An account of the manners and customs of the Aborigines, by Edward John Eyre
Plate I. — Native Ornaments
- 1. Ku-ru-un-ko — tuft of emu feathers used in the play spoken of, page 228.
- 2. Three tufts of feathers tied in a bunch, with two kangaroo teeth, worn tied to the hair.
- 3. Tufts of feathers, used as a flag or signal, elevated on a spear; similar ones are worn by the males, of eagle or emu feathers over the pubes.
- 4. Let-ter-rer — kangaroo teeth worn tied to the hair of young males and females after the ceremonies of initiation.
- 5 and 6. Coverings for the pubes, worn by females, one is of fur string in threads, the other of skins cut in strips.
- 7. Tufts of white feathers worn round the neck.
- 8. Tufts of feathers stained red, worn round the neck.
- 9. Tufts of feathers stained red, with two kangaroo teeth to each tuft, also worn round the neck.
- 10. A piece of bone worn through the septum nasi.
- 11. Tufts of feathers worn round the neck, one is black, the other stained red.
- 12. Tufts of feathers stained red, with four kangaroo teeth in a bunch, worn round the neck.
- 13. Necklace of reeds cut in short lengths.
- 14. Band for forehead, feathers and swan’s-down.
- 15. Man-ga — band for forehead, a coil of string made of opossum fur.
- 16. Mona — net cap to confine the hair of young men of opossum fur.
- 17. Korno — widow’s mourning cap made of carbonate of lime, moulded to the head, weight 8 1/2lbs.
- 18. Dog’s-tail, worn as an appendage to the beard, which is gathered together and tied in a pigtail.
Plate II. Native Weapons
- 1. Spear barbed on both sides, of hard wood, 10 1/2 feet long, used in war or hunting.
- 2. Similar to the last but only barbed on one side, used for same purposes.
- 3. Kar-ku-ru — smooth spear of hard wood, 10 1/2 feet, used for punishments, as described page 222, also for general purposes.
- 4. Short, smooth, hard wood spear, 7 1/2 feet long, used to spear fish in diving.
- 5. Reed spear with barbed hard wood point, used for war with the throwing stick — the way of holding it, and position of the hand are shewn.
- 6. Hard wood spear with grass-tree end, 8 feet long, used with the throwing stick for general purposes.
- 7. Hard wood spear with single barb spliced on, 8 feet long, used from Port Lincoln to King George’s Sound for chase or war, it is launched with the throwing stick.
- 8. Ki-ko — reed spear, hard wood point, 6 to 7 feet long, used with the throwing-stick to kill birds or other game.
- 9. Hard wood spear, grass-tree end, barbed with flint, used with the throwing-stick for war.
- 10. The head of No. 9 on a arger scale.
- 11. The head of No. 1 on a larger scale.
- 12. The head of a Lachlan spear, taken from a man who was wounded there, the spear entered behind the shoulder in the back, and the point reached to the front of the throat, it had to be extracted by cutting an opening in the throat and forcing the spear-head through from behind — the man recovered.
- 13. The head of No. 7 on a larger scale.
Plate III. Native Weapons
- 1. Nga-waonk, or throwing-stick, about 2 feet long, and narrow.
- 2. Ditto but hollowed and conical.
- 3. Ditto straight and flat.
- 4. Ditto narrow and carved.
- 5. Ditto broad in the centre.
- 6. Sorcerer’s stick, with feathers and fur string round the point
- 7. Ditto plain.
- 8. The Darling Wangn, (boomerang) carved, 1 foot 10 inches.
- 9. The Darling war Wangn, 2 feet 1 inch.
- 10. Battle-axe.
- 11. Ditto
- 12. Ditto
- 13. Ditto
- 14. The lower end of the throwing-stick, shewing a flint gummed on as a chisel.
- 15. The Tar-ram, or shield made out of solid wood, 2 feet 7 inches long, 1 foot broad, carved and painted.
- 16. A side view of ditto
- 17. War-club of heavy wood, rounded and tapering.
- 18. Port Lincoln Wirris, or stick used for throwing at game, 2 feet.
- 19. Murray River Bwirri, or ditto ditto
- 20. War club, with a heavy knob, and pointed.
- 21. Port Lincoln Midla, or lever, with quartz knife attached to the end.
- 22. Murray river war club.
Plate IV. Native Implements
- 1. Tat-tat-ko, or rod for noosing wild fowl, 16 feet long, vide p. 310.
- 2. Moo-ar-roo, or paddle and fish spear, 10 to 16 feet, vide p. 263.
- 3. Chisel pointed hard wood stick, from 3 to 4 feet long, used by the women for digging.
- 4. Ngakko, or chisel pointed stick, 3 feet long, used by the men.
- 5. Mun — canoe of bark, vide p. 314.
- 6. 7, 8. Varieties of Mooyumkarr, or sacred oval pieces of wood, used at night, by being spun round with a long string so as to produce a loud roaring noise for the object of counteracting any evil influences, and for other purposes.
- 9. 10, 11, 12. Needles, etc. from the fibulas of kangaroos, wallabies, emus, etc.
- 13. Kangaroo bone, used as a knife.
- 14. Stone with hollow in centre for pounding roots.
- 15. Stone hatchet.
- 16. Distaff with string of hair upon it.
- 17. Lenko, or net hung round the neck in diving to put muscles, etc. in.
- 18. Kenderanko, net used in diving, vide p. 260.
- 19. Drinking cup made of a shell.
- 20. Drinking cup, being the scull of a native with the sutures closed with wax or gum.
Plate V. Native Works of Industry
- 1. Lukomb, or skin for carrying water, made from the skins of opossums, wallabie, or young kangaroo; the fur is turned inside, and the legs, tail, and neck, are tied up; they hold from 1 quart to 3 gallons.
- 2. Pooneed-ke — circular mat, 1 foot 9 inches in diameter, made of a kind of grass, worn on the back by the women, with a band passed round the lower part and tied in front, the child is then slipped in between the mat and the back, and so carried.
- 3. Kal-la-ter — a truncated basket of about a foot wide at the bottom, made also of a broad kind of grass, used for carrying anything in, and especially for taking about the fragile eggs of the Leipoa.
- 4. A wallet, or man’s travelling bag, made of a kangaroo skin, with the fur outside.
- 5. A small kal-la-ter.
- 6. Pool-la-da-noo-ko, or oval basket made of broad-leaved grass, used for carrying anything; from its flat make, it fits easily to the back.
- 7. An Adelaide oblong and somewhat flattish basket, made of a kind of rush.
- 8. The Rok-ko, or net bag, made of a string manufactured from the rush, it is carried by the women, and contains generally all the worldly property of the family, such as shells and pieces of flint for knives — bones for needles — sinews of animals for thread — fat and red ochre for adorning the person — spare ornaments or belts — white pigment for painting for the dance — a skin for carrying water — a stone for pounding roots — the sacred implements of the husband carefully folded up and concealed — a stone hatchet — and many other similar articles. The size of the rok-ko varies according to the wealth of the family; it is sometimes very large and weighty when filled.
Plate VI. Miscellaneous Native Articles
- 1. Head of war spear of the North Coast, barbed for 3 feet, total length 9 1/2 feet.
- 2. Head of fish spear of the North Coast, barbed for 18 inches, total length 8 3/4 feet.
- 2. Head of spear of the North Coast, barbed for 18 inches, total length 8 3/4 feet.
- 4. Head of war spear of the North Coast, with head of quartz, 6 inches, total length 9 1/2 feet.
- 5. Head of war spear of the North Coast, with head of slate, 6 inches, total length 9 1/2 feet.
- 6. Two handed sword of hard wood, North Coast, 3 1/2 feet.
- 7. Throwing stick of North Coast, 3 feet 1 inch.
- 8. Throwing stick of North Coast, very pliant, 3–16ths of an inch only thick, 3 feet 6 inches.
- 9. Broad short throwing stick, 2 feet 2 inches.
- 10. An ornament of feathers for the neck.
- 11. Five Kangaroo teeth in a bunch, worn round the neck.
- 12. A net waistband or belt, from Murray River, 8 feet long 6 inches wide.
- 13. Plume of feathers tied to thin wand, and stuck in the hair at dances — New South Wales.
- 14. War club.
- 15. War club.
- 16. Bag of close net work.
- 17. Band for forehead of Swan’s down.
- 18. Root end of a kind of grass, used as pins for pegging out skins.
- 19. Sorcerer’s stick.
- 20. Sorcerer’s stick.
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