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The University of Adelaide Library
University of Adelaide
South Australia 5005
“This elaborate and excellent Collection, which redounds as much to the glory of the English Nation as any book that
ever was published, has already had sufficient complaints made in its behalf against our suffering it to become so
scarce and obscure, by neglecting to republish it in a fair impression, with proper illustrations and
especially an Index. But there may still be room left for a favourable construction of such neglect, and the
hope that nothing but the casual scarcity of a work so long since out of print may have prevented its falling into
those able hands that might, by such an edition, have rewarded the eminent Examples preserved therein, the
Collector thereof and themselves according to their deserts.”
Thus wrote Oldys (The British Librarian, No III, March, 1737, page 137), nearly 150. years ago, and what has been
done to remove this, reproach? The work has become so rare that even a reckless expenditure of money cannot procure a
It has indeed long been felt that a handy edition of the celebrated “Collection of the Early Voyages, Travels and
Discoveries of the English Nation,” published by Richard Hakluyt 1598, 1599, 1600, was one of the greatest desiderata
of all interested in History, Travel, or Adventure. The labour and cost involved have however hitherto deterred
publishers from attempting to meet the want except in the case of the very limited reprint of 1809–12.2 As regards the labour involved, the following brief summary of the contents of the
Second Edition will give the reader some idea of its extent. I refer those who desire a complete analysis to Oldys.
Volume I. (1598) deals with Voyages to the North and North East, and contains One hundred and nine separate
narratives, from Arthur’s Expedition to Norway in 517 to the celebrated Expedition to Cadiz, in the reign of good Queen
Bess. Amongst the chief voyages may be mentioned: Edgar’s voyage round Britain in 973; an account of the Knights of
Jerusalem; Cabot’s voyages; Chancellor’s voyages to Russia; Elizabeth’s Embassies, to Russia, Persia, &c.; the
Destruction of the Armada; &c., &c.
Volume II. (1599) treats of Voyages to the South and South East, beginning with that of the Empress Helena to
Jerusalem in 337. The chief narratives are those of Edward the Confessor’s Embassy to Constantinople; The History of
the English Guard in that City; Richard Coeur de Lion’s travels; Anthony Beck’s voyage to Tartary in 1330; The English
in Algiers and Tunis (1400); Solyman’s Conquest of Rhodes; Foxe’s narrative of his captivity; Voyages to India, China,
Guinea, the Canaries; the account of the Levant Company; and the travels of Raleigh, Frobisher, Grenville, &c. It
contains One hundred and sixty-five separate pieces.
Volume III. (1600) has Two hundred and forty-three different narratives, commencing with the fabulous
Discovery of the West Indies in 1170, by Madoc, Prince of Wales. It contains the voyages of Columbus; of Cabot and his
Sons; of Davis, Smith, Frobisher, Drake, Hawkins; the Discoveries of Newfoundland, Virginia, Florida, the Antilles,
&c.; Raleigh’s voyages to Guiana; Drake’s great Voyage; travels in South America, China, Japan, and all countries
in the West; an account of the Empire of El Dorado, &c.
The three volumes of the Second Edition therefore together contain Five hundred and seventeen separate
narratives. When to this we add those narratives included in the First Edition, but omitted in the Second, all the
voyages printed by Hakluyt or at his suggestion, such as “Divers Voyages touching the Discoverie of America,” “The
Conquest of Terra Florida,” “The Historie of the West Indies,” &c., &c., and many of the publications of the
Hakluyt Society, some idea may be formed of the magnitude of the undertaking. I trust the notes and illustrations I
have appended may prove useful to students and ordinary readers; I can assure any who may be disposed to cavil at their
brevity that many a line has cost me hours of research. In conclusion, a short account of the previous
editions of Hakluyt’s Voyages may be found useful.
The First Edition (London: G. Bishop and R. Newberie) 1589, was in one volume folio. It contains, besides
the Dedication to Sir Francis Walsingham (see page 3), a preface (see page 9), tables and index, 825 pages of matter.
The map referred to in the preface was one which Hakluyt substituted for the one engraved by Molyneux, which was not
ready in time and which was used for the Second Edition.
The Second Edition (London, G. Bishop, R. Newberie, and R, Barker), 1598, 1599, 1600, folio, 3 vols. in 2,
is the basis of our present edition. The celebrated voyage to Cadiz (pages 607–19 of first volume) is wanting in many
copies. It was suppressed by order of Elizabeth, on the disgrace of the Earl of Essex. The first volume sometimes bears
the date of 1598. Prefixed is an Epistle Dedicatorie, a preface, complimentary verses, &c. (twelve leaves). It
contains 619 pages. Volume II. has eight leaves of prefatory matter, 312 pages for Part I., and 204 pages for
Part II. For Volume III. there are also eight leaves for title, dedication, &c., and 868 pages.
The Third Edition (London, printed by G. Woodfall), 1809–12, royal 410, 5 vols., is an excellent reprint of
the two early editions. It is very scarce, a poor copy fetching £17 to £18. Since this edition, there has been no
reprint of the Collection.
I have taken upon myself to alter the order of the different voyages. I have grouped together those voyages which
relate to the same parts of the globe, instead of adopting the somewhat haphazard arrangement of the original edition.
This, and the indices I have added to each volume, will, I hope, greatly assist the student. The maps, with the
exception of the facsimile ones, are modern; on them I have traced the presumed course of the journey or journeys they
refer to. The illustrations I have taken from a variety of sources, which are always indicated.
EDINBURGH, August 23rd, 1884.
1Mr. Quantch, the eminent Bibliopole, is now asking £42 for a copy of the
2Of this edition 250 copies were printed on royal paper, and 75 copies on
THE PRINCIPAL NAVIGATIONS, VOIAGES, TRAFFIQVES, AND DISCOUERIES of the English Nation, made by Sea or ouer-land, to
the remote and farthest distant quarters of the Earth, at any time within the compasse of these 1500 yeeres: Deuided
into three seuerall Volumes, according to the positions of the Regions whereunto they were directed.
This first Volume containing the woorthy Discoueries, &c. of the English toward the North and Northeast by Sea,
as of Lapland, Scrikfinia, Corelia, the Baie of S. Nicolas, the Isles of Colgoeve, Vaigatz, and Noua Zembla, toward the
great riuer Ob, with the mighty Empire of Russia, the Caspian sea, Georgia, Armenia, Media, Persia, Boghar in Bactria,
and diuers kingdomes of Tartaria:
Together with many notable monuments and testimonies of the ancient forren trades, and of the warrelike and other
shipping of this realme of England in former ages,
Whereunto is annexed a briefe Commentary of the true state of Island and of the Northren Seas and lands situate that
And lastly, the Memorable Defeat of the Spanish Huge Armada, Anno 1588. and the famous victorie atchieued at the
citie of Cadiz, 1596. are described.
By Richard Hakluyt Master of Artes, and sometime Student of Christ-Church in Oxford.
Imprinted at London by George Bishop, Ralph Newberie, and Robert Barker.
THE SECOND VOLVME of the Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoueries of the English Nation, made by
Sea or ouer-land, to the South & South-east parts of the World. at any time within the compasse of these 1600.
yeres: Diuided into two seuerall parts:
Whereof the first containeth the personall trauels, &c. of the English, through and within the Streight of
Gibraltar, to Alger, Tunis, and Tripolis in Barbary, to Alexandria and Cairo in Aegypt, to the Isles of Sicilia, Zante,
Candia, Rhodes, Cyprus, and Chio, to the Citie of Constantinople, to diuers parts of Asia Minor, to Syria and Armenia,
to Ierusalem, and other Places in Iudea; As also to: Arabia, downe the Riuer of Euphrates, to Babylon and Balsara, and
so through the Persian Gulph to Ormuts, Chaul, Goa, and to many Islands adioyning vpon the South Parts of Asia; and
likewise from Goa to Cambaia, and to all the Dominions of Zelabdim Echebar The Great Mogor, to the Mighty Riuer of
Ganges, to Bengala, Aracan, Bacola, and Chonderi, to Pegu, to Iamahai in the Kingdome of Siam, and almost to the very
Frontiers of China.
The second comprehendeth the Voyages, trafficks, &c. of the English Nation, made without the Streight of
Gibraltar, to the Islands of the Açores, of Porto Santo, Madera, and the Canaries, to the kingdomes of Barbary, to the
Isles of Capo Verde, to the Riuers of Senega, Gambra, Madrabumba, and Sierra Leona, to the coast of Guinea and Benin,
to the Isles of S. Thome and Santa Helena, to the parts about the Cape of Buona Esperanza, to Quitangone, neere
Mozambique, to the Isles of Comoro and Zanzibar, to the citie of Goa, beyond Cape Comori, to the Isles of Nicubar,
Gomes Polo, and Pulo Pinaom, to the maine land of Malacca, and to the kingdome of Iunsalaon.
By Richard Haklvyt Preacher, and sometime Student of Christ-Church in Oxford.
Imprinted at London by George Bishop, Ralph Newbery, and Robert Barker.
THE THIRD AND LAST Volvme of the Voyages, Navigations, Traffiques, and Discoueries of the English Nation, and in
some few place, where they haue not been, of strangers, performed within and before the time of these hundred yeeres,
to all parts of the Newfound world of Americam or the West Indies, from 73. degrees of Northerly to 57. of Southerly
As namely to Engronland, Meta Incognita, Estotiland, Tierra de Labrador, Newfoundland, vp The grand bay, the gulfe
of S. Laurence, and the Riuer of Canada to Hochelaga and Saguenay, along the coast of Arambec, to the shores and maines
of Virginia and Florida, and on the West or backside of them both, to the rich and pleasant countries of Nueua Biscaya,
Cibola, Tiguex, Cicuic, Quiuira, to the 15. prouinces of the kingdome of New Mexico, to the bottome of the gulfe of
California, and vp the Riuer of Buena Guia:
And likewise to all the yles both small and great lying before the cape of Florida, The bay of Mexico, and Tierra
firma, to the coasts and Inlands of Newe Spaine, Tierra firma, and Guiana, vp the mighty Riuers of Orenoque, Dessekebe,
and Marannon, to euery part of the coast of Brasil, to the Riuer of Plate, through the Streights of Magellan forward
and backward, and to the South of the said Streights as farre as 57. degrees:
And from thence on the backside of America, along the coastes, harbours, and capes of Chili, Peru, Nicaragua, Nueua
Espanna, Nueua Galicia, Culiacan, California, Noua Albion, and more Northerly as farre as 43 degrees:
Together with the two renowmed, and prosperous voyages of Sir Francis Drake and M. Thomas Candish round about the
circumference of the whole earth, and diuers other voyages intended and set forth for that course.
Collected by Richard Haklvyt Preacher, and sometimes student of Christ-Church in Oxford.
Imprinted at London by George Bishop, Ralph Newberie, and Robert Barker.
ANNO DOM, 1600.
This Map, which first appeared in the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum of Abraham Ortelius, Antwerp, 1570, was inserted in
the First Edition of The Principall Navigations, 1589. It is referred to by Hakluyt in the preface (p. xxx) as ‘one of
the best generall mappes of the world.’ The map here reproduced in facsimile is taken from the original in the First
Edition of The Principall Navigations.
This is a facsimile of the Map sometimes, but rarely, found in copies of the Second Edition of The Principall
Navigations; it is now believed to be the Map alluded to by Shakespeare in Twelfth Night, Act III, Scene 2. in the
passage ‘He does smile his face into more lines than is in the new map with the augmentation of the Indies.’ It is also
held to be the first map engraved in England upon the projection called Mercator’s, but which was really the work of
Edward Wright, mathematician and hydrographer, and author of Certaine Errors in Navigation, 1599.
From the portrait at Wollaton Hall, by permission of Lord Middleton.
From the very rare Divers Voyages touching the discoverie of America, published by Richard Hakluyt
From an old woodcut in Early Voyages and Travels to Russia and Persia. (By permission of the Hakluyt
From the engraving by George Vertue of the picture in the Royal Bridewell Free Hospital: the kneeling figure
receiving the charter is Sir George Barnes, one of the first consuls of the Russia Company,
From the engraving by Rawle of the ‘Harford’ portrait, formerly attributed to Holbein. This portrait was destroyed
by fire in 1845. The robe and chain worn by Cabot are supposed to be his official dress as ‘Governour of the mysterie
and companie of the Marchants adventurers for the discoverie of Regions, Dominions, Islands, and places unknowen,’
From De Bry’s Collections of Travels and Voyages. Petits (Eastern) Voyages, Part X. Frankfort, 1613. This
chart represents Wardhouse as seen by John Huighen van Linschoten, the Dutch traveller, in 1594–5.
From the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum of Abraham Ortelius 1570.
From Early Voyages and Travels to Russia and Persia, edited by E. Delmar Morgan and C. H. Coote, (By
permission of the Hakluyt Society.)
From the portrait at Charlton Park, by permission of the Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire. This portrait, which it is
believed has never been reproduced before, shows Sir Jerome Bowes in his dress as Ambassador to Russia.
This portrait is taken from a manuscript album in the Oriental Department of the British Museum, containing
miniatures by Indian artists, mostly portraits of princes and chiefs of the reigns of Jahangir, Shah Jehan, and
Aurangzeb. It was made a Vakf or pious donation by Ashraf Khan, whose seal bears the date A.H. 1072. Abd’Ullah was
‘King’ of Bokhara (Boghar) at the time of Anthony Jenkinson’s visit in 1558.
From De Bry’s Collections of Travels and Voyages. Petits (Eastern) Voyages, Part III. Frankfort, 1601.
William Burrough or Borough was born at Northam in Devonshire in 1536. In 1583 he was Comptroller of the Queen’s
Navy: in 1587 he was Vice–Admiral (on The Lion) under Drake in the Cadiz Expedition of that year. He died in 1599. His
map of Russia, mentioned on page 209, is now lost, but several of his charts are still extant. The Chart here
reproduced is in his own hand-writing, and bears his signature. It is taken from the original in Saxton &
Rythers Atlas in the British Museum, which was Lord Burghley’s own copy.
Ortelius or Ortels was born at Antwerp in 1527, and died there in 1598. In 1570 he published the first edition of
the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, which collected in one volume many of the best maps then existing. This Atlas was
republished in many editions until 1612. The map Typus Orbis Terrarum, issued with Vol. I. of this edition, is one of
the few maps which Ortelius is known to have engraved himself, but it is chiefly as a preserver of maps that in his day
had already become scarce that he is best known. This portrait is taken from the first edition of his Theatrum Orbis
Terrarum, published at Antwerp in 1570.
Gerardus Mercator was born in Rupelmonde, in Flanders, in 1512. He speedily became famous as a map engraver and
instrument maker, and in 1569 he published his Map of the World, on the projection now called after him. The
projection, however, in his map is only approximately correct, and the true tables for this projection and the
mathematical principles on which they are founded were first discovered and published by Edward Wright in 1599.
Mercator died in 1594, just before the publication of the last part of his great Atlas. His Atlas was ready before that
of Ortelius, but with a noble generosity Mercator delayed its publication, to give his friend a chance of fame.
Jodocus Hondius was born in Ghent in 1563. He worked as an engraver, and went to London on the outbreak of the War
in the Netherlands, and while there became the friend of Edward Wright who showed him the MS. of his map projection.
Wright accuses him of having appropriated his calculations and used them for his own maps. Hondius purchased in 1604
Mercator’s engraved copper-plates, and thereafter published many maps and new editions of Mercator’s Works. He died in
1611. The portraits here reproduced are taken from the first English edition of Mercator’s Atlas, ‘translated by Henry
Hexham, Quartermaister to the Regiment of Colonell Goring,’ and printed at Amsterdam in 1636.
From G. Braun and F. Hohenberg’s Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 1573. This plan shows Moscow before its burning
by the Crim Tartars in 1571.
Made by Anthony Jenkinson in 1562 to illustrate his travels through Russia and Persia. This map was included in the
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum of Abraham Ortelius, 1570, and is taken from that edition.
William Cecil, son of Richard Cecil of Burleigh, was born at Bourn on the 13th September, 1520. He was educated at
Stamford, Grantham, and St. John’s College, Cambridge, and entered Gray’s Inn in 1541. In 1547 Henry VIII. appointed
him custos brevium. The Lord Protector Somerset made him Master of Requests in 1547 and his Secretary in 1548. On
Somerset’s disgrace Cecil was imprisoned for two months in the Tower, but in 1550 he was made a Secretary of State, and
in 1551 was knighted. In 1558 Elizabeth appointed him Chief Secretary of State, and in 1572 Lord High Treasurer, a post
which he held until his death on 4th August, 1598. He was created Baron Burghley in 1571. The portrait here reproduced
is from the print by William Rogers in the British Museum.
Lord Howard of Effingham was born in 1536 and succeeded his father in 1573. In 1585 he was made Lord High Admiral of
England and as such he commanded the fleet against the Armada. He was created Earl of Nottingham for his services
against the Armada and in the Cadiz expedition of 1596. In 1619 he resigned office in favour of Buckingham. He died on
14th December, 1624. His portrait is taken from the engraving by William Rogers in the Cracherode Collection in the
This vessel (Lord Howard of Effingham’s flagship against the Armada) was built at Deptford in 1587 by Richard
Chapman, a Government Shipwright. She is sometimes called the ‘Ark Raleigh,’ and may originally have been built for Sir
Walter Raleigh, and afterwards sold by him to the Government. She was about 700 tons burden, with a length of keel of
about 100 feet and a beam of about 37. When in commission she carried a crew of about 400 men of whom 100 were soldiers
and 32 gunners. Effingham, in a letter to Lord Burghley, dated ‘the laste of Februarie, 1587,’ says ‘I praie your
Lordship tell her Majestie from me that her money was well geven for the Arke Rawlye, for I think her the odd ship in
the worlde for all conditions, and truely I think there can no great ship make me change and go out of her.’ After
taking part in numerous expeditions she was rebuilt in 1608 and rechristened the ‘Anne Royal‘ in honour of James I’s
Queen. This reproduction is from the engraving in the Print Department of the British Museum.
From Robert Adams’ Charts engraved by Augustine Ryther, for P. Ubaldini’s Expeditionis Hispanorum in Angliam
Vera Descriptio, 1588, in the British Museum. From these charts the Armada tapestries were designed for Lord
Howard of Effingham. This chart shows the position of the fleets on the morning of 21st July, 1588. The dotted line to
the south from Plymouth shows the course taken by the English main fleet across the front of the Spaniards until they
had weathered the Armada, while the dotted line zig-zagged along the English coast shows the beat to windward by a
small squadron of eight English ships, which joined the main fleet in the first attack on the Armada.
Son of an Italian merchant. He was recommended to Queen Mary, and appointed Collector of Papal Taxes. According to
tradition he abjured Romanism on Mary’s death and appropriated the sums collected for the Pope. He lent large sums of
money to Queen Elizabeth as well as to the Netherlands and Henry of Navarre. As a gentleman-adventurer, he fitted out a
ship at his own cost, and commanded her in the Channel against the Armada. He was afterwards charged with the custody
of Don Alonzo de Luzon, and three other important Spanish prisoners, until an exchange was arranged. He died on 6th
July, 1600, and at his death the Queen owed him nearly L29,000, equal to about L230,000 of our money. This was never
fully paid. The portrait is reproduced from John Pine’s (Armada) Tapestry Hangings of the House of Lords,
From Adams’ Series of Views of the Armada in the British Museum. The various types of vessels engaged are well
From Adams’ Chart No. 10. This shows the final battle off Gravelines on 29th July. The galliasse of Hugo de Moncada
is shown ashore at Calais ‘assaulted by divers English pinasses, hoys and drumblers,’ with the larger English vessels
standing by to support them. The squadron in mid-channel probably represents Howard rejoining the main fleet with his
pinnaces after the galliasse was abandoned (Corbett, Drake and the Tudor Navy, Vol. I., p. 272).
These interesting relics of the Spanish Armada were recovered in June, 1903, from the wreck of the Spanish Galleon
‘Florencia’ in Tobermory Bay, Isle of Mull. The ‘Florencia’ was one of the largest ships in the Armada — a galleon of
over 900 tons, with a complement of 400 soldiers and 86 sailors. She is mentioned in the Duke of Medina’s Diary as
having fought gallantly in the actions in the English Channel on 23rd July, 1588. She was blown up in Tobermory Harbour
where she had put in to water — tradition says by a member of the Clan Maclean — in August 1588.
The Gun is a bronze breech-loader, 4½ feet long, and was recovered fully charged. The diameter of the bore at the
muzzle is an inch and seven-eighths, and the ball, if of iron, would weigh about 7 ozs. The breech block with its
square shaped handle is shown above the gun. The block was kept in position by a wedge inserted behind it. The square
hole shown in the engraving was to allow the escape of gas.
The Compasses (reproduced full size) are also of bronze, and have the head of each leg formed into a semicircle, so
that by their cross action they could easily be extended or contracted as required with one hand. Despite their long
immersion these relics are perfectly preserved: they are illustrated here by permission of the Duke of Argyll and of
the Syndicate on whose behalf Captain William Burns is conducting the dredging operations in Tobermory Bay.
From the engraving by J. Houbraken of the picture formerly in the possession of Sir Robert Worsley, Bart. The Earl
of Essex was born at Netherwood, Herefordshire, on loth November, 1567, and when only thirteen took his M.A. degree at
Trinity College, Cambridge. He saw service in the Netherlands in 1585–6 and distinguished himself at the battle of
Zutphen. In 1590 he married clandestinely Sir Philip Sidney’s widow. In 1591 he commanded the forces despatched to help
Henry IV. against the League, and in 1596 along with Lord Howard of Effingham, the Cadiz Expedition. He was appointed
Lieutenant and Governor General of Ireland in 1599, but after six months’ absence in Ireland he returned to England,
was imprisoned and stripped of all his honours. On 8th February, 1601, he attempted to raise the city of London against
Elizabeth. On the 19th he was found guilty of high treason and on the 25 th February, 1601, was beheaded in the
From the print after the original by Henry Cornelius Vroom. Sir Robert Southwell of Woodrising, Norfolk, was the
son-in-law of Lord Howard of Effingham by his marriage with Frances, Lord Howard’s third daughter. He commanded the
‘Elizabeth Jonas’ a vessel of from 850 to 1000 tons against the Spanish Armada, and the ‘Lion’ in the Cadiz Expedition
From a very rare Dutch engraving. The date (9 th June) on the engraving is reckoned by the ‘old style.’
From Sebastian Munster’s Cosmographiae Universalis, Lib. VI., printed at Basle, in 1552.
From Munster’s Cosmographiae Universalis, Lib. VI. The importance of Tyre as a seaport is shown by the number and
variety of vessels anchored before it.
From Munster’s Cosmographiae Universalis, Lib. VI. The view shows the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Solomon’s
From John Huighen van Linschoten his Discours of Foyages unto ye Easte and West Indies, printed at London, 1 598,
The map was engraved by Robert Beckit. This English edition is almost the first book with English made maps.
Sir Edward Osborne was born about 1530, and was apprenticed to Sir William Hewett, clothworker in London. According
to tradition Osborne, while an apprentice, leapt into the Thames and saved the life of Hewett’s infant daughter, who
had fallen from her nurse’s arms into the river at London Bridge. He afterwards married her in 1562, and on Sir William
Hewett’s death succeeded to his business and estates. Sir Edward Osborne became Lord Mayor in 1583, was knighted in
1584, and elected Member of Parliament for the City of London in 1586, He traded to the Mediterranean and the Levant,
and In 1581 (with three other merchants) was granted letters patent by Queen Elizabeth to trade ‘into the dominions of
the great Turke.’ On the incorporation of the Levant or Turkey Company, Sir Edward Osborne was appointed its first
governor. He died in 1591. The portrait here reproduced is from the original at Hornby Castle, by permission of the
Duke of Leeds.
Philip de Villiers de L’Isle Adam, Hospitaller and Grand Prior of France, was elected Grand Master of Rhodes on 22nd
January, 1521, when absent in France. He had, in 1510, come prominently before the Order by his defeat of an Egyptian
fleet in the Levant. On his election as Grand Master he hastily collected stores and munitions of war in France, and
embarked at Marseilles for Rhodes, already threatened by the Turks. Off Nice fire broke out on his ship, and the crew
were only prevented from deserting her by his exertions. Shortly afterwards in a storm the ship was struck by
lightning, which, entering the stern cabin, killed nine men, and broke the Grand Master’s sword by his side without
damaging the scabbard. After the loss of Rhodes, Villiers returned to Europe, and in 1525 obtained the grant of Malta,
Gozo, and Tripoli, from Charles V., for the Order. He died on 21st August, 1534. The portrait is reproduced from that
in the British Museum copy of The History of the Knights of Malta, by Monsieur L’Abbe de Vertot, published in
London in 1728.
Solyman the Magnificent, fourth Emperor of the Turks, succeeded to the throne on the death of his father Selim L in
1520, being then about twenty-eight years old. During his reign the area of the Turkish Empire was extended by his
conquests of the greater part of Hungary, large portions of Armenia and Persia, and the whole of Northern Africa,
except Morocco. He besieged Vienna in 1529 but was repulsed. He died on the 4th September, 1566, while besieging Sigeth
or Szigeth on the Drave. Richard Knolles, in his Generall Historie of the Turkes, describes him as ‘of stature
tall, of feature slender, long necked, his colour pale and wan, his nose long and hooked, of nature ambitious and
bountifull, more faithfull of his word and promise than were for most part the Mahometan Kings his progenitors.’ The
portrait is taken from the rare manuscript Kiyafet-ul-Insaniyyeh (personal descriptions of the Osmanli
Sultans) in the Oriental Department of the British Museum. This manuscript was composed in a.h. 997 (a.d. 1589) by
Lukman Shahnameji (royal poet annalist), and illustrated with portraits after contemporary originals.
The ‘Carramuzzal’ or ‘Brigandine’ was a favourite craft with the Turkish pirates who infested the Mediterranean in
the i6th and 17th centuries. Hakluyt says they were vessels ‘like unto ye French Gabards, sailing daily upon the river
of Bordeaux, which sail with a misen or triangle saile.’ In order that the extent and variety of armament may be
clearly seen, the illustration shows the carramuzzal without mast or rigging. It is taken from the Architectura
Navalis of Joseph Furttenbach printed at Ulm in 1629.
From G. Braun and F. Hohenberg’s Chitates Orbis Terrarum, 1573, in the British Museum. The ‘roade’ or dock, ‘made
very fencible with strong wals,’ in which the galleys wintered, and from which John Fox carried off the galley ‘Captain
of Alexandria,’ is shown to the right of the main harbour.
From G. Braun and F. Hohenberg’s Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 1573.
This and the two succeeding illustrations are taken from the Architectura Navalis of Joseph Furttenbach,
Ulm, 1629. In the sectional plan the internal arrangements of a ‘great ship’ of the period are seen, and it is of
interest to note that the fore and mizzen masts are stepped on the main deck, and not like the mainmast, on the keel.
The measurements are given in ‘palmi,’ or spans of about nine and a-half inches each.
Reproduced by permission of Prince Trivulzio from the original in his collection at Milan. The chart bears the
inscription, ‘Jacobus Russus Messanensis me fecit in nobili civitate Messane, Anno Domini 1564.’ These charts were
drawn on sheepskin or vellum, and many of them were beautifully illuminated.
Sir Francis Walsingham was born about 1530. He matriculated at King’s College, Cambridge, and subsequently entered
Gray’s Inn. On Queen Mary’s accession he left England and travelled on the Continent, but returned home on her death.
He then entered Parliament as member for Banbury, and later represented Lyme Regis and Surrey. His knowledge of foreign
affairs brought him under the notice of Burghley, and through his foreign friends and correspondents he obtained much
valuable secret intelligence. In 1570 he went on an embassy to Paris, and later in that year was appointed resident
ambassador at the French Court. In December, 1573, Walsingham was appointed one of the principal Secretaries of State,
and in 1577 was knighted. He was one of the Commissioners who tried Mary, Queen of Scots, and it was largely on the
secret information obtained by him that she was condemned. Walsingham died in London on 6th April, 1590, and was buried
privately the next night in St. Paul’s. The portrait here reproduced is from the engraving in the British Museum of the
original formerly in the collection of the Duke of Dorset.
According to the tablet beneath the monument, which is here pictured, in Great Saxham Church, Suffolk, ‘New
Buckingham in Norfolke was John Eldred’s first being. In Babilon hee spent some parte of his time, and the rest of his
earthly pilgrimage hee spent in London, and was Alderman of that Famous Cittie.’ He traded to the East, and was a
member of the Levant Company.
Akbar (or ‘the great’) Mogul Emperor of India, is the ‘Selabdim Echebar King of Cambaia,’ frequently mentioned by
Hakluyt. He came to the throne in 1556, when between thirteen and fourteen years old, and reigned until 1605. In
addition to being a great conqueror, he was a wise and enlightened ruler. The present picture represents him as he
appeared towards the middle of his reign, when at the height of his power, and after he had founded his new religion.
It is reproduced from an original in an album of miniatures and calligraphic specimens of the seventeenth and early
eighteenth centuries, preserved in the Department of Oriental MSS. in the British Museum.
From the copy in the British Museum of G. Braun and F. Hohenberg’s Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 1573.
This chart, drawn by T. Hood, and engraved by Ryther in 1592, is reproduced from the original in a volume of
miscellaneous papers entitled Sea Tracts, Vol. II., in the Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge, by permission
of the College authorities. It gives the coast lines from the latitude of the Orkneys to the Cape Verde Islands. Thomas
Hood, ‘Doctor in Phisicke,’ was also a lecturer on navigation, a seller of compasses, and author and editor of various
books on mathematics and navigation. Specimens of his charts are very rare.
From the copy in the British Museum of John Hu’ighen van Linschoien his Discours of Voyages unto ye Easte and Weste
Indies, printed at London, 1598. It is of interest to note the ‘diche begonne in auncient tyme and somewhat attempted
of late by Sinan the Bassa to joyne both the Seas together’ — now the Suez Canal.
George Fenner, ‘a man that had beene conversant in many sea-fights,’ belonged to a Sussex family, and was probably a
native of Chichester. The family produced several other seamen, of whom William Fenner, Viceadmiral under Drake and
Norris in the Portugal voyage (see p. 483), and Thomas Fenner, captain of the ‘Dreadnought’ in Dralce’s Cadiz
Expedition (see p. 438), are best known. The action off the Azores between the Portuguese squadron and George Fenner’s
ships (see pp. 281–3) is ‘memorable as the earliest revelation to English seamen of the power their superiority in
gunnery was to give them’ (Corbett, Drake and the Tudor Navy, I. 93). On his return from the voyage to Guinea in 1566,
Fenner traded with the Low Countries. In 1588 he commanded the ‘Galleon Leicester’ against the Armada, and in 1597
accompanied Essex in the Islands voyage. The portrait is taken from that in John Pine’s Tapestry Hangings of the
House of Lords, London, 1753, in the British Museum.
From the copy in the British Museum of G. Braun and F. Hohenberg’s Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 1573.
This despatch, dated 27th April, 1587, gives Drake’s account of the burning of the Spanish ships in Cadiz Harbour.
It is reproduced by permission from the original preserved in the Public Record Office. The postscripts are in Drake’s
own handwriting. The despatch, which is addressed ‘To the righte honorable Sir Ffrauncis Walsingham, Knighte principall
Secretary to Her Matie with all haste haste poste haste’ runs as follows:
Righte honorable Theise are to geive to understande that on the seconde of this moneth we departede out of the sound
of Plymouth we had sighte of the Cape venester the vth: we were encountrede with a violente storme duringe
the space of five daies by which meanes our fleate was putt a sonder and a greate leake sprange uppon the Dreadenoughte
: the 16th we mette all together at the Rocke & the 19th we arrivede into the roade of Cales
in Spaigne where we founde sondrie greate shippes some laden some halfe laden and some readie to be laden with the
kings provisions for Englande; we staiede there untill the 24th in which meane tyme we sanke a Biskanie of
12c tonnes, burnte a shippe of the Marquice of Santa Cruse of 15c Tonnes and 31 shippes more of
1000 800 600: 400 to 200 tonnes the peice carried awaie fower with us laden with provision, And departede thence at our
pleasure with as moch honour as we coulde wishe notwithstandinge that duringe the tyme of our aboade there we were
bothe oftentymes foughte with all by 12 of the kinges gallies (of whome we sanke two and allwaies repulsed the rest)
and were (withoute Ceassinge) vehemently shott at from the shoare but to our litle hurte, god be thanked, yeat at our
departure we were Curteouslie written unto by one Don Pedro generall of those gallies; I assure your Ho: the like
preparacion was never hearde of nor knowen as the kinge of Spaigne hathe and dailie makethe to invade Englande. He is
allied with mighte Prynces and Dukes in the Straits of whome (besides the forces in his owne domynyons) he is to have
greate aide shortlie: and his provisions of breade and wynes are so greate as will suffice 40000 men a wholle yeere,
which, if they be not ympeached before they joyne, wilbe verie perillous, Our entente therfore is (by gods helpe) to
intercepte their meetinges by all possible meanes we maye, which I hope shall have such a good successe as shall tende
to thadvauncement of gods glorie, the savetie of her highnes royall person, the quyett of her countrie, and
thannoyaunce of the Enemie. This service which by gods sufferaunce we have done will (withoute doute) breade some
alteracyon of their pretences howebeit all possible preparacions for defence are very expediente to be made: Thus moch
touchinge our proceedinges and farther entente in this actyon I have thoughte meete to signifie unto your honour &
would use more larger discourse but that wante of leisure causeth me to leave the same to the reporte of this bearer,
And so in verie greate haste with remembraunce of my humble duetie doe take my leave of your honour: ffrom aboarde her
highnes good ship the Elizabethe Bonadventure the 27th of Aprill 1587
Your honours redye allwayes to be comaunded
I leave the report of dyvers prisonars to the bearer herof and pray pardon for not writtyng with my owne hand, I am
overcom with businesses
Your honours ever redy
I dare not a most writ unto your honour of the great forces we hear the K. of Spayne hath out of the straytts
prepair in yngland strongly and most by sea: stope him now and stope hym ever: look well to the cost of Sussex I will
sourly writ you mor as ocasyon shalbe menestred and with the grace of god will fight with them for it is the Lord that
This chart of Drake’s operations in Cadiz Harbour, April, 1587, was drawn by William Borough Vice-admiral on the
‘Lion,’ and is reproduced by permission from the original preserved in the Public Record Office. It was in this
expedition that Borough was put under arrest by Drake for insubordination, and afterwards court-martialled and
condemned to death. He was, however, subsequently pardoned.
From the copy in the British Museum of John Huighen van Linschoten his Discours of Voyages unto ye Easte and Weste
Indies, printed at London, 1598.
George Clifford, third Earl of Cumberland, was born at Brougham Castle in Westmoreland in 1558. He succeeded to the
title in January 1569–70. In 1571 he went to Trinity College, Cambridge, and took his M.A. degree in 1576. He is also
said to have studied mathematics and geography at Oxford. In 1586 he fitted out his first expedition ‘intended for the
South Sea’ under the command of Captains Robert Withrington and Christopher Lister. In 1588 he commanded the ‘Elizabeth
Bonaventure’ against the Spanish Armada. In 1589 he made an expedition to the Azores and suffered great hardships on
the return home (see p. 22). Between 1591 and 1595 he fitted out four more expeditions, and in January 1597–8 he fitted
out the largest of all, intended for the West Indies, with himself in command on the ‘Malice Scourge.’ This ship
subsequently became famous for her East Indian voyages under the name of the ‘Red Dragon.’ The expedition, like most of
the former ones, was a failure. Cumberland died in London on 30th October 1605. He is said to have been a man of great
personal beauty, and stood high in Elizabeth’s favour. The portrait, showing the Queen’s glove which he wore as a badge
in his hat, is reproduced from the original by an unknown painter in the National Portrait Gallery.
Sir Richard Grenville or Greynville belonged to a Cornish family and was born about 1541. He was a cousin of Sir
Walter Raleigh. In 1571 he sat in Parliament as member for Cornwall. He made his first sea voyage in May 1585 when he
commanded a fleet of seven ships intended for the settlement of Virginia. On his way home ‘he tooke a Spanish ship of
300 tunne richly loaden, boording her with a boate made with boards of chests, which fell asunder, and sunke at the
ships side, assoone as ever he and his men were out of it.’ In 1586 he made another voyage to Virginia. In 1588 he was
engaged in planning measures of defence for the western counties in anticipation of the Spanish Armada. In 1591 the
action off the Azores took place which resulted in the loss of the ‘Revenge’ and his death. The portrait here
reproduced is taken from the British museum copy of Holland’s Heroologia published in London in 1620.
Linschoten was born at Haarlem about 1563, but it was from Enkhuizen, whither his parents had removed, that in 1576
Linschoten set out on the travels which have made his name famous. He first went to Spain where he stayed six years;
next he joined the Spanish fleet for the East Indies and was at Goa in 1583 when John Newbery and Ralph Fitch arrived
as prisoners from Ormuz. His account of their escape is given in Volume V page 505 of this edition. In 1591 he was at
Terceira in the Azores when the Spanish fleet put in for repairs after the action with the ‘Revenge,’ and his ‘large
testimony’ of the fight as related to him by the Spaniards, with the description of the great storm which followed it,
will be found at page 80. In 1594–5 he accompanied Barents in his voyages to the Arctic regions. He died in 1611. The
portrait is taken from a copy in the British Museum of Boissardi’s Bibliotheca sive Thesaurus Virtutis
published at Frankfort in 1628.
This, the only known map by Sir Humphrey Gilbert now in existence, is taken from the copy in the British Museum of
his Discourse of a Discoverie of a new passage to Cathaia published in London in 1576. It was ‘made onelye for
the particular declaration of this discovery.’
Frobisher was born about 1535. He made his first voyage, to Guinea, in 1554. In 1571 he was employed in sea service
oiF the coast of Ireland, where he attracted the notice of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. On the grant of a charter to the
Company of Cathay in 1577 he was appointed Captain-general and admiral of the Company’s fleet. In 1576–78 he was
occupied in his voyages in search of the North-west passage. In 1580 he was made clerk of Her Majesty’s ships. In
September 1585 he sailed for the West Indies in Drake’s expedition as vice-admiral on the ‘Primrose’. He was in command
of the ‘Triumph’ against the Armada in 1588 and was knighted by Lord Howard of Effingham for ‘that hee had valiantly
and discreetly behaved himself’ in the fight on the 25 th July. In 1594 in the ‘Dreadnought’ he was employed at the
relief of Brest and Crozon, was wounded in the hip while landing his men at Crozon, and taken back to Plymouth where he
died shortly after his arrival. The portrait is taken from the copy in the British Museum of Holland’s Heroologia,
This map, made to illustrate George Best’s Discourse ‘to proove all partes of the worlde habitable,’ is taken from
the British Museum copy of A True Discourse of the Late Voyages of Discoverie for finding of a Passage to Cathaya,
by the North–Weast, under the Conduct of Martin Frobisher, General. Imprinted at London by Henry Bynnyman,
This ‘particular card’ intended to set ‘so farre forth as the secretes of the voyage may permit’ Frobisher’s
discoveries on the coast of Meta Incognita is taken from Bynnyman’s True Discourse cited above.
According to the fragment of Autobiography preserved in the British Museum, Michael Lock or Lok was born in 1532. He
says: ‘My late father, Sir William Lok, knight, alderman of London, kept me at scholes of grammer in England till I was
xiii yeres old, which was A° Dni, 1545, and he being sworn servant to King Henry the VIIIth his mercer and also his
agent beyond the seas dyvers affayres, he then sent me over seas to Flanders and France to learn those languages and to
know the world. Synce which tyme I have contynued these xxxii yeres in travaile of body and study of mynde, following
my vocation in the trade of merchandise, whereof I have spent the first xv yeres in contynuall travaile of body,
passing through allmost all the cuntrees of Christianity. Namely out of England, into Scotland, Ireland, Flanders,
Germany, France, Spayne, Italy and Greece, both by land and by sea, not without great labors, cares, dangers and
expenses of mony incident; having had the charge (as capitayn) of a great ship of burden 1000 tuns, by the space of
more then iii yeres in dyvers voyages in the Levant seas, wherewithall I returned into England. In which travailes,
besides the knowledge of all those famous common languages of those cuntries, I sought allso for the knowledge of the
state of all their common wealths, chiefly in all matters apperteining to the traffique of merchants. And the rest of
my tyme I have spent in England under the happy raigne of the Queenes Majestie now being.’ Lock was one of the
promoters of Frobisher’s voyages and was greatly impoverished through their failure financially. He was imprisoned in
the Fleet at the instance of William Borough in 1581. He died about 1615. The map, which is dedicated to Sir Philip
Sidney, is taken from the copy in the Hunterian Library, University of Glasgow, of the Divers Voyages touching the
discoverie of America, published by Hakluyt in 1582.
John Davis, or Davys, ‘the Navigator,’ was born at Sandridge about 1550. He was a neighbour and companion of
Humphrey and Adrian Gilbert. In 1585–6 he made his voyages in search of the North-west passage, and on his return home
from his first voyage in 1585 he wrote this letter to Sir Francis Walsingham. In 1589 he joined the Earl of
Cumberland’s expedition off the Azores, and in 1591 he went with Thomas Cavendish as Rear-admiral on the ‘Desire.’ In
1598 he was pilot of a Dutch ship, the ‘Lion,’ and in 1600 was appointed Pilot-major of the first East Indian fleet
under Captain James Lancaster. In 1605, when pilot of the ‘Tiger’ under Sir Edward Michelborne, his ship was
treacherously attacked by Japanese pirates near Bintung, in the Straits of Malacca, and he was killed. He wrote a
treatise on navigation, the Seaman’s Secrets, first published in 1594, and the Worldes Hydrographical
Description, published in 1595, and he invented the ‘backstaff,’ for taking the altitude of the sun.
The following is the translation of the letter, which is reproduced from the original in the British Museum:
‘Right honorable most dutyfully craving pardon for this my rashe boldnes, I am herby, according to my duty, to
signyfy unto your honor that the north-west passage is a matter nothing doubtfull, but at any tyme almost to be passed,
the sea navigable, voyd of yse, the ayre tollerable, and the waters very depe. I have also found an yle of very grate
quantytie, not in any globe or map dyscrybed, yelding a sufficient trade of furre and lether, and although this passage
hath bine supposed very impassible, yeat through Gods mercy, I am in experience ann ey wyttnes to the contrary, yea in
this most desperate clymate; which, by Gods help, I wyll very shortly most at large revele unto your honor as sone as I
can possible take order for my maryners and shipping. Thus depending upon your honors good favor, I most humbly comytt
you to God this third of October.
Your honors for ever most dutyfull
‘The excellent Mathematician and Enginier Master Edward Wright’ was born at Garveston, Norfolk, about 1558. He went
up to Caius College Cambridge in 1576, graduated B.A. in 1580–1, M.A. in 1584 and was a fellow from 1587–96. He
accompanied the Earl of Cumberland to the Azores in 1589 and wrote the account of the voyage. It is now generally held
that he was the discoverer of the so-called ‘Mercator’s’ projection. He was appointed lecturer on navigation to the
East India Company. He died in 161 5. The map here reproduced was made by Wright to illustrate the Earl of Cumberland’s
Voyage to the Azores in 1589 and is taken from a copy of his Certain Errors in Navigation published in London in 1599,
now in the Grenville Library in the British Museum.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert was born about 1539 near Dartmouth, and was step-brother to Sir Walter Raleigh. In 1563 he was
wounded at Havre in fighting against the French. In July 1566 he served in Ireland. In October 1569 he was placed in
charge of the province of Munster. He was knighted by the Lord Deputy Sidney at Drogheda on ist January 1570. In 1571
he was returned member of Parliament for Plymouth. In 1572 he was sent to the Netherlands with a contingent of English
Volunteers to help the Zeelanders against the Spanish.
In 1578 Gilbert obtained his Charter ‘for the Westerne Discovery of America and to plant a colony,’ but his first
expedition in 1578 was a failure, because ‘amongst a multitude of voluntary men, their dispositions were divers which
bred a Jarre and made a division in the end to the confusion of that attempt even before the same was begun.’
In 1579 he served at sea off Munster. In 1583 his second expedition set out, and an account of this, which ended in
Sir Humphrey Gilbert’s death, will be found on page 46. The portrait is taken from the British Museum copy of Holland’s
Heroologia published in 1620.
Christopher Carleill or Carlile was born in 1551. He was a grandson of Sir George Barnes, Lord Mayor of London. He
was educated at Cambridge and married Mary, daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham. In 1572 he went to Flushing and was
present at the siege of Middleburgh. Then proceeding to La Rochelle he served under the Prince of Conde. He next saw
service at Steenwick, besieged by the Spaniards, where he was placed by the Prince of Orange in sole command. In 1582
he convoyed in the ‘Tiger’ the English merchants to Russia (Vol. iii., page 303). He tried to induce the Russia
merchants to finance a voyage ‘to the hithermost parts of America’ and wrote the ‘briefe and summary discourse’ for
that purpose (page 134).
In 1584 he was made Commander of the Garrison of Coleraine and in 1585 was made Lieutenant–General of the Land
Forces in Drake’s West India Expedition of that year, an account of which appears in Vol. X of this edition. In 1588 he
was appointed Constable of Carrickfergus and later, Governor of Ulster. He died in London in 1593. Stowe says: ‘He was
quicke-witted and affable, valiant and fortunate in warre, well-read in mathematiks, and of good experience in
navigation, whereuppon some have registred him for a Navigator, but the truth is, his most inclination and profession
was chiefely for lande service, he utterly abhorred pyracy.’ The portrait is reproduced from that in Holland’s
Heroologia, cited above.
This map dedicated ‘to the most learned and accomplished Richard Hakluyt,’ is the one referred to in Jaques Noel’s
letter to ‘Master John Growte student in Paris’ given on p. 272. In this letter Jaques Noel, who was the nephew of
Jaques Cartier and accompanied him to Canada criticises from personal observation the position on the map of the River
of Canada and ‘the great Lake which is above the Saults.’ — The map which is a beautiful example of the copperplate
engraving of the period is taken from the copy, in the British Museum, in Peter Martyr’s De Orbe Novo, annotated by
Richard Hakluyt and published at Paris in 1587.
From the original water colour drawing by John White. Little is known of John White beyond what appears in Hakluyt’s
pages. He went out to Virginia in the Expedition under Sir Richard Grenville in 1585. He returned in June 1586 when
Drake’s expedition took off the Settlers.
He was ‘Governour of the Planters in Virginia’ in 1587 and at their earnest request returned to England to obtain’
supplies for the Colony. In 1588 Raleigh sent him back, and arranged that three ships then fitting out for John Watts,
a London Merchant, should take on board a number of passengers and stores for Virginia. The owner of the ships however
would not permit any passengers or stores to go on board except John White ‘and his chest.’ Owing to the lateness of
the season he was unable to land on Virginia.
In 1590 he made another voyage to Virginia, but he could not find the colonists, and the expedition returned to
England in October of that year.
This and the five following illustrations have been reproduced from a volume of White’s water colour drawings which
is preserved in the Grenville Library in the British Museum. It is clear that he was an accurate painter, and it is
safe to assume that these contemporary sketches of the natives of Virginia at the time of their discovery by the
English give a true representation of the people and their dwellings.
John Dee, Mathematician and Astrologer was born in London on 13th July 1527. He took his B.A. degree at St. John’s,
Cambridge, in 1542. In 1547 he went to the Low Countries to study, and became a student at Louvain in 1548.
On the accession of Queen Mary, Dee joined the Princess Elizabeth’s party and was imprisoned for an alleged attempt
on the Queen’s life by poison or magic, but was allowed his liberty on giving security for his good behaviour. In
1555–56 he presented a supplication to Queen Mary for the recovery and preservation of ancient writings and monuments.
On Queen Eliza,beth’s accession he entered her service and made an astrological calculation for the choice of a fit day
for the coronation. He was consulted by Royal command on the Queen’s illness. In 1578 he went to Germany to consult the
Physicians there regarding the Queen’s health. In 1580 he delivered to the Queen Rolls showing the Queen’s titles to
the newly discovered countries.
Dee was a great Alchemist and Spiritualist and was regarded by the common people as a Magician. In 1583 a mob broke
into his house and destroyed a great part of his furniture, books, and chemical apparatus. He died in poverty in 1608.
The original Roll from which this map has been reproduced is now preserved in the Cottonian MSS. in the British
Sir Walter Ralegh, the son of a Devonshire country-gentleman, was born near Budleigh Salterton, South Devon, about
1552. Sir Humphrey Gilbert was his half brother by his mother’s first marriage. In 1569 he joined the Huguenots in
France as a volunteer. He was at Oriel College, Oxford, in 1572. In September 1578 he assisted Sir Humphrey Gilbert in
fitting out his first expedition at Dartmouth, and himself commanded the ‘Falcon’ of 100 tons. The expedition returned
in 1579. From June 1580 to December 1581 he saw service in Ireland, and being then sent with despatches to the Court at
Greenwich, he quickly sprang into favour with Elizabeth. He was knighted in 1584, and in 1585 was appointed Warden of
the Stannaries, lord lieutenant of Cornwall and vice-admiral of Cornwall and Devon, He sat as member for Devonshire in
Parliament in 1585–86, and in 1586 he was granted 40,000 acres of land in Munster. On the 25th March 1584 he was
granted a patent ‘for the discovering and planting of new lands and Countries,’ and as a result he founded the first
English colony of Virginia. The accounts of the various expeditions to Virginia sent out by him are given in Hakluyt,
Vol. VIII, pp. 289 seq. He is said to have spent over £40,000 (about £320,000 of our money) in his Virginian
expeditions. About 1586 he introduced the potato into Great Britain and is believed to have been the first English
gentleman to smoke tobacco. In 1591 he was appointed second in command under Lord Thomas Howard in the expedition to
the Azores in that year, but the Queen refused to let him go and Sir Richard Grenville was appointed in his place.
Ralegh’s account of the last fight of the ‘Revenge’ will be found in Hakluyt, Vol. VII., p. 38. In 1592 he contributed
very largely to the expedition under Frobisher and Burgh which captured the ‘Madre de Dios’ (Hakluyt, Vol. VII., p.
105), but in July of that year he was disgraced and imprisoned in the Tower, but was released in October, In 1593 he
was returned to Parliament for Michael, in Cornwall. In 1594 he sent Jacob Whiddon to explore the Orinoco, and early in
1595 he headed an expedition to Guiana himself He ascended the Orinoco for about 450 miles in quest of the gold mine of
Manoa, but was unsuccessful in his search. On his return to England he wrote his ‘Discoverie of Guiana’ (Hakluyt, Vol.
IX.). In June 1596 he commanded, with great distinction, the ‘Warspite’ in the Cadiz expedition and was severely
wounded. In 1597 he sailed, as second in command under Essex, to the Azores and took Fayal. He was elected member for
Dorset in 1597 and for Cornwall in 1601. In September 1600 he was appointed Governor of Jersey. On the accession of
James I. Ralegh was stripped of all his posts and monopolies, sent to the Tower for alleged complicity in Lord Cobham’s
conspiracy, and condemned to be executed on iith December 1603. On the loth December, however, he was reprieved. From
1603 to 1616 he was a prisoner in the Tower, and there wrote his ‘History of the World.’ About 1610 Ralegh requested
permission to organise another expedition to Guiana. In March i6i6 he was released from the Tower and began to make
preparations for this expedition. He sailed from Plymouth with 14 ships on 12th June 1 61 7. The expedition was a
complete failure, and in an attack on the town of San Thomas Ralegh’s son Walter was killed, Ralegh returned to
Plymouth with four ships in June 161 8. Shortly after he was arrested, chiefly on the representation of the Spanish
Ambassador. He was taken to London and, attempting to escape, was again sent to the Tower. On the 28th of October, 161
8, he was condemned on his former sentence and was beheaded on Tower Hill on the following morning. He was buried in
St. Margaret’s Church Westminster. The portrait here reproduced is taken from the original, attributed to Zuccharo, in
the Dublin Gallery.
René Goulaine de Laudonnière, a French Captain, was one of the first explorers of Florida. In 1561 Admiral Coligny
wishing to find a safe retreat for the persecuted Huguenots formed the project of founding a Protestant colony in the
New World. A first expedition to Brazil had been a complete failure, and Coligny next cast his eyes on Florida, from
which the Spanish had been driven by the natives. The expedition, which had the approval of Charles IX., sailed from
Dieppe on the 15th February 1562 under the command of Ribaut and Laudonnière. The fortunes of the colonists, and of the
relief expedition which left Havre on the 22nd April 1564 are recorded very fully by Hakluyt. On his final return to
France in 1566 Laudonnière was very coldly received by the Court, and he died in obscurity. The portrait is taken from
the Effigies Regum of Crispin de Passe in the Grenville Library in the British Museum.
‘The skillful painter’ James Le Moyne de Mourgues, ‘sometime living in the Blackfryers in London’ accompanied the
second expedition under Laudonniere in 1564 for the relief of the French colonists in Florida. He was sent out by
‘Monsieur Chastillion, then Admiral of France, and his sketches ‘lively drawn in colours’ were engraved and published
in De Bry’s Collections of Travels and Voyages, Grands (America) Voyages, Part IL, Frankfort 1591. The Map here
reproduced is taken from the copy in the British Museum of De Bry’s Collections.
This map, which shows the ‘trew description of all the coasts of China, Cauchinchina, Camboya, Syao, Malacca,
Arraacan, Pegu, together with all the Islands thereabowts, both great and smale, with the cliffes, breaches, sands,
droughts and shallowes, all perfectly drawn and examined with the most expert cardes of the Portingales Pilots’ was
engraved by Robert Beckit and printed in London by John Wolfe in 1598. The reproduction is taken from the copy in the
British Museum of John Huighen van Linschoten Ms Discours of Voyages unto ye Easte and Weste Indies, London, 1598.
Sir John Hawkins or Hawkyns was born in Plymouth in 1532. While a young man he made ‘divers voyages to the Isles of
the Canaries’ and learnt ‘ that Negros were very good merchandise in Hispaniola and that store of Negros might easily
bee had upon the coast of Guinea.’ About 1559 he married Katharine, daughter of Benjamin Gonson, treasurer of the Navy.
In October 1562 he commanded an expedition to Guinea and got into his possession ‘partly by the sworde, and partly by
other means to the number of 300 Negros at the least, besides other merchandises which that country yieldeth.’ He then
sailed for Hispaniola, sold his cargo and loaded his three ships and two other hulks with hides, ginger, sugar and
pearls and arrived home in September 1563. In 1564 he set out with a larger fleet on the same route and coasting along
Florida he found Laudonniere’s French colony, which he relieved, winning ‘the reputation of a good and charitable man,
deserving to be esteemed as much of us all as if he had saved all our lives.’ He arrived at Padstow on the 20th
September 1565. On the 2nd October 1567 he set out on his ‘third troublesome voyage,’ during which he was attacked by
the Spaniards in the harbour of San Juan d’Ulloa and very narrowly escaped. After suffering great hardships on the
voyage home, ‘for hides were thought very good meat, rats, cats, mice and dogs, none escaped that might be gotten,’ he
arrived in Mounts Bay on 25th January 1569. In 1572 he was Member of Parliament for Plymouth. On nth October 1573 he
was stabbed whilst riding in the Strand and was dangerously wounded, the Queen sending her own surgeon to attend him.
About this time he was made treasurer and comptroller of the Navy, and it was largely owing to his skill and experience
that the Navy was thoroughly equipped to meet the Armada. Hawkins was third in command of the English fleet on the
‘Victory’ during the struggle with the Armada. He was in the thick of the fighting and was knighted by Lord Howard of
Effingham for his bravery. In 1590 he, with Frobisher, commanded a squadron sent to the coast of Portugal. In November
1591 he was one of the commissioners for the proper division of prizes taken at sea. On 28th August 1595 he sailed with
Drake in the expedition ‘chiefly pretended for some speciall service on the Islands and maine of the West Indies,’ but
died off Porto Rico on the 1 2th November. The portrait reproduced is taken from the copy of Holland’s
Heroologia in the British Museum.
The ‘Jesus of Lubeck’ was a ship of 700 tons. She was bought by Henry VIII. for his Navy from the Merchants of
Lubeck in 1544. On the accession of Elizabeth, the ‘Jesus’ was condemned, but was afterwards retained, and in 1564 was,
in accordance with the custom of the times, lent to Sir John Hawkins for a voyage to Guinea (Hakluyt, Vol. VI., p.
263). In 1567 she was again lent to Hawkins for his voyage to the West Indies by way of Guinea. On the 12th August,
1568, Hawkins’ fleet was caught by ‘an extreme storme which continued by the space of foure days, which so beat the
Jesus, that we cut downe all her higher buildings, her rudder also was sore shaken, and withall was in so extreme a
leake that we were rather upon the point to leave her then to keepe her any longer.’ On the 16th September the fleet
entered San Juan d’Ulloa; on the 23rd the fight with the Spaniards took place during which the ‘Jesus’ was abandoned.
She was the first of only two ships of Elizabeth’s Navy to fall into Spanish hands, the other being Sir Richard
Grenville’s ‘Revenge.’ The armament of the ‘Jesus’ was as follows; Cannons (50 or 60 pounders), 2; culverins (long 18
pounders), 2; demi-culverins (long 9 pounders), 8; sacres (long 5 pounders), 8; falcons (3 pounders), 2. Her
breach-loading pieces were: slings, 2; fowlers, 10; bases, 30 (Corbett, Drake and the Tudor Navy, Vol, I., p. 114
note). The illustrations of the ‘Jesus’ and the ‘Minion’ are taken from the original water-colour paintings by Anthony
Anthony in the Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge, and are inserted by permission of the College
The ‘Minion’ ‘of the Queenes’ was built in 1523 for Henry VIII.‘s navy. She was originally of 180 tons but was
rebuilt about 1536 as a 300 ton ship. She was given to Sir Thomas Seymour about 1549, but about 1560 her name reappears
in the Navy Lists. (Oppenheim, Administration of the Royal Navy.) In 1561 she was lent to the Guinea merchants and was
damaged in an action with the Portuguese (Hakluyt, Vol. VL, p. 260). In 1564 she was again employed in the Guinea trade
and in 1567–68 she formed one of Hawkins’ fleet in his third expedition to Guinea and the West Indies. She was so badly
damaged at San Juan d’Ulloa and ‘so sore beaten with shot from our enemies and brused with shooting off our own
ordinance’ that with the greatest difficulty she was brought into Mounts Bay in Cornwall on the 25th of January 1569.
She was condemned in 1570.
Peter Plancius was born in 1552. He was a Calvinistic preacher, pastor of the church at Amsterdam, but his chief
title to fame is his service to geography. He maintained the existence of an open polar sea, and he induced the people
of Amsterdam to despatch an expedition to seek a passage north of Novaya Zemlya under Willem Barents. He died on 25th
May 1622 (Markham, John Davis the Navigator, Hakluyt Society, 1880). The Map is interesting as being one of the few
attempts to apply the principles of Mercator’s ‘projection’ before their correct demonstration by Edward Wright. The
engraved margin shows the inhabitants and products of the various divisions of the globe, ‘Mexicana’ representing North
America, ‘Peruana’ South America, and ‘Magallanica’ the supposed great Southern Continent. The celestial circles, with
the quaint drawings of the principal constellations, are also of great interest. The Map is reproduced from a copy of
Linschoten’s Itinerario (published at Amsterdam in 1604–5) in the British Museum.
Sir Francis Drake, son of Edmund Drake, sailor and afterwards Vicar of Upchurch, was born at Crowndale, near
Tavistock about 1545, but the exact date is uncertain. He was apprenticed when young to the master of a Channel
coaster, and his master, dying childless, left the vessel to him. He seems to have followed this trade for a short
time, but in 1565–6 went on some voyages to Guinea and the Spanish Main with Captain Lovell. In 1567 he commanded the
‘Judith’ of 50 tons in Sir John Hawkins’ voyage to the West Indies, and barely escaped in the fight at San Juan de
Ulloa. Immediately on his return to England, Drake was sent to London to ‘inform Sir William Cecil of all the
proceedings of the expedition.’ In 1570 he went on a voyage to the West Indies with two ships, the ‘Dragon’ and the
‘Swan,’ and in 1571 with the ‘Swan’ alone, ‘to gain such intelligences as might further him to get some amends for his
loss’ at San Juan de Ulloa. ‘And having in those two voyages gotten such certain notice of the persons and places aimed
at as he thought requisite’ he resolved on a third voyage. He sailed from Plymouth on 24th May 1572 with two small
ships, the ‘Pasha’ and ‘Swan,’ carrying seventy three men, and three ‘dainty’ pinnaces ‘all in pieces and stowed aboard
to be set up again as occasion served’ with intent to land at Nombre de Dios.
On 29th July they landed at Nombre de Dios and after a sharp fight captured the town. Drake however was severely
wounded, and his men forcibly removed him to the boats. After burning Porto Bello, Drake with eighteen men and a few
Maroons marched across the Isthmus towards Panama. It was on this march that Drake, climbing a tree pointed out by his
guides, first saw the Pacific, and ‘besought Almighty God of his goodness to give him life and leave to sail once in an
English ship on that sea.’ After sacking Venta Cruz and acquiring much treasure, he sailed homeward and arrived in
Plymouth on Sunday, 9th August 1573, in church hours, when ‘the news of Drake’s return did so speedily pass over all
the church and surpass their minds with delight and desire to see him that very few or none remained with the
preacher.’ From 1573 to 1576 Drake saw service in Ireland. On 13th December 1577 he sailed in the ‘Pelican’ on his
voyage of circum-navigation, a detailed account of which is given in Volume XL On 26th September 1580 he arrived home
‘very richly fraught with gold, silver, silk, pearls and precious stones.’ On 4th April 1581 he was knighted by the
Queen on the deck of the ‘Golden Hind’ (as the ‘Pelican’ had been rechristened on entering Magellan Straits). In 1582
Drake was Mayor of Plymouth. In the Parliament of 1584–5 he sat as member for Bossiney, and was one of the Committee on
the bill for supplying Plymouth with water. On 14th September 1585 he sailed from Plymouth on the expedition to the
West Indies, the account of which is given at page 97. Shortly after his return home in July 1586 Drake was placed in
charge of the shipping at Plymouth. In November 1586 he was sent on a mission to the Netherlands. On 2nd April 1587 he
sailed for Spain commissioned ‘to impeach the joining together of the King of Spain’s fleet out of their several
ports.’ On the 19th April he attacked Cadiz, sank or burnt thirty-three vessels and carried away four (see his despatch
given in Volume VI., page 440 of this edition). He next captured the Castle of Sagres and held Cape St. Vincent, and
then making for the Azores he captured a great Portuguese Carrack and returned to England in the end of June. On the
12th July 1588 the English fleet put out to search for the Spanish Armada, Drake being Vice–Admiral under Lord Howard
of Effingham, but a summer gale drove them back to Plymouth. On the 19th of July the Armada was sighted, and from that
day to the 2nd of August the fight with and pursuit of the Armada was continued. On 18th April 1589 Drake put to sea in
command of an expedition to invade Spain and Portugal, with Sir John Norreys in command of the land forces. The account
of this expedition is given by Hakluyt (Volume VI., page 470). From December 1590 to April 1591 Drake was engaged in
bringing the river Meavy to Plymouth for the water supply of the town: when this was done he set about building six
corn-mills. In 1593 he represented Plymouth in Parliament. During the winter of 1594 and spring of 1595 Drake was
preparing for what proved to be his last expedition to the West Indies. On the 28th August the Expedition sailed, with
Sir John Hawkins as Vice–Admiral. It was however a failure. News of its approach had reached the West Indies, and
everywhere preparations had been made to receive it. Hawkins died off Porto Rico on the nth November: the same evening
a shot from one of the batteries ‘strake the stoole from under’ Drake as he sat at supper ‘but hurt him not,’ though it
killed Sir Nicholas Clifford, the Commander of the land forces. On the 15 th January 1596 off Nombre de Dios Drake
‘began to keepe his cabin and to complain of a scowring or fluxe,’ and on the 28th he died. He was buried a league from
shore in a leaden coffin,
‘For a last and fitting honour to the dead, two vessels of his own fleet and all his last taken prizes were sunk
near where he lay, while ashore the fort which the Spaniards had just completed was given to the flames.’ (Corbett,
Drake and the Tudor Navy, Vol. II., p. 430.) The portrait here reproduced is taken from that in a copy in the British
Museum of the Dutch Chart published by Judocus Hondius about 1595.)
Reproduced from the original in A Sumniarie and True Discourse of Sir Francis Drake’s West Indian Voyage in the
Grenville Library in the British Museum. The plan shows the English fleet at anchor before the town; Drake’s ship, the
‘Elizabeth Bonaventure’ of 600 tons, distinguishable by the admiral’s flag, the Cross of St. George, flown on the main
mast, is shown in the foreground.
The Spanish Treasure Frigates were specially designed by Pero Menendez Marquez to carry treasure from the West
Indies to Spain. ‘They are very bigge and excellent of sayle, which will carie 150 men a piece with souldiers and
mariners. And having good ordinance, there are fewe or none of our enemies that can offend us. For wee shall both leave
and take at all times when we list’ (p. 158). The Frigate here represented is ‘104 foote by the keele’ and ‘34 foote in
bredth’ on the main deck. Her armament consisted of culverins (i8-pounders) on the main deck, demi-culverins
(9-pounders) on the upper deck, and falcons (3-pounders) on the spar deck. Forward on a platform on the main deck was
‘a place of muskett defence for their musketers to plaie notwithstanding their great ordnance’ — an extremely
uncomfortable position, one would think, in a heavy sea. The legend aft reads: ‘The armes of St. Diago a special note
to know them.’ The drawing, first reproduced by Mr, Julian Corbett in his Drake and the Tudor Navy, Volume II., p. 366,
is taken from the original (sent home by an English spy) in the Record Office.
Reproduced from a copy of The Discoverie and Conquest of the Provinces of Peru, and the Navigation in the South Sea,
along that Coast, and also of the rite he Mines of Potosi. Imprinted at London by Richard Jhones. Febru. 6. 1381., in
the Hunterian Library in the University of Glasgow.
Sir Robert Dudley, the son of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester and Lady Sheffield, was born on August 7th 1574, at
Sheen House in Surrey. He matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, in May 1588. He states that he held a colonelcy in the
army assembled at Tilbury under command of his father in the same year. In 1594 he started on his expedition to
Trinidad and Guiana, his first intention — to take an expedition into the South Seas — having been forbidden by the
Queen. Besides the account of this voyage printed by Hakluyt (p. 203) two other accounts have been preserved, one by
Captain Wyatt who commanded Dudley’s ‘main battle of pike,’ and one by Abraham Kendall, his sailing master. [Warner’s
Voyage of Sir Robert Dudley to the West Indies, Hakluyt Society, 1899.) In 1596 Dudley commanded the ‘Nonpareil’ in the
Cadiz expedition under Essex and Nottingham, and was knighted at Plymouth on the return of the expedition. In 1603 he
began the lawsuit to prove his legitimacy, but the judgment given on May loth 1605 went against him. In the same year
he obtained a license to travel abroad for three years, and left England accompanied by his cousin, Elizabeth
Southwell, disguised as his page, whom he afterwards married. They went to Florence, and Dudley entered into the
service of the Grand Duke Ferdinand I. for whom he designed and constructed several warships. In 1646 when he was
seventy-two he published his great work DeW Arcano del Mare. He died at Carbello in 1649. Anthony a Wood says of him:
‘This Robert Dudley was a compleat gentleman in all suitable employments, an exact seaman, a good navigator, an
excellent architect, mathematician, physician, chymist, and what not. He was a handsome, personable man, tall of
stature, red-hair’d and of admirable comport, and above all, noted for riding the great horse, for tilting, and for his
being the first of all that taught a dog to sit in order to catch partridges.’ The portrait is taken from a proof
engraving, in the British Museum, of a copy by G. P. Harding of the original miniature portrait by Nicholas
Sir Anthony Sherley was born in 1565. He graduated B.A. at Oxford in 1581, and was elected probationer-fellow of All
Souls College. He took part in the wars in the Low Countries under the Earl of Leicester in 1586 and was present at
Zutphen. In August 1591 he joined the Earl of Essex in his expedition to Normandy in support of Henry of Navarre. Henry
made him a Knight of the Order of St. Michael, whereupon Queen Elizabeth imprisoned him for accepting the honour
without her permission. He was released on retiring from the Order. He married Frances Vernon, first cousin of the Earl
of Essex, but the marriage proved unhappy, and to distract his thoughts from his home life he organised his expedition
to the West Indies.
He accompanied the Earl of Essex on his ‘Islands’ voyage of 1597. In 1598–9, on Essex’s invitation, he led a company
of English volunteers to Ferara to assist Don Cesare d’Este. The dispute was settled by the time he arrived there, and
he received instructions from Essex to proceed to Persia to obtain an alliance with the Shah against the Turks, and to
promote commercial intercourse. The enterprise was not officially sanctioned, and Sherley was refused permission to
return to England. He had a kindly reception from the Shah Abbas the Great, and after Jive months’ stay returned to
Europe as the Shah’s envoy in 1599. His appeal for permission to return to England was refused, and he then went to
Venice and opened correspondence with Spain. In April 1603 he was imprisoned for debt in an island near Scio. In 1605
he went to Prague and was employed by Rudolph II. on a mission to Morocco. On his way back he went to Madrid, and was
commissioned as general of a fleet to attack the Turks and the Moors in the Levant and to hamper Dutch trade. In 1609
his expedition sailed, but it was a complete failure, and he was dismissed and dishonoured on his return. The King of
Spain in 1611 allowed him a small pension, and he remained at Madrid in beggary until his death. The portrait is taken
by permission of the Earl of Crawford from a copy, in the Library at Haigh Hall, Wigan, of the Atrium Heroicum Caesarum
Regum Aliarumque Summatum ac Procerum by Dominicus Custos, printed at Augsburg in 1600.
This engraving of the capture of Don Antonio de Berreo, Governor of Trinidad, by Sir Walter Ralegh, is reproduced
from De Bry’s Collections of Travels and Voyages, Grands (America) Voyages, Part VIII., Frankfort, 1599.
This map is reproduced from the original in the Manuscript Room in the British Museum, No doubt is now entertained
that the map is the work of Sir Walter Ralegh himself and is in his hand-writing. The fabled Lake and City of Manoa is
shown in the centre of the map, with El Dorado slightly to the left. It is to be noted that for convenience of
reference the map has been reproduced upside down, the northern coast of Guiana and the Atlantic Ocean being at the
bottom of the map as here given.
This map ‘newlie come forth by Baptista B.’ serves to illustrate Drake’s West Indian Expedition of 1585–6, ‘the
whole course of the saide viadge beinge plainlie described by the pricked line.’ The ‘summarie and true discourse’ of
the expedition by Master Thomas Cotes will be found at page 97. The map is reproduced from the original in A Summarie
and True Discourse cited above.
Thomas Cavendish or Candish, the second Englishman to sail round the world, was born at Gumston Hall, in Trimley
Saint Martin Parish, Suffolk, about 1555. Little is known of his early years. His first voyage was in a ship of his own
in Sir Richard Grenville’s voyage to Virginia made for Sir Walter Raleigh in 1585 (Hakluyt, Vol. VIII., page 310).
Immediately after his return he began the preparation for his own voyage of circumnavigation. A full account of this
‘admirable and prosperous voyage, written by Master Francis Pretty, lately of Ey in Suffolke, a Gentleman employed in
the same action,’ is given at page 290. On his return home. Cavendish was received at Court at Greenwich, and seems to
have spent ‘his fortune in gallantry and following the Court.’ An account of his last voyage, begun on 26th August,
1591, up to the time when the ships were dispersed, and the subsequent sufferings of Captain John Davis, the Arctic
Navigator, and the crew of the ‘Desire,’ will be found at page 389. After losing the ‘Desire’ and the Pinnace Cavendish
with the ‘Leicester Galeon’ and ‘Roebuck’ made for Brazil and tried to land at Santos and Espirito Santo. Through
disobedience to his orders, and through the treachery of his men, the Portuguese and the Indians beat him off with the
loss of many of his best hands. Short of provisions and water, deserted by the ‘Roebuck’ and with only three whole
sails left, Cavendish next determined to ‘beate for Saint Hellena, and there either to make ourselves happy by mending
or ending.’ In spite of continuous adverse winds he fetched within two leagues of the Island, but could not make it,
‘the winde being continually at East–South-east, the most contrary wind that could blow.’ He next tried to reach ‘an
Island which the cardes make to be in 8 degrees to the southward of the line,’ probably Ascension Island, but ‘I could
by no means finde it, so as I was forced to goe towards England.’ He died on the voyage homewards worn out with
privations and disappointment. The portrait is taken from the copy in the British Museum of the unique chart engraved
by Judocus Hondius about 1595. The chart itself is given at page 336.
This drum, which now hangs in the hall at Buckland Abbey, is reproduced by permission of Lady Elliot Drake. It bears
Drake’s arms, and on it the last salute was probably beaten as his body was committed to the sea (Corbett, Drake and
the Tudor Navy, I., xi.) The legend connected with the drum forms the subject of Henry Newbolt’s ballad Drake’s Drum:
‘Take my drum to England, hang et by the shore.
Strike et when your powder’s runnin’ low;
If the Dons sight Devon, I’ll quit the port o’ Heaven,
An’ drum them up the Channel as we drummed them long ago.’
Owing to the frail condition of the drum it was not found possible to remove it from the glass case which protects
it, but it is hoped that the interest of the subject will excuse the want of clearness in the reproduction.
This chart is taken from a manuscript (Sloane MSS. 6i) in the British Museum. It shows the southern part of
Patagonia, with Magellan Straits and the islands of Tierra del Fuego, with the open sea to the south. The manuscript,
written in 1577, purports to be ‘an exact copy of the originall to a haire’ of the notes ‘written and faithfully layed
downe by Ffrancis Ffletcher, Minister of Christ and Preacher of the Gospell, adventurer and traveller in the same
voyage’ [Drake’s circumnavigation]. The copy is by ‘Jo. Conyers, Cittizen and Apothecary of London.’ It was at the
‘Insulae Elizabethides’ that the incident narrated by Sir Richard Hawkins in his Observations took place, when Drake,
‘going ashoare, carried a Compasse with him, and seeking out the Southermost part of the Hand, cast himselfe downe upon
the uttermost point groveling, and so reached out his bodie over it. Presently he imbarked, and then recounted unto his
people, that he had beene upon the Southermost knowne Land in the World, and more further to the Southwards upon it,
then any of them, yea, or any man as yet knowne.’
Sir Christopher Hatton was born at Holdenby, Northamptonshire, in 1540. He entered St. Mary Hall, Oxford, as a
gentleman commoner, but took no degree. In November, 1559, he was admitted to the Society of the Inner Temple. As the
portrait shows, he was a tall and handsome man, and he was noted for his graceful dancing. He quickly attracted Queen
Elizabeth’s attention, and became one of her gentlemen pensioners in 1564. In 1568 he was appointed Keeper of the Parks
at Eltham and Home, and in 1572 Captain of the Queen’s Bodyguard, In October, 1573, Sir John Hawkins, being mistaken
for Sir Christopher Hatton, was stabbed in the Strand by a Puritan fanatic named Burchett. In November, 1578, Hatton
was appointed Vice–Chamberlain of the Household, with a seat in the Privy Council, and on 1st December he was knighted
at Windsor, He was returned to Parliament for Northamptonshire in 1584. He was a Commissioner for the trial of Anthony
Babington and his fellow-conspirators in September, 1586, and played a most important part in the proceedings which
ended in the execution of Mary Queen of Scots. On 25th April, 1587, the Queen appointed him Lord Chancellor, which post
he retained until his death on 20th November, 1591. He was buried in St. Paul’s Cathedral. It was in honour of Sir
Christopher Hatton that Drake, on entering Magellan Straits, changed the name of his ship from the ‘Pelican’ to the
‘Golden Hind,’ the Hatton crest being a ‘hind trippant or.’ The portrait is taken from an engraving in the Print Room
of the British Museum after the portrait by Ketel.
Reproduced from Furttenbach’s Archttectura Navalis, Ulm, 1629. Galleys were for long the main arm of the Continental
navies. Propelled as they were by oars, for although they carried lateen sails they depended chiefly on the oars, they
were very formidable vessels, especially in narrow channels and confined waters. As, however, the freeboard was
necessarily low, and as the principal armament was carried at the bow and could not be used for broadside fire, they
were of little value in the ocean, and could not move far from land. The English seamen soon found out their weak
points. Writing to Drake after the first attack on Cadiz, Captain Thomas Fenner says, ‘I assure your honour there is no
account to be made of his [the King of Spain’s] galleys. Twelve of Her Majesty’s ships will make account of all his
galleys in Spain Portugal and all his dominions within the Straits, although they are 150 in number. If it be to their
advantage in a calm we have made such trial of their fight that we perfectly see into the depth thereof (Corbett, op.
clt. II. 92). The illustration gives a good idea of the appearance of these vessels. The guns are seen projecting at
the bow, supported by the ‘trumpeters and musketers’ above them. On the ‘corsia,’ or narrow gangway connecting the bow
and the stern, are two men with long poles ready to beat any unfortunate rower who shows signs of flagging, while on a
platform at the stern sits the captain directing the course of the galley, with the helmsman behind him. The length of
this galley from the extremity of the ‘beak’ to the stern is given as about 169 feet, with an extreme beam of about 20
This chart, reproduced from the original in the Grenville Library in the British Museum, was engraved by Judocus
Hondius about 1595. The courses of the circumnavigations of Drake and Cavendish are very clearly marked on the chart.
The engraving of the ‘Golden Hind’ in the centre medallion is interesting as being probably the only representation of
the famous ship now in existence. In all likelihood it is an accurate drawing, as Hondius was working as an engraver in
London in 1580, and the ‘Golden Hind’ was preserved at Deptford for many years after the circumnavigation. The
engravings in the corners represent four of the incidents of Drake’s voyage. In the upper left-hand corner is shown the
harbour of New Albion, with the ‘Golden Hind’ at anchor. This harbour has been identified by Professor Davidson of the
United States Geodetic Survey as the harbour now called ‘Drake Harbour,’ a little to the north of San Francisco Bay and
near Point de los Reyes, two important means of identification being ‘the white bankes and cliffes which lie towards
the sea,’ and the gophers or pouched rats, ‘a strange kind of conies, having under her chinne on either side a bag,
into the which she gathereth her meate, when she hath filled her bellie abroad’ (Page 123). In the upper right-hand
corner the ‘Golden Hind’ is seen in the harbour of Java Major. In the lower left-hand medallion the ‘Golden Hind’ is
being towed to a good anchorage off Ternate by the king’s canoes. Whilst the ship was being towed ‘our ordinance
thundred, which wee mixed with great store of small shot, among which sounding our trumpets and other instruments of
musick, both of still and loud noise; wherewith he [the king] was so much delighted, that, requesting our musick to
come into the boate, he joyned his Canow to the same, and was towed at least a whole houre together, with the boate at
the Sterne of our ship.’
The dangerous incident of the 9th of January, 1579, is shown in the lower right-hand medallion, when the ship ‘ranne
suddenly upon a rocke, where wee stuck fast from 8 of the clocke at night till 4 of the clocke in the afternoone of the
next day, being indeed out of all hope to escape the danger.’ However, by lightening the ship ‘of 3 tunne of cloves, 8.
pieces of ordinance, and certaine meale and beanes, and then the winde (as it were in a moment by the speciall grace of
God) changing from the starreboord to the larboord of the ship, we hoised our sailes, and the happy gale drove our ship
off the rocke into the sea againe.’ (Page 129.)
This engraving of ‘The Black Pynnes’ is reproduced from a copy of The Procession at the obsequies of Sir Philip
Sidney, Knight, drawn and invented by Thomas Lant, Gentleman, London, 1587, in the British Museum. In ‘The Black
Pynnes’ Sidney’s body was carried from Flushing to Tower Hill, where it was landed on November 5th, 1585. The vessel is
represented with ‘her fights made close,’ that is, with waistcloths rigged up to prevent boarding, and nettings drawn
over the waist to intercept dropping missiles. The term ‘pinnace’ is indefinite: sometimes it is used to describe the
largest of the ships’ boats (in this sense it is used in the British navy at the present day), and we read of the
pinnaces being carried in pieces in the great ships’ holds and put together as occasion required; more frequently,
however, it refers to ‘vessels varying from eighty to fifteen tons, and setting aside certain special functions in
general actions, and landing operations, they were to the capital ships exactly what the frigate was to the ship of the
line’ (Corbett, op.cit.,1. 35).
This map, ‘Imprinted at London by John Wolfe, graven by Robert Beckit,’ is reproduced from the copy in the British
Museum of John Huighen van Linschoten his Discours of Voyages unto ye Easte and Weste Indies, London, 1598.
Along the lower edge of the map are shown some of the products from which the ‘Islands of Spicerie’ took their name
: red, white, and yellow sandalwood, ‘arbor cariophilorum’ or cloves, and ‘nux myristica’ or nutmeg, ‘with its flower,
commonly called mace.’
Reproduced from a copy in the British Museum of the Speculum Britaniae, The first parte by The travaile and vew of
John Norden, Anno 1593.
In the first part of this letter Hakluyt urges on Sir Francis Walsingham the foundation of a lecture on Mathematics
in Oxford, and another, on ‘the Arte of Navigation’ in London, at a yearly stipend of Fifty pounds each. ‘In my simple
judgment,’ writes Hakluyt, the money so spent ‘wold be the best hundred pounds bestowed, that was bestowed these five
hundred yeares in England.’ The remainder of the letter gives various items of news which may be of political interest
to Walsingham. The letter was written when Hakluyt was chaplain to the Embassy in Paris. It is docquetted ‘primo
Aprilis 1584. Ffrom Mr. Hakluite the preacher at Paris’ and endorsed in a modern hand ‘This is a private not a
diplomatic letter from Hackluyt to Walsingham.’ The reproduction is made, by permission, from the original preserved in
the Public Record Office. The letter itself runs as follows:
Right honorable: the famouse disputations in al the partes of the mathematicks wch at this present are held in Paris
for the gayning of the lecture wch was erected by the worthy scholer Petrus Ramus to the greate increase of those
excellent sciences, put mee in mynd to sollicite yo’ honour agayne and agayne for the erection of that lecture of the
Arte of Navigation, whereof I have had some speach with yo’ Honor, Sir Ffrancis Drake, and Alderman Barnes and other.
And that you might meet with al inconveniences wch might frustrate the expected profit wch is hoped for by the erection
of the same, I send your honor heare the testament of Petrus Ramus newely put out agayne in printe and sent unto mee by
Monsieur Bergeron Ramus his executor, whereby you may see, first the exceeding zeale that man had to benefit his
countrey, in bestowing 500 livres (wch as your honor knoweth) is fiftie pound sterling, uppon establishing of that
lecture, bequething not halfe soe much to al the kinred and friends he had. Secondly you may note that he being one of
the most famouse clerks of Europe thought those sciences next after divinitie to be most necessarie for the comonwelth,
in that he erected a newe lecture of the same, wheras there was one before erected and endued with fiftie pound stipend
by the Kinge of Ffrance. Thirdly that most provident order wch the good man by his wil hath taken, is most requisite to
be put in execution in England: wch is, that every three yeares, there shalbe publicke disputations signified to al men
by publicke writing, wherein yt shalbe free for any man for three moneths space to dispute agaynst the reader for the
tyme being, who yf he be found negligent, or yf any one of the competitours be found more worthy by the opinion of
certayne indifferent men of lerninge chosen out of purpose to be judges, that then the unworthier shal give place to
the more sufficient: who so being placed is bound in three yeares space to read through the course of the mathematicks.
Yf by yo’ honors instigation Her Majestic might be enduced to erect such a lecture in Oxford, and the like for the Arte
of navigation might by some other meanes be established at London, allowing to ech of them fiftie pounds yearly with
the same conditions, in my simple judgment yt wold be the best hundred pounds bestowed, that was bestowed these five
hundred yeares in England. Ffor yt is not unknowne unto yo’ wisedome, howe necessarie for service of warres
arithmeticke and geometric are, and for our newe discoveries and longe voyages by sea the arte of navigation is, wch is
compounded of many partes of the aforesayd sciences. Understanding hearetofore of your honours greate aboundance of
business, and yo”^ dangerouse sicknes, I thought yt not meet to trouble yo’ honor with such things as I had carefully
sought out here in Ffrance concerning the furtherance of the westerne discoveries, but chose rather to imparte the same
wth Mr. Carlile, wch thing I also did. But being lately advertised of yo’ recovery (for wch I humbly thanke almightle
God) I was bold to signifie unto yo’ honor my dealing with Horatio Palavicini to become an adventurer in those westerne
voyages, and among other talke alleadged yor good disposition to the same, wch he hearing of replyed very
cheerfully, that yf he were moved thereto by the lest word from yo’ honor, he wold put in his hundred pound adventure,
or more. Yf Mr. Carlile bee gon, yet yt might come in good tyme to serve Mr. Ffrobisher’s turne, yf yo’ wisedome shold
like wel of yt, seing he setteth not foorth as I understand until the beginning of May.
I understand that the papists give out secretly in the towne that there shall shortly come forth a confutation of
the defence of the execution of justice in England, wch was set foorth in English and French in London. When yt cometh
foorth I trust to have yt with the first.
There is good hope that the minister and those that were taken lately with him in Paris by the abbot of St. Geneveva
shal very shortly be set at libertie. For the King secretly seemeth to favour them, and they have very discreetly
annswered for themselves that they were not at any communion or sermon, but that they mett together to consult whether
to goe out of Paris to some place lawful by the edicte. A friend of myne told mee he heard a frier enveigh very
exceeding bitterly agaynst them in a sermon before a greate congregation of people.
Wee have heard by diverse letters from Geneva that beside the earthquake wch was there about the end of Ffebruarie
wch untyled many houses and overthrow’d many chymneis in the towne, there is beside a whole village in the countrey of
Wallerye swallowed up, being foure dayes iourney of Geneva.
Those who favour the Spanish here in the towne have spred al abroad these two or three dayes that Monsieur is dead:
wch is nothing soe.
Thus leaving other matters and advertisements of importance to those unto whom they appertayne, with remembrance of
the continuance of my humble dutie to yo’ honor and yor worthy and vertuous Sonne in lawe I leve you to the
merciful protection of the Almightie. Paris the first of April, 1584. Don Antonio his captaynes of his fleet are not
yet departed from Paris, but looke every day to depart. Yo’ honors most humble
To the right honorable Sir Ffrancis Walsingham principall secretarie to Her Matie give these at the
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