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Table of Contents

Goldsmid's Preface

  1. Northern Europe
  2. North-Eastern Europe and Adjacent Countries: Tartary
  3. North-Eastern Europe and Adjacent Countries: The Muscovy Company and the North-Eastern Passage, Section I
  4. North-Eastern Europe and Adjacent Countries: The Muscovy Company and the North-Eastern Passage, Section II
  5. Central and Southern Europe
  6. Madeira and the Canaries: Ancient Asia, Africa, &c.
  7. England's Naval Exploits Against Spain
  8. Asia, Part I
  9. Asia, Part II
  10. Asia, Part III
  11. Africa
  12. America, Part I
  13. America, Part II
  14. America, Part III
  15. America, Part IV; West Indies;
    Voyages of Circumnavigation, Part I
    [not yet available]
  16. Voyages of Circumnavigation, Part II;
    [not yet available]

List of Illustrations

[taken from the 1903 edition.]

  1. Elizabeth I
  2. Title page of the first edition, 1589
  3. Title page of the second edition, 1598, volume I
  4. Title page of the second edition, 1598, volume II
  5. Title page of the second edition, 1598, volume III
  6. Sir Hugh Willoughby
  7. Ivan Vasilowich, Emperor of Russia
  8. King Edward VI, granting the Charter of Bridewell Palace to the Citizens of London
  9. Sebastian Cabot
  10. Chart of Wardhouse (Vardo)
  11. Seal of the Russia Company, 1555.
  12. Sir Jerome Bowes
  13. Abd’Ullah Khan
  14. A Russian Lodia, or Small Coaster
  15. Chart of the Northern Ocean by William Burrough
  16. Abraham Ortelius
  17. Gerardus Mercator and Jodocus Hondius
  18. Plan of Moscow
  19. William Cecil, Lord Burghley
  20. Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham, Baron of Effingham
  21. The Ark Royal
  22. The first Action in the English Channel against the Armada
  23. Sir Horatio Pallavicini
  24. The Fleets at close Quarters
  25. The last Action in the English Channel against the Armada
  26. Relics from the Spanish Armada
  27. Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex
  28. Sir Robert Southwell
  29. The Action in Cadiz Bay, 21st June, 1596
  30. The Defences of Acre
  31. Tyre in the Sixteenth Century
  32. Jerusalem
  33. Sir Edward Osborne
  34. Philip de Villiers de L’Isle Adam
  35. Solyman the Magnificent
  36. A Turkish Carramuzzal
  37. Plan of Alexandria
  38. Plan of Constantinople
  39. A Venetian Merchantman
  40. A Venetian Merchantman (section)
  41. A Venetian Merchantman (measurements)
  42. Sir Francis Walsingham
  43. John Eldred
  44. The Emperor Akbar
  45. Plan of Ormuz
  46. George Fenner
  47. Plan of Goa
  48. Despatch from Sir Francis Drake
  49. George Clifford, Third Earl of Cumberland
  50. Sir Richard Grenville
  51. John Huighen van Linschoten
  52. Sir Martin Frobisher
  53. Letter from John Davis to Walsingham, 3rd October, 1585
  54. Sir Humphrey Gilbert
  55. Christopher Carlile
  56. Sir Walter Ralegh
  57. René Laudonnière
  58. Sir John Hawkins
  59. The Jesus of Lubeck
  60. The Minion
  61. Sir Francis Drake
  62. Plan of Santiago
  63. A Spanish Treasure Frigate
  64. The Rich Mines of Potosi
  65. Sir Robert Dudley
  66. Sir Anthony Sherley
  67. Capture of Don Antonio de Berreo
  68. Thomas Cavendish
  69. Drake’s Drum
  70. Sir Christopher Hatton
  71. A Galley
  72. Chart of the World by Judocus Hondius, Circa 1595
  73. The Black Pinnace
  74. Plan of Westminster, a.d. 1593
  75. Letter from Richard Hakluyt to Sir Francis Walsingham, 1st April, 1584

List of Maps

[from the 1903 edition.]

[view slideshow ]

  1. ‘Typus Orbis Terrarum’
  2. Map of the World
  3. Map of the World by Robert Thorne
  4. Map of Europe
  5. Chart of the Northern Ocean by William Burrough
  6. Map of Russia
  7. The first Action in the English Channel against the Armada
  8. The Action in Cadiz Bay, 21st June, 1596
  9. Map of the Coasts of Abex
  10. Sailing Chart of the Mediterranean
  11. English Sailing Chart, 1592
  12. Map of Egypt
  13. Chart of Cadiz Harbour by William Borough
  14. Map of the Coast of Guinea
  15. Map of the World by Sir Humphrey Gilbert
  16. Map of the World, a.d. 1578
  17. Map of Meta Incognita
  18. Map of the World, by Michael Lock
  19. Map of the Earl of Cumberland’s Voyage to the Azores, by Edward Wright, 1589
  20. Map of the New World, A. D. 1587
  21. Chart of Virginia, by John White
  22. Chart of Virginia and Florida, by John White
  23. Map of America by John Dee, a.d. 1580
  24. Map of Florida by James Le Moyne, a.d. 1564
  25. Map of the Coasts of China
  26. Map of the World by Peter Plancius a.d. 1594
  27. Plan of Santiago
  28. Map of Guiana by Sir Walter Ralegh
  29. Map of Drake’s West Indian Expedition, 1585–6
  30. Chart of Cape Horn
  31. Chart of the World by Judocus Hondius, Circa 1595
  32. Map of the Moluccas


“This elaborate and excellent Collection, which redounds as much to the glory of the English Nation as any book that ever was published, has already had sufficient complaints made in its behalf against our suffering it to become so scarce and obscure, by neglecting to republish it in a fair impression, with proper illustrations and especially an Index. But there may still be room left for a favourable construction of such neglect, and the hope that nothing but the casual scarcity of a work so long since out of print may have prevented its falling into those able hands that might, by such an edition, have rewarded the eminent Examples preserved therein, the Collector thereof and themselves according to their deserts.”

Thus wrote Oldys (The British Librarian, No III, March, 1737, page 137), nearly 150. years ago, and what has been done to remove this, reproach? The work has become so rare that even a reckless expenditure of money cannot procure a copy1

It has indeed long been felt that a handy edition of the celebrated “Collection of the Early Voyages, Travels and Discoveries of the English Nation,” published by Richard Hakluyt 1598, 1599, 1600, was one of the greatest desiderata of all interested in History, Travel, or Adventure. The labour and cost involved have however hitherto deterred publishers from attempting to meet the want except in the case of the very limited reprint of 1809–12.2 As regards the labour involved, the following brief summary of the contents of the Second Edition will give the reader some idea of its extent. I refer those who desire a complete analysis to Oldys.

Volume I. (1598) deals with Voyages to the North and North East, and contains One hundred and nine separate narratives, from Arthur’s Expedition to Norway in 517 to the celebrated Expedition to Cadiz, in the reign of good Queen Bess. Amongst the chief voyages may be mentioned: Edgar’s voyage round Britain in 973; an account of the Knights of Jerusalem; Cabot’s voyages; Chancellor’s voyages to Russia; Elizabeth’s Embassies, to Russia, Persia, &c.; the Destruction of the Armada; &c., &c.

Volume II. (1599) treats of Voyages to the South and South East, beginning with that of the Empress Helena to Jerusalem in 337. The chief narratives are those of Edward the Confessor’s Embassy to Constantinople; The History of the English Guard in that City; Richard Coeur de Lion’s travels; Anthony Beck’s voyage to Tartary in 1330; The English in Algiers and Tunis (1400); Solyman’s Conquest of Rhodes; Foxe’s narrative of his captivity; Voyages to India, China, Guinea, the Canaries; the account of the Levant Company; and the travels of Raleigh, Frobisher, Grenville, &c. It contains One hundred and sixty-five separate pieces.

Volume III. (1600) has Two hundred and forty-three different narratives, commencing with the fabulous Discovery of the West Indies in 1170, by Madoc, Prince of Wales. It contains the voyages of Columbus; of Cabot and his Sons; of Davis, Smith, Frobisher, Drake, Hawkins; the Discoveries of Newfoundland, Virginia, Florida, the Antilles, &c.; Raleigh’s voyages to Guiana; Drake’s great Voyage; travels in South America, China, Japan, and all countries in the West; an account of the Empire of El Dorado, &c.

The three volumes of the Second Edition therefore together contain Five hundred and seventeen separate narratives. When to this we add those narratives included in the First Edition, but omitted in the Second, all the voyages printed by Hakluyt or at his suggestion, such as “Divers Voyages touching the Discoverie of America,” “The Conquest of Terra Florida,” “The Historie of the West Indies,” &c., &c., and many of the publications of the Hakluyt Society, some idea may be formed of the magnitude of the undertaking. I trust the notes and illustrations I have appended may prove useful to students and ordinary readers; I can assure any who may be disposed to cavil at their brevity that many a line has cost me hours of research. In conclusion, a short account of the previous editions of Hakluyt’s Voyages may be found useful.

The First Edition (London: G. Bishop and R. Newberie) 1589, was in one volume folio. It contains, besides the Dedication to Sir Francis Walsingham (see page 3), a preface (see page 9), tables and index, 825 pages of matter. The map referred to in the preface was one which Hakluyt substituted for the one engraved by Molyneux, which was not ready in time and which was used for the Second Edition.

The Second Edition (London, G. Bishop, R. Newberie, and R, Barker), 1598, 1599, 1600, folio, 3 vols. in 2, is the basis of our present edition. The celebrated voyage to Cadiz (pages 607–19 of first volume) is wanting in many copies. It was suppressed by order of Elizabeth, on the disgrace of the Earl of Essex. The first volume sometimes bears the date of 1598. Prefixed is an Epistle Dedicatorie, a preface, complimentary verses, &c. (twelve leaves). It contains 619 pages. Volume II. has eight leaves of prefatory matter, 312 pages for Part I., and 204 pages for Part II. For Volume III. there are also eight leaves for title, dedication, &c., and 868 pages.

The Third Edition (London, printed by G. Woodfall), 1809–12, royal 410, 5 vols., is an excellent reprint of the two early editions. It is very scarce, a poor copy fetching £17 to £18. Since this edition, there has been no reprint of the Collection.

I have taken upon myself to alter the order of the different voyages. I have grouped together those voyages which relate to the same parts of the globe, instead of adopting the somewhat haphazard arrangement of the original edition. This, and the indices I have added to each volume, will, I hope, greatly assist the student. The maps, with the exception of the facsimile ones, are modern; on them I have traced the presumed course of the journey or journeys they refer to. The illustrations I have taken from a variety of sources, which are always indicated.


EDINBURGH, August 23rd, 1884.

1Mr. Quantch, the eminent Bibliopole, is now asking £42 for a copy of the 1598–1600 edition.

2Of this edition 250 copies were printed on royal paper, and 75 copies on imperial paper.

Complete Contents

Goldsmid's Preface

  1. Northern Europe
    1. Certeine testimonies concerning K. Arthur and his conquests of the North regions, taken out of the historie of the Kings of Britaine, written by Galfridus Monumetensis, and newly printed at Heidelberge, Anno 1587.
    2. A testimonie of the right and appendances of the crowne of the kingdome of Britaine, taken out of M. Lambard, his Αρκαιονομια, fol 137. pag. 2.
    3. A testimonie out of the foresayd Galfridus Monumetensis concerning the conquests, of Malgo, king of England. Lib. II. cap. 7.
    4. The conquest of the Isles of Anglesey and Man by Edwin the Saxon king of Northumberland written in the second Booke and fift Chapter of Beda his Ecclesiasticall historie of the English nation.
    5. Another testimonie alledged by Beda to the same purpose. Lib 2. cap 9.
    6. The voyage of Bertus, generall of an armie sent into Ireland by Ecfridus king of Northumberland, in the yere of our Lord 684, out of the 4. Booke and 26. Chapter of Beda his Ecclesiasticall Hystorie.
    7. The voyage of Octher made to the Northeast parts beyond Norway, reported by himselfe vnto Alfred the famous king of England, about the yere 890.
    8. The voyage of Octher out of his countrey of Halgoland into the sound of Denmarke vnto a port called Hetha, which seemeth to be Wismer or Rostorke.
    9. Wolstans nauigation in the East sea, from Hetha to Trusco, which is about Dantzig.
  2. North-Eastern Europe and Adjacent Countries: Tartary
  3. North-Eastern Europe and Adjacent Countries:
    The Muscovy Company and the North-Eastern Passage, Section I
    1. A briefe Treatise of the great Duke of Moscouia his genealogie, being taken out of the Moscouites manuscript Chronicles written by a Polacke.
    2. Ordinances, instructions, and aduertisements of and for the direction of the intended voyage for Cathay, compiled, made, and deliuered by the right worshipfull M. Sebastian Cabota Esquier, gouernour of the mysterie and companie of the Marchants aduenturers for the discouerie of Regiones, Dominions, Islands and places vnknowen, the 9. day of May, in the yere of our Lord God, 1553. and in the 7. yeere of the reign of our most dread soueraigne Lord Edward the 6. by the grace of God, king of England, Fraunce, and Ireland, defender of the faith, and of the Church of England and Ireland, in earth supreame head.
    3. The copie of the letters missiue, which the right noble Prince Edward the sixt sent to the Kings, Princes, and other Potentates, inhabiting the Northeast partes of the worlde, toward the mighty Empire of Cathay, at such time as Sir Hugh Willoughby knight, and Richard Chancelor, with their company attempted their voyage thither in the yeere of Christ 1553. and the seuenth and last yeere of his raigne.
    4. The true copie of a note found wrltten in one of the two ships, to wit, the Speranza, which wintered in Lappia, Where sir Hugh Willoughby and all his companie died, being frozen to death. Anno 1553.
    5. The booke of the great and mighty Emperor of Russia, and Duke of Muscouia, and of the dominions orders and commodities thereunto belonging: drawen by Richard Chancelour.
    6. The Testimonie of M. Richard Eden in his decades, concerning the Booke following.
    7. The newe Nauigation and discouerie of the kingdome of Moscouia, by the Northeast, in the yeere 1553: Enterprised by Sir Hugh Willoughbie knight, and perfourmed by Richard Chancelor Pilot maior of the voyage: Written in Latine by Clement Adams.
    8. The copie of the Duke of Moscouie and Emperour of Russia his letters, sent to King Edward the sixt, by the hands of Richard Chancelour.
    9. The letters of King Philip and Queene Marie to Iuan Vasiliuich the Emperour of Russia written the first of April 1555 and in the second voyage.
    10. Articles conceiued and determined for the Commission of the Merchants of this company residant in Russia, and at the Wardhouse, for the second voyage, 1555. the first of May, as followeth.
    11. The letter of M. George Killingworth the companies first Agent in Moscouie, touching their interteinement in their second voyage. Anno 1555. the 27. of Nouember in Mosco.
    12. (George Killingworth was furnished with a copy of the following notice of the coines, weights and measures vsed in Russia, written by Iohn Hasse, in the yeere, 1554:—)
    13. A copie of the first Priuileges graunted by the Emperour of Russia to the English Marchants in the yeere 1555.
    14. The Charter of the Marchants of Russia, graunted vpon the discouerie of the saide Countrey by King Philip and Queene Marie.
    15. Certaine instructions deliuered in the third voyage, Anno 1556. for Russia, to euery Purser and the rest of the seruants, taken for the voyage, which may serue as good and necessary directions, to all other like aduenturers.
    16. The Nauigation and discouerie toward the riuer of Ob, made by Master Steuen Burrough, Master of the Pinnesse called the Serchthrift, with diuers things worth the noting, passed in the yere 1556.
    17. Certaine notes vnperfectly written by Richard Iohnson seruant to Master Richard Chancelour, which was in the discouerie of Vaigatz and Noua Zembla, with Steuen Burrowe in the Serchthrift 1556. and afterwarde among the Samoedes, whose deuilish rites hee describeth.
    18. A discourse of the honourable receiuing into England of the first Ambassador from the Emperor of Russia, in the yeere of Christ 1556. and in the third yeere of the raigne of Queene Marie, seruing for the third voyage to Moscouie. Registred by Master Iohn Incent Protonotarie.
    19. The voyage of the foresaid M. Stephen Burrough, An. 1557. from Colmogro to Wardhouse, which was sent to seeke the Bona Esperanza, the Bona Confidentia, and the Philip and Mary, which were not heard of the yeere before.
    20. Instructions giuen to the Masters and Mariners to be obserued in and about this Fleete, passing this yeere 1577. toward the Bay of S. Nicolas in Russia, for this present Race to be made and returne of the same by Gods grace to the port of London, the place of their right discharge, as in the Articles ensuing is deduced.
    21. A letter of the Company of the Marchants aduenturers to Russia vnto George Killingworth, Richard Gray, and Henry Lane their Agents there, to be deliuered in Colmogro or els where: sent in the Iohn Euangclist.
    22. A Letter of Master Thomas Hawtrey to the worshipfull Master Henrie Lane Agent at Colmogro, written in Vologda the 31. of Ianuarie 1557.
    23. A letter of master Richard Gray one of the first Agents of the Moscouie companie to Master Henrie Lane at Mosco, written in Colmogro the 19. of Februarie 1558.
    24. A letter of Thomas Alcocke to the worshipfull Richard Gray, and Henrie Lane Agents in Moscouia from Tirwill in Polonia, written in Tirwill the 26. of Aprill 1558.
    25. A Letter of Master Anthonie Ienkinson vpon his returne from Boghar to the worshipful Master Henrie Lane Agent for the Moscouie compante resident in Vologda, written in the Mosco the 18. of September, 1559.
    26. A Letter of the Moscouie companie to their Agents in Russia, Master Henrie Lane, Christopher Hudson, and Thomas Glouer sent in their seuenth voyage to Saint Nicholas with three ships, the Swallowe, the Philip and Marie, and the Iesus the fifth of May, 1560.
    27. The maner of Iustice by lots in Russia, written by Master Henrie Lane, and executed in a controuersie betweene him and one Sheray Costromitskey in Mosco. 1560.
    28. The first voyage made by Master Anthonie Ienkinson, from the Citie of London toward the land of Russia, begun the twelfth of May, in the yeere 1557.
    29. The voyage, wherein Osep Napea the Moscouite Ambassadour returned home into his countrey, with his entertainement at his arriuall, at Colmogro: and a large description of the maners of the Countrey.
      1. The maners, vsages, and ceremonies of the Russes.
      2. Of the Emperour.
      3. Of their religious men.
      4. Of their Baptisme.
      5. Of their Matrimonie.
      6. Of their buriall.
    30. The voyage of Master Anthony Ienkinson, made from the citie of Mosco in Russia, to the citie of Boghar in Bactria, in the yeere 1558: written by himselfe to the Merchants of London of the Moscouie company.
    31. Certaine notes gathered by Richard Iohnson (which was at Boghar with M. Anthony Ienkinson) of the reports of Russes and other strangers, of the wayes of Russia to Cathaya, and of diuers and strange people.
    32. By the same partie a note of another way more sure to traueile, as he reporteth.
    33. The instructions of one of Permia, who reporteth he had bene at Cathay the way before written, and also another way neere the sea coast, as foloweth, which note was sent out of Russia from Giles Holmes.
    34. Here follow certaine countreys of the Samoeds which dwell vpon the riuer Ob, and vpon the sea coasts beyond the same, taken outof the Russe tongue word by word, and trauailed by a Russe born in Colmogro, whose name was Pheodor Towtigin, who by report, was slaine in his second voyage in one of the said countreys.
    35. The relation of Chaggi Memet a Persian Marchant, to Baptista Ramusius, and other notable citizens of Venice; touching the way from Tauris the chiefe city of Persia, to Campion a citie of Cathay ouer land: in which voyage he himselfe had passed before with the Carauans.
    36. A letter of Sigismond king of Polonia, written in the 39. yeere of his reigne to Elizabeth the Queenes most excellent Maiestie of England, &c.
    37. The Queenes Maiesties Letters to the Emperour of Russia, requesting licence, and safe conduct for M. Anthony Ienkinson to passe thorow his kingdome of Russia, into Persia, to the Great Sophie, 1561.
    38. The Queenes Maiesties Letters to the great Sophy of Persia, sent by M. Anthonie Ienkinson. 1561.
    39. A remembrance giuen by vs the Gouernours, Consuls, and Assistants of the company of Merchants trading into Russia, the eight day of May 1561, to our trustie friend Anthonie Ienkinson, at his departure towards Russia, and so to Persia, in this our eight iourney.
    40. A compendious and briefe declaration of the iourney of M. Anth. Ienkinson, from the famous citie of London into the land of Persia, passing in this same iourney thorow Russia, Moscouia, and Mare Caspium, alias Hircanum, sent and imployed therein by the right worshipfull Societie of the Merchants Aduenturers, for discouerie of Lands, Islands, &c. Being begun the fourteenth day of May, Anno 1561, and in the third yere of the reigne of the Queenes Maiestie that now is: this present declaration being directed and written to the foresayd Societie.
    41. A copie of the priviledges giuen by Obdolowcan King of Hircania, to the company of English merchants Aduenturers for Russia, Persia, and Mare Caspium, with all the lands and countreys adioyning to the same, obtained by M. Anthonie Ienkinson at his being there about the affaires of the said company, April 14. Anno 1563.
    42. The second voiage into Persia made by Tho. Alcock, who was slaine there, and by George Wrenne, and Ric. Cheinie seruants to the worshipfull companie of Moscouie merchants in Anno 1563. written by the said Richard Cheinie.
    43. The thirde voyage into Persia, begun in the yeere 1565. by Richard Iohnson, Alexander Kitchin, and Arthur Edwards.
    44. Another letter of the said M. Arthur Edwards, written the 26. of, April 1566. in Shamaki in Media, to the right worshipful Sir Thomas Lodge Knight and Alderman: and in his absence to M. Thomas Nicols, Secretarie to the right worshipfull companie trading into Russia, Persia, and other the North and East partes, touching the successe of Richard Iohnson in the third voiage into Persia.
    45. Commodities to be caried out of England into Persia, with their prizes there.
    46. Commodities to be brought out of Persia for England.
    47. A letter of M. Arthur Edwards, written the 8. of August 1566. from the towne of Shamaki in Media, to the right worshipfull the Gouernours, Consuls, Assistants and generalitie of the Companie of Russia, &c. Shewing his accesse vnto the Emperour of Persia, his conference with him, his obtaining of a priuiledge, with diuers other good obseruations.
    48. Another letter of Arthur Edwards written in Astracan the 16. of Iune 1567. at his returne in his first voiage out of Persia, to the right worshipfull Companie trading into Russia, Persia, and other the North and Northeast partes.
    49. Distances of certaine places in Russia.
    50. The way discouered by water by vs Thomas Southam and Iohn Sparke, from the towne of Colmogro, by the Westerne bottome of the Baie of S. Nicholas, vnto the citie of Nouogrod in Russia, containing many particulars of the way, and distance of miles, as hereafter foloweth. Anno 1566.
    51. An Act for the corporation of Merchants aduenturers for the discouering of new trades, made in the eight yere of Queene Elizabeth. Anno 1566.
    52. A very briefe remembrance of a voyage made by M. Anthony Ienkinson, from London in Moscouia, sent from the Queenes Maiestie to the Emperour, in the yeere 1566.
  4. North-Eastern Europe and Adjacent Countries: The Muscovy Company and the North-Eastern Passage, Section II
    1. The Priuiledges graunted by the Emperour of Russia to the English merchants of that company: obteined the 22. of September, Anno 1567. by M. Anthony Ienkinson.
    2. A letter of M. Henrie Lane to M. Richard Hakluit, concerning the first ambassage to our most gracious Queene Elizabeth from the Russian Emperour anno 1567, and other notable matters incident to those places and times.
    3. A Letter of the most excellent Maiestie of Queene Elizabeth, sent by Stephen Twerdico and Pheodata Pogorella, messengers of the Emperour of Russia, vnto their Master the 9th of May 1568.
    4. The ambassage of the right worshipfulll Master Thomas Randolfe, Esquire, to the Emperour of Russia, in the yeere 1568, briefly written by himselfe.
    5. A copie of the priuiledges granted by the right high and mightie Prince, the Emperour of Russia, &c. vnto the right worshipfull fellowship of English merchants, for the discouerie of new trades: and hither sent by Thomas Randolfe esquire, her Maiesties Ambassadour to the sayd Emperour, and by Andrew Sauin his Ambassadour in the yere of our Lord God, 1569.
    6. Other speciall grants by his Maiesties priuate letters at the sute of M. Randolfe Ambassadour.
    7. A Commission giuen by vs Thomas Randolfe Ambassadour for the Queenes Maiestie in Russia, and Thomas Bannister, &c. vnto Iames Bassendine, Iames Woodcocke and Richard Browne, the which Bassendine, Woodcocke, and Browne we appoint ioyntly together, and aiders, the one of them to the other, in a voyage of discouery to be made (by the grace of God) by them, for searching of the sea, and border of the coast, from the riuer Pechora, to the Eastwards, as hereafter foloweth Anno 1588. The first of August.
    8. Certaine letters in verse, written by Master George Turberuile out of Moscouia, which went as Secretarie thither with Master Tho. Randolph, her Maiesties Ambassadour to the Emperour 1568, to certeine friends of his in London, describing the maners of the Countrey and people.
    9. The fourth voyage into Persia, made by M. Arthur Edwards Agent, Iohn Sparke, Laurence Chapman, Christopher Faucet, and Richard Pingle, in the yeere 1568. declared in this letter written from Casbin in Persia by the foresaide Laurence Chapman to a worshipfull merchant of the companie of Russia in London. Anno Domini 1569. Aprill 28.
    10. Notes concerning this fourth voyage into Persia, begun in the moneth of Iuly 1568. gathered by M. Richard Willes from the mouth of Master Arthur Edwards which was Agent in the same.
    11. The fift voiage into Persia made by M. Thomas Banister, and master Geofrey Ducket, Agents for the Moscouie companie, began from England in the yeere 1568, and continuing to the yeere 1574 following. Written by P. I. from the mouth of M. Lionel Plumtree.
    12. Further obseruations concerning the state of Persia, taken in the foresayd fift voyage into those partes, and written by M. Geffery Ducket, one of the Agents emploied in the same.
    13. The copy of a letter sent to the Emperour of Moscouie, by Christopher Hodsdon and William Burrough, Anno 1570.
    14. A letter of Richard Vscombe to M. Henrie Lane, touching the burning of the Citie of Mosco by the Crimme Tartar, written in Rose Island the 5. day of August, 1571.
    15. A note of the proceeding of M. Anthonie Ienkinson, Ambassadour from the Queens most excellent Maiestie, to the Emperour of Russia, from the time of his ariuall there, being the 26. of Iuly 1571, vntill his departure from thence the 23. of Iuly 1572.
    16. The names of such countries as I Anthony Ienkinson haue trauelled vnto, from the second of October 1546, at which time I made my first voyage out of England, vntill the yeere of our Lord 1572, when I returned last out of Russia.
    17. A letter of Iames Alday to the Worshipfull M. Michael Lock, Agent in London for the Moscouie company, touching a trade to be established in Lappia, written 1575.
    18. The request of an honest merchant to a friend of his, to be aduised and directed in the course of killing the Whale, as followeth. An. 1575.
    19. The deposition of M. William Burrough to certaine Interrogatories ministred vnto him concerning the Narue, Kegor, &c. to what king or prince they doe appertaine and are subiect, made the 23 of Iune, 1576.
    20. Certaine reasons to disswade the vse of a trade to the Narue aforesaide, by way through Sweden.
    21. A remembrance of aduise giuen to the merchants, touching a voyage for Cola abouesaid. 1578.
    22. A dedicatorie Epistle vnto the Queenes most excellent Maiestie, written by Master William Burrough late Comptroller of Her Highnesse nauie, and annexed vnto his exact and notable mappe of Russia, briefly containing (amongst other matters) his great trauailes, obseruations, and experiments both by sea and land, especially in those Northeastern parts.
    23. The Queenes Maiesties letters to Shaugh Thamas the great Sophi of Persia, sent by Arthur Edwards, William Turnbull, Matthew Tailbois, and Peter Gerard appointed Agents for the Moscouie companie, in their sixt voyage to Persia, begun in the yeere 1579.
    24. Aduertisements and reports of the 6. voyage into the parts of Persia and Media, for the companie of English merchants for the discouerie of new trades, in the yeeres 1579. 1580. and 1581. gathered out of sundrie letters written by Christopher Burrough, seruant to the saide companie, and sent to his vncle Master William Burrough.
    25. Obseruations of the latitudes and meridian altitudes of diuers places in Russia, from the North to the South: Anno 1581.
    26. Certaine directions giuen by M. Richard Hackluit of the Middle Temple, to M. Morgan Hubblethorne, Dier, sent into Persia, 1579.
    27. Commission giuen by sir Rowland Hayward knight, and George Barrie, Aldermen and gouernours of the company of English Merchants, for discouery of new trades, vnto Arthur Pet, and Charles Iackman, for a voyage by them to be made, for discouery of Cathay, 1580. in forme following.
    28. Instructions and notes very necessary and needfull to be obserued in the purposed voyage for discouery of Cathay Eastwards, by Arthur Pet, and Charles Iackman: giuen by M. William Burrough. 1580.
    29. Certaine briefe aduises giuen by Master Dee, to Arthur Pet, and Charles Iackman, to bee obserued in their Northeasterne discouerie, Anno 1580.
    30. Notes in writing, besides more priuie by mouth, that were giuen by M. Richard Hakluyt of Eiton in the Countie of Hereford, Esquire, Anno 1580: to M. Arthur Pet, and to M. Charles Iackman, sent by the Merchants of the Moscouie companie for the discouery of the Northeast straight, not altogether vnfit for some other enterprise of discouery, hereafter to be taken in hand.
    31. A letter of Gerardus Mercator, written to M. Richard Hakluyt of Oxford, touching the intended discouery of the Northeast passage, An. 1580.
    32. The discouerie made by M. Arthur Pet and M. Charles Iackman, of the Northeast parts, beyond the Island of Vaigatz, with two Barkes: the one called the George, the other the William, in the yeere 1580. Written by Hugh Smith.
    33. Instructions made by the company of English, merchants for discouery of new trades, vnto Richard Gibs, William Biggat, Iohn Backhouse, William Freeman, Iohn Haly, and Iames Woodcock, &c. masters of the 9. ships and one barke that we had freighted for a voiage with them to be made (by the grace of God) from hence to S. Nicholas in Russia, and backe againe: which ships being now in the riuer of Thames are presently ready to depart vpon the said voyage, with the next apt winds that may serue thereunto: and with this Fleet afterwards was ioned M. Christopher Carlisle with the Tyger. The 1 off Iune 1582.
    34. The opinion of Master William Burrough sent to a friend, requiring his iudgment for the fittest time of the departure of our ships towards S. Nicholas in Russia.
    35. A copie of the Commission giuen to Sir Ierome Bowes, authorizing him her Maiesties Ambassadour vnto the Emperour of Russia, Anno 1583.
    36. A letter sent from her Highnesse to the sayd great Duke of Russia, by sir Hierome Bowes aforesayd, her Maiesties Ambassadour.
    37. A briefe discourse of the voyage of Sir Ierome Bowes knight, her Maiesties ambassadour to Iuan Vasiliuich the Emperour of Moscouia, in the yeere 1583.
    38. The maner of the preferring of sutes in Russia, by the example of our English merchants bill, exhibited to the Emperour.
    39. A letter of M. Henrie Lane to the worshipfull M. William Sanderson, conteining a briefe discourse of that which passed in the the Northeast discouery for the space of three and thirtie yeres.
    40. The most solemne, and magnificent coronation of Pheodor Iuanowich, Emperour of Russia &c. the tenth of Iune, in the yeere 1584; seene and obserued by Master Ierome Horsey gentleman, and seruant to her Maiesty, a man of great trauell, and long experience in those parts: wherewith is also ioyned the course of his iourney ouer land from Mosco to Emden.
    41. Pheodor Iuanowich the new Emperors gracious letter of priuilege to the English Merchants word for word, obtained by M. Ierome Horsey. 1586.
    42. The Ambassage of M. Giles Fletcher, Doctor of the Ciuil Law, sent from her Maiestie to Theodor the Emperor of Russia. Anno 1588.
    43. A speciall note gathered by the excellent Venetian Cosmographer M. Iohn Baptista Ramusius out of the Atabian Geographie of Abilfada Ismael, concerning the trending of the Ocean sea from China Northward, along the coast of Tartarie and other vnknowen lands, and then running Westwards vpon the Northerne coasts of Russia, and so farther to the Northwest.
    44. The Lord Boris Phcodorowich his letter to the Right Honorable William Burghley Lord high Treasurer of England. &c.
    45. The Queenes Maiesties letter to Theodore Iuanouich Emperour of Russia, 1591.
    46. The Queenes Maiesties letters to the Lord Boris Pheodorowich.
    47. To the right honourable my very good Lord, the Lord Boris Pheodorowich, Master of the horses to the great and mighty Emperour of Russia, his Highnesse Lieutenant of Cazan and Astracan, William Cecil Lord Burghley, Knight of the noble Order of the Garter, and Lord high Treasurer of England sendeth greeting.
    48. A letter from the Emperour of Russia, Theodore Iuanouich to the Queenes Maiestie.
    49. A most gracious Letter giuen to the English Merchants Sir Iohn Hart and his company, by Theodore Iuanowich, the King, Lord, and great duke of all Russia, the onely vpholder thereof.
    50. A letter from the Lord Boris Pheodorowich to the right honourable Lord William Burghley, Lord high Treasurer of England.
    51. To the Queenes most excellent Maiestie from the Lord Boris Pheodorouich Godonoua.
    52. The contents of M. Garlands Commission vnto Thomas Simkinson for the bringing of M. Iohn Dee to the Emperour of Russia his Court.
    53. A letter to the right worshipfull M. Iohn Dee Esquire, conteyning the summe and effect of M. Edward Garland his message, deliuered to Master Dee himselfe, (Letterwise) for a more perfect memoriall thereof. Anno 1586.
    54. A branch of a letter from M. Iohn Merick, Agent vnto the Moscouie company in Russia, closed vp in the Mosco the 14. of March, Anno 1597. touching the death of Pheodor Iuanowich late Emperour of all Russia, &c.
    55. A learned Epistle written 1581. vnto the famous Cosmographer M. Gerardus Mercator concerning the riuer Pechora, Naramsay, Cara reca, the mighty riuer of Ob, the place of Yaks Olgush in Siberia, the great riuer Ardoh, the lake of Kittay called of the borderers Paraha, the Countrey of Carrah Colmak, giuing good light to the discouery of the Northeast passage to Cathay, China and the Malucaes.
    56. A testimonie of the Northeasterne Discouerie made by the English, and of the profite that may arise by pursuing the same: taken out of the second volume of Nauigations and Voyages, fol. 17. of the notable Cosmographer M. Iohn Baptista Ramusius, Secretaire to the State of Venice: Written in Italian in the yeere, 1557.
    57. The testimonie of Gerardus Mercator in his last large Mappe of Europe, touching the notable discoueries of the English, made of Moscouie by the Northeast.
    58. Another testimonie of Ioannes Metellus Sequanus concerning the same Nauigation and Discouerie in his preface prefixed before Osorius de rebus gestis Emanuelis Regis Portugalliæ. written about the yeere, 1574.
  5. Central and Southern Europe
    1. A Catalogue of the great Masters of the Order of the Dutch knights, commonly called the Hospitalaries of Ierusalem: and what great exploites euery of the saide Masters hath atchieued either in conquering the land of Prussia, or in taming and subduing the Infidels, or els in keeping them vnder their obedience and subiection, taken out of Munster.
    2. The Oration or speech of the Ambassadours sent from Conradus de Zolner Master generall of the land of Prussia, vnto Richard the second, King of England, and France, &c.
    3. An agreement made by the Ambassadors of England and Prussia, confirmed by king Richard the second.
    4. The letters of Conradas de Iungingen, Master generall of Prussia, written vnto Richard the second, king of England, in the yeere 1398, for the renouncing of a league and composition concluded betweene England and Prussia, in regard of manifold iniuries, offered vnto the Prussians.
    5. A briefe relation of William Esturmy, and Iohn Kington concerning their ambassages into Prussia, and the Hans-townes.
    6. Compositions and ordinances concluded between the messengers of Frater Conradus de Iungingen master generall of Prussia: and the chancelor and treasurer of the realme of England 1403.
    7. The letters of the chancelor and treasurer of England, vnto Frater Conradus de Iungingen, master generall of Prussia 1403.
    8. The letters of king Henry the 4. vnto Conradus de Iungingen the master general of Prussia, for mutual conuersation and intercourse of traffique to continue between the marchants of England and of Prussia, for a certaine terme of time.
    9. To the most renowned prince and mighty Lord, Henrie king of England &c. our gracious Lord.
    10. An agreement made betweene king Henry the fourth and Conradus de Iungingen Master generall of the land of Prussia.
    11. An agreement made betweene King Henrie the fourth and the common societie of the Marchants of the Hans.
    12. These be the grieuances and offences, whereat the marchants of the Hans of Almaine, comming vnto, and residing in the Realme of England, doe finde themselues aggrieued, contrarie to the Articles and priuileges of the Charter graunted vnto them by the worthy Progenitors of the king of England that now is, and also by the saide soueraigne Lord the King, ratified, and confirmed.
    13. A letter of Henry the fourth king of England &c. unto Frater Conradus de Iungingen the Master generall of Prussia.
    14. To the right noble and valiant knight Sir William Sturmy sent at this present by the most souereigne King of England &c, as his ambassadour vnto Dordract, his most sincere friend.
    15. The letters of Henry the 4. king of England &c vnto Vlricus de Iungingen Master generall of Prussia, 1408. wherein he doth ratifie and accept the last agreement made at Hage in Holland.
    16. The letters of Fr: Vlricus Master of Prussia directed vnto the king of England, signifying that he is contented with the agreements concluded by his messengers at Hage.
    17. The letters of king Henry the 4. sent vnto F. Vlricus master general of Prussia, wherein he doth absolutely approue the foresaid conference holden at Hage, and treateth about a perpetual league and amitie to be concluded betweene England and Prussia.
    18. A new concord concluded between king Henry the 4. and Vlricus de Iungingen Master generall of Prussia in the yeare of our Lord 1409.
    19. That the Brittons were in Italie and Greece with the Cimbrians and Gaules, before the incarnation of Christ. M. Wil. Camden, pag. 33.
    20. The trauaile of Helena.
    21. The life and trauels of Constantine the great, Emperour and king of Britaine.
    22. Certaine Englishmen sent to Constantinople by the French King to Iustinian the Emperour, about the yeere of Christ, 500. out of the fourth booke of Procopius de Bello Gothico.
    23. The life and trauailes of Iohn Erigena.
    24. English men were the guard of the Emperours of Constantinople in the reigne of Iohn the sonne of Alexius Comnenus. Malmesburiensis, Curopolata and Camden, pag. 96.
    25. The woorthy voiage of Richard the first, K. of England into Asia, for the recouerie of Ierusalem out of the hands of the Saracens, drawen out of the booke of Acts and Monuments of the Church of England, written by M. Iohn Foxe.
    26. The letter of the Emperour to Philip the French king, concerning the taking of King Richard.
    27. Epitaphium Richardi primi regis Anglorum apud fontem Ebraldi.
    28. The trauailes of Gulielmus Peregrinus.
    29. The comming of the Emperour of Constantinople called Baldwine into England in the yere 1247, out of Matth. Paris, and Holensh. page 239. vol. 2.
    30. Confirmatio treugarum inter Regem Angliæ Eduardum quartum, et Ioannem secundum Regem Portugalliæ, datarum in oppido montis Maioris 8. Februarij, et apud Westmonasterium 13, Septembris, 1482. anno regni 22. Regis Eduardi quarti, lingua Lusitanica ex opere sequenti excerpta.
    31. The voyage of Matthew Gourney, a most, valiant English Knight against the Moores of Algier in Barbarie and Spaine. M. Camden pag. 159.
    32. The comming of Lyon King of Armenia into England, in the yeere 1386, and in the ninth yeere of Richard the second, in trust to finde some meanes of peace or good agreement betweene the King of England and the French king. Iohn Froyssart lib. 3. cap. 56.
    33. The memorable victories in diuers parts of Italie of Iohn Hawkwood English man in the reigne of Richard the second, briefly recorded by M. Camden, pag. 339.
    34. The comming of the Emperour of Constantinople into England, to desire the aide of Henry the 4. against the Turkes, 1400.
    35. A briefe relation of the siege and taking of the Citie of Rhodes, by Sultan Soliman the great Turke, translated out of French into English at the motion of the Reuerend Lord Thomas Dockwray, great Prior of the order of Ierusalem in England, in the yeere, 1524.
    36. An ambassage from Don Ferdinando, brother to the emperor Charles 5. vnto king Henry the 8. in the yeere 1527 desiring his aide against Solyman the great Turke. Holinshed. pag. 894.
    37. The antiquitie of the trade with English ships into the Leuant.
    38. A letter of the king of England Henry the eight, to Iohn king of Portugale, for a Portingale ship with the goods of Iohn Gresham and Wil. Locke with others, vnladen in Portugale from Chio.
    39. A voyage made with the shippes called the Holy Crosse, and the Mathew Gonson, to the Iles of Candia and Chio, about the yeere 1534, according to a relation made to Master Richard Hackluit, by Iohn Williamson, Cooper and citizen of London, who liued in the yeere 1592, and went as cooper in the Mathew Gonson the next voyage after.
    40. Another voyage to the Iles of Candia and Chio made by the shippe the Mathew Gonson, about the yeere 1535, according to the relation of Iohn Williamson, then Cooper in the same ship, made to M. Richard Hackluit in the yeere 1592.
    41. The Epitaph of the valiant Esquire M. Peter Read in the south Ile of Saint Peters Church in the citie of Norwich, which was knighted by Charles the fift at the winning of Tunis in the yeere of our Lord 1538.
    42. A discourse of the trade to Chio, in the yeere 1569. made by Caspar Campion, vnto master Michael Locke, and vnto master William Winter, as by his letters vnto them both shall appeare. Written the 14. of February.
    43. The first voyage of Robert Baker (to Guinie), with the Minion, and Primrose, set out in October, 1562. by Sir William Garrard, Sir William Chester, M. Thomas Lodge, Anthony Hickman, and Edward Castelin.
    44. The second voyage to Guinie, and the riuer of Sesto, set out in the Moneth of Nouember 1563, by Sir William Gerrard, Sir William Chester, Sir Thomas Lodge, Maister Beniamin Gonston, Maister William Winter, Maister Lionel Ducket, Anthonie Hickman, and Edward Castelin, with two ships, the one called the Iohn Baptist, wherein went for Maister, Laurence Rondell: and the other the Marlin, wherein went also for Maister, Robert Reuell, hauing for Factors, Robert Baker, Iustinian Goodwine, Iames Gleidell, and George Gage: and written in verse by the foresaid Robert Baker.
    45. The voyage of M. Roger Bodenham with the great Barke Aucher to Candia and Chio, in the yeere 1550.
    46. Another discourse of the trade to Chio in the yeere 1569, made by Gaspar Campion, vnto master M. William Winter.
    47. The true report of the siege and taking of Famagusta, of the antique writers called Tamassus, a city in Cyprus 1571. In the which the whole order of all the skirmishes, batteries, mines, and assaults giuen to the sayd fortresse, may plainly appear. Englished out of Italian by William Malim.
    48. The renuing and increasing of an ancient and commodious trade vnto diuerse places in the Leuant seas, and to the chiefest partes of all the great Turks dominions, by the meanes of the Right worsh. citizens Sir Edward Osburne Alderman, and M. Richard Staper marchant of London.
    49. The letters sent from the Imperiall Musulmanlike highnesse of Zuldan Murad Can, to the sacred regall Maiestie of Elizabeth Queene of England, the fifteenth of March 1579, conteyning the grant of the first priuileges.
    50. The answere of her Maiestie to the aforesaid Letters of the Great Turke, sent the 15 of October 1579, in the Prudence of London by Master Richard Stanley.
    51. The charter of the priuileges granted to the English, and the league of the great Turke with the Queenes Maiestie in respect of traffique, dated in Iune 1580.
    52. Her Maiesties, letter to the Turke or Grand Signior 1581. promising redresse of the disorders of Peter Baker of Ratcliffe, committed in the Leuant.
    53. The letters patents, or priuileges graunted by her Maiestie to Sir Edward Osborne, Master Richard Staper, and certaine other Marchants of London for their trade into the dominions of the great Turke, in the yeere 1581.
    54. The Queenes Commission vnder the great seale, to her seruant master William Hareborne, to be her maiesties Ambassadour or Agent, in the partes of Turkie. 1582.
    55. The Queenes Letter to the great Turke 1582. written in commendation of Master Hareborne, when he was sent Ambassadour.
    56. A Letter of the Queenes Maiestie to Alli Bassa the Turkes high Admirall, sent by her ambassadour M. William Hareborne, and deliuered vnto him aboord his gallie in the Arsenal.
    57. A briefe Remembrance of things to be indeuoured at Constantinople, and in other places in Turkie; touching our Clothing and our Dying, and things that bee incident to the same, and touching ample vent of our naturall commodities, and of the labour of our poore people withall, and of the generall enriching of this Realme: drawen by M. Richard Hakluyt of the middle Temple, and giuen to a friend that was sent into Turkie 1582.
    58. Remembrances for master S. to giue him the better occasion to informe himselfe of some things in England, and after of some other things in Turkie, to the great profite of the Common weale of this Countrey. Written by the foresayd master Richard Hakluyt, for a principall English Factor at Constantinople 1582.
    59. The voyage of the Susan of London to Constantinople, wherein the worshipfull M. William Harborne was sent first Ambassadour vnto Sultan Murad Can, the great Turke, with whom he continued as her Maiesties Ligier almost sixe yeeres.
    60. A letter of Mustapha Chaus to the Queenes most excellent Maiestie.
    61. A letter of M. Harborne to Mustapha, challenging him for his dishonest dealing in translating of three of the Grand Signior his commandements.
    62. A petition exhibited to the viceroy for reformation of sundry iniuries offered our nation in Morea, as also for sundry demaundes needefull for the establishing of the traffike in those parts.
    63. A commandement to Patrasso in Morea.
    64. A commandement for Chio.
    65. A commandement for Baliabadram.
    66. A commaundement for Egypt.
    67. A commaundement of the Grand Signior to the Cadie or Iudge of Alexandria.
    68. A commandement to the Bassa of Alexandria.
    69. A commaundement to the Byes, and Cadies of Metelin and Rhodes, and to all the Cadies and Byes in the way to Constantinople.
    70. A commaundement for Aleppo.
    71. The voyage of Master Henry Austell by Venice and thence to Ragusa ouer land, and so to Constantinople: and from thence by Moldauia, Polonia, Silesia and Germanie to Hamburg, &c.
    72. The Turkes passeport or safeconduct for Captaine Austell, and Iacomo Manuchio.
    73. A Passeport of the Earle of Leicester for Thomas Foster gentleman trauailing to Constantinople.
    74. The returne of Master William Harborne from Constantinople ouer land to London 1588.
    75. The priuilege of Peter the Prince of Moldauia graunted to the English Marchants.
    76. The letters of Sinan Bassa chiefe counsellour to Sultan Murad Can the Grand Signior, to the sacred Maiestie of Elizabeth Queene of England, shewing that vpon her request, and for her sake especially, hee graunted peace vnto the King and kingdome Of Poland.
    77. A letter written by the most high and mighty Empresse the wife of the Grand Signior Sultan Murad Can to the Queenes Maiesty of England, in the yeere of our Lord, 1594.
  6. Madeira and the Canaries: Ancient Asia, Africa, &c.
    1. The voyage of Macham an English man, wherein he first of any man discouered the Iland of Madera, recorded verbatim in the Portugall history, written by Antonio Galuano.
    2. A briefe note concerning an ancient trade of the English Marchants to the Canarie-ilands, gathered out of an olde ligier booke of M. Nicolas Thorne the elder a worshipfull marchant of the city of Bristoll.
    3. A description of the fortunate Ilands, otherwise called the Ilands of Canaria, with their strange fruits and commodities: composed by Thomas Nicols English man, who remained there the space of seuen yeeres together.
    4. The Fardle of Facions, containing the aunciente maners, customes, and lawes, of the peoples enhabiting the two partes of the Earth, called Affricke and Asie.
    5. The Conquest of the Grand Canaries.
    6. The Worldes Hydrographical Discription.
  7. England's Naval Exploits Against Spain
    1. A voyage to the Azores with two pinases, the one called the Serpent, and the other the Mary Sparke of Plimouth, both of them belonging to Sir Walter Raleigh, written by John Euesham Gentleman, wherein were taken the gouernour, of the Isle of Sainct Michael, and Pedro Sarmiento gouernour of the Straits of Magalanes, in the yeere 1586.
    2. A briefe relation of the notable seruice performed by Sir Francis Drake vpon the Spanish Fleete prepared in the Road of Cadiz: and of his destroying of 100. saile of barks; Passing from thence all along the coast to Cape Sacre, where also hee tooke certaine Forts: and so to the mouth of the Riuer of Lisbon, and thence crossing ouer to the Isle of Sant Michael, supprized a mighty Carack called the Sant Philip comming out of the East India, which was the first of that kinde that euer was seene in England: Performed in the yeere 1587.
    3. A true discourse written (as is thought) by Colonel Antonie Winkfield emploied in the voiage to Spaine and Portugall, 1589. sent to his particular friend, and by him published for the better satisfaction of all such as hauing bene seduced by particular report, haue entred into conceits tending to the discredite of the enterprise and Actors of the same.
    4. The escape of the Primrose a tall ship of London, from before the towne of Bilbao in Biscay: which ship the Corrigidor of the same Prouince, accompanied with 97 Spaniards, offered violently to arrest, and was defeated of his purpose, and brought prisoner into England.
    5. The voiage of the right honorable George Erle of Cumberland to the Azores, &c. Written by the excellent Mathematician and Enginier master Edward Wright.
      (extracted as a separate book)
    6. The valiant fight performed by 10. Merchants ships of London, against 12. Spanish gallies in the Straights of Gibraltar, the 24. of April 1590.
    7. The valiant fight performed in the Straight of Gibraltar, by the Centurion of London, against the fiue Spanish Gallies, in the moneth of April 1591.
    8. A report of the trueth of the fight about the Iles of Açores, the last of August 1591, betwixt the Reuenge one of her Maiesties shippes, and an Armada of the king of Spaine; penned by the honourable Sir Walter Ralegh knight.
    9. A particular note of the Indian fleet, expected to haue come into Spaine this present yeere of 1591. with the number of shippes that are perished of the same: according to the examination of certaine Spaniards lately taken and brought into England by the ships of London.
    10. A report of Master Robert Flicke directed to Master Thomas Bromley, Master Richard Staper, and Master Cordall concerning the successe of a part of the London supplies sent to my Lord Thomas Howard to the Isles of the Azores, 1591.
    11. A large testimony of Iohn Huighen van Linschoten Hollander, concerning the worthy exploits atchieued by the right honourable the Earle of Cumberland, By Sir Martine Frobisher, Sir Richard Greenuile, and diuers other English Captaines, about the Isles of the Açores, and vpon the coasts of Spaine and Portugall, in the yeeres 1589, 1590, 1591, &c. recorded in his excellent discourse of voiages to the East and West Indies, cap. 96. 97. and 99.
    12. The miraculous victory atchieved by the English Fleete, under the discreet and happy conduct of the right honourable, right prudent, and valiant lord, the L. Charles Howard, L. high Admirall of England, &c. Vpon the Spanish huge Armada sent in the yeere 1588. for the invasion of England, together with the wofull and miserable success of the said Armada afterward, upon the Coasts of Norway, of the Scottish Westerne Isles, of Ireland, Spain, France, and of England, &c. Recorded in Latine by Emanuel van Meteran, in the 15. Booke of his history of the Low Countreys.
    13. A briefe and true report of the Honorable voyage vnto Cadiz, 1596. of the ouerthrow of the kings Fleet, and of the winning, sacking, and burning of the Citie, with all other accidents of moment, thereunto appertaining.
      (extracted as a separate book)
    14. The Most Honourable Tragedie of Sir Richard Grinuile, Knight. 1595.
      (extracted as a separate book)
    15. A true report of a worthy fight, performed in the voyage from Turkie, by fiue ships of London, against 11. Gallies, and two frigats of the King of Spaines, at Pantalarea within the Streights. Anno, 1586. Written by Philip Iones.
  8. Asia, Part I
    1. The life and trauailes of Pelagius borne in Wales.
    2. A testimonie of the sending of Sighelmus Bishop of Shirburne, by King Alphred, vnto Saint Thomas of India in the yeare of our Lord 883, recorded by William of Malmesburie, in his second booke and fourth Chapter de gestis regum Anglorum.
    3. A second testimony of the foresaid Sighelmus his voyage vnto Saint Thomas of India &c. out of William of Malmesburie his second booke de gestis pontificum Anglorum, cap. de episcopis Schireburnensibus, Salisburiensibus, Wiltunensibus.
    4. The trauailes of Andrew Whiteman aliás Leucander, Centur. 11.
    5. The voyages of Swanus one of the sonnes of Earl Godwin vnto Ierusalem, Anno Dom. 1052, recorded by William of Malmsburie lib. 2. de gestis regum Anglorum, Capite 13.
    6. A voyage of three Ambassadours, who in the time of K. Edward the Confessor, and about the yere of our Lord 1056, were sent vnto Constantinople, and from thence vnto Ephesus, together with the occasion of their sending, &c. recorded by William of Malmesburie, lib. 2. de gestis regum Anglorum, capite 13.
    7. The voyage of Alured bishop of Worcester vnto Ierusalem, an. 1058. Recorded by Roger Houeden in parte priore Annalium, fol. 255. linea 15.
    8. The voyage of Ingulphus Abbat of Croiland vnto Ierusalem, performed (according to Florentius Wigorniensis) in the yeere of our Lord, 1064, and described by the said Ingulphus himselfe about the conclusion of his briefe Historie.
    9. Diuers of the honourable family of the Beauchamps, with Robert Curtoys sonne of William the Conqueror, made a voyage to Ierusalem 1096. Hol. pag. 22. vol. 2.
    10. The voyage of Gutuere an English Lady maried to Balduine brother of Godfreide duke of Bouillon, toward Ierusalem about 1097. And the 11. yeere of William Rufus King of England.
    11. Chronicon Hierosolymitanum in lib. 3. cap. 27. maketh also mention of this English Lady which he calleth Godwera in this maner.
    12. The voyage of Edgar the sonne of Edward which was the sonne of Edmund surnamed Ironside, brother vnto K. Edward the confessor, (being accompanied with valiant Robert the sonne of Godwin) vnto Ierusalem, in the yeere of our Lord 1102. Recorded by William of Malmesburie, lib. 3. histo. fol. 58.
    13. Mention made of one Godericus, a valiant Englishman, who was with his ships in the voyage vnto the Holy land in the second yeere of Baldwine King of Ierusalem, in the third yere of Henry the first of England.
    14. Mention made of One Hardine of England one of the chiefest personages, and a leader among other of two hundred saile of ships of Christians that landed at Ioppa in the yeere of our Lord God 1102.
    15. A Fleete of Englishmen, Danes, and Flemings, arriued at Ioppa in the Holy land, the seuenth yeere of Baldwine the second king of Hierusalem. Written in the beginning of the tenth booke of the Chronicle of Hierusalem, in the 8. yeere of Henry the first of England.
    16. The trauailes of one Athelard an Englishman, recorded by master Bale Centur. 12.
    17. The life and trauailes of one William of Tyre, an Englishman. Centur. 12.
    18. The trauailes of Robertus Ketenensis.
    19. A voyage of certaine English men vnder the conduct of Lewes king of France vnto the Holy land.
    20. The voyage of Iohn Lacy to Ieirusalem.
    21. The voyage of William Mandeuile to Ierusalem.
    22. A great supply of money to the Holy land by Henry the 2.
    23. A letter written from Manuel the Emperour of Constantinople, vnto Henrie the second King of England, Anno Dom. 1177. wherein mention is made that certaine of King Henries Noble men and subjects were present with the sayd Emperour in a battell of his against the Soldan of Iconium. Recorded by Roger Houeden, in Annalium parte posteriore, in regno Hen. 2. fol. 316, et 317.
    24. The life and trauailes of Baldwinus Deuonius, sometime Archbishop of Canterbury.
    25. An annotation concerning the trauailes of the sayd Baldwirie, taken out of Giraldus Cambrensis, in his Itinerarium Cambrise, lib, a. Cap. 14. Fol 229.
    26. A note drawen out of a very ancient booke remaining in the hands of the right worshipfull M. Thomas Tilney Esquire, touching Sir Frederike Tilney his ancestor, knighted at Acon in the Holy land for his valour, by K. Richard the first, as foloweth.
    27. The trauailes of one Richard surnaræd Canonicus.
    28. The large contribution to the succour of the Holy land, made by king Iohn king of England, in the third yeere of his reigne 1201. Matth. Paris and Holinsh. pag. 164.
    29. The trauailes of Hubert Walter bishop of Sarisburie.
    30. The trauailes of Robert Curson.
    31. The voyage of Ranulph earle of Chester, of Saer Quincy earle of Winchester, William de Albanie earle of Arundel, with diuers other noble men to the Holy land, in the second yere of King Henry the third. Matth. Paris. Holensh. pag. 202.
    32. The voyage of Henry Bohun and Saer Quincy to the Holy land.
    33. The trauailes of Ranulph Glanuile earle of Chester.
    34. The voyage of Petrus de Rupibus bishop, of Winchester, to Ierusalem in the yere of grace 1231, and the 15 of Henry the third.
    35. The honourable and prosperous voyage of Richard earle of Cornewall, brother to king Henry the third, accompanied with William Longespee earle of Sarisburie, and many other noble men into Syria.
    36. The voyage of William Longespee Or, Longsword. Earle of Sarisburie into Asia, in the yeere 1248, and in the 32 yeere of the reigne of Henry the third, king of England.
    37. The Voyage of Prince Edward the sonne of king Henry the third into Asia, in the yeere 1270.
    38. The trauaile of Robert Turneham.
    39. Mandeville’s Voyages.
  9. Asia, Part II
    1. Anthony Beck bishop of Durisme was elected Patriarch of Hierusalem, and confirmed by Clement the fift bishop of Rome: in the 34 yere of Edward the first. Lelandus.
    2. The iournall of Frier Odoricus, one of the order of the Minorites, concerning strange things which hee sawe among the Tarters of the East.
    3. The voyage of the Lord Iohn of Holland, Earle of Huntington, brother by the mothers side to King Richard the second, to Ierusalem and Saint Katherins mount.
    4. The voiage of Thomas lord Moubray duke of Norfolke to Ierusalem, in the yeere of our Lord 1399. written by Holinshed, pag. 1233.
    5. The Voiage of the bishop of Winchester to Ierusalem, in the sixt yeere of the reigne of Henry the fift, which was the yeere of our Lord, 1417. Thomas Walsingham.
    6. A preparation of a voyage of King Henrie the fourth to the Holy land against the infidels in the yere 1413, being the last yere of his reigne: wherein he was preuented by death: written by Walsingham, Fabian, Polydore Virgile, and Holenshed.
    7. The voyage of M. Iohn Locke to Ierusalem.
    8. The first voyage or iourney, made by Master Laurence Aldersey, Marchant of London, to the Cities of Ierusalem, and Tripolis, &c. in the yeere 1581. Penned and set downe by himselfe.
    9. The passeport made by the great Maister of Malta vnto the Englishmen in the barke Raynolds. 1582.
    10. Commission giuen by M. William Harebourne the English Ambassadour, to Richard Foster, authorising him Consul of the English nation in the parts of Alepo, Damasco, Aman, Tripolis, Ierusalem, &c.
    11. A letter of directions of the English Ambassadour to M. Richard Forster, appointed the first English Consull at Tripolis in Syria.
    12. A commandement for Chio.
    13. A description of the yeerely voyage or pilgrimage of the Mahumitans, Turkes and Moores vnto Mecca in Arabia.
    14. The voyage and trauell of M. Cæsar Fredericke, Marchant of Venice, into the East India, and beyond the Indies. Wherein are conteined the customes and rites of those countries, the merchandises and commodities, as well of golde and siluer, as spices, drugges, pearles, and other iewels: translated out of Italian by M. Thomas Hickocke.
    15. The money and measures of Babylon, Balsara, and the Indies, with the customes, &c. written from Aleppo in Syria, An. 1584. by M. Will. Barret.
    16. A briefe extract specifying the certaine dayly paiments, answered quarterly in time of peace, by the Grand Signior, out of his Treasurie, to the Officers of his Seraglio or Court, successiuely in degrees: collected in a yeerely totall summe, as followeth.
    17. To the Worshipfull and his very loving Vncle M. Rowland Hewish, Esquier, at Sand in Devonshire.
  10. Asia, Part III
    1. The manner of the entring of Soliman the great Turke, with his armie into Aleppo in Syria, marching towards Persia against the Great Sophie, the fourth day of Nouember, 1553, noted by Master Anthony Ienkinson, present at that time.
    2. A note of the presents that were giuen at the same time in Aleppo, to the grand Signior, and the names of the presenters.
    3. The safeconduct or priuiledge giuen by Sultan Solyman the great Turke, to master Anthony Ienkinson at Aleppo in Syria, in the yeere 1553.
    4. Letters concerning the voyage of M. John Newbery and M. Ralph Fitch, made by the way of the Leuant Sea to Syria, and ouerland to Balsara, and thence into the East Indies, and beyond, In the yeere 1583.
    5. The voyage of M. Ralph Fitch marchant of London by the way of Tripolls in Syria, to Ormus, and so to Goa in the East India, to Cambaia, and all the kingdome of Zelabdim Echebar the great Mogor, to the mighty riuer Ganges, and downe to Bengala, to Bacola, and Chonderi, to Pegu, to Imahay in the kingdome of Siam, and backe to Pegu, and from thence to Malacca, Zeilan, Cochin, and all the coast of the East India: begunne in the yeere of our Lord 1583, and ended 1591, wherin the strange rites, maners, and customes of those people, and the exceeding rich trade and commodities of those countries are faithfully set downe and diligently described, by the aforesaid M. Ralph Fitch.
    6. The report of Iohn Huighen van Linchoten concerning M. Newberies and M. Fitches imprisonment, and of their escape, which happened while he was in Goa.
    7. The voyage of M. Iohn Eldred to Trypolis in Syria by sea, and from thence by land and riuer to Babylon and Balsara. 1583.
    8. The second letters Patents graunted by the Queenes Maiestie to the Right worshipfull companie of the English Marchants for the Leuant, the seuenth of Ianuarie 1592.
    9. Voyage D’outremer et Retour de Jérusalem en France par la voie de terre, pendant le cours des années 1432 et 1433, par Bertrandon de la Brocquière, conseiller et premier écuyer tranchant de Philippe-le-bon, duc de Bourgogne; ouvrage extrait d’un Manuscript de la Bibliothèque Nationale, remis en Français Moderne, et publié par le citoyen Legrand d’Aussy.
    10. The description of a voyage made by certaine ships of Holland into the East Indies, with their aduentures and successe; together with the description of the countries, townes, and inhabitantes of the same: who set forth on the second of Aprill, 1595, and returned on the 14 of August, 1597. Translated out of Dutch into English, by W. P.
    11. A true report of the gainefull, prosperous, and speedy voiage to Iaua in the East Indies, performed by a fleete of 8. ships of Amsterdam: which set forth from Texell in Holland the first of Maie 1598. Stilo Nouo. Whereof foure returned againe the 19. of Iuly anno 1599. in lesse then 15. moneths; the other foure went forward from Iaua for the Moluccas.
    12. A briefe description of the voiage before handled, in manner of a Iournall.
  11. Africa
    1. The voyage of Henrie Eatle of Derbie, after Duke of Hereford, and lastly Henry the fourth King of England, to Tunis in Barbarie, with an army of Englishmen mitten by Polidore Virgill. pag. 1389.
    2. The memorable victories in diuers parts of Italie of Iohn Hawkwood English man in the reigne of Richard the second, briefly recorded by M. Camden.
    3. The Epitaph of the valiant Esquire M. Peter Read in the south Ile of Saint Peters Church in the citie of Norwich, which was knighted by Charles the fift at the winning of Tunis in the yeere of our Lord 1538.
    4. The voyage of Sir Thomas Chaloner to Alger with Charles the fift 1541, drawen out of his booke De Republica instauranda.
    5. The woorthy enterprise of Iohn Foxe an Englishman in deliuering 266. Christians out of the captiuitie of the Turkes at Alexandria, the 3 of Ianuarie 1577.
    6. The copie of the certificate for Iohn Fox, and his companie, made by the Prior, and the brethren of Gallipoli, where they first landed.
    7. The Bishop of Rome his letters in the behalfe of Iohn Fox.
    8. The King of Spaine his letters to the Lieutenant, for the placing of Iohn Fox in the office of a Gunner.
    9. The voyage made to Tripolis in Barbarie, in the yeere 1583. with a ship called the Iesus, wherein the aduentures and distresses of some Englishmen are truely reported, and other necessary circumstances obserued. Written by Thomas Sanders.
    10. The Queenes letters to the Turke 1584. for the restitution of the shippe called the Iesus, and the English captiues detained in Tripolie in Barbarie, and for certaine other prisoners in Argier.
    11. The Turkes letter to the King of Tripolis in Barbarie, commanding the restitution of an English ship, called the Iesus, with the men, and goods, sent from Constantinople, by Mahomet Beg, a Iustice of the Great Turkes, and an English Gentleman, called Master Edward Barton. Anno 1584.
    12. A letter of Master William Hareborne, the English Ambassadour, Ligier in Constantinople, to the Bassa Romadan, the Beglerbeg of Tripolis in Barbarie, for the restoring of an English shippe called the Iesus, with the goods, and men, detained as slaues, Anno 1585.
    13. The voyage passed by sea into Aegypt, by Iohn Euesham Gentleman. Anno 1586.
    14. The second voyage of M. Laurence Aldersey, to the Cities of Alexandria, and Cayro in Aegypt. Anno 1586.
    15. A letter of the English Ambassadour to M. Haruie Millers, appointing him Consull for the English nation in Alexandria, Cairo, and other places of Egypt.
    16. A letter to the right honourable William Hareborne her Majesties Ambassadour with the Grand Signior from Alger.
    17. A letter of M. Harborne to Mustapha, challenging him for his dishonest dealing in translating of three of the Grand Signior his commandements.
    18. The Pasport in Italian granted to Thomas Shingleton Englishman, by the king of Algier. 1583.
    19. A letter written in Spanish by Sir Edward Osborne, to the king of Alger, the 20. of Iuly, 1584 in the behalfe of certeine English captiues there detained.
    20. Notes concerning the trade of Alger.
    21. Notes concerning the trade in Alexandria.
    22. A letter of the English ambassador to M. Edward Barton.
    23. The commaundement obtained of the Grand Signior by her Maiesties ambassador M. Wil. Hareborne, for the quiet passing of her subiects to and from his dominions, sent in An. 1584 to the Viceroyes of Algier, Tunis, and Tripolis in Barbary.
    24. A letter of the honorable M. Wil. Hareborne her maiesties ambass. with the grand Signior to M. Tipton, appointing him Consul of the English in Algier, Tunis, and Tripolis of Barbarie.
    25. Series vel registrum valoris nauium, bonorum, et hominum per triremes Argerienses ereptorum, vna cum captiuorum hominum nominibus, Beglerbego Argeriensi Hassano.
    26. To Assan Aga, Eunuch and Treasurer to Hassan Bassa king of Alger, which Assan Aga was the sonne of Fran. Rowlie of Bristow merchant, taken in the Swalow.
    27. The originall of the first voyage for traffique into the kingdom of Marocco in Barbarie, begun in the yeere 1551. with a tall ship called the Lion of London, whereof went as captaine Master Thomas Windam, as appeareth by this extract of a letter of Iames Aldaie, to the worshipfull master Michael Locke, which Aldaie professeth himselfe to haue bene the first inuentor of this trade.
    28. The second voyage to Barbary in the yeere 1552. Set foorth by the right worshipfull Sir Iohn Yorke, Sir William Gerard, Sir Thomas Wroth, Master Frances Lambert, Master Cole and others; Written by the relation of Master Iames Thomas then Page to Master Thomas Windham chiefe Captaine of this voyage.
    29. A voiage made out of England vnto Guinea and Benin in Affrike, at the charges of certaine marchants Aduenturers of the Citie of London, in the yeere of our Lord 1553.
    30. The copie of Anthonie Anes Pinteado his letters patents, whereby the king of Portugall made him knight of his house, after all his troubles and imprisonment, which, by wrong information made to the king, he had susteined of long time, being at the last deliuered, his cause knowen and manifested to the king by a gray Friar the kings Confessor.
    31. The second voyage to Guinea set out by Sir George Barne, Sir Iohn Yorke, Thomas Lok, Anthonie Hickman and Edward Castelin, in the yere 1554. The Captaine whereof was M. Iohn Lok.
    32. The first voyage made by Master William Towrson Marchant of London, to the coast of Guinea, with two Ships, in the yeere 1555.
    33. The second voyage made by Maister William Towrson to the coast of Guinea, and the Castle of Mina, in the yeere 1556. with the Tiger of London, a ship of 120 tunnes, the Hart of London of 60 tunnes, and a Pinnesse of sixteene tunnes.
    34. The third and last voyage of M. William Towrson to the coast of Guinie, and the Castle de Mina, in the yeere 1577.
    35. The commodities and wares that are most desired in Guinie, betwixt Sierra Liona and the furthest place of the Mine.
    36. Certaine Articles deliuered to M. Iohn Lok, by Sir William Gerard Knight, M. William Winter, M. Beniamin Gonson, M. Anthony Hickman, and M. Edward Castelin the 8 of September 1561, touching a voyage to Guinea.
    37. A letter of M. Iohn Lok to the worshipfull company of Marchants aduenturers for Guinie, written 1561, shewing reasons for his not proceeding in a voyage then intended to the foresayd countrey.
    38. The relation of one William Rutter to M. Anthony Hickman his master touching a voyage set out to Guinea in the yeere 1562, by Sir William Gerard, Sir William Chester, M. Thomas Lodge, the sayd Anthony Hickman, and Edward Castelin, which voyage is also written in verse by Robert Baker.
    39. A meeting at Sir William Gerards house the 11 of Iuly 1564. for the setting foorth of a voyage to Guinea, with the Minion of the Queens, the Iohn Baptist of London, and the Merline of M. Gonson.
    40. The successe of this Voiage in part appeareth by certaine briefe relations extracted out of the second voyage of Sir Iohn Hawkins to the West Indies, made in the sayd yeere 1564, which I thought good to set downe for want of further instructions, which hitherto I could not by any meanes come by, albeit I haue vsed all possible indeuour for the obtaining of the same: Take them therefore in the meane season as foloweth.
    41. The voyage of M. George Fenner to Guinie, and the Islands of Cape Verde, in the yeere of 1566. with three ships, to wit the Admirall called the Castle of Comfort, the May Flower, and the George, and a pinnasse also:
    42. The Ambassage of M. Edmund Hogan, one of the sworne Esquires of her Maiesties person, from her Highnesse to Mully Abdelmelech Emperour of Marocco, and king of Fes and Sus: in the yeere 1577, written by himselfe.
    43. The voyage of Thomas Stukeley, wrongfully called Marques of Ireland, into Barbary 1578. Written by Iohannes Thomas Freigius in Historia de cæde Sebastiani Regis Lusitaniæ.
    44. Certaine reports of the prouince of China learned through the Portugals there imprisoned, and chiefly by the relation of Galeotto Perera, a gentleman of good credit, that lay prisoner in that Countrey many yeeres. Done out of Italian into English by Richard Willes.
    45. Of the Iland Iapan, and other litle Iles in the East Ocean.
    46. Of the Iles beyond Iapan in the way from China to the Moluccas.
    47. An excellent treatise of the kingdome of China, and of the estate and gouernment thereof: Printed in Latine at Macao a citie of the Portugals in China, An. Dom. 1590. and written Dialogue-wise. The speakers are Linus, Leo, and Michael.
    48. A Letter written from Goa, the principall City of all the East Indies, by one Thomas Steuens an English man, and sent to his father, M. Thomas Steuens: Anno 1579.
    49. A briefe relation of the great magnificence and rich traffike of the kingdome of Pegu beyond the East India, written by Frey Peter of Lisbon, to his cousin Frey Diego of Lisbon, from Cochin.
    50. A voyage with three tall ships, the Penelope Admirall, the Marchant royall Viceadmirall, and the Edward Bonaduenture Rereadmirall, to the East Indies, by the Cape of Buona Speransa, to Quitangone neere Mosambique, to the Iles of Comoro and Zanzibar on the backeside of Africa, and beyond Cape Comori in India, to the Iles of Nicubar and of Gomes Polo, within two leagues of Sumatra, to the Ilands of Pulo Pinaom, and thence to the maine land of Malacca, begunne by M. George Raymond, in the yeere 1591, and performed by M. Iames Lancaster, and written from the mouth of Edmund Barker of Ipswich, his lieutenant in the sayd voyage, by M. Richard Hakluyt.
    51. Certaine remembrances of an intended voyage to Brasill, and the Riuer of Plate, by the Edward Cotton, a ship of 260 Tunnes of Master Edward Cotton of Southampton, which perished through extreme negligence neare Rio Grande in Guinie, the 17 of July 1583.
    52. A direction as well for the Captaine, and other my friends of the shippe, as especially for William Cheesman Marchant, for the voyage to the riuer of Plate.
    53. The confession of William Bends Masters Mate in the Edward Cotton, the 21 of October, Ann. 1584.
    54. The Letters patents or priuiledges granted by her Maiestie to certaine Noble men and Marchants of London, for a trade to Barbarie, in the yeere 1585.
    55. The Ambassage of Master Henry Roberts, one of the sworne Esquires of her Maiesties person, from her highnesse to Mully Hamet Emperour of Morocco and the King of Fesse and Sus, in the yeere 1585: who remained there as Liger for the space of 3. yeeres. Written briefly by himselfe.
    56. Este es vn traslado bien y fielmente sacado da vna carta real del Rey Muley Hamet de Fes y Emperador de Marruecos, cuyo tenor es este, que Segue.
    57. En nombre de Dios el piadoso piadador.
    58. The Queenes Maiesties letters to the Emperour of Marocco.
    59. A Patent granted to certaine Marchants of Exeter, and others of the West parts, and of London, for a trade to the Riuer of Senega and Gambia in Guinea, 1588.
    60. A voyage to Benin beyond the Countrey of Guinea, set foorth by Master Bird and Master Newton Marchants of London, with a shippe called the Richard of Arundell, and a Pinesse; Written by Iames Welsh, who was chiefe Master of the said voyage, begunne in the yeere 1588.
    61. The voiage set forth by M. Iohn Newton, and M. Iohn Bird marchants of London to the kingdome and Citie of Benin in Africa, with a ship called the Richard of Arundell, and a pinnesse, in the yere 1588. briefly set downe in this letter following, written by the chiefe Factor in the voyage to the foresaid Marchants at the time of the ships first arriual at Plimouth.
    62. The second voyage to Benin, set foorth by Master Iohn Newton, and Master Iohn Bird Marchants of London in the yeere 1590 with a ship called the Richard of Arundell of the burthen of one hundreth tunnes, and a small pinnesse, in which voyage Master Iames Welsh was chiefe Maister.
    63. An Aduertisement sent to Philip the second king of Spaine from Angola by one Baltazar Almeida de Sousa, touching the state of the forsayd countrey, written the 21 of May. 1591.
    64. Confimatio treugarum inter Regem Angliæ Eduardum quartum, et Ioannem secundum Regem Portugalliæ, datarum in oppido montis Maioris 8 Februarij, et apud Westmonasterium 12 Septembris, 1482, anno regni 22 Regis Eduardi quarti, lingua Lusitanica ex opere sequenti excerpta.
    65. A relation sent by Melchior Petoney to Nigil de Moura at Lisbon, from the Iland and Castle of Arguin, standing a little to the southward of Cape Blanco, in the Northerly latitude of 19 degrees, concerning the rich and secret trade from the inland of Africa thither: Anno 1591.
    66. The voyage of Richard Rainolds and Thomas Dassel to the riuers of Senega and Gambra adioning vpon Guinea, 1591 with a discourse of the treasons of certaine of Don Antonio his seruants and followers.
    67. A briefe relation concerning the estate of the cities and prouinces of Tombuto and Gago written in Marocco the first of August 1594, and sent to M. Anthony Dassel marchant of London.
    68. Another briefe relation concerning the late conquest and exceeding great riches of the cities and prouinces Tombuth and Gogo, written from Morocco the 30 August 1594, to M. Anthony Dassel marchant of London aforesayd.
    69. A briefe extract of a patent granted to M. Thomas Gregory of Tanton, and others, for traffique betweene the riuer of Nonnia and the riuers of Madrabumba and Sierra Leona on the coast of Guinea, in the yeere 1592.
    70. The maner of the taking of two Spanish ships laden with quicksiluer and the Popes bulles, bound for the West Indies, by M. Thomas White in the Amity of London, 1592.
    71. A true report of the honourable seruice at Sea perfourmed by Sir Iohn Burrough Knight, Lieutenant generall of the fleet prepared by the honour. Sir Walter Ralegh Knight, Lord warden of the Stanneries of Cornwall and Deuon. Wherein chiefly the Santa Clara of Biscay, a ship of 600 tunnes was taken, and the two East Indian caraks, the Santa Cruz and the Madre de Dios were forced, the one burnt, and the other taken and brought into Dartmouth the seuenth of September, 1592.
    72. The firing and sinking of the stout and warrelike Carack called Las Cinque Llaguas, or, The fiue Wounds, by three tall Ships set foorth at the charges of the right honorable the Erle of Cumberland and his friends: Written by the discreet and valiant captaine M. Nicholas Downton.
    73. The casting away of the Tobie neere Cape Espartel corruptly called Cape Sprat, without the Straight of Gibraltar on the coast of Barbarie. 1593.
    74. The letters of the Queenes most excellent Maiestie sent by one Laurence Aldersey vnto the Emperour of Aethiopia, 1597.
  12. America, Part I
  13. America, Part II
  14. America, Part III
  15. America, Part IV; West Indies;
    Voyages of Circumnavigation, Part I
    [not yet available]
  16. Voyages of Circumnavigation, Part II;
    [not yet available]

THE PRINCIPAL NAVIGATIONS, VOIAGES, TRAFFIQVES, AND DISCOUERIES of the English Nation, made by Sea or ouer-land, to the remote and farthest distant quarters of the Earth, at any time within the compasse of these 1500 yeeres: Deuided into three seuerall Volumes, according to the positions of the Regions whereunto they were directed.

This first Volume containing the woorthy Discoueries, &c. of the English toward the North and Northeast by Sea, as of Lapland, Scrikfinia, Corelia, the Baie of S. Nicolas, the Isles of Colgoeve, Vaigatz, and Noua Zembla, toward the great riuer Ob, with the mighty Empire of Russia, the Caspian sea, Georgia, Armenia, Media, Persia, Boghar in Bactria, and diuers kingdomes of Tartaria:

Together with many notable monuments and testimonies of the ancient forren trades, and of the warrelike and other shipping of this realme of England in former ages,

Whereunto is annexed a briefe Commentary of the true state of Island and of the Northren Seas and lands situate that way.

And lastly, the Memorable Defeat of the Spanish Huge Armada, Anno 1588. and the famous victorie atchieued at the citie of Cadiz, 1596. are described.

By Richard Hakluyt Master of Artes, and sometime Student of Christ-Church in Oxford.

Imprinted at London by George Bishop, Ralph Newberie, and Robert Barker.



THE SECOND VOLVME of the Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoueries of the English Nation, made by Sea or ouer-land, to the South & South-east parts of the World. at any time within the compasse of these 1600. yeres: Diuided into two seuerall parts:

Whereof the first containeth the personall trauels, &c. of the English, through and within the Streight of Gibraltar, to Alger, Tunis, and Tripolis in Barbary, to Alexandria and Cairo in Aegypt, to the Isles of Sicilia, Zante, Candia, Rhodes, Cyprus, and Chio, to the Citie of Constantinople, to diuers parts of Asia Minor, to Syria and Armenia, to Ierusalem, and other Places in Iudea; As also to: Arabia, downe the Riuer of Euphrates, to Babylon and Balsara, and so through the Persian Gulph to Ormuts, Chaul, Goa, and to many Islands adioyning vpon the South Parts of Asia; and likewise from Goa to Cambaia, and to all the Dominions of Zelabdim Echebar The Great Mogor, to the Mighty Riuer of Ganges, to Bengala, Aracan, Bacola, and Chonderi, to Pegu, to Iamahai in the Kingdome of Siam, and almost to the very Frontiers of China.

The second comprehendeth the Voyages, trafficks, &c. of the English Nation, made without the Streight of Gibraltar, to the Islands of the Açores, of Porto Santo, Madera, and the Canaries, to the kingdomes of Barbary, to the Isles of Capo Verde, to the Riuers of Senega, Gambra, Madrabumba, and Sierra Leona, to the coast of Guinea and Benin, to the Isles of S. Thome and Santa Helena, to the parts about the Cape of Buona Esperanza, to Quitangone, neere Mozambique, to the Isles of Comoro and Zanzibar, to the citie of Goa, beyond Cape Comori, to the Isles of Nicubar, Gomes Polo, and Pulo Pinaom, to the maine land of Malacca, and to the kingdome of Iunsalaon.

By Richard Haklvyt Preacher, and sometime Student of Christ-Church in Oxford.

Imprinted at London by George Bishop, Ralph Newbery, and Robert Barker.

ANNO 1599.


THE THIRD AND LAST Volvme of the Voyages, Navigations, Traffiques, and Discoueries of the English Nation, and in some few place, where they haue not been, of strangers, performed within and before the time of these hundred yeeres, to all parts of the Newfound world of Americam or the West Indies, from 73. degrees of Northerly to 57. of Southerly latitude:

As namely to Engronland, Meta Incognita, Estotiland, Tierra de Labrador, Newfoundland, vp The grand bay, the gulfe of S. Laurence, and the Riuer of Canada to Hochelaga and Saguenay, along the coast of Arambec, to the shores and maines of Virginia and Florida, and on the West or backside of them both, to the rich and pleasant countries of Nueua Biscaya, Cibola, Tiguex, Cicuic, Quiuira, to the 15. prouinces of the kingdome of New Mexico, to the bottome of the gulfe of California, and vp the Riuer of Buena Guia:

And likewise to all the yles both small and great lying before the cape of Florida, The bay of Mexico, and Tierra firma, to the coasts and Inlands of Newe Spaine, Tierra firma, and Guiana, vp the mighty Riuers of Orenoque, Dessekebe, and Marannon, to euery part of the coast of Brasil, to the Riuer of Plate, through the Streights of Magellan forward and backward, and to the South of the said Streights as farre as 57. degrees:

And from thence on the backside of America, along the coastes, harbours, and capes of Chili, Peru, Nicaragua, Nueua Espanna, Nueua Galicia, Culiacan, California, Noua Albion, and more Northerly as farre as 43 degrees:

Together with the two renowmed, and prosperous voyages of Sir Francis Drake and M. Thomas Candish round about the circumference of the whole earth, and diuers other voyages intended and set forth for that course.

Collected by Richard Haklvyt Preacher, and sometimes student of Christ-Church in Oxford.

Imprinted at London by George Bishop, Ralph Newberie, and Robert Barker.

ANNO DOM, 1600.


‘Typus Orbis Terrarum’

This Map, which first appeared in the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum of Abraham Ortelius, Antwerp, 1570, was inserted in the First Edition of The Principall Navigations, 1589. It is referred to by Hakluyt in the preface (p. xxx) as ‘one of the best generall mappes of the world.’ The map here reproduced in facsimile is taken from the original in the First Edition of The Principall Navigations.


Map of the World

This is a facsimile of the Map sometimes, but rarely, found in copies of the Second Edition of The Principall Navigations; it is now believed to be the Map alluded to by Shakespeare in Twelfth Night, Act III, Scene 2. in the passage ‘He does smile his face into more lines than is in the new map with the augmentation of the Indies.’ It is also held to be the first map engraved in England upon the projection called Mercator’s, but which was really the work of Edward Wright, mathematician and hydrographer, and author of Certaine Errors in Navigation, 1599.


Sir Hugh Willoughby

From the portrait at Wollaton Hall, by permission of Lord Middleton.


Map of the World by Robert Thorne

From the very rare Divers Voyages touching the discoverie of America, published by Richard Hakluyt


Ivan Vasilowich, Emperor of Russia

From an old woodcut in Early Voyages and Travels to Russia and Persia. (By permission of the Hakluyt Society.)


King Edward VI, granting the Charter of Bridewell Palace to the Citizens of London

From the engraving by George Vertue of the picture in the Royal Bridewell Free Hospital: the kneeling figure receiving the charter is Sir George Barnes, one of the first consuls of the Russia Company,


Sebastian Cabot

From the engraving by Rawle of the ‘Harford’ portrait, formerly attributed to Holbein. This portrait was destroyed by fire in 1845. The robe and chain worn by Cabot are supposed to be his official dress as ‘Governour of the mysterie and companie of the Marchants adventurers for the discoverie of Regions, Dominions, Islands, and places unknowen,’


Chart of Wardhouse (Vardo)

From De Bry’s Collections of Travels and Voyages. Petits (Eastern) Voyages, Part X. Frankfort, 1613. This chart represents Wardhouse as seen by John Huighen van Linschoten, the Dutch traveller, in 1594–5.


Map of Europe

From the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum of Abraham Ortelius 1570.


Seal of the Russia Company, 1555.

From Early Voyages and Travels to Russia and Persia, edited by E. Delmar Morgan and C. H. Coote, (By permission of the Hakluyt Society.)


Sir Jerome Bowes

From the portrait at Charlton Park, by permission of the Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire. This portrait, which it is believed has never been reproduced before, shows Sir Jerome Bowes in his dress as Ambassador to Russia.


Abd’Ullah Khan

This portrait is taken from a manuscript album in the Oriental Department of the British Museum, containing miniatures by Indian artists, mostly portraits of princes and chiefs of the reigns of Jahangir, Shah Jehan, and Aurangzeb. It was made a Vakf or pious donation by Ashraf Khan, whose seal bears the date A.H. 1072. Abd’Ullah was ‘King’ of Bokhara (Boghar) at the time of Anthony Jenkinson’s visit in 1558.


A Russian Lodia, or Small Coaster

From De Bry’s Collections of Travels and Voyages. Petits (Eastern) Voyages, Part III. Frankfort, 1601.


Chart of the Northern Ocean by William Burrough

William Burrough or Borough was born at Northam in Devonshire in 1536. In 1583 he was Comptroller of the Queen’s Navy: in 1587 he was Vice–Admiral (on The Lion) under Drake in the Cadiz Expedition of that year. He died in 1599. His map of Russia, mentioned on page 209, is now lost, but several of his charts are still extant. The Chart here reproduced is in his own hand-writing, and bears his signature. It is taken from the original in Saxton & Rythers Atlas in the British Museum, which was Lord Burghley’s own copy.


Abraham Ortelius

Ortelius or Ortels was born at Antwerp in 1527, and died there in 1598. In 1570 he published the first edition of the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, which collected in one volume many of the best maps then existing. This Atlas was republished in many editions until 1612. The map Typus Orbis Terrarum, issued with Vol. I. of this edition, is one of the few maps which Ortelius is known to have engraved himself, but it is chiefly as a preserver of maps that in his day had already become scarce that he is best known. This portrait is taken from the first edition of his Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published at Antwerp in 1570.


Gerardus Mercator and Jodocus Hondius

Gerardus Mercator was born in Rupelmonde, in Flanders, in 1512. He speedily became famous as a map engraver and instrument maker, and in 1569 he published his Map of the World, on the projection now called after him. The projection, however, in his map is only approximately correct, and the true tables for this projection and the mathematical principles on which they are founded were first discovered and published by Edward Wright in 1599. Mercator died in 1594, just before the publication of the last part of his great Atlas. His Atlas was ready before that of Ortelius, but with a noble generosity Mercator delayed its publication, to give his friend a chance of fame.

Jodocus Hondius was born in Ghent in 1563. He worked as an engraver, and went to London on the outbreak of the War in the Netherlands, and while there became the friend of Edward Wright who showed him the MS. of his map projection. Wright accuses him of having appropriated his calculations and used them for his own maps. Hondius purchased in 1604 Mercator’s engraved copper-plates, and thereafter published many maps and new editions of Mercator’s Works. He died in 1611. The portraits here reproduced are taken from the first English edition of Mercator’s Atlas, ‘translated by Henry Hexham, Quartermaister to the Regiment of Colonell Goring,’ and printed at Amsterdam in 1636.


Plan of Moscow

From G. Braun and F. Hohenberg’s Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 1573. This plan shows Moscow before its burning by the Crim Tartars in 1571.


Map of Russia

Made by Anthony Jenkinson in 1562 to illustrate his travels through Russia and Persia. This map was included in the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum of Abraham Ortelius, 1570, and is taken from that edition.


William Cecil, Lord Burghley

William Cecil, son of Richard Cecil of Burleigh, was born at Bourn on the 13th September, 1520. He was educated at Stamford, Grantham, and St. John’s College, Cambridge, and entered Gray’s Inn in 1541. In 1547 Henry VIII. appointed him custos brevium. The Lord Protector Somerset made him Master of Requests in 1547 and his Secretary in 1548. On Somerset’s disgrace Cecil was imprisoned for two months in the Tower, but in 1550 he was made a Secretary of State, and in 1551 was knighted. In 1558 Elizabeth appointed him Chief Secretary of State, and in 1572 Lord High Treasurer, a post which he held until his death on 4th August, 1598. He was created Baron Burghley in 1571. The portrait here reproduced is from the print by William Rogers in the British Museum.


Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham, Baron of Effingham

Lord Howard of Effingham was born in 1536 and succeeded his father in 1573. In 1585 he was made Lord High Admiral of England and as such he commanded the fleet against the Armada. He was created Earl of Nottingham for his services against the Armada and in the Cadiz expedition of 1596. In 1619 he resigned office in favour of Buckingham. He died on 14th December, 1624. His portrait is taken from the engraving by William Rogers in the Cracherode Collection in the British Museum.


The Ark Royal

This vessel (Lord Howard of Effingham’s flagship against the Armada) was built at Deptford in 1587 by Richard Chapman, a Government Shipwright. She is sometimes called the ‘Ark Raleigh,’ and may originally have been built for Sir Walter Raleigh, and afterwards sold by him to the Government. She was about 700 tons burden, with a length of keel of about 100 feet and a beam of about 37. When in commission she carried a crew of about 400 men of whom 100 were soldiers and 32 gunners. Effingham, in a letter to Lord Burghley, dated ‘the laste of Februarie, 1587,’ says ‘I praie your Lordship tell her Majestie from me that her money was well geven for the Arke Rawlye, for I think her the odd ship in the worlde for all conditions, and truely I think there can no great ship make me change and go out of her.’ After taking part in numerous expeditions she was rebuilt in 1608 and rechristened the ‘Anne Royal‘ in honour of James I’s Queen. This reproduction is from the engraving in the Print Department of the British Museum.


The first Action in the English Channel against the Armada

From Robert Adams’ Charts engraved by Augustine Ryther, for P. Ubaldini’s Expeditionis Hispanorum in Angliam Vera Descriptio, 1588, in the British Museum. From these charts the Armada tapestries were designed for Lord Howard of Effingham. This chart shows the position of the fleets on the morning of 21st July, 1588. The dotted line to the south from Plymouth shows the course taken by the English main fleet across the front of the Spaniards until they had weathered the Armada, while the dotted line zig-zagged along the English coast shows the beat to windward by a small squadron of eight English ships, which joined the main fleet in the first attack on the Armada.


Sir Horatio Pallavicini

Son of an Italian merchant. He was recommended to Queen Mary, and appointed Collector of Papal Taxes. According to tradition he abjured Romanism on Mary’s death and appropriated the sums collected for the Pope. He lent large sums of money to Queen Elizabeth as well as to the Netherlands and Henry of Navarre. As a gentleman-adventurer, he fitted out a ship at his own cost, and commanded her in the Channel against the Armada. He was afterwards charged with the custody of Don Alonzo de Luzon, and three other important Spanish prisoners, until an exchange was arranged. He died on 6th July, 1600, and at his death the Queen owed him nearly L29,000, equal to about L230,000 of our money. This was never fully paid. The portrait is reproduced from John Pine’s (Armada) Tapestry Hangings of the House of Lords, London, 1753.


The Fleets at close Quarters

From Adams’ Series of Views of the Armada in the British Museum. The various types of vessels engaged are well shown.


The last Action in the English Channel against the Armada

From Adams’ Chart No. 10. This shows the final battle off Gravelines on 29th July. The galliasse of Hugo de Moncada is shown ashore at Calais ‘assaulted by divers English pinasses, hoys and drumblers,’ with the larger English vessels standing by to support them. The squadron in mid-channel probably represents Howard rejoining the main fleet with his pinnaces after the galliasse was abandoned (Corbett, Drake and the Tudor Navy, Vol. I., p. 272).


Relics from the Spanish Armada

These interesting relics of the Spanish Armada were recovered in June, 1903, from the wreck of the Spanish Galleon ‘Florencia’ in Tobermory Bay, Isle of Mull. The ‘Florencia’ was one of the largest ships in the Armada — a galleon of over 900 tons, with a complement of 400 soldiers and 86 sailors. She is mentioned in the Duke of Medina’s Diary as having fought gallantly in the actions in the English Channel on 23rd July, 1588. She was blown up in Tobermory Harbour where she had put in to water — tradition says by a member of the Clan Maclean — in August 1588.

The Gun is a bronze breech-loader, 4½ feet long, and was recovered fully charged. The diameter of the bore at the muzzle is an inch and seven-eighths, and the ball, if of iron, would weigh about 7 ozs. The breech block with its square shaped handle is shown above the gun. The block was kept in position by a wedge inserted behind it. The square hole shown in the engraving was to allow the escape of gas.

The Compasses (reproduced full size) are also of bronze, and have the head of each leg formed into a semicircle, so that by their cross action they could easily be extended or contracted as required with one hand. Despite their long immersion these relics are perfectly preserved: they are illustrated here by permission of the Duke of Argyll and of the Syndicate on whose behalf Captain William Burns is conducting the dredging operations in Tobermory Bay.


Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex

From the engraving by J. Houbraken of the picture formerly in the possession of Sir Robert Worsley, Bart. The Earl of Essex was born at Netherwood, Herefordshire, on loth November, 1567, and when only thirteen took his M.A. degree at Trinity College, Cambridge. He saw service in the Netherlands in 1585–6 and distinguished himself at the battle of Zutphen. In 1590 he married clandestinely Sir Philip Sidney’s widow. In 1591 he commanded the forces despatched to help Henry IV. against the League, and in 1596 along with Lord Howard of Effingham, the Cadiz Expedition. He was appointed Lieutenant and Governor General of Ireland in 1599, but after six months’ absence in Ireland he returned to England, was imprisoned and stripped of all his honours. On 8th February, 1601, he attempted to raise the city of London against Elizabeth. On the 19th he was found guilty of high treason and on the 25 th February, 1601, was beheaded in the Tower.


Sir Robert Southwell

From the print after the original by Henry Cornelius Vroom. Sir Robert Southwell of Woodrising, Norfolk, was the son-in-law of Lord Howard of Effingham by his marriage with Frances, Lord Howard’s third daughter. He commanded the ‘Elizabeth Jonas’ a vessel of from 850 to 1000 tons against the Spanish Armada, and the ‘Lion’ in the Cadiz Expedition of 1596.


The Action in Cadiz Bay, 21st June, 1596

From a very rare Dutch engraving. The date (9 th June) on the engraving is reckoned by the ‘old style.’


The Defences of Acre

From Sebastian Munster’s Cosmographiae Universalis, Lib. VI., printed at Basle, in 1552.


Tyre in the Sixteenth Century

From Munster’s Cosmographiae Universalis, Lib. VI. The importance of Tyre as a seaport is shown by the number and variety of vessels anchored before it.



From Munster’s Cosmographiae Universalis, Lib. VI. The view shows the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Solomon’s Temple,


Map of the Coasts of Abex

From John Huighen van Linschoten his Discours of Foyages unto ye Easte and West Indies, printed at London, 1 598, The map was engraved by Robert Beckit. This English edition is almost the first book with English made maps.


Sir Edward Osborne

Sir Edward Osborne was born about 1530, and was apprenticed to Sir William Hewett, clothworker in London. According to tradition Osborne, while an apprentice, leapt into the Thames and saved the life of Hewett’s infant daughter, who had fallen from her nurse’s arms into the river at London Bridge. He afterwards married her in 1562, and on Sir William Hewett’s death succeeded to his business and estates. Sir Edward Osborne became Lord Mayor in 1583, was knighted in 1584, and elected Member of Parliament for the City of London in 1586, He traded to the Mediterranean and the Levant, and In 1581 (with three other merchants) was granted letters patent by Queen Elizabeth to trade ‘into the dominions of the great Turke.’ On the incorporation of the Levant or Turkey Company, Sir Edward Osborne was appointed its first governor. He died in 1591. The portrait here reproduced is from the original at Hornby Castle, by permission of the Duke of Leeds.


Philip de Villiers de L’Isle Adam

Philip de Villiers de L’Isle Adam, Hospitaller and Grand Prior of France, was elected Grand Master of Rhodes on 22nd January, 1521, when absent in France. He had, in 1510, come prominently before the Order by his defeat of an Egyptian fleet in the Levant. On his election as Grand Master he hastily collected stores and munitions of war in France, and embarked at Marseilles for Rhodes, already threatened by the Turks. Off Nice fire broke out on his ship, and the crew were only prevented from deserting her by his exertions. Shortly afterwards in a storm the ship was struck by lightning, which, entering the stern cabin, killed nine men, and broke the Grand Master’s sword by his side without damaging the scabbard. After the loss of Rhodes, Villiers returned to Europe, and in 1525 obtained the grant of Malta, Gozo, and Tripoli, from Charles V., for the Order. He died on 21st August, 1534. The portrait is reproduced from that in the British Museum copy of The History of the Knights of Malta, by Monsieur L’Abbe de Vertot, published in London in 1728.


Solyman the Magnificent

Solyman the Magnificent, fourth Emperor of the Turks, succeeded to the throne on the death of his father Selim L in 1520, being then about twenty-eight years old. During his reign the area of the Turkish Empire was extended by his conquests of the greater part of Hungary, large portions of Armenia and Persia, and the whole of Northern Africa, except Morocco. He besieged Vienna in 1529 but was repulsed. He died on the 4th September, 1566, while besieging Sigeth or Szigeth on the Drave. Richard Knolles, in his Generall Historie of the Turkes, describes him as ‘of stature tall, of feature slender, long necked, his colour pale and wan, his nose long and hooked, of nature ambitious and bountifull, more faithfull of his word and promise than were for most part the Mahometan Kings his progenitors.’ The portrait is taken from the rare manuscript Kiyafet-ul-Insaniyyeh (personal descriptions of the Osmanli Sultans) in the Oriental Department of the British Museum. This manuscript was composed in a.h. 997 (a.d. 1589) by Lukman Shahnameji (royal poet annalist), and illustrated with portraits after contemporary originals.


A Turkish Carramuzzal

The ‘Carramuzzal’ or ‘Brigandine’ was a favourite craft with the Turkish pirates who infested the Mediterranean in the i6th and 17th centuries. Hakluyt says they were vessels ‘like unto ye French Gabards, sailing daily upon the river of Bordeaux, which sail with a misen or triangle saile.’ In order that the extent and variety of armament may be clearly seen, the illustration shows the carramuzzal without mast or rigging. It is taken from the Architectura Navalis of Joseph Furttenbach printed at Ulm in 1629.


Plan of Alexandria

From G. Braun and F. Hohenberg’s Chitates Orbis Terrarum, 1573, in the British Museum. The ‘roade’ or dock, ‘made very fencible with strong wals,’ in which the galleys wintered, and from which John Fox carried off the galley ‘Captain of Alexandria,’ is shown to the right of the main harbour.


Plan of Constantinople

From G. Braun and F. Hohenberg’s Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 1573.


A Venetian Merchantman

This and the two succeeding illustrations are taken from the Architectura Navalis of Joseph Furttenbach, Ulm, 1629. In the sectional plan the internal arrangements of a ‘great ship’ of the period are seen, and it is of interest to note that the fore and mizzen masts are stepped on the main deck, and not like the mainmast, on the keel. The measurements are given in ‘palmi,’ or spans of about nine and a-half inches each.


A Venetian Merchantman (section)


A Venetian Merchantman (measurements)


Sailing Chart of the Mediterranean

Reproduced by permission of Prince Trivulzio from the original in his collection at Milan. The chart bears the inscription, ‘Jacobus Russus Messanensis me fecit in nobili civitate Messane, Anno Domini 1564.’ These charts were drawn on sheepskin or vellum, and many of them were beautifully illuminated.


Sir Francis Walsingham

Sir Francis Walsingham was born about 1530. He matriculated at King’s College, Cambridge, and subsequently entered Gray’s Inn. On Queen Mary’s accession he left England and travelled on the Continent, but returned home on her death. He then entered Parliament as member for Banbury, and later represented Lyme Regis and Surrey. His knowledge of foreign affairs brought him under the notice of Burghley, and through his foreign friends and correspondents he obtained much valuable secret intelligence. In 1570 he went on an embassy to Paris, and later in that year was appointed resident ambassador at the French Court. In December, 1573, Walsingham was appointed one of the principal Secretaries of State, and in 1577 was knighted. He was one of the Commissioners who tried Mary, Queen of Scots, and it was largely on the secret information obtained by him that she was condemned. Walsingham died in London on 6th April, 1590, and was buried privately the next night in St. Paul’s. The portrait here reproduced is from the engraving in the British Museum of the original formerly in the collection of the Duke of Dorset.


John Eldred

According to the tablet beneath the monument, which is here pictured, in Great Saxham Church, Suffolk, ‘New Buckingham in Norfolke was John Eldred’s first being. In Babilon hee spent some parte of his time, and the rest of his earthly pilgrimage hee spent in London, and was Alderman of that Famous Cittie.’ He traded to the East, and was a member of the Levant Company.


The Emperor Akbar

Akbar (or ‘the great’) Mogul Emperor of India, is the ‘Selabdim Echebar King of Cambaia,’ frequently mentioned by Hakluyt. He came to the throne in 1556, when between thirteen and fourteen years old, and reigned until 1605. In addition to being a great conqueror, he was a wise and enlightened ruler. The present picture represents him as he appeared towards the middle of his reign, when at the height of his power, and after he had founded his new religion. It is reproduced from an original in an album of miniatures and calligraphic specimens of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, preserved in the Department of Oriental MSS. in the British Museum.


Plan of Ormuz

From the copy in the British Museum of G. Braun and F. Hohenberg’s Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 1573.


English Sailing Chart, 1592

This chart, drawn by T. Hood, and engraved by Ryther in 1592, is reproduced from the original in a volume of miscellaneous papers entitled Sea Tracts, Vol. II., in the Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge, by permission of the College authorities. It gives the coast lines from the latitude of the Orkneys to the Cape Verde Islands. Thomas Hood, ‘Doctor in Phisicke,’ was also a lecturer on navigation, a seller of compasses, and author and editor of various books on mathematics and navigation. Specimens of his charts are very rare.


Map of Egypt

From the copy in the British Museum of John Hu’ighen van Linschoien his Discours of Voyages unto ye Easte and Weste Indies, printed at London, 1598. It is of interest to note the ‘diche begonne in auncient tyme and somewhat attempted of late by Sinan the Bassa to joyne both the Seas together’ — now the Suez Canal.


George Fenner

George Fenner, ‘a man that had beene conversant in many sea-fights,’ belonged to a Sussex family, and was probably a native of Chichester. The family produced several other seamen, of whom William Fenner, Viceadmiral under Drake and Norris in the Portugal voyage (see p. 483), and Thomas Fenner, captain of the ‘Dreadnought’ in Dralce’s Cadiz Expedition (see p. 438), are best known. The action off the Azores between the Portuguese squadron and George Fenner’s ships (see pp. 281–3) is ‘memorable as the earliest revelation to English seamen of the power their superiority in gunnery was to give them’ (Corbett, Drake and the Tudor Navy, I. 93). On his return from the voyage to Guinea in 1566, Fenner traded with the Low Countries. In 1588 he commanded the ‘Galleon Leicester’ against the Armada, and in 1597 accompanied Essex in the Islands voyage. The portrait is taken from that in John Pine’s Tapestry Hangings of the House of Lords, London, 1753, in the British Museum.


Plan of Goa

From the copy in the British Museum of G. Braun and F. Hohenberg’s Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 1573.


Despatch from Sir Francis Drake

This despatch, dated 27th April, 1587, gives Drake’s account of the burning of the Spanish ships in Cadiz Harbour. It is reproduced by permission from the original preserved in the Public Record Office. The postscripts are in Drake’s own handwriting. The despatch, which is addressed ‘To the righte honorable Sir Ffrauncis Walsingham, Knighte principall Secretary to Her Matie with all haste haste poste haste’ runs as follows:

Righte honorable Theise are to geive to understande that on the seconde of this moneth we departede out of the sound of Plymouth we had sighte of the Cape venester the vth: we were encountrede with a violente storme duringe the space of five daies by which meanes our fleate was putt a sonder and a greate leake sprange uppon the Dreadenoughte : the 16th we mette all together at the Rocke & the 19th we arrivede into the roade of Cales in Spaigne where we founde sondrie greate shippes some laden some halfe laden and some readie to be laden with the kings provisions for Englande; we staiede there untill the 24th in which meane tyme we sanke a Biskanie of 12c tonnes, burnte a shippe of the Marquice of Santa Cruse of 15c Tonnes and 31 shippes more of 1000 800 600: 400 to 200 tonnes the peice carried awaie fower with us laden with provision, And departede thence at our pleasure with as moch honour as we coulde wishe notwithstandinge that duringe the tyme of our aboade there we were bothe oftentymes foughte with all by 12 of the kinges gallies (of whome we sanke two and allwaies repulsed the rest) and were (withoute Ceassinge) vehemently shott at from the shoare but to our litle hurte, god be thanked, yeat at our departure we were Curteouslie written unto by one Don Pedro generall of those gallies; I assure your Ho: the like preparacion was never hearde of nor knowen as the kinge of Spaigne hathe and dailie makethe to invade Englande. He is allied with mighte Prynces and Dukes in the Straits of whome (besides the forces in his owne domynyons) he is to have greate aide shortlie: and his provisions of breade and wynes are so greate as will suffice 40000 men a wholle yeere, which, if they be not ympeached before they joyne, wilbe verie perillous, Our entente therfore is (by gods helpe) to intercepte their meetinges by all possible meanes we maye, which I hope shall have such a good successe as shall tende to thadvauncement of gods glorie, the savetie of her highnes royall person, the quyett of her countrie, and thannoyaunce of the Enemie. This service which by gods sufferaunce we have done will (withoute doute) breade some alteracyon of their pretences howebeit all possible preparacions for defence are very expediente to be made: Thus moch touchinge our proceedinges and farther entente in this actyon I have thoughte meete to signifie unto your honour & would use more larger discourse but that wante of leisure causeth me to leave the same to the reporte of this bearer, And so in verie greate haste with remembraunce of my humble duetie doe take my leave of your honour: ffrom aboarde her highnes good ship the Elizabethe Bonadventure the 27th of Aprill 1587

Your honours redye allwayes to be comaunded

Fra: Drake

I leave the report of dyvers prisonars to the bearer herof and pray pardon for not writtyng with my owne hand, I am overcom with businesses

Your honours ever redy

Fra: Drake

I dare not a most writ unto your honour of the great forces we hear the K. of Spayne hath out of the straytts prepair in yngland strongly and most by sea: stope him now and stope hym ever: look well to the cost of Sussex I will sourly writ you mor as ocasyon shalbe menestred and with the grace of god will fight with them for it is the Lord that geveth victory.


Chart of Cadiz Harbour by William Borough

This chart of Drake’s operations in Cadiz Harbour, April, 1587, was drawn by William Borough Vice-admiral on the ‘Lion,’ and is reproduced by permission from the original preserved in the Public Record Office. It was in this expedition that Borough was put under arrest by Drake for insubordination, and afterwards court-martialled and condemned to death. He was, however, subsequently pardoned.


Map of the Coast of Guinea

From the copy in the British Museum of John Huighen van Linschoten his Discours of Voyages unto ye Easte and Weste Indies, printed at London, 1598.


George Clifford, Third Earl of Cumberland

George Clifford, third Earl of Cumberland, was born at Brougham Castle in Westmoreland in 1558. He succeeded to the title in January 1569–70. In 1571 he went to Trinity College, Cambridge, and took his M.A. degree in 1576. He is also said to have studied mathematics and geography at Oxford. In 1586 he fitted out his first expedition ‘intended for the South Sea’ under the command of Captains Robert Withrington and Christopher Lister. In 1588 he commanded the ‘Elizabeth Bonaventure’ against the Spanish Armada. In 1589 he made an expedition to the Azores and suffered great hardships on the return home (see p. 22). Between 1591 and 1595 he fitted out four more expeditions, and in January 1597–8 he fitted out the largest of all, intended for the West Indies, with himself in command on the ‘Malice Scourge.’ This ship subsequently became famous for her East Indian voyages under the name of the ‘Red Dragon.’ The expedition, like most of the former ones, was a failure. Cumberland died in London on 30th October 1605. He is said to have been a man of great personal beauty, and stood high in Elizabeth’s favour. The portrait, showing the Queen’s glove which he wore as a badge in his hat, is reproduced from the original by an unknown painter in the National Portrait Gallery.


Sir Richard Grenville

Sir Richard Grenville or Greynville belonged to a Cornish family and was born about 1541. He was a cousin of Sir Walter Raleigh. In 1571 he sat in Parliament as member for Cornwall. He made his first sea voyage in May 1585 when he commanded a fleet of seven ships intended for the settlement of Virginia. On his way home ‘he tooke a Spanish ship of 300 tunne richly loaden, boording her with a boate made with boards of chests, which fell asunder, and sunke at the ships side, assoone as ever he and his men were out of it.’ In 1586 he made another voyage to Virginia. In 1588 he was engaged in planning measures of defence for the western counties in anticipation of the Spanish Armada. In 1591 the action off the Azores took place which resulted in the loss of the ‘Revenge’ and his death. The portrait here reproduced is taken from the British museum copy of Holland’s Heroologia published in London in 1620.


John Huighen van Linschoten

Linschoten was born at Haarlem about 1563, but it was from Enkhuizen, whither his parents had removed, that in 1576 Linschoten set out on the travels which have made his name famous. He first went to Spain where he stayed six years; next he joined the Spanish fleet for the East Indies and was at Goa in 1583 when John Newbery and Ralph Fitch arrived as prisoners from Ormuz. His account of their escape is given in Volume V page 505 of this edition. In 1591 he was at Terceira in the Azores when the Spanish fleet put in for repairs after the action with the ‘Revenge,’ and his ‘large testimony’ of the fight as related to him by the Spaniards, with the description of the great storm which followed it, will be found at page 80. In 1594–5 he accompanied Barents in his voyages to the Arctic regions. He died in 1611. The portrait is taken from a copy in the British Museum of Boissardi’s Bibliotheca sive Thesaurus Virtutis published at Frankfort in 1628.


Map of the World by Sir Humphrey Gilbert

This, the only known map by Sir Humphrey Gilbert now in existence, is taken from the copy in the British Museum of his Discourse of a Discoverie of a new passage to Cathaia published in London in 1576. It was ‘made onelye for the particular declaration of this discovery.’


Sir Martin Frobisher

Frobisher was born about 1535. He made his first voyage, to Guinea, in 1554. In 1571 he was employed in sea service oiF the coast of Ireland, where he attracted the notice of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. On the grant of a charter to the Company of Cathay in 1577 he was appointed Captain-general and admiral of the Company’s fleet. In 1576–78 he was occupied in his voyages in search of the North-west passage. In 1580 he was made clerk of Her Majesty’s ships. In September 1585 he sailed for the West Indies in Drake’s expedition as vice-admiral on the ‘Primrose’. He was in command of the ‘Triumph’ against the Armada in 1588 and was knighted by Lord Howard of Effingham for ‘that hee had valiantly and discreetly behaved himself’ in the fight on the 25 th July. In 1594 in the ‘Dreadnought’ he was employed at the relief of Brest and Crozon, was wounded in the hip while landing his men at Crozon, and taken back to Plymouth where he died shortly after his arrival. The portrait is taken from the copy in the British Museum of Holland’s Heroologia, 1620.


Map of the World, a.d. 1578

This map, made to illustrate George Best’s Discourse ‘to proove all partes of the worlde habitable,’ is taken from the British Museum copy of A True Discourse of the Late Voyages of Discoverie for finding of a Passage to Cathaya, by the North–Weast, under the Conduct of Martin Frobisher, General. Imprinted at London by Henry Bynnyman, 1578.


Map of Meta Incognita

This ‘particular card’ intended to set ‘so farre forth as the secretes of the voyage may permit’ Frobisher’s discoveries on the coast of Meta Incognita is taken from Bynnyman’s True Discourse cited above.


Map of the World, by Michael Lock

According to the fragment of Autobiography preserved in the British Museum, Michael Lock or Lok was born in 1532. He says: ‘My late father, Sir William Lok, knight, alderman of London, kept me at scholes of grammer in England till I was xiii yeres old, which was A° Dni, 1545, and he being sworn servant to King Henry the VIIIth his mercer and also his agent beyond the seas dyvers affayres, he then sent me over seas to Flanders and France to learn those languages and to know the world. Synce which tyme I have contynued these xxxii yeres in travaile of body and study of mynde, following my vocation in the trade of merchandise, whereof I have spent the first xv yeres in contynuall travaile of body, passing through allmost all the cuntrees of Christianity. Namely out of England, into Scotland, Ireland, Flanders, Germany, France, Spayne, Italy and Greece, both by land and by sea, not without great labors, cares, dangers and expenses of mony incident; having had the charge (as capitayn) of a great ship of burden 1000 tuns, by the space of more then iii yeres in dyvers voyages in the Levant seas, wherewithall I returned into England. In which travailes, besides the knowledge of all those famous common languages of those cuntries, I sought allso for the knowledge of the state of all their common wealths, chiefly in all matters apperteining to the traffique of merchants. And the rest of my tyme I have spent in England under the happy raigne of the Queenes Majestie now being.’ Lock was one of the promoters of Frobisher’s voyages and was greatly impoverished through their failure financially. He was imprisoned in the Fleet at the instance of William Borough in 1581. He died about 1615. The map, which is dedicated to Sir Philip Sidney, is taken from the copy in the Hunterian Library, University of Glasgow, of the Divers Voyages touching the discoverie of America, published by Hakluyt in 1582.


Letter from John Davis to Walsingham, 3rd October, 1585

John Davis, or Davys, ‘the Navigator,’ was born at Sandridge about 1550. He was a neighbour and companion of Humphrey and Adrian Gilbert. In 1585–6 he made his voyages in search of the North-west passage, and on his return home from his first voyage in 1585 he wrote this letter to Sir Francis Walsingham. In 1589 he joined the Earl of Cumberland’s expedition off the Azores, and in 1591 he went with Thomas Cavendish as Rear-admiral on the ‘Desire.’ In 1598 he was pilot of a Dutch ship, the ‘Lion,’ and in 1600 was appointed Pilot-major of the first East Indian fleet under Captain James Lancaster. In 1605, when pilot of the ‘Tiger’ under Sir Edward Michelborne, his ship was treacherously attacked by Japanese pirates near Bintung, in the Straits of Malacca, and he was killed. He wrote a treatise on navigation, the Seaman’s Secrets, first published in 1594, and the Worldes Hydrographical Description, published in 1595, and he invented the ‘backstaff,’ for taking the altitude of the sun.

The following is the translation of the letter, which is reproduced from the original in the British Museum:

‘Right honorable most dutyfully craving pardon for this my rashe boldnes, I am herby, according to my duty, to signyfy unto your honor that the north-west passage is a matter nothing doubtfull, but at any tyme almost to be passed, the sea navigable, voyd of yse, the ayre tollerable, and the waters very depe. I have also found an yle of very grate quantytie, not in any globe or map dyscrybed, yelding a sufficient trade of furre and lether, and although this passage hath bine supposed very impassible, yeat through Gods mercy, I am in experience ann ey wyttnes to the contrary, yea in this most desperate clymate; which, by Gods help, I wyll very shortly most at large revele unto your honor as sone as I can possible take order for my maryners and shipping. Thus depending upon your honors good favor, I most humbly comytt you to God this third of October.

Your honors for ever most dutyfull

John Davys.’


Map of the Earl of Cumberland’s Voyage to the Azores, by Edward Wright, 1589

‘The excellent Mathematician and Enginier Master Edward Wright’ was born at Garveston, Norfolk, about 1558. He went up to Caius College Cambridge in 1576, graduated B.A. in 1580–1, M.A. in 1584 and was a fellow from 1587–96. He accompanied the Earl of Cumberland to the Azores in 1589 and wrote the account of the voyage. It is now generally held that he was the discoverer of the so-called ‘Mercator’s’ projection. He was appointed lecturer on navigation to the East India Company. He died in 161 5. The map here reproduced was made by Wright to illustrate the Earl of Cumberland’s Voyage to the Azores in 1589 and is taken from a copy of his Certain Errors in Navigation published in London in 1599, now in the Grenville Library in the British Museum.


Sir Humphrey Gilbert

Sir Humphrey Gilbert was born about 1539 near Dartmouth, and was step-brother to Sir Walter Raleigh. In 1563 he was wounded at Havre in fighting against the French. In July 1566 he served in Ireland. In October 1569 he was placed in charge of the province of Munster. He was knighted by the Lord Deputy Sidney at Drogheda on ist January 1570. In 1571 he was returned member of Parliament for Plymouth. In 1572 he was sent to the Netherlands with a contingent of English Volunteers to help the Zeelanders against the Spanish.

In 1578 Gilbert obtained his Charter ‘for the Westerne Discovery of America and to plant a colony,’ but his first expedition in 1578 was a failure, because ‘amongst a multitude of voluntary men, their dispositions were divers which bred a Jarre and made a division in the end to the confusion of that attempt even before the same was begun.’

In 1579 he served at sea off Munster. In 1583 his second expedition set out, and an account of this, which ended in Sir Humphrey Gilbert’s death, will be found on page 46. The portrait is taken from the British Museum copy of Holland’s Heroologia published in 1620.


Christopher Carlile

Christopher Carleill or Carlile was born in 1551. He was a grandson of Sir George Barnes, Lord Mayor of London. He was educated at Cambridge and married Mary, daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham. In 1572 he went to Flushing and was present at the siege of Middleburgh. Then proceeding to La Rochelle he served under the Prince of Conde. He next saw service at Steenwick, besieged by the Spaniards, where he was placed by the Prince of Orange in sole command. In 1582 he convoyed in the ‘Tiger’ the English merchants to Russia (Vol. iii., page 303). He tried to induce the Russia merchants to finance a voyage ‘to the hithermost parts of America’ and wrote the ‘briefe and summary discourse’ for that purpose (page 134).

In 1584 he was made Commander of the Garrison of Coleraine and in 1585 was made Lieutenant–General of the Land Forces in Drake’s West India Expedition of that year, an account of which appears in Vol. X of this edition. In 1588 he was appointed Constable of Carrickfergus and later, Governor of Ulster. He died in London in 1593. Stowe says: ‘He was quicke-witted and affable, valiant and fortunate in warre, well-read in mathematiks, and of good experience in navigation, whereuppon some have registred him for a Navigator, but the truth is, his most inclination and profession was chiefely for lande service, he utterly abhorred pyracy.’ The portrait is reproduced from that in Holland’s Heroologia, cited above.


Map of the New World, A. D. 1587

This map dedicated ‘to the most learned and accomplished Richard Hakluyt,’ is the one referred to in Jaques Noel’s letter to ‘Master John Growte student in Paris’ given on p. 272. In this letter Jaques Noel, who was the nephew of Jaques Cartier and accompanied him to Canada criticises from personal observation the position on the map of the River of Canada and ‘the great Lake which is above the Saults.’ — The map which is a beautiful example of the copperplate engraving of the period is taken from the copy, in the British Museum, in Peter Martyr’s De Orbe Novo, annotated by Richard Hakluyt and published at Paris in 1587.


A Virginian Warrior

From the original water colour drawing by John White. Little is known of John White beyond what appears in Hakluyt’s pages. He went out to Virginia in the Expedition under Sir Richard Grenville in 1585. He returned in June 1586 when Drake’s expedition took off the Settlers.

He was ‘Governour of the Planters in Virginia’ in 1587 and at their earnest request returned to England to obtain’ supplies for the Colony. In 1588 Raleigh sent him back, and arranged that three ships then fitting out for John Watts, a London Merchant, should take on board a number of passengers and stores for Virginia. The owner of the ships however would not permit any passengers or stores to go on board except John White ‘and his chest.’ Owing to the lateness of the season he was unable to land on Virginia.

In 1590 he made another voyage to Virginia, but he could not find the colonists, and the expedition returned to England in October of that year.

This and the five following illustrations have been reproduced from a volume of White’s water colour drawings which is preserved in the Grenville Library in the British Museum. It is clear that he was an accurate painter, and it is safe to assume that these contemporary sketches of the natives of Virginia at the time of their discovery by the English give a true representation of the people and their dwellings.


A Virginian Priest, by John White


A Native of Florida, by John White


The Village of Secoton, by John White


Chart of Virginia, by John White


Chart of Virginia and Florida, by John White


Map of America by John Dee, a.d. 1580

John Dee, Mathematician and Astrologer was born in London on 13th July 1527. He took his B.A. degree at St. John’s, Cambridge, in 1542. In 1547 he went to the Low Countries to study, and became a student at Louvain in 1548.

On the accession of Queen Mary, Dee joined the Princess Elizabeth’s party and was imprisoned for an alleged attempt on the Queen’s life by poison or magic, but was allowed his liberty on giving security for his good behaviour. In 1555–56 he presented a supplication to Queen Mary for the recovery and preservation of ancient writings and monuments. On Queen Eliza,beth’s accession he entered her service and made an astrological calculation for the choice of a fit day for the coronation. He was consulted by Royal command on the Queen’s illness. In 1578 he went to Germany to consult the Physicians there regarding the Queen’s health. In 1580 he delivered to the Queen Rolls showing the Queen’s titles to the newly discovered countries.

Dee was a great Alchemist and Spiritualist and was regarded by the common people as a Magician. In 1583 a mob broke into his house and destroyed a great part of his furniture, books, and chemical apparatus. He died in poverty in 1608. The original Roll from which this map has been reproduced is now preserved in the Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum.


Sir Walter Ralegh

Sir Walter Ralegh, the son of a Devonshire country-gentleman, was born near Budleigh Salterton, South Devon, about 1552. Sir Humphrey Gilbert was his half brother by his mother’s first marriage. In 1569 he joined the Huguenots in France as a volunteer. He was at Oriel College, Oxford, in 1572. In September 1578 he assisted Sir Humphrey Gilbert in fitting out his first expedition at Dartmouth, and himself commanded the ‘Falcon’ of 100 tons. The expedition returned in 1579. From June 1580 to December 1581 he saw service in Ireland, and being then sent with despatches to the Court at Greenwich, he quickly sprang into favour with Elizabeth. He was knighted in 1584, and in 1585 was appointed Warden of the Stannaries, lord lieutenant of Cornwall and vice-admiral of Cornwall and Devon, He sat as member for Devonshire in Parliament in 1585–86, and in 1586 he was granted 40,000 acres of land in Munster. On the 25th March 1584 he was granted a patent ‘for the discovering and planting of new lands and Countries,’ and as a result he founded the first English colony of Virginia. The accounts of the various expeditions to Virginia sent out by him are given in Hakluyt, Vol. VIII, pp. 289 seq. He is said to have spent over £40,000 (about £320,000 of our money) in his Virginian expeditions. About 1586 he introduced the potato into Great Britain and is believed to have been the first English gentleman to smoke tobacco. In 1591 he was appointed second in command under Lord Thomas Howard in the expedition to the Azores in that year, but the Queen refused to let him go and Sir Richard Grenville was appointed in his place. Ralegh’s account of the last fight of the ‘Revenge’ will be found in Hakluyt, Vol. VII., p. 38. In 1592 he contributed very largely to the expedition under Frobisher and Burgh which captured the ‘Madre de Dios’ (Hakluyt, Vol. VII., p. 105), but in July of that year he was disgraced and imprisoned in the Tower, but was released in October, In 1593 he was returned to Parliament for Michael, in Cornwall. In 1594 he sent Jacob Whiddon to explore the Orinoco, and early in 1595 he headed an expedition to Guiana himself He ascended the Orinoco for about 450 miles in quest of the gold mine of Manoa, but was unsuccessful in his search. On his return to England he wrote his ‘Discoverie of Guiana’ (Hakluyt, Vol. IX.). In June 1596 he commanded, with great distinction, the ‘Warspite’ in the Cadiz expedition and was severely wounded. In 1597 he sailed, as second in command under Essex, to the Azores and took Fayal. He was elected member for Dorset in 1597 and for Cornwall in 1601. In September 1600 he was appointed Governor of Jersey. On the accession of James I. Ralegh was stripped of all his posts and monopolies, sent to the Tower for alleged complicity in Lord Cobham’s conspiracy, and condemned to be executed on iith December 1603. On the loth December, however, he was reprieved. From 1603 to 1616 he was a prisoner in the Tower, and there wrote his ‘History of the World.’ About 1610 Ralegh requested permission to organise another expedition to Guiana. In March i6i6 he was released from the Tower and began to make preparations for this expedition. He sailed from Plymouth with 14 ships on 12th June 1 61 7. The expedition was a complete failure, and in an attack on the town of San Thomas Ralegh’s son Walter was killed, Ralegh returned to Plymouth with four ships in June 161 8. Shortly after he was arrested, chiefly on the representation of the Spanish Ambassador. He was taken to London and, attempting to escape, was again sent to the Tower. On the 28th of October, 161 8, he was condemned on his former sentence and was beheaded on Tower Hill on the following morning. He was buried in St. Margaret’s Church Westminster. The portrait here reproduced is taken from the original, attributed to Zuccharo, in the Dublin Gallery.


René Laudonnière

René Goulaine de Laudonnière, a French Captain, was one of the first explorers of Florida. In 1561 Admiral Coligny wishing to find a safe retreat for the persecuted Huguenots formed the project of founding a Protestant colony in the New World. A first expedition to Brazil had been a complete failure, and Coligny next cast his eyes on Florida, from which the Spanish had been driven by the natives. The expedition, which had the approval of Charles IX., sailed from Dieppe on the 15th February 1562 under the command of Ribaut and Laudonnière. The fortunes of the colonists, and of the relief expedition which left Havre on the 22nd April 1564 are recorded very fully by Hakluyt. On his final return to France in 1566 Laudonnière was very coldly received by the Court, and he died in obscurity. The portrait is taken from the Effigies Regum of Crispin de Passe in the Grenville Library in the British Museum.


Map of Florida by James Le Moyne, a.d. 1564

‘The skillful painter’ James Le Moyne de Mourgues, ‘sometime living in the Blackfryers in London’ accompanied the second expedition under Laudonniere in 1564 for the relief of the French colonists in Florida. He was sent out by ‘Monsieur Chastillion, then Admiral of France, and his sketches ‘lively drawn in colours’ were engraved and published in De Bry’s Collections of Travels and Voyages, Grands (America) Voyages, Part IL, Frankfort 1591. The Map here reproduced is taken from the copy in the British Museum of De Bry’s Collections.


Map of the Coasts of China

This map, which shows the ‘trew description of all the coasts of China, Cauchinchina, Camboya, Syao, Malacca, Arraacan, Pegu, together with all the Islands thereabowts, both great and smale, with the cliffes, breaches, sands, droughts and shallowes, all perfectly drawn and examined with the most expert cardes of the Portingales Pilots’ was engraved by Robert Beckit and printed in London by John Wolfe in 1598. The reproduction is taken from the copy in the British Museum of John Huighen van Linschoten Ms Discours of Voyages unto ye Easte and Weste Indies, London, 1598.


Sir John Hawkins

Sir John Hawkins or Hawkyns was born in Plymouth in 1532. While a young man he made ‘divers voyages to the Isles of the Canaries’ and learnt ‘ that Negros were very good merchandise in Hispaniola and that store of Negros might easily bee had upon the coast of Guinea.’ About 1559 he married Katharine, daughter of Benjamin Gonson, treasurer of the Navy. In October 1562 he commanded an expedition to Guinea and got into his possession ‘partly by the sworde, and partly by other means to the number of 300 Negros at the least, besides other merchandises which that country yieldeth.’ He then sailed for Hispaniola, sold his cargo and loaded his three ships and two other hulks with hides, ginger, sugar and pearls and arrived home in September 1563. In 1564 he set out with a larger fleet on the same route and coasting along Florida he found Laudonniere’s French colony, which he relieved, winning ‘the reputation of a good and charitable man, deserving to be esteemed as much of us all as if he had saved all our lives.’ He arrived at Padstow on the 20th September 1565. On the 2nd October 1567 he set out on his ‘third troublesome voyage,’ during which he was attacked by the Spaniards in the harbour of San Juan d’Ulloa and very narrowly escaped. After suffering great hardships on the voyage home, ‘for hides were thought very good meat, rats, cats, mice and dogs, none escaped that might be gotten,’ he arrived in Mounts Bay on 25th January 1569. In 1572 he was Member of Parliament for Plymouth. On nth October 1573 he was stabbed whilst riding in the Strand and was dangerously wounded, the Queen sending her own surgeon to attend him. About this time he was made treasurer and comptroller of the Navy, and it was largely owing to his skill and experience that the Navy was thoroughly equipped to meet the Armada. Hawkins was third in command of the English fleet on the ‘Victory’ during the struggle with the Armada. He was in the thick of the fighting and was knighted by Lord Howard of Effingham for his bravery. In 1590 he, with Frobisher, commanded a squadron sent to the coast of Portugal. In November 1591 he was one of the commissioners for the proper division of prizes taken at sea. On 28th August 1595 he sailed with Drake in the expedition ‘chiefly pretended for some speciall service on the Islands and maine of the West Indies,’ but died off Porto Rico on the 1 2th November. The portrait reproduced is taken from the copy of Holland’s Heroologia in the British Museum.


The Jesus of Lubeck

The ‘Jesus of Lubeck’ was a ship of 700 tons. She was bought by Henry VIII. for his Navy from the Merchants of Lubeck in 1544. On the accession of Elizabeth, the ‘Jesus’ was condemned, but was afterwards retained, and in 1564 was, in accordance with the custom of the times, lent to Sir John Hawkins for a voyage to Guinea (Hakluyt, Vol. VI., p. 263). In 1567 she was again lent to Hawkins for his voyage to the West Indies by way of Guinea. On the 12th August, 1568, Hawkins’ fleet was caught by ‘an extreme storme which continued by the space of foure days, which so beat the Jesus, that we cut downe all her higher buildings, her rudder also was sore shaken, and withall was in so extreme a leake that we were rather upon the point to leave her then to keepe her any longer.’ On the 16th September the fleet entered San Juan d’Ulloa; on the 23rd the fight with the Spaniards took place during which the ‘Jesus’ was abandoned. She was the first of only two ships of Elizabeth’s Navy to fall into Spanish hands, the other being Sir Richard Grenville’s ‘Revenge.’ The armament of the ‘Jesus’ was as follows; Cannons (50 or 60 pounders), 2; culverins (long 18 pounders), 2; demi-culverins (long 9 pounders), 8; sacres (long 5 pounders), 8; falcons (3 pounders), 2. Her breach-loading pieces were: slings, 2; fowlers, 10; bases, 30 (Corbett, Drake and the Tudor Navy, Vol, I., p. 114 note). The illustrations of the ‘Jesus’ and the ‘Minion’ are taken from the original water-colour paintings by Anthony Anthony in the Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge, and are inserted by permission of the College authorities.


The Minion

The ‘Minion’ ‘of the Queenes’ was built in 1523 for Henry VIII.‘s navy. She was originally of 180 tons but was rebuilt about 1536 as a 300 ton ship. She was given to Sir Thomas Seymour about 1549, but about 1560 her name reappears in the Navy Lists. (Oppenheim, Administration of the Royal Navy.) In 1561 she was lent to the Guinea merchants and was damaged in an action with the Portuguese (Hakluyt, Vol. VL, p. 260). In 1564 she was again employed in the Guinea trade and in 1567–68 she formed one of Hawkins’ fleet in his third expedition to Guinea and the West Indies. She was so badly damaged at San Juan d’Ulloa and ‘so sore beaten with shot from our enemies and brused with shooting off our own ordinance’ that with the greatest difficulty she was brought into Mounts Bay in Cornwall on the 25th of January 1569. She was condemned in 1570.


Map of the World by Peter Plancius a.d. 1594

Peter Plancius was born in 1552. He was a Calvinistic preacher, pastor of the church at Amsterdam, but his chief title to fame is his service to geography. He maintained the existence of an open polar sea, and he induced the people of Amsterdam to despatch an expedition to seek a passage north of Novaya Zemlya under Willem Barents. He died on 25th May 1622 (Markham, John Davis the Navigator, Hakluyt Society, 1880). The Map is interesting as being one of the few attempts to apply the principles of Mercator’s ‘projection’ before their correct demonstration by Edward Wright. The engraved margin shows the inhabitants and products of the various divisions of the globe, ‘Mexicana’ representing North America, ‘Peruana’ South America, and ‘Magallanica’ the supposed great Southern Continent. The celestial circles, with the quaint drawings of the principal constellations, are also of great interest. The Map is reproduced from a copy of Linschoten’s Itinerario (published at Amsterdam in 1604–5) in the British Museum.


Sir Francis Drake

Sir Francis Drake, son of Edmund Drake, sailor and afterwards Vicar of Upchurch, was born at Crowndale, near Tavistock about 1545, but the exact date is uncertain. He was apprenticed when young to the master of a Channel coaster, and his master, dying childless, left the vessel to him. He seems to have followed this trade for a short time, but in 1565–6 went on some voyages to Guinea and the Spanish Main with Captain Lovell. In 1567 he commanded the ‘Judith’ of 50 tons in Sir John Hawkins’ voyage to the West Indies, and barely escaped in the fight at San Juan de Ulloa. Immediately on his return to England, Drake was sent to London to ‘inform Sir William Cecil of all the proceedings of the expedition.’ In 1570 he went on a voyage to the West Indies with two ships, the ‘Dragon’ and the ‘Swan,’ and in 1571 with the ‘Swan’ alone, ‘to gain such intelligences as might further him to get some amends for his loss’ at San Juan de Ulloa. ‘And having in those two voyages gotten such certain notice of the persons and places aimed at as he thought requisite’ he resolved on a third voyage. He sailed from Plymouth on 24th May 1572 with two small ships, the ‘Pasha’ and ‘Swan,’ carrying seventy three men, and three ‘dainty’ pinnaces ‘all in pieces and stowed aboard to be set up again as occasion served’ with intent to land at Nombre de Dios.

On 29th July they landed at Nombre de Dios and after a sharp fight captured the town. Drake however was severely wounded, and his men forcibly removed him to the boats. After burning Porto Bello, Drake with eighteen men and a few Maroons marched across the Isthmus towards Panama. It was on this march that Drake, climbing a tree pointed out by his guides, first saw the Pacific, and ‘besought Almighty God of his goodness to give him life and leave to sail once in an English ship on that sea.’ After sacking Venta Cruz and acquiring much treasure, he sailed homeward and arrived in Plymouth on Sunday, 9th August 1573, in church hours, when ‘the news of Drake’s return did so speedily pass over all the church and surpass their minds with delight and desire to see him that very few or none remained with the preacher.’ From 1573 to 1576 Drake saw service in Ireland. On 13th December 1577 he sailed in the ‘Pelican’ on his voyage of circum-navigation, a detailed account of which is given in Volume XL On 26th September 1580 he arrived home ‘very richly fraught with gold, silver, silk, pearls and precious stones.’ On 4th April 1581 he was knighted by the Queen on the deck of the ‘Golden Hind’ (as the ‘Pelican’ had been rechristened on entering Magellan Straits). In 1582 Drake was Mayor of Plymouth. In the Parliament of 1584–5 he sat as member for Bossiney, and was one of the Committee on the bill for supplying Plymouth with water. On 14th September 1585 he sailed from Plymouth on the expedition to the West Indies, the account of which is given at page 97. Shortly after his return home in July 1586 Drake was placed in charge of the shipping at Plymouth. In November 1586 he was sent on a mission to the Netherlands. On 2nd April 1587 he sailed for Spain commissioned ‘to impeach the joining together of the King of Spain’s fleet out of their several ports.’ On the 19th April he attacked Cadiz, sank or burnt thirty-three vessels and carried away four (see his despatch given in Volume VI., page 440 of this edition). He next captured the Castle of Sagres and held Cape St. Vincent, and then making for the Azores he captured a great Portuguese Carrack and returned to England in the end of June. On the 12th July 1588 the English fleet put out to search for the Spanish Armada, Drake being Vice–Admiral under Lord Howard of Effingham, but a summer gale drove them back to Plymouth. On the 19th of July the Armada was sighted, and from that day to the 2nd of August the fight with and pursuit of the Armada was continued. On 18th April 1589 Drake put to sea in command of an expedition to invade Spain and Portugal, with Sir John Norreys in command of the land forces. The account of this expedition is given by Hakluyt (Volume VI., page 470). From December 1590 to April 1591 Drake was engaged in bringing the river Meavy to Plymouth for the water supply of the town: when this was done he set about building six corn-mills. In 1593 he represented Plymouth in Parliament. During the winter of 1594 and spring of 1595 Drake was preparing for what proved to be his last expedition to the West Indies. On the 28th August the Expedition sailed, with Sir John Hawkins as Vice–Admiral. It was however a failure. News of its approach had reached the West Indies, and everywhere preparations had been made to receive it. Hawkins died off Porto Rico on the nth November: the same evening a shot from one of the batteries ‘strake the stoole from under’ Drake as he sat at supper ‘but hurt him not,’ though it killed Sir Nicholas Clifford, the Commander of the land forces. On the 15 th January 1596 off Nombre de Dios Drake ‘began to keepe his cabin and to complain of a scowring or fluxe,’ and on the 28th he died. He was buried a league from shore in a leaden coffin,

‘For a last and fitting honour to the dead, two vessels of his own fleet and all his last taken prizes were sunk near where he lay, while ashore the fort which the Spaniards had just completed was given to the flames.’ (Corbett, Drake and the Tudor Navy, Vol. II., p. 430.) The portrait here reproduced is taken from that in a copy in the British Museum of the Dutch Chart published by Judocus Hondius about 1595.)


Plan of Santiago

Reproduced from the original in A Sumniarie and True Discourse of Sir Francis Drake’s West Indian Voyage in the Grenville Library in the British Museum. The plan shows the English fleet at anchor before the town; Drake’s ship, the ‘Elizabeth Bonaventure’ of 600 tons, distinguishable by the admiral’s flag, the Cross of St. George, flown on the main mast, is shown in the foreground.


A Spanish Treasure Frigate

The Spanish Treasure Frigates were specially designed by Pero Menendez Marquez to carry treasure from the West Indies to Spain. ‘They are very bigge and excellent of sayle, which will carie 150 men a piece with souldiers and mariners. And having good ordinance, there are fewe or none of our enemies that can offend us. For wee shall both leave and take at all times when we list’ (p. 158). The Frigate here represented is ‘104 foote by the keele’ and ‘34 foote in bredth’ on the main deck. Her armament consisted of culverins (i8-pounders) on the main deck, demi-culverins (9-pounders) on the upper deck, and falcons (3-pounders) on the spar deck. Forward on a platform on the main deck was ‘a place of muskett defence for their musketers to plaie notwithstanding their great ordnance’ — an extremely uncomfortable position, one would think, in a heavy sea. The legend aft reads: ‘The armes of St. Diago a special note to know them.’ The drawing, first reproduced by Mr, Julian Corbett in his Drake and the Tudor Navy, Volume II., p. 366, is taken from the original (sent home by an English spy) in the Record Office.


The Rich Mines of Potosi

Reproduced from a copy of The Discoverie and Conquest of the Provinces of Peru, and the Navigation in the South Sea, along that Coast, and also of the rite he Mines of Potosi. Imprinted at London by Richard Jhones. Febru. 6. 1381., in the Hunterian Library in the University of Glasgow.


Sir Robert Dudley

Sir Robert Dudley, the son of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester and Lady Sheffield, was born on August 7th 1574, at Sheen House in Surrey. He matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, in May 1588. He states that he held a colonelcy in the army assembled at Tilbury under command of his father in the same year. In 1594 he started on his expedition to Trinidad and Guiana, his first intention — to take an expedition into the South Seas — having been forbidden by the Queen. Besides the account of this voyage printed by Hakluyt (p. 203) two other accounts have been preserved, one by Captain Wyatt who commanded Dudley’s ‘main battle of pike,’ and one by Abraham Kendall, his sailing master. [Warner’s Voyage of Sir Robert Dudley to the West Indies, Hakluyt Society, 1899.) In 1596 Dudley commanded the ‘Nonpareil’ in the Cadiz expedition under Essex and Nottingham, and was knighted at Plymouth on the return of the expedition. In 1603 he began the lawsuit to prove his legitimacy, but the judgment given on May loth 1605 went against him. In the same year he obtained a license to travel abroad for three years, and left England accompanied by his cousin, Elizabeth Southwell, disguised as his page, whom he afterwards married. They went to Florence, and Dudley entered into the service of the Grand Duke Ferdinand I. for whom he designed and constructed several warships. In 1646 when he was seventy-two he published his great work DeW Arcano del Mare. He died at Carbello in 1649. Anthony a Wood says of him: ‘This Robert Dudley was a compleat gentleman in all suitable employments, an exact seaman, a good navigator, an excellent architect, mathematician, physician, chymist, and what not. He was a handsome, personable man, tall of stature, red-hair’d and of admirable comport, and above all, noted for riding the great horse, for tilting, and for his being the first of all that taught a dog to sit in order to catch partridges.’ The portrait is taken from a proof engraving, in the British Museum, of a copy by G. P. Harding of the original miniature portrait by Nicholas Hilliard.


Sir Anthony Sherley

Sir Anthony Sherley was born in 1565. He graduated B.A. at Oxford in 1581, and was elected probationer-fellow of All Souls College. He took part in the wars in the Low Countries under the Earl of Leicester in 1586 and was present at Zutphen. In August 1591 he joined the Earl of Essex in his expedition to Normandy in support of Henry of Navarre. Henry made him a Knight of the Order of St. Michael, whereupon Queen Elizabeth imprisoned him for accepting the honour without her permission. He was released on retiring from the Order. He married Frances Vernon, first cousin of the Earl of Essex, but the marriage proved unhappy, and to distract his thoughts from his home life he organised his expedition to the West Indies.

He accompanied the Earl of Essex on his ‘Islands’ voyage of 1597. In 1598–9, on Essex’s invitation, he led a company of English volunteers to Ferara to assist Don Cesare d’Este. The dispute was settled by the time he arrived there, and he received instructions from Essex to proceed to Persia to obtain an alliance with the Shah against the Turks, and to promote commercial intercourse. The enterprise was not officially sanctioned, and Sherley was refused permission to return to England. He had a kindly reception from the Shah Abbas the Great, and after Jive months’ stay returned to Europe as the Shah’s envoy in 1599. His appeal for permission to return to England was refused, and he then went to Venice and opened correspondence with Spain. In April 1603 he was imprisoned for debt in an island near Scio. In 1605 he went to Prague and was employed by Rudolph II. on a mission to Morocco. On his way back he went to Madrid, and was commissioned as general of a fleet to attack the Turks and the Moors in the Levant and to hamper Dutch trade. In 1609 his expedition sailed, but it was a complete failure, and he was dismissed and dishonoured on his return. The King of Spain in 1611 allowed him a small pension, and he remained at Madrid in beggary until his death. The portrait is taken by permission of the Earl of Crawford from a copy, in the Library at Haigh Hall, Wigan, of the Atrium Heroicum Caesarum Regum Aliarumque Summatum ac Procerum by Dominicus Custos, printed at Augsburg in 1600.


Capture of Don Antonio de Berreo

This engraving of the capture of Don Antonio de Berreo, Governor of Trinidad, by Sir Walter Ralegh, is reproduced from De Bry’s Collections of Travels and Voyages, Grands (America) Voyages, Part VIII., Frankfort, 1599.


Map of Guiana by Sir Walter Ralegh

This map is reproduced from the original in the Manuscript Room in the British Museum, No doubt is now entertained that the map is the work of Sir Walter Ralegh himself and is in his hand-writing. The fabled Lake and City of Manoa is shown in the centre of the map, with El Dorado slightly to the left. It is to be noted that for convenience of reference the map has been reproduced upside down, the northern coast of Guiana and the Atlantic Ocean being at the bottom of the map as here given.


Map of Drake’s West Indian Expedition, 1585–6

This map ‘newlie come forth by Baptista B.’ serves to illustrate Drake’s West Indian Expedition of 1585–6, ‘the whole course of the saide viadge beinge plainlie described by the pricked line.’ The ‘summarie and true discourse’ of the expedition by Master Thomas Cotes will be found at page 97. The map is reproduced from the original in A Summarie and True Discourse cited above.


Thomas Cavendish

Thomas Cavendish or Candish, the second Englishman to sail round the world, was born at Gumston Hall, in Trimley Saint Martin Parish, Suffolk, about 1555. Little is known of his early years. His first voyage was in a ship of his own in Sir Richard Grenville’s voyage to Virginia made for Sir Walter Raleigh in 1585 (Hakluyt, Vol. VIII., page 310). Immediately after his return he began the preparation for his own voyage of circumnavigation. A full account of this ‘admirable and prosperous voyage, written by Master Francis Pretty, lately of Ey in Suffolke, a Gentleman employed in the same action,’ is given at page 290. On his return home. Cavendish was received at Court at Greenwich, and seems to have spent ‘his fortune in gallantry and following the Court.’ An account of his last voyage, begun on 26th August, 1591, up to the time when the ships were dispersed, and the subsequent sufferings of Captain John Davis, the Arctic Navigator, and the crew of the ‘Desire,’ will be found at page 389. After losing the ‘Desire’ and the Pinnace Cavendish with the ‘Leicester Galeon’ and ‘Roebuck’ made for Brazil and tried to land at Santos and Espirito Santo. Through disobedience to his orders, and through the treachery of his men, the Portuguese and the Indians beat him off with the loss of many of his best hands. Short of provisions and water, deserted by the ‘Roebuck’ and with only three whole sails left, Cavendish next determined to ‘beate for Saint Hellena, and there either to make ourselves happy by mending or ending.’ In spite of continuous adverse winds he fetched within two leagues of the Island, but could not make it, ‘the winde being continually at East–South-east, the most contrary wind that could blow.’ He next tried to reach ‘an Island which the cardes make to be in 8 degrees to the southward of the line,’ probably Ascension Island, but ‘I could by no means finde it, so as I was forced to goe towards England.’ He died on the voyage homewards worn out with privations and disappointment. The portrait is taken from the copy in the British Museum of the unique chart engraved by Judocus Hondius about 1595. The chart itself is given at page 336.


Drake’s Drum

This drum, which now hangs in the hall at Buckland Abbey, is reproduced by permission of Lady Elliot Drake. It bears Drake’s arms, and on it the last salute was probably beaten as his body was committed to the sea (Corbett, Drake and the Tudor Navy, I., xi.) The legend connected with the drum forms the subject of Henry Newbolt’s ballad Drake’s Drum: —

‘Take my drum to England, hang et by the shore.
Strike et when your powder’s runnin’ low;
If the Dons sight Devon, I’ll quit the port o’ Heaven,
An’ drum them up the Channel as we drummed them long ago.’

Owing to the frail condition of the drum it was not found possible to remove it from the glass case which protects it, but it is hoped that the interest of the subject will excuse the want of clearness in the reproduction.


Chart of Cape Horn

This chart is taken from a manuscript (Sloane MSS. 6i) in the British Museum. It shows the southern part of Patagonia, with Magellan Straits and the islands of Tierra del Fuego, with the open sea to the south. The manuscript, written in 1577, purports to be ‘an exact copy of the originall to a haire’ of the notes ‘written and faithfully layed downe by Ffrancis Ffletcher, Minister of Christ and Preacher of the Gospell, adventurer and traveller in the same voyage’ [Drake’s circumnavigation]. The copy is by ‘Jo. Conyers, Cittizen and Apothecary of London.’ It was at the ‘Insulae Elizabethides’ that the incident narrated by Sir Richard Hawkins in his Observations took place, when Drake, ‘going ashoare, carried a Compasse with him, and seeking out the Southermost part of the Hand, cast himselfe downe upon the uttermost point groveling, and so reached out his bodie over it. Presently he imbarked, and then recounted unto his people, that he had beene upon the Southermost knowne Land in the World, and more further to the Southwards upon it, then any of them, yea, or any man as yet knowne.’


Sir Christopher Hatton

Sir Christopher Hatton was born at Holdenby, Northamptonshire, in 1540. He entered St. Mary Hall, Oxford, as a gentleman commoner, but took no degree. In November, 1559, he was admitted to the Society of the Inner Temple. As the portrait shows, he was a tall and handsome man, and he was noted for his graceful dancing. He quickly attracted Queen Elizabeth’s attention, and became one of her gentlemen pensioners in 1564. In 1568 he was appointed Keeper of the Parks at Eltham and Home, and in 1572 Captain of the Queen’s Bodyguard, In October, 1573, Sir John Hawkins, being mistaken for Sir Christopher Hatton, was stabbed in the Strand by a Puritan fanatic named Burchett. In November, 1578, Hatton was appointed Vice–Chamberlain of the Household, with a seat in the Privy Council, and on 1st December he was knighted at Windsor, He was returned to Parliament for Northamptonshire in 1584. He was a Commissioner for the trial of Anthony Babington and his fellow-conspirators in September, 1586, and played a most important part in the proceedings which ended in the execution of Mary Queen of Scots. On 25th April, 1587, the Queen appointed him Lord Chancellor, which post he retained until his death on 20th November, 1591. He was buried in St. Paul’s Cathedral. It was in honour of Sir Christopher Hatton that Drake, on entering Magellan Straits, changed the name of his ship from the ‘Pelican’ to the ‘Golden Hind,’ the Hatton crest being a ‘hind trippant or.’ The portrait is taken from an engraving in the Print Room of the British Museum after the portrait by Ketel.


A Galley

Reproduced from Furttenbach’s Archttectura Navalis, Ulm, 1629. Galleys were for long the main arm of the Continental navies. Propelled as they were by oars, for although they carried lateen sails they depended chiefly on the oars, they were very formidable vessels, especially in narrow channels and confined waters. As, however, the freeboard was necessarily low, and as the principal armament was carried at the bow and could not be used for broadside fire, they were of little value in the ocean, and could not move far from land. The English seamen soon found out their weak points. Writing to Drake after the first attack on Cadiz, Captain Thomas Fenner says, ‘I assure your honour there is no account to be made of his [the King of Spain’s] galleys. Twelve of Her Majesty’s ships will make account of all his galleys in Spain Portugal and all his dominions within the Straits, although they are 150 in number. If it be to their advantage in a calm we have made such trial of their fight that we perfectly see into the depth thereof (Corbett, op. clt. II. 92). The illustration gives a good idea of the appearance of these vessels. The guns are seen projecting at the bow, supported by the ‘trumpeters and musketers’ above them. On the ‘corsia,’ or narrow gangway connecting the bow and the stern, are two men with long poles ready to beat any unfortunate rower who shows signs of flagging, while on a platform at the stern sits the captain directing the course of the galley, with the helmsman behind him. The length of this galley from the extremity of the ‘beak’ to the stern is given as about 169 feet, with an extreme beam of about 20 feet.


Chart of the World by Judocus Hondius, Circa 1595

This chart, reproduced from the original in the Grenville Library in the British Museum, was engraved by Judocus Hondius about 1595. The courses of the circumnavigations of Drake and Cavendish are very clearly marked on the chart. The engraving of the ‘Golden Hind’ in the centre medallion is interesting as being probably the only representation of the famous ship now in existence. In all likelihood it is an accurate drawing, as Hondius was working as an engraver in London in 1580, and the ‘Golden Hind’ was preserved at Deptford for many years after the circumnavigation. The engravings in the corners represent four of the incidents of Drake’s voyage. In the upper left-hand corner is shown the harbour of New Albion, with the ‘Golden Hind’ at anchor. This harbour has been identified by Professor Davidson of the United States Geodetic Survey as the harbour now called ‘Drake Harbour,’ a little to the north of San Francisco Bay and near Point de los Reyes, two important means of identification being ‘the white bankes and cliffes which lie towards the sea,’ and the gophers or pouched rats, ‘a strange kind of conies, having under her chinne on either side a bag, into the which she gathereth her meate, when she hath filled her bellie abroad’ (Page 123). In the upper right-hand corner the ‘Golden Hind’ is seen in the harbour of Java Major. In the lower left-hand medallion the ‘Golden Hind’ is being towed to a good anchorage off Ternate by the king’s canoes. Whilst the ship was being towed ‘our ordinance thundred, which wee mixed with great store of small shot, among which sounding our trumpets and other instruments of musick, both of still and loud noise; wherewith he [the king] was so much delighted, that, requesting our musick to come into the boate, he joyned his Canow to the same, and was towed at least a whole houre together, with the boate at the Sterne of our ship.’

The dangerous incident of the 9th of January, 1579, is shown in the lower right-hand medallion, when the ship ‘ranne suddenly upon a rocke, where wee stuck fast from 8 of the clocke at night till 4 of the clocke in the afternoone of the next day, being indeed out of all hope to escape the danger.’ However, by lightening the ship ‘of 3 tunne of cloves, 8. pieces of ordinance, and certaine meale and beanes, and then the winde (as it were in a moment by the speciall grace of God) changing from the starreboord to the larboord of the ship, we hoised our sailes, and the happy gale drove our ship off the rocke into the sea againe.’ (Page 129.)


The Black Pinnace

This engraving of ‘The Black Pynnes’ is reproduced from a copy of The Procession at the obsequies of Sir Philip Sidney, Knight, drawn and invented by Thomas Lant, Gentleman, London, 1587, in the British Museum. In ‘The Black Pynnes’ Sidney’s body was carried from Flushing to Tower Hill, where it was landed on November 5th, 1585. The vessel is represented with ‘her fights made close,’ that is, with waistcloths rigged up to prevent boarding, and nettings drawn over the waist to intercept dropping missiles. The term ‘pinnace’ is indefinite: sometimes it is used to describe the largest of the ships’ boats (in this sense it is used in the British navy at the present day), and we read of the pinnaces being carried in pieces in the great ships’ holds and put together as occasion required; more frequently, however, it refers to ‘vessels varying from eighty to fifteen tons, and setting aside certain special functions in general actions, and landing operations, they were to the capital ships exactly what the frigate was to the ship of the line’ (Corbett, op.cit.,1. 35).


Map of the Moluccas

This map, ‘Imprinted at London by John Wolfe, graven by Robert Beckit,’ is reproduced from the copy in the British Museum of John Huighen van Linschoten his Discours of Voyages unto ye Easte and Weste Indies, London, 1598.

Along the lower edge of the map are shown some of the products from which the ‘Islands of Spicerie’ took their name : red, white, and yellow sandalwood, ‘arbor cariophilorum’ or cloves, and ‘nux myristica’ or nutmeg, ‘with its flower, commonly called mace.’


Plan of Westminster, a.d. 1593

Reproduced from a copy in the British Museum of the Speculum Britaniae, The first parte by The travaile and vew of John Norden, Anno 1593.

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Letter from Richard Hakluyt to Sir Francis Walsingham, 1st April, 1584

In the first part of this letter Hakluyt urges on Sir Francis Walsingham the foundation of a lecture on Mathematics in Oxford, and another, on ‘the Arte of Navigation’ in London, at a yearly stipend of Fifty pounds each. ‘In my simple judgment,’ writes Hakluyt, the money so spent ‘wold be the best hundred pounds bestowed, that was bestowed these five hundred yeares in England.’ The remainder of the letter gives various items of news which may be of political interest to Walsingham. The letter was written when Hakluyt was chaplain to the Embassy in Paris. It is docquetted ‘primo Aprilis 1584. Ffrom Mr. Hakluite the preacher at Paris’ and endorsed in a modern hand ‘This is a private not a diplomatic letter from Hackluyt to Walsingham.’ The reproduction is made, by permission, from the original preserved in the Public Record Office. The letter itself runs as follows:

Right honorable: the famouse disputations in al the partes of the mathematicks wch at this present are held in Paris for the gayning of the lecture wch was erected by the worthy scholer Petrus Ramus to the greate increase of those excellent sciences, put mee in mynd to sollicite yo’ honour agayne and agayne for the erection of that lecture of the Arte of Navigation, whereof I have had some speach with yo’ Honor, Sir Ffrancis Drake, and Alderman Barnes and other. And that you might meet with al inconveniences wch might frustrate the expected profit wch is hoped for by the erection of the same, I send your honor heare the testament of Petrus Ramus newely put out agayne in printe and sent unto mee by Monsieur Bergeron Ramus his executor, whereby you may see, first the exceeding zeale that man had to benefit his countrey, in bestowing 500 livres (wch as your honor knoweth) is fiftie pound sterling, uppon establishing of that lecture, bequething not halfe soe much to al the kinred and friends he had. Secondly you may note that he being one of the most famouse clerks of Europe thought those sciences next after divinitie to be most necessarie for the comonwelth, in that he erected a newe lecture of the same, wheras there was one before erected and endued with fiftie pound stipend by the Kinge of Ffrance. Thirdly that most provident order wch the good man by his wil hath taken, is most requisite to be put in execution in England: wch is, that every three yeares, there shalbe publicke disputations signified to al men by publicke writing, wherein yt shalbe free for any man for three moneths space to dispute agaynst the reader for the tyme being, who yf he be found negligent, or yf any one of the competitours be found more worthy by the opinion of certayne indifferent men of lerninge chosen out of purpose to be judges, that then the unworthier shal give place to the more sufficient: who so being placed is bound in three yeares space to read through the course of the mathematicks. Yf by yo’ honors instigation Her Majestic might be enduced to erect such a lecture in Oxford, and the like for the Arte of navigation might by some other meanes be established at London, allowing to ech of them fiftie pounds yearly with the same conditions, in my simple judgment yt wold be the best hundred pounds bestowed, that was bestowed these five hundred yeares in England. Ffor yt is not unknowne unto yo’ wisedome, howe necessarie for service of warres arithmeticke and geometric are, and for our newe discoveries and longe voyages by sea the arte of navigation is, wch is compounded of many partes of the aforesayd sciences. Understanding hearetofore of your honours greate aboundance of business, and yo”^ dangerouse sicknes, I thought yt not meet to trouble yo’ honor with such things as I had carefully sought out here in Ffrance concerning the furtherance of the westerne discoveries, but chose rather to imparte the same wth Mr. Carlile, wch thing I also did. But being lately advertised of yo’ recovery (for wch I humbly thanke almightle God) I was bold to signifie unto yo’ honor my dealing with Horatio Palavicini to become an adventurer in those westerne voyages, and among other talke alleadged yor good disposition to the same, wch he hearing of replyed very cheerfully, that yf he were moved thereto by the lest word from yo’ honor, he wold put in his hundred pound adventure, or more. Yf Mr. Carlile bee gon, yet yt might come in good tyme to serve Mr. Ffrobisher’s turne, yf yo’ wisedome shold like wel of yt, seing he setteth not foorth as I understand until the beginning of May.

I understand that the papists give out secretly in the towne that there shall shortly come forth a confutation of the defence of the execution of justice in England, wch was set foorth in English and French in London. When yt cometh foorth I trust to have yt with the first.

There is good hope that the minister and those that were taken lately with him in Paris by the abbot of St. Geneveva shal very shortly be set at libertie. For the King secretly seemeth to favour them, and they have very discreetly annswered for themselves that they were not at any communion or sermon, but that they mett together to consult whether to goe out of Paris to some place lawful by the edicte. A friend of myne told mee he heard a frier enveigh very exceeding bitterly agaynst them in a sermon before a greate congregation of people.

Wee have heard by diverse letters from Geneva that beside the earthquake wch was there about the end of Ffebruarie wch untyled many houses and overthrow’d many chymneis in the towne, there is beside a whole village in the countrey of Wallerye swallowed up, being foure dayes iourney of Geneva.

Those who favour the Spanish here in the towne have spred al abroad these two or three dayes that Monsieur is dead: wch is nothing soe.

Thus leaving other matters and advertisements of importance to those unto whom they appertayne, with remembrance of the continuance of my humble dutie to yo’ honor and yor worthy and vertuous Sonne in lawe I leve you to the merciful protection of the Almightie. Paris the first of April, 1584. Don Antonio his captaynes of his fleet are not yet departed from Paris, but looke every day to depart. Yo’ honors most humble

Richard Hakluyt.

To the right honorable Sir Ffrancis Walsingham principall secretarie to Her Matie give these at the Courte.

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