The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, by Edward Gibbon
- The Extent and Military Force of the Empire in the Age of the Antonines.
- Of the Union and Internal Prosperity of the Roman Empire, in the Age of the Antonines.
- Of the Constitution of the Roman Empire, in the Age of the Antonines.
- The Cruelty, Follies, and Murder of Commodus — Election of Pertinax — His Attempts to
Reform the State — His Assassination by the Praetorian Guards.
- Public Sale of the Empire to Didius Julianus by the Praetorian Guards — Clodius Albinus in
Britain, Pescennius Niger in Syria, and Septimius Severus in Pannonia, Declare Against the Murderers of Pertinax —
Civil Wars and Victory of Severus Over His Three Rivals — Relaxation of Discipline — New Maxims of Government.
- The Death of Severus. — Tyranny of Caracalla. — Usurpation of Macrinus. — Follies of
Elagabalus. — Virtues of Alexander Severus. — Licentiousness of the Army. — General State of the Roman Finances.
- The Elevation and Tyranny of Maximin. — Rebellion in Africa and Italy, Under the Authority
of the Senate. — Civil Wars and Seditions. — Violent Deaths of Maximin and His Son, of Maximus and Balbinus, and of the
Three Gordians. — Usurpation and Secular Games of Philip.
- Of the State of Persia After the Restoration of the Monarchy by Artaxerxes.
- The State of Germany Till the Invasion of the Barbarians in the Time of the Emperor
- The Emperors Decius, Gallus, Aemilianus, Valerian, and Gallienus. — the General Irruption
of the Barbari Ans. — the Thirty Tyrants.
- Reign of Claudius. — Defeat of the Goths. — Victories, Triumph, and Death of Aurelian.
- Conduct of the Army and Senate After the Death of Aurelian. — Reigns of Tacitus, Probus,
Carus, and His Sons.
- The Reign of Diocletian and His Three Associates, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius. —
General Reestablishment of Order and Tranquillity. — the Persian War, Victory, and Triumph. — the New Form of
Administration. — Abdication and Retirement of Diocletian and Maximian.
- Troubles After the Abdication of Diocletian. — Death of Constantius. — Elevation of
Constantine and Maxen Tius. — Six Emperors At the Same Time. — Death of Maximian and Galerius. — Victories of
Constantine Over Maxentius and Licinus. — Reunion of the Empire Under the Authority of Constantine.
- The Progress of the Christian Religion, and the Sentiments, Manners, Numbers, and
Condition of the Primitive Christians.
- The Conduct of the Roman Government Towards the Christians, from the Reign of Nero to That
- Foundation of Constantinople. — Political System Constantine, and His Successors. —
Military Discipline. — the Palace. — the Finances.
- Character of Constantine. — Gothic War. — Death of Constantine. — Division of the Empire
Among His Three Sons. — Persian War. — Tragic Deaths of Constantine the Younger and Constans. — Usurpation of
Magnentius. — Civil War. — Victory of Constantius.
- Constantius Sole Emperor. — Elevation and Death of Gallus. — Danger and Elevation of
Julian. — Sarmatian and Persian Wars. — Victories of Julian in Gaul.
- The Motives, Progress, and Effects of the Conversion of Constantine. — Legal Establishment
and Constitution of the Christian Or Catholic Church.
- Persecution of Heresy. — the Schism of the Donatists. — the Arian Controversy. —
Athanasius. — Distracted State of the Church and Empire Under Constantine and His Sons. — Toleration of Paganism.
- Julian Is Declared Emperor by the Legions of Gaul. — His March and Success. — the Death of
Constantius. — Civil Administration of Julian.
- The Religion of Julian. — Universal Toleration. — He Attempts to Restore and Reform the
Pagan Worship — to Rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem — His Artful Persecution of the Christians. — Mutual Zeal and
- Residence of Julian At Antioch. — His Successful Expedition Against the Persians. —
Passage of the Tigris — the Retreat and Death of Julian. — Election of Jovian. — He Saves the Roman Army by A
- The Government and Death of Jovian. — Election of Valentinian, Who Associates His Brother
Valens, and Makes the Final Division of the Eastern and Western Empires. — Revolt of Procopius. — Civil and
Ecclesiastical Administration. — Germany. — Britain. — Africa. — the East. — the Danube. — Death of Valentinian. — His
Two Sons, Gratian and Valentinian II., Succeed to the Western Empire.
- Manners of the Pastoral Nations. — Progress of the Huns, from China to Europe. — Flight of
the Goths. — They Pass the Danube. — Gothic War. — Defeat and Death of Valens. — Gratian Invests Theodosius With the
Eastern Empire. — His Character and Success. — Peace and Settlement of the Goths.
- Death of Gratian. — Ruin of Arianism. — St. Ambrose. — First Civil War, Against Maximus. —
Character, Administration, and Penance of Theodosius. — Death of Valentinian II. — Second Civil War, Against Eugenius.
— Death of Theodosius.
- Final Destruction of Paganism. — Introduction of the Worship of Saints, and Relics, Among
- Final Division of the Roman Empire Between the Sons of Theodosius. — Reign of Arcadius and
Honorius — Administration of Rufinus and Stilicho. — Revolt and Defeat of Gildo in Africa.
- Revolt of the Goths. — They Plunder Greece. — Two Great Invasions of Italy by Alaric and
Radagaisus. — They Are Repulsed by Stilicho. — the Germans Overrun Gaul. — Usurpation of Constantine in the West. —
Disgrace and Death of Stilicho.
- Invasion of Italy by Alaric. — Manners of the Roman Senate and People. — Rome Is Thrice
Besieged, and At Length Pillaged, by the Goths. — Death of Alaric. — the Goths Evacuate Italy. — Fall of Constantine. —
Gaul and Spain Are Occupied by the Barbarians. — Independence of Britain.
- Arcadius Emperor of the East. — Administration and Disgrace of Eutropius. — Revolt of
Gainas. — Persecution of St. John Chrysostom. — Theodosius II. Emperor of the East. — His Sister Pulcheria. — His Wife
Eudocia. — the Persian War, and Division of Armenia.
- Death of Honorius. — Valentinian III. — Emperor of the East. — Administration of His
Mother Placidia — Aetius and Boniface. — Conquest of Africa by the Vandals.
- The Character, Conquests, and Court of Attila, King of the Huns. — Death of Theodosius the
Younger. — Elevation of Marcian to the Empire of the East.
- Invasion of Gaul by Attila. — He Is Repulsed by Aetius and the Visigoths. — Attila Invades
and Evacuates Italy. — the Deaths of Attila, Aetius, and Valentinian the Third.
- Sack of Rome by Genseric, King of the Vandals. — His Naval Depredations. — Succession of
the Last Emperors of the West, Maximus, Avitus, Majorian, Severus, Anthemius, Olybrius, Glycerius, Nepos, Augustulus. —
Total Extinction of the Western Empire. — Reign of Odoacer, the First Barbarian King of Italy.
- Origin Progress, and Effects of the Monastic Life. — Conversion of the Barbarians to
Christianity and Arianism. — Persecution of the Vandals in Africa. — Extinction of Arianism Among the Barbarians.
- Reign and Conversion of Clovis. — His Victories Over the Alemanni, Burgundians, and
Visigoths. — Establishment of the French Monarchy in Gaul. — Laws of the Barbarians. — State of the Romans. — the
Visigoths of Spain. — Conquest of Britain by the Saxons.
- Zeno and Anastasius, Emperors of the East. — Birth, Education, and First Exploits of
Theodoric the Ostrogoth. — His Invasion and Conquest of Italy. — the Gothic Kingdom of Italy. — State of the West. —
Military and Civil Government. — the Senator Boethius. — Last Acts and Death of Theodoric.
- Elevation of Justin the Elder. — Reign of Justinian. — I. the Empress Theodora. — II.
Factions of the Circus, and Sedition of Constantinople. — III. Trade and Manufacture of Silk. — IV. Finances and Taxes.
— V. Edifices of Justinian. — Church of St. Sophia. — Fortifications and Frontiers of the Eastern Empire. — Abolition
of the Schools of Athens, and the Consulship of Rome.
- Conquests of Justinian in the West. — Character and First Campaigns of Belisarius — He
Invades and Subdues the Vandal Kingdom of Africa — His Triumph. — the Gothic War. — He Recovers Sicily, Naples, and
Rome. — Siege of Rome by the Goths. — Their Retreat and Losses. — Surrender of Ravenna. — Glory of Belisarius. — His
Domestic Shame and Misfortunes.
- State of the Barbaric World. — Establishment of the Lombards On the Danube. — Tribes and
Inroads of the Sclavonians. — Origin, Empire, and Embassies of the Turks. — the Flight of the Avars. — Chosroes I, Or
Nushirvan, King of Persia. — His Prosperous Reign and Wars With the Romans. — the Colchian Or Lazic War. — the
- Rebellions of Africa. — Restoration of the Gothic Kingdom by Totila. — Loss and Recovery
of Rome. — Final Conquest of Italy by Narses. — Extinction of the Ostrogoths. — Defeat of the Franks and Alemanni. —
Last Victory, Disgrace, and Death of Belisarius. — Death and Character of Justinian. — Comet, Earthquakes, and
- Idea of the Roman Jurisprudence. — the Laws of the Kings — the Twelve of the Decemvirs. —
the Laws of the People. — the Decrees of the Senate. — the Edicts of the Magistrates and Emperors — Authority of the
Civilians. — Code, Pandects, Novels, and Institutes of Justinian:— I. Rights of Persons. — II. Rights of Things. — III.
Private Injuries and Actions. — IV. Crimes and Punishments.
- Reign of the Younger Justin. — Embassy of the Avars. — Their Settlement On the Danube. —
Conquest of Italy by the Lombards. — Adoption and Reign of Tiberius. — of Maurice. — State of Italy Under the Lombards
and the Exarchs. — of Ravenna. — Distress of Rome. — Character and Pontificate of Gregory the First.
- Revolutions On Persia After the Death of Chosroes On Nushirvan. — His Son Hormouz, A
Tyrant, Is Deposed. — Usurpation of Baharam. — Flight and Restoration of Chosroes II. — His Gratitude to the Romans. —
the Chagan of the Avars. — Revolt of the Army Against Maurice. — His Death. — Tyranny of Phocas. — Elevation of
Heraclius. — the Persian War. — Chosroes Subdues Syria, Egypt, and Asia Minor. — Siege of Constantinople by the
Persians and Avars. — Persian Expeditions. — Victories and Triumph of Heraclius.
- Theological History of the Doctrine of the Incarnation. — the Human and Divine Nature of
Christ. — Enmity of the Patriarchs of Alexandria and Constantinople. — St. Cyril and Nestorius. — Third General Council
of Ephesus. — Heresy of Eutyches. — Fourth General Council of Chalcedon. — Civil and Ecclesiastical Discord. —
Intolerance of Justinian. — the Three Chapters. — the Monothelite Controversy. — State of the Oriental Sects:— I. the
Nestorians. — II. the Jacobites. — III. the Maronites. — IV. the Armenians. — V. the Copts and Abyssinians.
- Plan of the Two Last Volumes. — Succession and Characters of the Greek Emperors of
Constantinople, from the Time of Heraclius to the Latin Conquest.
- Introduction, Worship, and Persecution of Images. — Revolt of Italy and Rome. — Temporal
Dominion of the Popes. — Conquest of Italy by the Franks. — Establishment of Images. — Character and Coronation of
Charlemagne. — Restoration and Decay of the Roman Empire in the West. — Independence of Italy. — Constitution of the
- Description of Arabia and Its Inhabitants. — Birth, Character, and Doctrine of Mahomet. —
He Preaches At Mecca. — Flies to Medina. — Propagates His Religion by the Sword. — Voluntary Or Reluctant Submission of
the Arabs. — His Death and Successors. — the Claims and Fortunes of All and His Descendants.
- The Conquest of Persia, Syria, Egypt, Africa, and Spain, by the Arabs Or Saracens. —
Empire of the Caliphs, Or Successors of Mahomet. — State of the Christians, &c., Under Their Government.
- The Two Sieges of Constantinople by the Arabs. — Their Invasion of France, and Defeat by
Charles Martel. — Civil War of the Ommiades and Abbassides. — Learning of the Arabs. — Luxury of the Caliphs. — Naval
Enterprises On Crete, Sicily, and Rome. — Decay and Division of the Empire of the Caliphs. — Defeats and Victories of
the Greek Emperors.
- Fate of the Eastern Empire in the Tenth Century. — Extent and Division. — Wealth and
Revenue. — Palace of Constantinople. — Titles and Offices. — Pride and Power of the Emperors. — Tactics of the Greeks,
Arabs, and Franks. — Loss of the Latin Tongue. — Studies and Solitude of the Greeks.
- Origin and Doctrine of the Paulicians. — Their Persecution by the Greek Emperors. — Revolt
in Armenia &c. — Transplantation Into Thrace. — Propagation in the West. — the Seeds, Character, and Consequences
of the Reformation.
- The Bulgarians. — Origin, Migrations, and Settlement of the Hungarians. — Their Inroads in
the East and West. — the Monarchy of Russia. — Geography and Trade. — Wars of the Russians Against the Greek Empire. —
Conversion of the Barbarians.
- The Saracens, Franks, and Greeks, in Italy. — First Adventures and Settlement of the
Normans. — Character and Conquest of Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia — Deliverance of Sicily by His Brother Roger. —
Victories of Robert Over the Emperors of the East and West. — Roger, King of Sicily, Invades Africa and Greece. — the
Emperor Manuel Comnenus. — Wars of the Greeks and Normans. — Extinction of the Normans.
- The Turks of the House of Seljuk. — Their Revolt Against Mahmud Conqueror of Hindostan. —
Togrul Subdues Persia, and Protects the Caliphs. — Defeat and Captivity of the Emperor Romanus Diogenes by Alp Arslan.
— Power and Magnificence of Malek Shah. — Conquest of Asia Minor and Syria. — State and Oppression of Jerusalem. —
Pilgrimages to the Holy Sepulchre.
- Origin and Numbers of the First Crusade. — Characters of the Latin Princes. — Their March
to Constantinople. — Policy of the Greek Emperor Alexius. — Conquest of Nice, Antioch, and Jerusalem, by the Franks. —
Deliverance of the Holy Sepulchre. — Godfrey of Bouillon, First King of Jerusalem. — Institutions of the French Or
- Preservation of the Greek Empire. — Numbers, Passage, and Event, of the Second and Third
Crusades. — St. Bernard. — Reign of Saladin in Egypt and Syria. — His Conquest of Jerusalem. — Naval Crusades. —
Richard the First of England. — Pope Innocent the Third; and the Fourth and Fifth Crusades. — the Emperor Frederic the
Second. — Louis the Ninth of France; and the Two Last Crusades. — Expulsion of the Latins Or Franks by the
- Schism of the Greeks and Latins. — State of Constantinople. — Revolt of the Bulgarians. —
Isaac Angelus Dethroned by His Brother Alexius. — Origin of the Fourth Crusade. — Alliance of the French and Venetians
With the Son of Isaac. — Their Naval Expedition to Constantinople. — the Two Sieges and Final Conquest of the City by
- Partition of the Empire by the French and Venetians, — Five Latin Emperors of the Houses
of Flanders and Courtenay. — Their Wars Against the Bulgarians and Greeks. — Weakness and Poverty of the Latin Empire.
— Recovery of Constantinople by the Greeks. — General Consequences of the Crusades.
- The Greek Emperors of Nice and Constantinople. — Elevation and Reign of Michael
Palaeologus. — His False Union With the Pope and the Latin Church. — Hostile Designs of Charles of Anjou. — Revolt of
Sicily. — War of the Catalans in Asia and Greece. — Revolutions and Present State of Athens.
- Civil Wars, and Ruin of the Greek Empire. — Reigns of Andronicus, the Elder and Younger,
and John Palaeologus. — Regency, Revolt, Reign, and Abdication of John Cantacuzene. — Establishment of A Genoese Colony
At Pera Or Galata. — Their Wars With the Empire and City of Constantinople.
- Conquests of Zingis Khan and the Moguls from China to Poland. — Escape of Constantinople
and the Greeks. — Origin of the Ottoman Turks in Bithynia. — Reigns and Victories of Othman, Orchan, Amurath the First,
and Bajazet the First. — Foundation and Progress of the Turkish Monarchy in Asia and Europe. — Danger of Constantinople
and the Greek Empire.
- Elevation of Timour Or Tamerlane to the Throne of Samarcand. — His Conquests in Persia,
Georgia, Tartary Russia, India, Syria, and Anatolia. — His Turkish War. — Defeat and Captivity of Bajazet. — Death of
Timour. — Civil War of the Sons of Bajazet. — Restoration of the Turkish Monarchy by Mahomet the First. — Siege of
Constantinople by Amurath the Second.
- Applications of the Eastern Emperors to the Popes. — Visits to the West, of John the
First, Manuel, and John the Second, Palaeologus. — Union of the Greek and Latin Churches, Promoted by the Council of
Basil, and Concluded At Ferrara and Florence. — State of Literature At Constantinople. — Its Revival in Italy by the
Greek Fugitives. — Curiosity and Emulation of the Latins.
- Schism of the Greeks and Latins. — Reign and Character of Amurath the Second. — Crusade of
Ladislaus, King of Hungary. — His Defeat and Death. — John Huniades. — Scanderbeg. — Constantine Palaeologus, Last
Emperor of the East.
- Reign and Character of Mahomet the Second. — Siege, Assault, and Final Conquest, of
Constantinople by the Turks. — Death of Constantine Palaeologus. — Servitude of the Greeks. — Extinction of the Roman
Empire in the East. — Consternation of Europe. — Conquests and Death of Mahomet the Second.
- State of Rome from the Twelfth Century. — Temporal Dominion of the Popes. — Seditions of
the City. — Political Heresy of Arnold of Brescia. — Restoration of the Republic. — the Senators. — Pride of the
Romans. — Their Wars. — They Are Deprived of the Election and Presence of the Popes, Who Retire to Avignon. — the
Jubilee. — Noble Families of Rome. — Feud of the Colonna and Ursini.
- Character and Coronation of Petrarch. — Restoration of the Freedom and Government of Rome
by the Tribune Rienzi. — His Virtues and Vices, His Expulsion and Death. — Return of the Popes from Avignon. — Great
Schism of the West. — Reunion of the Latin Church. — Last Struggles of Roman Liberty. — Statutes of Rome. — Final
Settlement of the Ecclesiastical State.
- Prospect of the Ruins of Rome in the Fifteenth Century. — Four Causes of Decay and
Destruction. — Example of the Coliseum. — Renovation of the City. — Conclusion of the Whole Work.