into England.

They ben our friends, with their commodities,

And wee English passen into their countrees.

Her land hath wine, Osey, Waxe, and Graine,

Figges, Reysins, Hony and Cordoweyne:

Dates, and Salt, Hides, and such Marchandy:

And if they would to Flanders passe for by,

They should not bee suffred ones ner twyes,

For supporting of our cruell enemies,

That is to say Flemings with her gyle:

For changeable they are in little while. [Note well.]

Then I conclude by reasons many moe,

If we suffred neither friend nor foe,

What so enemies, and so supporting

Passe for by vs in time of werring,

Seth our friends will not ben in cause

Of our hindring, if reson lede this clause:

Then nede from Flanders peace bee to vs sought,

And other lands should seeke peace, dout nought:

For Flanders is Staple, as men tell mee,

To all nations of Christianitie.

The commodities of pety Britaine,4 with her Rouers on the sea. The third Chapter

The Britons great Rouers and Theeues.

Furthermore to write I am faine

Somewhat speaking of the little Britayne.

Commoditie thereof there, is and was,

Salt, and wine, crest cloth and canuas.

And the land of Flaunders sickerly

Is the staple of their Marchandy.

Wich Marchandie may not passe away

But by the coast of England, this is no nay.

And of this Britaine, who so trueth louis,

Are the greatest rouers and the greatest theeuis,

That haue bene in the sea many one yeere:

That our Merchants haue bought full dere.

For they haue tooke notable goods of ours,

On this side see, these false pelours

Called, of Saincte Malo, and ellis where:

Which to their Duke none obeysance will bere:

With such colours wee haue bee hindred sore.

And fayned peace is called no werre herefore.

Thus they haue bene in diuers coasts many

Of our England, more then rehearse can I:

In Norfolke coastes, and other places about,

And robbed and brent and slame by many a rowte:

And they haue also ransomed Towne by Towne:

That into the regnes of bost haue run her sowne:

Wich hath bin ruth vnto this Realme and shame:

They that the sea should keepe are much to blame.

For Britayne is of easie reputation;

And Saincte Malo turneth hem to reprobation.

A storie of Edward the third his ordinance for Britayne.

Historia ostendens quam ordinationem Rex Edwardus tertius fecit contra de prædicatores marinos Brittaniæ minoris ad debellandum eos & subiugandum Britannos minores.

Here bring I in a stone to mee lent,

That a good Squire in time of Parliament

Tooke vnto mee well written in a scrowe:

That I haue commond both with high and lowe,

Of which all men accorden into one,

That it was done not many yeeres agone

But when noble King Edward the third

Reigned in grace, right thus it betyd.

For hee had a maner gelosie

To his Marchants and loued them hartily.

He feld the weyes to rule well the see,

Whereby Marchants might haue prosperitee.

That for Harflew5 Houndflew6 did he maken;

And great werre that time were vndertaken,

betwixt the King and the Duke of Britayne:

At last to fall to peace both were they fayne:

Vpon the wich made with conuencion

Our Marchants made hem readie bowne

Toward Britayne to loade their Marchandie,

Wening hem friends they went foorth boldly:

But soone anon our Marchants were ytake,

And wee spedde neuer the better for truce sake.

They lost her good, her nauy and spending:

But their complaint came vnto the king.

Then wext he wroth, and to the Duke he sent,

And complained that such harme was hent;

By conuention and peace made so refused:

Wich Duke sent againe, and him excused,

Rehearsing that the mount of Saincte Michael,

And Sainct Malo would neuer a dell

Be subiect vnto his gouernance,

Nor be vnder his obeysance:

And so they did withouten him that deede.

But when the king anon had taken heede:

Hee in his herte set a iudgement,

Without calling of any Parliament,

Or greate tarry to take long aduise

To fortifie anon he did deuise

Of English Townes three, that is to say,

Dertmouth, Plymouth, the third it is Fowey:

And gaue hem helpe and notable puisance

With insistence set them in gouernance

Vpon pety Bretayne for to werre.

Those good sea men would no more differre,

But bete hem home and made they might not rowte,

Tooke prisoners, and made them for to lowte.

And efte the Duke, an ensample wise,

Wrote to the king as he first did deuise,

Him excusing: But our men wood

With great power passed ouer the floode

And werred foorth into the Dukes londe,

And had ny destroyed free and bond.

But than the Duke knewe that the townes three

Should haue lost all his natiue Countrie,

He vndertooke by suretie true not false,

For mount Michael and Saincte Malo als.

And other parties of the litle Brytaine,

Which to obey, as sayd was, were not fayne

The Duke hymselfe for all did vndertake:

With all his herte a full peace did hee make:

So that in all the life time of the king,

Marchants had peace withouten werring:

Statutum Regis Edwardi tertij pro Lombardis.

He made a statute for Lombards in this land,

That they should in noe wise take on hande

Here to inhabite, here to chardge and dischardge

But fortie dayes, no more time had they large.

This good king by witte of such appreiffe

Kept his Marchants and the sea from mischiefe.

Of the commodities of Scotland and draping of her wolles in Flanders. The fourth Chapiter

Anno Domini 1436. Hen 6. 14.

Moreouer of Scotland the commodities

Are Felles, Hides, and of Wooll the Fleese.

And all these must passe by vs away

Into Flanders by England, sooth to say.

And all her woolle was draped for to sell

In the Townes of Poperinge and of Bell:

Which my Lord of Glocester with ire

For her falshed set vpon a fire.

And yet they of Bell and Poperinge

Could neuer drape her wool for any thing,

But if they had English woll withall.

Our goodly wooll which is so generall

Needefull to them in Spaine and Scotland als,

And other costes, this sentence is nnot false:

Yee worthy Marchants I doe it vpon yow,

I haue this learned ye wot well where and howe:

Ye wotte the Staple of that Marchandie,

Of this Scotland is Flaunders sekerly.

And the Scots bene charged knowen at the eye,

Out of Flanders with little Mercerie,

And great plentie of Haberdashers Ware,

And halfe her shippes with cart wheeles bare,

And with Barrowes are laden as in substance:

Thus most rude ware are in her cheuesance.

So they may not forbeare this Flemish land.

Therefore if wee would manly take in hand,

To keepe this Sea from Flanders and from Spaine,

And from Scotland, like as from pety Britaine,

Wee should right soone haue peace for all her bosts,

For they must needes passe by our English costs.

Of the commodities of Pruce, and High Dutch men, and Easterlings. The fifth Chapitle.

Nowe goe foorth to the commodities,

That commeth from Pruce in two maner degrees.

For two maner people haue such vse,

That is to say, High Duch men of Pruse,

And Esterlings, which might not be forborne,

Out of Flanders, but it were verely lorne.

For they bring in the substance of the Beere,

That they drinken feele too good chepe, not dere.

Yee haue heard that two Flemings togider

Will vndertake or they goe any whither,

Or they rise once to drinke a Ferkin full,

Of good Beerekin: so sore they hall and pull.

Vnder the board they pissen as they sit:

This commeth of couenant of a worthie wit.

Without Caleis in their Butter they cakked

When they fled home, and when they leysure lacked

To holde their siege, they went like as a Doe:

Well was that Fleming that might trusse, and goe.

For feare they turned backe and hyed fast,

My Lord of Glocester made hem so agast

With his commimg, and sought hem in her land,

And brent and slowe as he had take on hand:

So that our enemies durst not bide, nor stere,

They fled to mewe, they durst no more appeare,

Rebuked sore for euer so shamefully,

Vnto her vtter euerlasting villany.

Nowe Beere and Bakon bene fro Pruse ybrought

Into Flanders, as loued and farre ysought:

Osmond, Copper, Bow-staues, Steele, and Wexe,

Peltreware and grey Pitch, Terre, Board, and flexe,

And Colleyne threed, Fustian and Canuas,

Card, Bukeram: of olde time thus it was.

But the Flemings among these things dere,

In common louen best Bakon and Beere.

Also Pruse men maken her aduenture

Of Plate of siluer of wedges good and sure

In great plentie which they bring and bye,

Out of the lands of Beame and Hungarie:

Which is increase full great vnto their land,

And they bene laden, I vnderstand,

With wollen cloth all maner of colours

By dyers crafted full diuers, that ben ours.

And they aduenture full greatly vnto the Bay,

for salt that is needefull withouten nay.

Thus if they would not our friends bee,

We might lightly stoppe hem in the see:

They should not passe our streemes withouten leue,

It would not be, but if we should hem greue.

Of the commodities of the Genuoys and her great Caracks. Chap. 6.

The Genuois comen in sundry wies

Into this land with diuers marchandises

In great Caracks, arrayed withouten lacke

With cloth of gold, silke, and pepper blacke

They bring with them, and of crood7 great plentee,

Woll Oyle, Woad ashen, by vessel in the see,

Cotton, Rochalum, and good gold of Genne.

And then be charged with wolle againe I wenne,

And wollen cloth of ours of colours all.

And they aduenture, as ofte it doth befall,

Into Flanders with such things as they bye,

That is their chefe staple sekerly:

And if they would be our full enemies,

They should not passe our stremes with merchandise.

The comodities and nicetees of the Venetians and Florentines, with their Gallees. Chap. 7.

The great Galees of Venice and Florence

Be well laden with things of complacence,

All spicery and of grossers ware:

With sweete wines all maner of chaffare,

Apes, and Iapes, and marmusets tayled,

Nifles and trifles that little haue auayled:

And things with which they fetely blere our eye:

With things not induring that we bye.

For much of this chaffare that is wastable

Might be forborne for dere and deceiuable.

And that I wene as for infirmities

In our England are such commodities

Withouten helpe of any other lond

Which by witte and practise both yfound:

That all humors might be voyded sure,

With that we gleder with our English cure:

That we should haue no neede of Scamonie,

Turbit, enforbe, correct Diagredie,

Rubarbe, Sene, and yet they ben to needefull,

But I know things al so speedefull,

That growen here, as those things sayd.

Let of this matter no man be dismayde;

But that a man may voyde infirmitie

Without degrees fet fro beyond the sea.

And yet they should except be any thing

It were but sugre, trust to my saying:

He that trusteth not to my saying and sentence,

Let him better search experience.

In this matter I will not ferther prease,

Who so not beleeueth, let him leaue and cease.

Thus these galeys for this licking ware,

And eating ware, bare hence out best chaffare.

Cloth, woll, and tinne, which as I sayd before,

Out of this lond worst might be forbore,

For ech other land of necessitie

Haue great neede to buy some of them three:

And we receiue of hem into this coste

Ware and chaffare that lightly wilbe loste.

And would Iesus, that our Lord is wold

Consider this well both yong and old:

Namely old that haue experience,

That might the yong exhorte to prudence;

What harme, what hurt, and what hinderance

Is done to vs, vnto our great grieuance,

Of such lands, and of such nations:

As experte men know by probations,

By writings as discouered our counsailes,

And false colour alwaies the countertailes

Of our enimies: that doth vs hindering

Vnto our goods, our Relme, and to the king:

As wise men haue shewed well at eye;

And all this is couloured by marchandye.

An example of deceite

Also they bere the gold out of this land,

And sucke the thrift away out of our hand:

As the Waspe souketh honie fro the bee,

So minisheth our commoditee.

Nor wol ye here how they in Cotteswold

Were wont to borrow or they shold be sold

Her woll good as for yere and yere.

Of cloth and tinne they did in like manere:

And in her galies ship this marchandie:

Then soone at Venice of them men woll it bye.

Then vtterne there the chaffare by the peise,

And lightly als there they make her reise.

And when the goods beene at Venice sold,

Then to carie her change they this money haue,

They will it profer, their subtiltie to saue,

To English marchants to yeue it out by eschange

To be payed againe they make not strange,

At the receiuing and sight of a letter,

Here in England, seeming for the better,

by foure pence lesse in the noble round:

That is twelue pence in the golden pound.

And if wee wol haue of payment

A full moneth, than must him needes assent

To eight pence losse, that is shillings twaine

In the English pound: as eft soone again,

For two moneths twelue pence must he pay.

In the English pound what is that to say,

But shillings three? So that in pound fell

For hurt and harme hard is with hem to dwell.

And when English marchants haue content

This eschange in England of assent,

That these sayd Venecians haue in woone

And Florentines to bere her gold soone

Ouer the see into Flanders againe:

And thus they liue in Flanders sooth to saine,

And in London with such cheuisance,

That men call vsury, to our losse and hinderance.

Another example of deceite.

Now lesten well how they made vs a valeys

When they borrowed at the town of Caleis

As they were wont, their woll that was hem lent,

For yere and yere they should make payment.

And sometimes als two yere and two yeare.

This was fayre8 loue: but yet will ye heare

How they to Bruges would her woll carie,

And for hem take payment withouten tarie,

And sell it fast for ready money in hand.

For fifty pounds of money of losse they wold not wond

In a thousand pound, and liue thereby

Till the day of payment easily,

Come againe in exchange: making

Full like vsury, as men make vndertaking.

Than whan this payment of a thousand pound

Was well content, they should haue chaffare sound

If they wold fro the Staple full,

Receiue againe three thousand pound in woll.

In Cotteswold also they ride about,

And all England, and buy withouten doubte

What them list with freedome and franchise,

More then we English may gitten many wise

But would God that without lenger delayes

These galees were vnfraught in fortie dayes,

And in fortie dayes charged againe,

And that they might be put to certaine

To goe to oste, as we there with hem doe.

It were expedient that they did right soe,

As we doe there. If the king would it:

Ah what worship wold fall to English wit?

What profite also to our marchandie

Which wold of nede be cherished hertilie?

For I would witte, why now our nauie fayleth, [Note diligently]

When manie a foe vs at our doore assayleth.

A woful complaint of lacke of nauie if need come. A storie of destruction of Denmarke for destruction of their marchants.

Now in these dayes, that if there come a nede,

What nauie should we haue it is to drede.

In Denmarke were full noble conquerours

In time past, full worthy warriours:

Which when they had their marchants destroyed,

To pouerty they fell, thus were they noyed:

And so they stand at mischiefe at this day.

This learned I late well writon, this no nay.

Therefore beware, I can no better will,

If grace it woll, of other mennis perill.

For if marchants were cherished to her speede,

We were not likely to fayle in any neede.

If they be rich, then in prosperitee

Shalbe our londe, lords, and commontee,

And in worship. Now thinke I on the sonne

Of Marchandy Richard of Whitingdon;

The prayse of Richard of Whittingdon marchant.

That load sterre, and chiefe chosen floure:

What hath by him our England of honour,

And what profite hath bin of his riches,

And yet lasteth dayly in worthines?

That pen and paper may not me suffice

Him to describe: so high he was of price

Aboue marchants, that set him one of the best:

I can no more, but God haue him in rest.

Now the principal matter.

What reason is it that we should goe to oste

In their countries, & in this English coste

They should not so? bat haue more liberty

Then we our selues now also motte I thee.

I would to gifts men should take no heede

That letteth our thing publicke for to speede

For this we see well euery day at eye,

Gifts and fests stopen our policie.

Now see that fooles ben either they or wee

But euer we haue the worse in this countree.

Therefore let hem vnto oste go here,

Or be we free with hem in like manere

In their countrees: and if it will not bee,

Compell them vnto oste, and yee shall see

Moch auantage, and moch profite arise,

Moch more then I can write in any wise.

Of our charge and discharge at her marts.

Conceiue wel here, that Englishmen at martes

Be discharged, for all her craftes and artes,

In Brabant of her marchandy

In fourteene dayes, and ageine hastily

In the same dayes fourteene acharged eft.

And if they bide lenger all is bereft,

Anon they should forfeit her goods all,

Or marchandy: it should no better fall.

And we to martis in Brabant charged beene

With English cloth full good and fayre to seene:

We ben againe charged with mercerie,

Haburdasher ware, and with grosserie:

To which marts, that English men call fayres,

Ech nation oft maketh her repayres:

English, and French, Lombards, Iennoyes,

Catalones, thedre they take her wayes:

Scots, Spaniards, Irishmen there abides,

With great plenty bringing of sale hides.

And I here say that we in Brabant bye,

Flanders and Zeland more of marchandy

In common vse then done all other nations:

This haue I heard of marchants relations:

And if the English ben not in the marts

They ben feeble, and as nought bene her parts.

For they byemore, and fro purse put out

More marchandie then all the other rowte.

Kept then the see, shippes should not bring ne fetch,

And then the carreys wold not thidre stretch:

And so those marts wold full euill thee,

If we manly kept about the see.

Of the commodities of Brabant and Zeland and Henauld and marchandy carried by land to the martes. Cap. 8.

Yet marchandy of Brabant and Zeland

The Madre and Woad, that dyers take on hand

To dyen with, Garlike and Onions,

And saltfishe als for husband and commons.

But they of Holland at Caleis byen our felles,

And wolles our, that Englishmen hem selles.

And the chaffare that Englishmen doe byen

In the marts, that noe man may denien,

Is not made in Brabant that cuntree:

It commeth from out of Henauld, not by see,

But al by land, by carts, and from France,

Bourgoyne, Colem, Cameret in substance,

Therefore at marts if there be a restraint,

Men seyne plainely that list no fables paynt,

If Englishmen be withdrawen away,

Is great rebuke and losse to her affray:

As though we sent into the land of France

Ten thousand people, men of good puissance,

To werre vnto her hindring multifarie.

So ben our English marchants necessarie.

If it be thus assay, and we shall witten

Of men experte, by whom I haue this written.

What our marchants bye in that cost more then all other.

For sayd is that this carted marchandy

Draweth in value as much verily,

As all the goods that come in shippes thider,

Which Englishmen bye most and bring it hither.

For her marts ben febel, shame to say,

But Englishmen thither dresse her way.

A conclusion of this depending of keeping of the sea.

Than I conclude, if neuer so much by land

Were by carres brought vnto their hand,

If well the sea were kept in gouernance

They should by sea haue no deliuerance.

Wee should hem stop, and we should hem destroy,

As prisoners we should hem bring to annoy.

And so we should of our cruell enimies

Make our friends for feare of marchandies,

If they were not suffered for to passe

Into Flanders. But we be frayle as glasse

And also brittle, not thought neuer abiding,

But when grace shineth soone are we sliding,

We will it not receiue in any wise:

That maken lust, enuie, and couetise:

Expone me this; and yee shall sooth it find,

Bere it away, and keepe it in your mind.

Then shuld worship vnto our Noble bee

In feate and forme to lord and Maiestie:

Liche as the seale the greatest of this land

On the one side hath, as I vnderstand,

A prince riding with his swerd ydraw,

In the other side sitting, soth it is in saw,

Betokening good rule and punishing

In very deede of England by the king.

And it is so God blessed mought he bee.

So in likewise I would were on the see

By the Noble, that swerde should haue power,

And the ships on the sea about vs here.

What needeth a garland which is made of Iuie

Shewe a tauerne winelesse, also thriue I?

If men were wise, the Frenchmen and Fleming

Shuld bere no state in sea by werring.

Then Hankin lyons shuld not be so bold

To stoppe wine, and shippes for to hold

Vnto our shame. He had be beten thence

Alas, alas, why did we this offence,

Fully to shend the old English fames;

And the profits of England and their names:

Why is this power called of couetise;

With false colours cast beforn our eyes?

That if good men called werriours

Would take in hand for the commons succours,

To purge the sea vnto our great auayle,

And winne hem goods, and haue vp the sayle,

And on our enimies their liues to impart,

So that they might their prises well departe,

As reson wold, iustice and equitie;

To make land haue lordship of the sea.

Lombards are cause enough to hurt this land although there were none other cause. False colouring of goods by Lombards. Alas for bribes & gift of good feasts & other means that stoppen our policie. This is the very state of our time.

Then shall Lombards and other fained friends

Make her chalenges by colour false offends,

And say their chaffare in the shippes is,

And chalenge al. Looke if this be amisse.

For thus may al that men haue bought to sore,

Ben soone excused, and saued by false colour.

Beware yee men that bere the great in hand

That they destroy the policie of this land,

By gifte and good, and the fine golden clothis,

And silke, and other: say yee not this soth is?

But if we had very experience

That they take meede with prime violence,

Carpets, and things of price and pleasance,

Whereby stopped should be good gouernance:

And if it were as yee say to mee,

Than wold I say, alas cupiditie,

That they that haue her liues put in drede,

Shalbe soone out of winning, all for meed,

And lose her costes, and brought to pouerty,

That they shall neuer haue lust to goe to sea.

An exhortation to make an ordinance against colour of maintainers and excusers of folkes goods

It is a marueilous thing that so great a sicknes and hurt of the land may haue no remedie of so many as take heselues wise men of gouernance.

For this colour that must be sayd alofte

And be declared of the great full ofte,

That our seamen wol by many wise

Spoile our friends in steede of our enimies:

For which colour and Lombards maintenance,

The king it needes to make an ordinance

With his Counsayle that may not fayle, I trowe,

That friends should from enimies be knowe,

Our enimies taken and our friends spared:

The remedy of hem must be declared.

Thus may the sea be kept in no sell,

For if ought be spoken, wot yee well,

We haue the strokes, and enemies haue the winning:

But mayntainers are parteners of the finning.

We liue in lust and bide in couetise;

This is our rule to maintaine marchandise,

And policie that wee haue on the sea,

And, but God helpe, it will no other bee.

Of the commodities of Ireland and policie and keeping thereof and conquering of wild Irish: with an incident of Wales. Chap. 9.

I cast to speake of Ireland but a litle:

Commodities of it I will entitle,

Hides, and fish, Salmon, Hake, Herringe,

Irish wooll, and linen cloth, faldinge,

And marterns goode ben her marchandie,

Hertes Hides, and other of Venerie.9

Skinnes of Otter, Squirell and Irish hare,

Of sheepe, lambe, and Fox, is her chaffare,

Felles of Kiddes, and Conies great plentie.

So that if Ireland helpe vs to keepe the sea,

Because the King cleped is Rex Angliæ,

And is Dominus also Hyberniæ,

Old possessed by Progenitours:

The Irish men haue cause like to ours

Our land and hers together to defend,

That no enemie should hurt ne offend,

Ireland ne vs: but as one commontie

Should helpe well to keepe about the sea:

For they haue hauens great, and goodly bayes,

Sure, wyde and deepe, of good assayes,

At Waterford, and costes many one.

And as men sayne in England be there none

Better hauens, ships in to ride,

No more sure for enemies to abide,

Why speake I thus so much of Ireland?

For all so much as I can vnderstand,

It is fertile for things that there doe growe

And multiplien, loke who lust to knowe,

So large, so good, and so commodious,

That to declare is strange and maruailous.

Mynes of siluer and gold in Ireland.

For of siluer and golde there is the oore,

Among the wilde Irish though they be poore.

For they are rude can thereon no skill:

So that if we had their peace and good will

To myne and fine, and metal for to pure,

In wilde Irish might we finde the cure,

As in London saith a Iuellere,

Which brought from thence golde oore to vs here,

Whereof was fyned mettal good and clene,

As they touch, no better could be seene.

Nowe here beware and heartily take intent,

As yee will answere at last iudgement,

That for slought and for racheshede

Yee remember with all your might to hede

To keepe Ireland that it be not lost.

For it is a boterasse and a post,

Vnder England, and Wales another:

God forbid, but ech were others brother,

Of one ligeance due vnto the king.

But I haue pittie in good faith of this thing

That I shall say with auisement:

I am aferde that Ireland will be shent:

It must awey, it wol bee lost from vs,

But if thou helpe, thou Iesu gracious,

And giue vs grace al slought to leue beside.

For much thing in my herte is hide,

Which in another treatise I caste to write

Made al onely for that soile and site,

Of fertile Ireland, wich might not be forborne,

But if England were nigh as goode as gone.

God forbid that a wild Irish wirlinge

Should be chosen for to bee their kinge,

After her conqueste for our last puissance,

And hinder vs by other lands alliance.

Wise men seyn, wich felin not, ne douten,

That wild Irish so much of ground haue gotten

There vpon vs, as likenesse may be

Like as England to sheeris two or three

Of this our land is made comparable:

So wild Irish haue wonne on vs vnable

Yet to defend, and of none power,

That our ground is there a litle corner,

To all Ireland in true comparison.

It needeth no more this matter to expon.

Which if it bee lost, as Christ Iesu forbed,

Farewel Wales, then England commeth to dred,

For aliance of Scotland and of Spaine,

This is now to be greatly feared.

And other moe, as the pety Bretaine,

And so haue enemies enuiron round about.

I beseech God, that some prayers deuout

Mutt let the said apparance probable

Thus disposed without feyned fable.

But all onely for perill that I see

Thus imminent, it’s likely for to bee,

And well I wotte, that from hence to Rome,

And, as men say, in all Christendome,

Is no ground ne land to Ireland liche,

So large, so good, so plenteous, so riche,

That to this worde Dominus doe long.

Then mee semeth that right were and no wrong,

To get the lande: and it were piteous

To vs to lese this high name Dommus.

And all this word Dominus of name

Shuld haue the ground obeysant wilde and tame.

That name and people togidre might accord

Al the ground subiect to the Lord.

And that it is possible to bee subiect,

Vnto the king wel shal it bee detect,

In the litle booke that I of spake.

I trowe reson al this wol vndertake,

And I knowe wel howe it stante,

Alas fortune beginneth so to scant,

Or ellis grace, that deade is gouernance.

For so minisheth parties of our puissance,

In that land that wee lese euery yere,

More ground and more, as well as yee may here.

I herd a man speake to mee full late,

Which was a lord10 of full great estate;

Than expense of one yere done in France

Werred on men well willed of puissance

This said ground of Ireland to conquere.

And yet because England might not forbere

These said expenses gadred in one yeere,

But in three yeeres or foure gadred vp here,

Might winne Ireland to a finall conqueste,

In one sole yeere to set vs all at reste.

And how soone wolde this be paied ageyne:

Which were it worth yerely, if wee not feyne:

I wol declare, who so luste to looke,

I trowe full plainely in my litle booke.

But couetise, and singularitie

Of owne profite, enuie, crueltie,

Hath doon vs harme, and doe vs euery day,

And musters made that shame is to say:

Our money spent al to litle auaile,

And our enimies so greatly doone preuaile,

That what harme may fall and ouerthwerte

I may vnneth write more for sore of herte.

An exhortation to the keeping of Wales

Beware of Wales, Christ Iesu mutt vs keepe,

That it make not our childers childe to weepe,

Ne vs also, so if it goe his way,

By vnwarenes: seth that many a day

Men haue bee ferde of her rebellion,

By great tokens and ostentation:

Seche the meanes with a discrete auise,

And helpe that they rudely not arise

For to rebell, that Christ it forbede.

Looke wel aboute, for God wote yee haue neede,

Vnfainingly, vnfeyning and vnfeynt,

That conscience for slought you not atteynt:

Kepe well that grounde for harme that may ben vsed,

Or afore God mutte yee ben accused.

Of the commodious Stockfish of Island and keeping of the Sea namely the Narrow sea, with an incident of the keeping of Caleis. Chap. 10.

The trade of Bristow to Island. The old trade of Scarborough to Island and the North.

Of Island to write is litle nede,

Saue of Stock fish. Yet forsooth in deed

Out of Bristowe, and costes many one,

Men haue practised by nedle and by stone

Thider wardes within a litle while,

Within twelue yere, and without perill

Gon and come, as men were wont of old

Of Scarborough, vnto the costes cold.

And nowe so fele shippes this yeere there ware,

That moch losse for vnfreyght they bare:

Island might not make hem to bee fraught

Vnto the Hawys: thus much harme they caught.

Then here I ende of the commoditees

For which neede is well to kepe the seas:

Este and Weste, South and North they bee.

And chiefly kepe the sharpe narrow see,

Betweene Douer and Caleis: and as thus

that foes passe none without good will of vs:

And they abide our danger in the length,

What for our costis and Caleis in our strength.

An exhortation for the sure keeping of Caleis.

And for the loue of God, and of his blisse

Cherish yee Caleis better then it is.

See well thereto, and heare the grete complaint

That true men tellen, that woll no lies paint,

And as yee know that writing commeth from thence:

Doe not to England for slought so great offence,

But that redressed it bee for any thing:

Leste a song of sorrow that wee sing.

For litle wenith the foole who so might chese

What harme it were good Caleis for to lese:

What wo it were for all this English ground.

The ioy of Sigismund the Emperour that Caleis was English.

Which wel concerned the Emperour Sigismound,

That of all ioyes made it one of the moste,

That Caleis was subiect vnto English coste.

Him thought it was a iewel most of all,

And so the same in Latine did it call.

And if yee wol more of Caleis heare and knowe,

I cast to write within a litle scrowe,

Like as I haue done before by and by

In other parteis of our policie.

Loke how hard it was at the first to get;

And by my counsell lightly doe not it let.

For if wee lese it with shame of face

Wilfully, it is for lacke of grace.

Howe was Harflew 11 cried vpon, and Rone, 12

That they were likely for shought to be gone:

Howe was it warned and cried on in England,

I make record with this pen in my hand.

It was warened plainely in Normandie,

And in England, and I thereon did crie.

The world was defrauded, it betyde right so.

Farewell Harflew: lewdly it was a go.

Nowe ware Caleis, I can say no better:

My soule discharge I by this present letter.

After the Chapitles of commodities, of diuers lands, sheweth the conclusion of keeping of the sea enuiron, by a storie of King Edgar and two incidents of King Edward the third, and King Henrie the fifth. Chap. 11.

Now see we well then that this round see

To our Noble by pariformitee

Vnder the ship shewed there the sayle,

And our king with royal apparayle,

With swerd drawen bright and extent

For to chastise enimies violent;

Should be lord of the sea about,

To keepe enimies from within and without;

To behold through Christianitee

Master and lord enuiron of the see:

All liuing men such a prince to dreed,

Of such a regne to bee aferd indeed.

Thus proue I well that it was thus of old;

Which by a * * Dicit Chronica, quod iste Edgarus cunctis prædecessoribus suis fælicior, nulli sanctitate inferior, omnibus morum suauitate præstantior fuerit Luxit ipse Anglis non minus memorabilis quàm Cyrus Persis, Carolus Francis, Romulus verò Romanis. Chronicle anon shalbe told,

Right curious: but I will interprete

It into English, as I did it gete:

Of king Edgar: O most marueilous

Prince liuing, wittie, and cheualerous:

So good that none of his predecessours

Was to him liche in prudence and honours.

Hee was fortanate and more gracious

Then other before, and more glorious:

He was beneth no man in holines:

Hee passed all in vertuous sweetnes.

Of English kings was none so commendable

To English men no lesse memorable:

Then Cyrus was to Perse by puissance,

And as great Charles was to them of France,

And as to the Romanes was great Romulus,

So was to England this worthy Edgarus.

I may not write more of his worthines

For lacke of time, ne of his holines:

But to my matter I him exemplifie,

Of conditions tweyne and of his policie:

Within his land was one, this is no doubt,

And another in the see without,

That in time of Winter and of werre,

When boystrous windes put see men into fere;

Within his land about by all prouinces

Hee passed through, perceiuing his princes,

Lords, and others of the commontee,

Who was oppressour, and who to pouertee

Was drawen and brought, and who was clene in life,

And was by mischiefe and by strife

With ouer leding and extortion:

And good and badde of eche condition

Hee aspied: and his ministers als,

Who did trought, and which of hem was fals:

Howe the right and lawes of the land

Were execute, and who durst take in hand

To disobey his statutes and decrees,

If they were well kept in all countrees:

Of these he made subtile inuestigation

Of his owne espie, and other men’s relation.

Among other was his great busines,

Well to ben ware, that great men of riches,

And men of might in citie nor in towne

Should to the poore doe non oppression.

Thus was he wont in this Winter tide,

On such enforchise busily to abide.

This was his labour for the publike thing,

Thus was hee occupied: a passing holy King

Nowe to purpose, in the Sommer faire

Of lusty season, whan clered was the aire,

He had redie shippes made before

Great and huge, not fewe but many a store:

Full three thousand and sixe hundred also

Stately inough on our sea to goe.

Dicit Chronica præparauerat naues robustissimas numero tria millia sexcenta: in quibus redeunte æstate omnem insulam ad terrorem extraneorum & ad suorum excitationem cum maximo apparatu circumnauigare consueuerat.

The Chronicles say, these shippes were full boysteous:

Such things long to kings victorious.

In Sommer tide would hee haue in wonne

And in custome to be ful redie soone,

With multitude of men of good array

And instruments of werre of best assay.

Who could hem well in any wise descriue?

It were not light for eny man aliue.

Thus he and his would enter shippes great

Habiliments hauing and the fleete

Of See werres, that ioyfull was to see

Such a nauie and Lord of Maiestee,

There present in person hem among

To saile and rowe enuiron all along,

So regal liche about the English isle;

To all strangers terrours and perile.

Whose fame went about in all the world stout,

Vnto great fere of all that be without,

And exercise to Knights and his meynee

To him longing of his natall cuntree

For courage of nede must haue exercise,

Thus occupied for esshewin of vice

This knew the king that policie espied;

Winter and Somer he was thus occupied.

Thus conclude I by authoritee

Of Chronike, that enuiron the see

Should bene our subiects vnto the King,

And hee bee Lord thereof for eny thing:

For great worship and for profile also

To defend his land fro euery foo.

That worthy king I leue, Edgar by name,

And all the Chronike of his worthy fame:

Dicit Chronica &c. vt non minus quantum ei etiam in hac vita bononum operum mercedem donauerit: cum aliquando ad maximam eius festiuitatem, reges, comites multarúmque, prouinciarum protectores conuenissent, &c.

Saffe onely this I may not passe away,

A worde of mighty strength till that I say,

That graunted him God such worship here,

For his merites, hee was without pere,

That sometime at his great festiuitee

Kings, and Erles of many a countree,

And princes fele were there present,

And many Lords came thider by assent.

To his worship: but in a certaine day

Hee bad shippes to be redie of aray:

For to visit Saint Iohns Church hee list

Rowing vnto the good holie Baptist,

Hee assigned to Erles, Lords, and knights

Many ships right goodly to sights:

And for himselfe and eight kings moo

Subiect to him hee made kepe one of thoo,

A good shippe, and entrede into it

With eight kings, and downe did they sit;

And eche of them an ore tooke in hand,

At ore hales, as I vnderstand,

And he himselfe at the shippe behinde

As steris man it became of kinde.

Such another rowing I dare well say,

Was not seene of Princes many a day.

Lo than how hee in waters got the price,

In lande, in see, that I may not suffice

To tell, O right, O magnanimitee,

That king Edgar had vpon the see.

An incident of the Lord of the sea King Edward the third.

Of king Edward I passe and his prowes

On lande, on sea yee knowe his worthines:

The siege of Caleis, ye know well all the matter

Round about by land, and by the water,

Howe it lasted not yeeres many agoe,

After the battell of Crecye was ydoe:

Howe it was closed enuiron about,

Olde men sawe it, which liuen, this is no doubt.

Caleis was yeelded to the English 1347.

Old Knights say that the Duke of Borgoyn,

Late rebuked for all his golden coyne;

Of ship on see made no besieging there,

For want of shippes that durst not come for feare.

It was nothing besieged by the see:

Thus call they it no siege for honestee.

Gonnes assailed, but assault was there none,

No siege, but fuge: well was he that might be gone:

This maner carping haue knights ferre in age,

Expert through age of this maner language.

King Edward had 700. English ships and 14151. English mariners before Caleis.

But king Edward made a siege royall,

And wanne the towne: and in especiall

The sea was kept, and thereof he was Lord.

Thus made he Nobles coyned of record;

In whose time was no nauie on the see

That might withstand his maiestie.

Battell of Scluse,13 yee may rede euery day,

Howe it was done I leue and goe my way:

It was so late done that yee it knowe,

In comparison within a litle throwe:

For which to God giue we honour and glorie,

For Lord of see the king was with victorie.

Another incident of keeping of the see, in the time of the marueilous werriour and victorious Prince, King Henrie the fifth, and of his great shippes.

The great ships of Henry the fift, made at Hampton.

And if I should conclude all by the King

Henrie the fift, what was his purposing,

Whan at Hampton he made the great dromons,

Which passed other great ships of all the commons,

The Trinitie, the Grace de Dieu, the holy Ghost,

And other moe, which as nowe bee lost.

What hope ye was the kings great intent

Of thoo shippes, and what in minde hee meant?

It was not ellis, but that hee cast to bee

Lorde round about enuiron of the see.

And when Harflew had her siege about,

There came caracks horrible great and stoute

In the narrow see willing to abide,

To stoppe vs there with multitude of pride.

Great caracks of Genoa taken by the Duke of Bedford.

My Lord of Bedford came on and had the cure,

Destroyed they were by that discomfiture.


This was after the king Harflew had wonne,

Whan our enemies to siege had begonne:

That all was slaine or take, by true relation,

To his worshippe, and of his English nation.

The French nauie thus ouerthrowen was of fiue hundred saile.

There was present the kings chamberlaine

At both battailes; which knoweth this in certaine;

He can it tell other wise then I:

Aske him, and witte; I passe foorth hastily

What had this king of his magnificence,

Of great courage of wisedome, and prudence?

Prouision, forewitte, audacitee,

Of fortitude, iustice, and agilitee,

Discretion, subtile auisednesse,

Attemperance, Noblesse, and worthinesse:

Science, prowesse, deuotion, equitie,

Of most estate, with his magnanimitie

Liche to Edgar, and the saide Edward,

As much of both liche hem as in regard.

Where was on liue a man more victorious,

And in so short time prince so marueilous?

By land and sea, so well he him acquitte,

To speake of him I stony in my witte

Thus here I leaue the king with his noblesse,

Henry the fift, with whom all my processe

Of this true booke of pure policie

Of sea keeping, entending victorie

I leaue endly: for about in the see

No prince was of better strenuitee.

And if he had to this time liued here,

He had bene Prince named withouten pere:

The Trinitie, the Grace de Dieu, the holy Ghost

His great ships should haue ben put in preefe,

Vnto the ende that he ment of in cheefe,

For doubt it not but that he would haue bee

Lord and master about the round see:

And kept it sure to stoppe our enemies hence,

And wonne vs good, and wisely brought it thence:

That no passage should be without danger,

And his licence on see to moue and sterre.

Of vnitie, shewing of our keeping of the see: with an endly or finall processe of peace by authoritie. Chap. 12.

Exhortatio generales in custodiam totius Angliæ per diligentiam custodiæ circutus maris circa littora eiusdem: quæ debet esse per vnanimitatem Consilariorum regis, & hominum bonæ voluntatus.

Now than for loue of Christ, and of his ioy,

Bring it England out of trouble and noy:

Take heart and witte, and set a gouernance,

Set many wits withouten variance,

To one accord and vnanimitee.

Put to good will for to keepe the see.

First for worship and profite also,

And to rebuke of eche euill willed foe.

Thus shall worship and riches to vs long.

Than to the Noble shall we doe no wrong,

To beare that coyne in figure and in deede,

To our courage, and to our enemies dreede:

For which they must dresse hem to peace in haste,

Or ellis their thrift to standen and to waste.

As this processe hath proued by and by

All by reason and expert policy;

And by stories which proued well this parte:

Or ellis I will my life put in ieoparte,

But many londs would seche her peace for nede,

The see well kept: it must be doo for drede.

Thus must Flanders for nede haue vnitee

And peace with vs: it will non other bee,

Within short while: and ambassadours

Would bene here soone to treate for their succours.

Tres sunt causæ prædictæ custodiæ scilcet, honor commodum regnum, & opprobrium inimicis.

This vnitie is to God pleasance:

And peace after the werres variance.

The ende of battaile is peace sikerly,

And power causeth peace finally.

Kept than the sea about in speciall,

Which of England is the towne wall.

As though England were likened to a citie,

And the wall enuiron were the see

Kepe then the sea that is the wall of England:

And than is England kept by Goddes hande;

That as for any thing that is without,

England were at ease withouten doubt,

And thus should euery lond one with another

Entercommon as brother with his brother

And liue togither werrelesse in vnitie,

Without rancour in very charitie,

In rest and peace, to Christes great pleasance,

Without strife, debate and variance.

Which peace men should enserche with businesse,

And knit it saddely holding in holinesse.

Ephes. 4. Solliciti sitis seruare vnitatem spiritus in vinculo pacis.

The Apostle seith, if ye list to see,

Bee yee busie for to keepe vnitee

Of the spirit in the bond of peace.

Which is nedeful to all withouten lese.

The Prophet biddeth vs peace for to enquire

To pursue it, this is holy desire.

Our Lord Iesu saith, Blessed motte they bee

That maken peace; that is tranquillitee.

Matth. 5. Beati pacifici quoniam filij Dei vocabuntur.

For peace makers, as Matthew writeth aright,

Should be called the sonnes of God almight.

God giue vs grace, the weyes for to keepe

Of his precepts, and slugly not to sleepe

In shame of sinne: that our verry foo

Might be to vs conuers, and turned so.

Cum placuerint Domino viæ hominis eius inimicos ad pacem conuertet

For in the Prouerbs is a text to this purpose

Plaine inough without any glose:

When mens weyes please vnto our Lord,

It shall conuert and bring to accord

Mans enemies vnto peace verray,

In vnitie, to liue to Goddis pay,

With vnitie, peace, rest and charitie.

Hee that was here cladde in humanitie,

That came from heauen, and styed vp with our nature,

Or hee ascended, he gaue to vs cure,

And left with vs peace, ageyne striffe and debate,

Mote giue vs peace, so well irradicate

Here in this world: that after all this feste

Vrbs beata Ierusalem dicta pacis visio.

Wee may haue peace in the land of beheste

Ierusalem, which of peace is the sight,

With his brightnes of eternall light,

There glorified in rest with his tuition,

The Deitie to see with full fruition:

Hee second person in diuinenesse is,

Who vs assume, and bring vs to the blis. Amen

Here endeth the true procease of the Libel of English policie, exhorting all England to keepe the sea enuiron: shewing what profit and saluation, with worship commeth thereof to the reigne of England.

Goe forth Libelle, and meekely shew thy face;

Appearing euer with humble countenance:

And pray my Lords to take in grace,

In opposaile and cherishing the aduance.

To hardines if that not variance

Thou hast fro trought by full experience

Authors and reasons: if ought faile in substance

Remit to hem that yafe thee this science;

That seth it is soth in verray fayth,

The wise lord of Hungerfords iudgement of this booke.

That the wise Lord Baron of Hungerford

Hath thee ouerseene, and verely he saith

That thou art true, and thus he doeth record,

Next the Gospel: God wotte it was his worde,

When hee thee redde all ouer in a night.

Goe forth trew booke, and Christ defend thy right.

Explicit libellus de Politia conseruatiua maris.

1 It is clear, from these lines, that this poem must have been written between 1416, when Sigismond was in England, and 1438, when he died.

2 The Noble was coined by Edward the third Anno regni 18. Quatuor considerantur in moneta aurea Anglica, quæ dicitur Nobile: scilicet Rex, Nauis gladius, & Mare: Quæ designant potestatem Anglicorum super Mare. In quorum opprobrium his diebus Britones minores & Flandrenses & alij dicunt Anglicis: Tollite de vestro Nobile nauem & imponite ouem. Intendentes, quod sicut quondam à tempore Edwardi tertij Anglici erant domini Maris, modo his diebus sunt vecordes, victi, & ad bellandum & Mare obseruandum velut oues.

3 Courtrai.

4 Brittany

5 Harfleur

6 Honfleur

7 Woad.

8 Or, lone.

9 Hunting.

10 This Lorde was the Earle of Ormond that told to me this matter, that he would vndertake it, in pain of losse of al his liuelihood. But this proffer could not be admitted. Ergo malè.

11 Harfleur, which was lost in 1449.

12 Rouen

13 The battle of L’Ecluse.

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