The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, by Edward Gibbon

Table of Contents

  1. The Extent and Military Force of the Empire in the Age of the Antonines.
  2. Of the Union and Internal Prosperity of the Roman Empire, in the Age of the Antonines.
  3. Of the Constitution of the Roman Empire, in the Age of the Antonines.
  4. The Cruelty, Follies, and Murder of Commodus — Election of Pertinax — His Attempts to Reform the State — His Assassination by the Praetorian Guards.
  5. Public Sale of the Empire to Didius Julianus by the Praetorian Guards — Clodius Albinus in Britain, Pescennius Niger in Syria, and Septimius Severus in Pannonia, Declare Against the Murderers of Pertinax — Civil Wars and Victory of Severus Over His Three Rivals — Relaxation of Discipline — New Maxims of Government.
  6. The Death of Severus. — Tyranny of Caracalla. — Usurpation of Macrinus. — Follies of Elagabalus. — Virtues of Alexander Severus. — Licentiousness of the Army. — General State of the Roman Finances.
  7. The Elevation and Tyranny of Maximin. — Rebellion in Africa and Italy, Under the Authority of the Senate. — Civil Wars and Seditions. — Violent Deaths of Maximin and His Son, of Maximus and Balbinus, and of the Three Gordians. — Usurpation and Secular Games of Philip.
  8. Of the State of Persia After the Restoration of the Monarchy by Artaxerxes.
  9. The State of Germany Till the Invasion of the Barbarians in the Time of the Emperor Decius.
  10. The Emperors Decius, Gallus, Aemilianus, Valerian, and Gallienus. — the General Irruption of the Barbari Ans. — the Thirty Tyrants.
  11. Reign of Claudius. — Defeat of the Goths. — Victories, Triumph, and Death of Aurelian.
  12. Conduct of the Army and Senate After the Death of Aurelian. — Reigns of Tacitus, Probus, Carus, and His Sons.
  13. The Reign of Diocletian and His Three Associates, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius. — General Reestablishment of Order and Tranquillity. — the Persian War, Victory, and Triumph. — the New Form of Administration. — Abdication and Retirement of Diocletian and Maximian.
  14. Troubles After the Abdication of Diocletian. — Death of Constantius. — Elevation of Constantine and Maxen Tius. — Six Emperors At the Same Time. — Death of Maximian and Galerius. — Victories of Constantine Over Maxentius and Licinus. — Reunion of the Empire Under the Authority of Constantine.
  15. The Progress of the Christian Religion, and the Sentiments, Manners, Numbers, and Condition of the Primitive Christians.
  16. The Conduct of the Roman Government Towards the Christians, from the Reign of Nero to That of Constantine.
  17. Foundation of Constantinople. — Political System Constantine, and His Successors. — Military Discipline. — the Palace. — the Finances.
  18. Character of Constantine. — Gothic War. — Death of Constantine. — Division of the Empire Among His Three Sons. — Persian War. — Tragic Deaths of Constantine the Younger and Constans. — Usurpation of Magnentius. — Civil War. — Victory of Constantius.
  19. Constantius Sole Emperor. — Elevation and Death of Gallus. — Danger and Elevation of Julian. — Sarmatian and Persian Wars. — Victories of Julian in Gaul.
  20. The Motives, Progress, and Effects of the Conversion of Constantine. — Legal Establishment and Constitution of the Christian Or Catholic Church.
  21. Persecution of Heresy. — the Schism of the Donatists. — the Arian Controversy. — Athanasius. — Distracted State of the Church and Empire Under Constantine and His Sons. — Toleration of Paganism.
  22. Julian Is Declared Emperor by the Legions of Gaul. — His March and Success. — the Death of Constantius. — Civil Administration of Julian.
  23. The Religion of Julian. — Universal Toleration. — He Attempts to Restore and Reform the Pagan Worship — to Rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem — His Artful Persecution of the Christians. — Mutual Zeal and Injustice.
  24. Residence of Julian At Antioch. — His Successful Expedition Against the Persians. — Passage of the Tigris — the Retreat and Death of Julian. — Election of Jovian. — He Saves the Roman Army by A Disgraceful Treaty.
  25. The Government and Death of Jovian. — Election of Valentinian, Who Associates His Brother Valens, and Makes the Final Division of the Eastern and Western Empires. — Revolt of Procopius. — Civil and Ecclesiastical Administration. — Germany. — Britain. — Africa. — the East. — the Danube. — Death of Valentinian. — His Two Sons, Gratian and Valentinian II., Succeed to the Western Empire.
  26. Manners of the Pastoral Nations. — Progress of the Huns, from China to Europe. — Flight of the Goths. — They Pass the Danube. — Gothic War. — Defeat and Death of Valens. — Gratian Invests Theodosius With the Eastern Empire. — His Character and Success. — Peace and Settlement of the Goths.
  27. Death of Gratian. — Ruin of Arianism. — St. Ambrose. — First Civil War, Against Maximus. — Character, Administration, and Penance of Theodosius. — Death of Valentinian II. — Second Civil War, Against Eugenius. — Death of Theodosius.
  28. Final Destruction of Paganism. — Introduction of the Worship of Saints, and Relics, Among the Christians.
  29. Final Division of the Roman Empire Between the Sons of Theodosius. — Reign of Arcadius and Honorius — Administration of Rufinus and Stilicho. — Revolt and Defeat of Gildo in Africa.
  30. Revolt of the Goths. — They Plunder Greece. — Two Great Invasions of Italy by Alaric and Radagaisus. — They Are Repulsed by Stilicho. — the Germans Overrun Gaul. — Usurpation of Constantine in the West. — Disgrace and Death of Stilicho.
  31. Invasion of Italy by Alaric. — Manners of the Roman Senate and People. — Rome Is Thrice Besieged, and At Length Pillaged, by the Goths. — Death of Alaric. — the Goths Evacuate Italy. — Fall of Constantine. — Gaul and Spain Are Occupied by the Barbarians. — Independence of Britain.
  32. Arcadius Emperor of the East. — Administration and Disgrace of Eutropius. — Revolt of Gainas. — Persecution of St. John Chrysostom. — Theodosius II. Emperor of the East. — His Sister Pulcheria. — His Wife Eudocia. — the Persian War, and Division of Armenia.
  33. Death of Honorius. — Valentinian III. — Emperor of the East. — Administration of His Mother Placidia — Aetius and Boniface. — Conquest of Africa by the Vandals.
  34. The Character, Conquests, and Court of Attila, King of the Huns. — Death of Theodosius the Younger. — Elevation of Marcian to the Empire of the East.
  35. Invasion of Gaul by Attila. — He Is Repulsed by Aetius and the Visigoths. — Attila Invades and Evacuates Italy. — the Deaths of Attila, Aetius, and Valentinian the Third.
  36. Sack of Rome by Genseric, King of the Vandals. — His Naval Depredations. — Succession of the Last Emperors of the West, Maximus, Avitus, Majorian, Severus, Anthemius, Olybrius, Glycerius, Nepos, Augustulus. — Total Extinction of the Western Empire. — Reign of Odoacer, the First Barbarian King of Italy.
  37. Origin Progress, and Effects of the Monastic Life. — Conversion of the Barbarians to Christianity and Arianism. — Persecution of the Vandals in Africa. — Extinction of Arianism Among the Barbarians.
  38. Reign and Conversion of Clovis. — His Victories Over the Alemanni, Burgundians, and Visigoths. — Establishment of the French Monarchy in Gaul. — Laws of the Barbarians. — State of the Romans. — the Visigoths of Spain. — Conquest of Britain by the Saxons.
  39. Zeno and Anastasius, Emperors of the East. — Birth, Education, and First Exploits of Theodoric the Ostrogoth. — His Invasion and Conquest of Italy. — the Gothic Kingdom of Italy. — State of the West. — Military and Civil Government. — the Senator Boethius. — Last Acts and Death of Theodoric.
  40. Elevation of Justin the Elder. — Reign of Justinian. — I. the Empress Theodora. — II. Factions of the Circus, and Sedition of Constantinople. — III. Trade and Manufacture of Silk. — IV. Finances and Taxes. — V. Edifices of Justinian. — Church of St. Sophia. — Fortifications and Frontiers of the Eastern Empire. — Abolition of the Schools of Athens, and the Consulship of Rome.
  41. Conquests of Justinian in the West. — Character and First Campaigns of Belisarius — He Invades and Subdues the Vandal Kingdom of Africa — His Triumph. — the Gothic War. — He Recovers Sicily, Naples, and Rome. — Siege of Rome by the Goths. — Their Retreat and Losses. — Surrender of Ravenna. — Glory of Belisarius. — His Domestic Shame and Misfortunes.
  42. State of the Barbaric World. — Establishment of the Lombards On the Danube. — Tribes and Inroads of the Sclavonians. — Origin, Empire, and Embassies of the Turks. — the Flight of the Avars. — Chosroes I, Or Nushirvan, King of Persia. — His Prosperous Reign and Wars With the Romans. — the Colchian Or Lazic War. — the Aethiopians.
  43. Rebellions of Africa. — Restoration of the Gothic Kingdom by Totila. — Loss and Recovery of Rome. — Final Conquest of Italy by Narses. — Extinction of the Ostrogoths. — Defeat of the Franks and Alemanni. — Last Victory, Disgrace, and Death of Belisarius. — Death and Character of Justinian. — Comet, Earthquakes, and Plague.
  44. Idea of the Roman Jurisprudence. — the Laws of the Kings — the Twelve of the Decemvirs. — the Laws of the People. — the Decrees of the Senate. — the Edicts of the Magistrates and Emperors — Authority of the Civilians. — Code, Pandects, Novels, and Institutes of Justinian:— I. Rights of Persons. — II. Rights of Things. — III. Private Injuries and Actions. — IV. Crimes and Punishments.
  45. Reign of the Younger Justin. — Embassy of the Avars. — Their Settlement On the Danube. — Conquest of Italy by the Lombards. — Adoption and Reign of Tiberius. — of Maurice. — State of Italy Under the Lombards and the Exarchs. — of Ravenna. — Distress of Rome. — Character and Pontificate of Gregory the First.
  46. Revolutions On Persia After the Death of Chosroes On Nushirvan. — His Son Hormouz, A Tyrant, Is Deposed. — Usurpation of Baharam. — Flight and Restoration of Chosroes II. — His Gratitude to the Romans. — the Chagan of the Avars. — Revolt of the Army Against Maurice. — His Death. — Tyranny of Phocas. — Elevation of Heraclius. — the Persian War. — Chosroes Subdues Syria, Egypt, and Asia Minor. — Siege of Constantinople by the Persians and Avars. — Persian Expeditions. — Victories and Triumph of Heraclius.
  47. Theological History of the Doctrine of the Incarnation. — the Human and Divine Nature of Christ. — Enmity of the Patriarchs of Alexandria and Constantinople. — St. Cyril and Nestorius. — Third General Council of Ephesus. — Heresy of Eutyches. — Fourth General Council of Chalcedon. — Civil and Ecclesiastical Discord. — Intolerance of Justinian. — the Three Chapters. — the Monothelite Controversy. — State of the Oriental Sects:— I. the Nestorians. — II. the Jacobites. — III. the Maronites. — IV. the Armenians. — V. the Copts and Abyssinians.
  48. Plan of the Two Last Volumes. — Succession and Characters of the Greek Emperors of Constantinople, from the Time of Heraclius to the Latin Conquest.
  49. Introduction, Worship, and Persecution of Images. — Revolt of Italy and Rome. — Temporal Dominion of the Popes. — Conquest of Italy by the Franks. — Establishment of Images. — Character and Coronation of Charlemagne. — Restoration and Decay of the Roman Empire in the West. — Independence of Italy. — Constitution of the Germanic Body.
  50. Description of Arabia and Its Inhabitants. — Birth, Character, and Doctrine of Mahomet. — He Preaches At Mecca. — Flies to Medina. — Propagates His Religion by the Sword. — Voluntary Or Reluctant Submission of the Arabs. — His Death and Successors. — the Claims and Fortunes of All and His Descendants.
  51. The Conquest of Persia, Syria, Egypt, Africa, and Spain, by the Arabs Or Saracens. — Empire of the Caliphs, Or Successors of Mahomet. — State of the Christians, &c., Under Their Government.
  52. The Two Sieges of Constantinople by the Arabs. — Their Invasion of France, and Defeat by Charles Martel. — Civil War of the Ommiades and Abbassides. — Learning of the Arabs. — Luxury of the Caliphs. — Naval Enterprises On Crete, Sicily, and Rome. — Decay and Division of the Empire of the Caliphs. — Defeats and Victories of the Greek Emperors.
  53. Fate of the Eastern Empire in the Tenth Century. — Extent and Division. — Wealth and Revenue. — Palace of Constantinople. — Titles and Offices. — Pride and Power of the Emperors. — Tactics of the Greeks, Arabs, and Franks. — Loss of the Latin Tongue. — Studies and Solitude of the Greeks.
  54. Origin and Doctrine of the Paulicians. — Their Persecution by the Greek Emperors. — Revolt in Armenia &c. — Transplantation Into Thrace. — Propagation in the West. — the Seeds, Character, and Consequences of the Reformation.
  55. The Bulgarians. — Origin, Migrations, and Settlement of the Hungarians. — Their Inroads in the East and West. — the Monarchy of Russia. — Geography and Trade. — Wars of the Russians Against the Greek Empire. — Conversion of the Barbarians.
  56. The Saracens, Franks, and Greeks, in Italy. — First Adventures and Settlement of the Normans. — Character and Conquest of Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia — Deliverance of Sicily by His Brother Roger. — Victories of Robert Over the Emperors of the East and West. — Roger, King of Sicily, Invades Africa and Greece. — the Emperor Manuel Comnenus. — Wars of the Greeks and Normans. — Extinction of the Normans.
  57. The Turks of the House of Seljuk. — Their Revolt Against Mahmud Conqueror of Hindostan. — Togrul Subdues Persia, and Protects the Caliphs. — Defeat and Captivity of the Emperor Romanus Diogenes by Alp Arslan. — Power and Magnificence of Malek Shah. — Conquest of Asia Minor and Syria. — State and Oppression of Jerusalem. — Pilgrimages to the Holy Sepulchre.
  58. Origin and Numbers of the First Crusade. — Characters of the Latin Princes. — Their March to Constantinople. — Policy of the Greek Emperor Alexius. — Conquest of Nice, Antioch, and Jerusalem, by the Franks. — Deliverance of the Holy Sepulchre. — Godfrey of Bouillon, First King of Jerusalem. — Institutions of the French Or Latin Kingdom.
  59. Preservation of the Greek Empire. — Numbers, Passage, and Event, of the Second and Third Crusades. — St. Bernard. — Reign of Saladin in Egypt and Syria. — His Conquest of Jerusalem. — Naval Crusades. — Richard the First of England. — Pope Innocent the Third; and the Fourth and Fifth Crusades. — the Emperor Frederic the Second. — Louis the Ninth of France; and the Two Last Crusades. — Expulsion of the Latins Or Franks by the Mamelukes.
  60. Schism of the Greeks and Latins. — State of Constantinople. — Revolt of the Bulgarians. — Isaac Angelus Dethroned by His Brother Alexius. — Origin of the Fourth Crusade. — Alliance of the French and Venetians With the Son of Isaac. — Their Naval Expedition to Constantinople. — the Two Sieges and Final Conquest of the City by the Latins.
  61. Partition of the Empire by the French and Venetians, — Five Latin Emperors of the Houses of Flanders and Courtenay. — Their Wars Against the Bulgarians and Greeks. — Weakness and Poverty of the Latin Empire. — Recovery of Constantinople by the Greeks. — General Consequences of the Crusades.
  62. The Greek Emperors of Nice and Constantinople. — Elevation and Reign of Michael Palaeologus. — His False Union With the Pope and the Latin Church. — Hostile Designs of Charles of Anjou. — Revolt of Sicily. — War of the Catalans in Asia and Greece. — Revolutions and Present State of Athens.
  63. Civil Wars, and Ruin of the Greek Empire. — Reigns of Andronicus, the Elder and Younger, and John Palaeologus. — Regency, Revolt, Reign, and Abdication of John Cantacuzene. — Establishment of A Genoese Colony At Pera Or Galata. — Their Wars With the Empire and City of Constantinople.
  64. Conquests of Zingis Khan and the Moguls from China to Poland. — Escape of Constantinople and the Greeks. — Origin of the Ottoman Turks in Bithynia. — Reigns and Victories of Othman, Orchan, Amurath the First, and Bajazet the First. — Foundation and Progress of the Turkish Monarchy in Asia and Europe. — Danger of Constantinople and the Greek Empire.
  65. Elevation of Timour Or Tamerlane to the Throne of Samarcand. — His Conquests in Persia, Georgia, Tartary Russia, India, Syria, and Anatolia. — His Turkish War. — Defeat and Captivity of Bajazet. — Death of Timour. — Civil War of the Sons of Bajazet. — Restoration of the Turkish Monarchy by Mahomet the First. — Siege of Constantinople by Amurath the Second.
  66. Applications of the Eastern Emperors to the Popes. — Visits to the West, of John the First, Manuel, and John the Second, Palaeologus. — Union of the Greek and Latin Churches, Promoted by the Council of Basil, and Concluded At Ferrara and Florence. — State of Literature At Constantinople. — Its Revival in Italy by the Greek Fugitives. — Curiosity and Emulation of the Latins.
  67. Schism of the Greeks and Latins. — Reign and Character of Amurath the Second. — Crusade of Ladislaus, King of Hungary. — His Defeat and Death. — John Huniades. — Scanderbeg. — Constantine Palaeologus, Last Emperor of the East.
  68. Reign and Character of Mahomet the Second. — Siege, Assault, and Final Conquest, of Constantinople by the Turks. — Death of Constantine Palaeologus. — Servitude of the Greeks. — Extinction of the Roman Empire in the East. — Consternation of Europe. — Conquests and Death of Mahomet the Second.
  69. State of Rome from the Twelfth Century. — Temporal Dominion of the Popes. — Seditions of the City. — Political Heresy of Arnold of Brescia. — Restoration of the Republic. — the Senators. — Pride of the Romans. — Their Wars. — They Are Deprived of the Election and Presence of the Popes, Who Retire to Avignon. — the Jubilee. — Noble Families of Rome. — Feud of the Colonna and Ursini.
  70. Character and Coronation of Petrarch. — Restoration of the Freedom and Government of Rome by the Tribune Rienzi. — His Virtues and Vices, His Expulsion and Death. — Return of the Popes from Avignon. — Great Schism of the West. — Reunion of the Latin Church. — Last Struggles of Roman Liberty. — Statutes of Rome. — Final Settlement of the Ecclesiastical State.
  71. Prospect of the Ruins of Rome in the Fifteenth Century. — Four Causes of Decay and Destruction. — Example of the Coliseum. — Renovation of the City. — Conclusion of the Whole Work.

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