The Closet of Sir Kenelm Digby, Kt., Opened, by Kenelm Digby

Of Cookery

To Make a Sack Posset

Boil two wine-quarts of Sweet-cream in a Possnet; when it hath boiled a little, take it from the fire, and beat the yolks of nine or ten fresh Eggs, and the whites of four with it, beginning with two or three spoonfuls, and adding more till all be incorporated; then set it over the fire, to recover a good degree of heat, but not so much as to boil; and always stir it one way, least you break the consistence. In the mean time, let half a pint of Sack or White muscadin boil a very little in a bason, upon a Chafing-dish of Coals, with three quarters of a pound of Sugar, and three or four quartered Nutmegs, and as many pretty big pieces of sticks of Cinnamon. When this is well scummed, and still very hot, take it from the fire, and immediately pour into it the cream, beginning to pour neer it, but raising by degrees your hand so that it may fall down from a good height; and without anymore to be done, it will then be fit to eat. It is very good kept cold as well as eaten hot. It doth very well with it, to put into the Sack (immediately before you put in the cream) some Ambergreece, or Ambered-sugar, or Pastils. When it is made, you may put powder of Cinnamon and Sugar upon it, if you like it.


To two quarts of Cream, if it be in the Summer, when the Cream is thick and best, take but two or three yolks of Eggs. But in the Winter when it is thin and hungry, take six or seven; but never no whites. And of Sack or Muscadin, take a good third (scarce half) of a pint; and three quarters of a pound of fine Sugar. Let the Sugar and Sack boil well together, that it be almost like a Syrup; and just as you take it from the fire, put in your ground Amber or Pastils, and constantly pour in the Cream with which the Eggs are incorporated; and do all the rest as is said in the foregoing Process.

Ambered-sugar is made by grinding very well, four grains of Ambergreece, and one of Musk, with a little fine Sugar; or grinding two or three Spanish Pastils very small.

A Plain Ordinary Posset

Put a pint of good Milk to boil; as soon as it doth so, take it from the fire, to let the great heat of it cool a little; for doing so, the curd will be the tenderer, and the whole of a more uniform consistence. When it is prettily cooled, pour it into your pot, wherein is about two spoonfuls of Sack, and about four of Ale, with sufficient Sugar dissolved in them. So let it stand a while near the fire, till you eat it.

A Sack Posset

Take three pints of Cream; boil in it a little Cinnamon, a Nutmeg quartered, and two spoonfuls of grated bread; then beat the yolks of twelve Eggs very well with a little cold Cream, and a spoonful of Sack. When your Cream hath boiled about a quarter of an hour, thicken it up with the Eggs, and sweeten it with Sugar; and take half a pint of Sack and six spoonfuls of Ale, and put into the basin or dish, you intend to make it in, with a little Ambergreece, if you please. Then pour your Cream and Eggs into it, holding your hand as high as conveniently you can, gently stirring in the basin with the spoon as you pour it; so serve it up. If you please you may strew Sugar upon it.

You may strew Ambred sugar upon it, as you eat it; or Sugar-beaten with Cinnamon, if you like it.

A Barley Sack Posset

Take half a pound or more of French barley, (not Perle-barley) and pour scalding water upon it, and wash it well therein, and strain it from the water, & put it into the Corner of a Linnen-cloth and tie it up fast there, and strike it a dozen or twenty blows against a firm table or block, to make it tender by such bruising it, as in the Countrey is used with wheat to make frumenty. Then put it into a large skillet with three pints of good milk. Boil this till at least half be consumed, and that it become as thick as hasty pudding, which will require at least two hours; and it must be carefully stirred all the while, least it burn too: which if by some little inadvertence it should do, and that some black burned substance sticketh to the bottom of the skillet, pour all the good matter from it into a fresh skillet (or into a basin whiles you scoure this) and renew boiling till it be very thick; All which is to make the barley very tender and pulpy, and will at least require two or near three hours. Then pour to it three pints of good Cream, and boil them together a little while, stirring them always. It will be sometime before the cold Cream boil, which when it doth, a little will suffice. Then take it from the fire, and season it well with Sugar. Then take a quarter of a pint of Sack, and as much Rhenish-wine (or more of each) and a little Verjuyce, or sharp Cider, or juyce of Orange, and season it well with Sugar (at least half a pound to both) and set it over Coals to boil. Which when it doth, and the Sugar is well melted, pour the Cream into it; in which Cream the barley will be settled to the bottom by standing still unmoved, after the Sugar is well stirred and melted in it, or pour it through a hair-sieve; and you may boil it again, that it be very hot, when you mingle them together; else it may chance not curdle. Some of the barley (but little) will go over with it, and will do no hurt. After you have thus made your Posset, let it stand warm a while that the curd may thicken: but take heed it boil not, for that would dissolve it again into the consistence of Cream. When you serve it up, strew it over with Powder of Cinnamon and Sugar. It will be much the better, if you strew upon it some Ambergreece ground with Sugar. You may boil bruised sticks of Cinnamon in the Cream, and in the Sack, before you mingle them. You must use clear Char-coal-fire under your vessels. The remaining barley will make good barley Cream, being boiled with fresh Cream and a little Cinnamon and Mace; to which you may add a little Rosemary and Sugar, when it is taken from the fire: or butter it as you do wheat. Or make a pudding of it, putting to it a Pint of Cream, which boil; then add four or five yolks, and two whites of Eggs, and the Marrow of two bones cut small, and of one in lumps: sufficient Sugar, and one Nutmeg grated. Put this either to bake raw, or with puff-past beneath and above it in the dish. A pretty smart heat, as for white Manchet, and three quarters of an hour in the Oven. You may make the like with great Oat-meal scalded (not boiled) in Cream, and soaked a night; then made up as the other.

My Lord of Carlile’s Sack-Posset

Take a Pottle of Cream, and boil in it a little whole Cinnamon, and three or four flakes of Mace. To this proportion of Cream put in eighteen yolks of Eggs, and eight of the whites; a pint of Sack; beat your Eggs very well, and then mingle them with your Sack. Put in three quarters of a pound of Sugar into the Wine and Eggs with a Nutmeg grated, and a little beaten Cinnamon; set the basin on the fire with the wine and Eggs, and let it be hot. Then put in the Cream boyling from the fire, pour it on high, but stir it not; cover it with a dish, and when it is settled, strew on the top a little fine Sugar mingled with three grains of Ambergreece, and one grain of Musk, and serve it up.

A Syllabub

My Lady Middlesex makes Syllabubs for little Glasses with spouts, thus. Take 3 pints of sweet Cream, one of quick white wine (or Rhenish), and a good wine glassful (better the 1/4 of a pint) of Sack: mingle with them about three quarters of a pound of fine Sugar in Powder. Beat all these together with a whisk, till all appeareth converted into froth. Then pour it into your little Syllabub-glasses, and let them stand all night. The next day the Curd will be thick and firm above, and the drink clear under it. I conceive it may do well, to put into each glass (when you pour the liquor into it) a sprig of Rosemary a little bruised, or a little Limon-peel, or some such thing to quicken the taste; or use Amber-sugar, or spirit of Cinnamon, or of Lignum-Cassiæ; or Nutmegs, or Mace, or Cloves, a very little.

A Good Dish of Cream

Boil a quart of good Cream with sticks of Cinnamon and quartered Nutmeg and Sugar to your taste. When it is boiled enough to have acquired the taste of the Spice, take the whites of six New laid eggs, and beat them very well with a little Fresh-cream, then pour them to your boyling Cream, and let them boil a walm or two. Then let it run through a boulter, and put a little Orange flower-water to it, and sliced bread; and so serve it up cold.

An Excellent Spanish Cream

Take two quarts (you must not exceed this proportion in one vessel) of perfectly Sweet-cream, that hath not been jogged with carriage; and in a Possnet set it upon a clear lighted Char-coal-fire, not too hot. When it beginneth to boil, cast into it a piece of double refined hard Sugar about as much as two Walnuts, and with a spoon stir the Cream all one way. After two or three rounds, you will perceive a thick Cream rise at the top. Scum it off with your spoon, and lay it in another dish. And always stir it the same way, and more Cream will rise; which as it doth rise, you put it into your dish, one lare upon an other. And thus almost all the Cream will turn into this thick Cream, to within two or three spoonfuls. If you would have it sweeter, you may strew some Sugar upon the top of it. You must be careful not to have the heat too much; for then it will turn to oyl; as also if the Cream have been carried. If you would have it warm, set the dish you lay it in, upon a Chafing-dish of Coals.

Another Clouted Cream

Milk your Cows in the evening about the ordinary hour, and fill with it a little Kettle about three quarters full, so that there may be happily two or three Gallons of Milk. Let this stand thus five or six hours. About twelve a Clock at night kindle a good fire of Charcoal, and set a large Trivet over it. When the fire is very clear and quick, and free from all smoak, set your Kettle of Milk over it upon the Trivet, and have in a pot by a quart of good Cream ready to put in at the due time; which must be, when you see the Milk begin to boil simpringly. Then pour in the Cream in a little stream and low, upon a place, where you see the milk simper: This will presently deaden the boiling, and then you must pour in no more Cream there, but in a fresh place, where it simpreth and bubbeleth a little. Continue this pouring in, in new places where the milk boileth, till all your Cream is in, watching it carefully to that end. Then let it continue upon the fire to boil, till you see all the Milk rise up together to the top, and not in little parcels here and there, so that it would run over, if it should stay longer upon the fire. Then let two persons take it steadily off, and set it by in a Cool-room to stand unmoved, uncovered; but so as no Motes may fall in, for the rest of that night, and all the next day and night, and more, if you would have it thicker. Then an hour or two before Dinner cut the thick Cream at the top with a Knife into squares as broad as your hand, which will be the thicker the longer it hath stood. Then have a thin slice or skimmer of Latton, and with that raise up the thick Cream, putting your slice under it so nicely, that you take up no milk with it; and have a Ladle or Spoon in the other hand to help the cream upon the slice, which thereby will become mingled: and lay these parcels of Cream in a dish, into which you have first put a little raw Cream, or of that (between Cream and Milk) that is immediately under the Clouts. To take the Clouts the more conveniently, you hold a back of a Ladle or skimming-dish against the further side of the Clout, that it may not slide away when the Latton slice shuffeth it on the other side to get under it, and so the Clout will mingle together or dubble up, which makes it the thicker, and the more graceful. When you have laid a good Laire of Clouts in the dish, put upon it a little more fresh raw or boiled cream, and then fill it up with the rest of the Clouts. And when it is ready to serve in, you may strew a little Sugar upon it, if you will you may sprinkle in a little Sugar between every flake or clout of Cream. If you keep the dish thus laid a day longer before you eat it, the Cream will grow the thicker and firmer. But if you keep it, I think it is best to be without sugar or raw Cream in it, and put them in, when you are to serve it up. There will be a thin Cream swimming upon the milk of the Kettle after the Clouts are taken away, which is very sweet and pleasant to drink. If you should let your clouts lie longer upon the milk, then I have said, before you skim it off, the Milk underneath would grow soure, and spoil the cream above. If you put these clouts into a Churn with other cream, it will make very good butter, so as no sugar have been put with it.

My Lord of S. Alban’s Cresme Fouettee

Put as much as you please to make, of sweet thick cream into a dish, and whip it with a bundle of white hard rushes, (of such as they make whisks to brush cloaks) tyed together, till it come to be very thick, and near a buttery substance. If you whip it too long, it will become butter. About a good hour will serve in winter. In summer it will require an hour and a half. Do not put in the dish, you will serve it up in, till it be almost time to set it upon the table. Then strew some poudered fine sugar in the bottom of the dish it is to go in, and with a broad spatule lay your cream upon it: when half is laid in, strew some more fine sugar upon it, and then lay in the rest of the Cream (leaving behinde some whey that will be in the bottom) and strew more sugar upon that. You should have the sugar-box by you, to strew on sugar from time to time, as you eat off the superficies, that is strewed over with sugar. If you would have your whipped cream light and frothy, that hath but little substance in the eating, make it of onely plain milk; and if you would have it of a consistence between both, mingle cream and milk.

To Make the Cream Curds

Strain your Whey, and set it on the fire; make a clear and gentle fire under your kettle; as they rise, put in Whey, so continuing till they are ready to skim. Then take your skimmer, and put them on the bottom of a hair sieve, so let them drain till they are cold; then take them off, and put them into a basin, and beat them with two or three spoonfuls of Cream and Sugar.

To Make Clouted Cream

Take two Gallons more or less of new milk, set it upon a clear fire; when it is ready to boil, put in a quart of sweet cream, and take it off the fire, and strain it through a hair sieve into earthen pans; let it stand two days and two nights; then take it off with a skimmer; strew sugar on the cream, and serve it to the Table.

To Make a Whip Syllabub

Take the whites of two Eggs, and a pint of Cream, six spoonfuls of Sack, as much Sugar as will sweeten it; then take a Birchen rod and whip it; as it riseth with froth, skim it, and put it into the Syllabub pot; so continue it with whipping and skimming, till your Syllabub pot be full.

To Make a Plain Syllabub

Take a pint of Verjuyce in a bowl; milk the Cow to the Verjuyce; take off the Curd; and take sweet-cream and beat them together with a little Sack and Sugar; put it into your Syllabub pot; then strew Sugar on it, and so send it to the Table.

Concerning Potages

The ground or body of Potages must always be very good broth of Mutton, Veal and Volaille. Now to give good taste, you vary every month of the year, according to the herbs and roots that are in season. In Spring and Summer you use Cersevil, Oseille, Borage, Bugloss, Pourpier, Lettice, Chicoree and Cowcombers quartered, etc. The manner of using them is to boil store of them about half an hour or a quarter, in a pot by it self, with some bouillon taken out off the great pot; half an hour before dinner, take light bread well dryed from all moisture before the fire; then cut in slices, laid in a dish over coals, pour upon it a ladleful of broath, no more then the bread can presently drink up; which when it hath done, put on another ladleful, and stew that, till it be drunk up; repeat this three or four times, a good quarter of an hour in all, till the bread is swelled like a gelly (if it be too long, it will grow glewy and stick to the dish) and strong of broth; then fill it up near full with the same strong broth, which having stewed a while, put on the broth and herbs, and your Capon or other meat upon that, and so let it stew a quarter of an hour longer, then turn it up.

In winter, boil half an hour a pretty bundle of Parsley, and half as much of Sives, and a very little Thyme, and Sweet-marjoram; when they have given their taste to the herbs, throw the bundle away, and do as abovesaid with the bread. Deeper in the Winter, Parsley-roots, and White-chicoree, or Navets, or Cabbage, which last must be put in at first, as soon as the pot is skimmed; and to colour the bouillon it is good to put into it (sooner or later, according to the coursness or fineness of what you put in) Partridges or Wild-duck, or a fleshy piece of Beef half rosted. Green-pease may some of them be boiled a pretty while in the great pot; but others in a pot by themselves, with some Bouillon no longer then as if they were to eat buttered, and put upon the dish, containing the whole stock a quarter of an hour after the other hath stewed a quarter of an hour upon the bread. Sometimes Old-pease boiled in the broth from the first, to thicken it, but no Pease to be served in with it. Sometimes a piece of the bottom of a Venison Pasty, put in from the first. Also Venison bones.

Plain Savoury English Potage

Make it of Beef, Mutton and Veal; at last adding a Capon, or Pigeons. Put in at first a quartered Onion or two, some Oat-meal, or French barley, some bottome of a Venison-pasty-crust, twenty whole grains of Pepper: four or five Cloves at last, and a little bundle of sweet-herbs, store of Marigold-flowers. You may put in Parsley or other herbs.

Or make it with Beef, Mutton and Veal, putting in some Oat-meal, and good pot-herbs, as Parsley, Sorrel, Violet-leaves, etc. And a very little Thyme and Sweet-marjoram, scarce to be tasted: and some Marigold leaves, at last. You may begin to boil it overnight, and let it stand warm all night; then make an end of boiling it next morning. It is well to put into the pot, at first, twenty or thirty corns of whole Pepper.

Potage De Blanc De Chapon

Make first a very good bouillon, seasoned as you like. Put some of it upon the white flesh of a Capon or Hen a little more than half-rosted. Beat them well in a Mortar, and strain out all the juyce that will come. You may put more broth upon what remains in the strainer, and beat again, and strain it to the former. Whiles this is doing, put some of your first plain broth upon some dryed bread to mittonner well. Let there be no more broth, then just to do that. None to swim thin over. When you will serve the potage in, pour the white liquor upon the swelled and gellied-bread, and let them stew together a little upon the Coals. When it is through hot, take it off, and squeese some limon or orange into it, and so send it in presently. It mendeth a Bouillon much, to boil in it some half-rosted Volaille, or other good meat.

To Make Spinage-Broth

Take strong broth, and boil a neck of Mutton, and a Marrow-bone in it, and skim it very well; then put in half a pound of French barley, and a bundle of sweet herbs, and two or three blades of Large-mace. Let these boil very well. Then mince half a peck of Spinage, and two great Onions very small, and let it boil one hour or more; season it with salt as you please, and send the Mutton and the Marrow-bone in a dish with French bread or Manchet to the Table.

Ordinary Potage

Take the fleshy and sinewy part of a leg of Beef, crag-ends of necks of Veal and Mutton. Put them in a ten quarts pot, and fill it up with water. Begin to boil about six a clock in the Morning, to have your potage ready by Noon. When it is well skimmed, put in two or three large Onions in quarters, and half a loaf (in one lump) of light French bread, or so much of the bottom crust of a Venison Pasty; all which will be at length clean dissolved in the broth. In due time season it with Salt, a little Pepper, and a very few Cloves. Likewise at a fit distance, before it be ended boiling, put in store of good herbs, as in Summer, Borrage, Bugloss, Purslain, Sorel, Lettice, Endive, and what else you like; in Winter, Beetes, Endive, Parsley-roots, Cabbage, Carrots, whole Onions, Leeks, and what you can get or like, with a little Sweet-marjoram and exceeding little Thyme. Order it so that the broth be very strong and good. To which end you may after four hours (or three) boil a Hen or Capon in it; light French-bread sliced, must be taken about noon, and tosted a little before the fire, or crusts of crisp new French-bread; lay it in a dish, and pour some of the broth upon it, and let it stew a while upon a Chafing-dish. Then pour in more Broth, and if you have a Fowl, lay it upon the bread in the broth, and fill it up with broth, and lay the herbs and roots all over and about it, and let it stew a little longer, and so serve it up covered, after you have squeesed some juyce of Orange or Limon, or put some Verjuyce into it. Or you may beat two or three Eggs, with part of the broth, and some Verjuyce, or juyce of Orange, and then mingle it with the rest of the broth.

Barley Potage

Take half a pound of French-barley, and wash it in three or four hot-waters; then tye it up in a course linnen-cloth and strike it five or six blows against the table; for this will make it very tender. Put it into such a pot full of meat and water, as is said in the ordinary potage, after it is skimmed; and season this with Salt, Spice, Marjoram and Thyme, as you did the other. An hour before you take it from the fire, put into it a pound of the best Raisins of the Sun well washed; at such a distance of time, that they may be well plumped and tender, but not boiled to mash. When the broth is enough boiled and consumed, and very strong, pour some of it upon sliced dry bread in a deep potage-dish, or upon crusts, and let it stew a while. Then pour on all the rest of the broth, with the barley and Raisins, upon a Capon or Hen, or piece of Mutton or Veal; and let it mittonner awhile upon the Chafing-dish, then serve it in.

Stewed Broth

Take a like quantity of water and flesh, as in the others, adding two Marrow bones: which tie at the ends with pieces of Linnen, that the Marrow may not melt out, and make the broth too fat. A while after it is skimmed, put into it a loaf of French bread very thin sliced, (which is better than grated) and this will be all dissolved in the broth. Season it in due time with salt, four or five flakes of Mace, and five or six Cloves; as also with sweet herbs: And an hour, or better, before you take it off, put in Raisins of the Sun, Prunes, and Currants, of each one Pound, well picked and washed. When it is boiled enough, pour the broth into a bason, that if it be too fat, you may take it off. There season it with a little Sugar, and four or five spoonfuls of White-wine or Sack. Then pour it upon sliced-bread, and stew it a while. Then squeese an Orange or Limon (or both) upon it, and serve it up with the Marrow-bones in it.

An English Potage

Make a good strong broth of Veal and Mutton; then take out the meat, and put in a good Capon or Pullet: but first, if it be very fat, parboil it a little to take away the Oyleness of it, and then put it into the broth; and when it hath boiled a little therein, put in some grated bread, a bundle of sweet herbs, two or three blades of Mace, and a peeled Onion. When it is ready to be dished up take the yolks of six Eggs, beat them very well with two or three spoonfuls of White-wine. Then take the Capon out of the broth, and thicken it up with the Eggs, and so dish it up with the Capon, and tostes of White-bread or slices, which you please; and have ready boiled the Marrow of two or three bones with some tender boiled white Endive, and strew it over the Capon.

Another Potage

A good Potage for dinner is thus made: Boil Beef, Mutton, Veal, Volaille, and a little piece of the Lean of a Gammon of the best Bacon, with some quartered Onions, (and a little Garlick, if you like it) you need no salt, if you have Bacon, but put in a little Pepper and Cloves. If it be in the Winter, put in a Bouquet of Sweet-herbs, or whole Onions, or Roots, or Cabbage. If season of Herbs, boil in a little of the broth apart, some Lettice, Sorrel, Borage, and Bugloss, &c. till they be only well mortified. If you put in any gravy, let it boil or stew a while with the broth; put it in due time upon the tosted-bread to Mittoner, &c. If you boil some half rosted meat with your broth, it will be the better.

Portugal Broth, as it was Made for the Queen

Make very good broth with some lean of Veal, Beef and Mutton, and with a brawny Hen or young Cock. After it is scummed, put in an Onion quartered, (and, if you like it, a Clove of Garlick,) a little Parsley, a sprig of Thyme, as much Minth, a little balm; some Coriander-seeds bruised, and a very little Saffron; a little Salt, Pepper and a Clove. When all the substance is boiled out of the meat, and the broth very good, you may drink it so, or, pour a little of it upon tosted sliced-bread, and stew it, till the bread have drunk up all that broth, then add a little more, and stew; so adding by little and little, that the bread may imbibe it and swell: whereas if you drown it at once, the bread will not swell, and grow like gelly: and thus you will have a good potage. You may add Parsley-roots or Leeks, Cabbage or Endive in the due time before the broth is ended boiling, and time enough for them to become tender. In the Summer you may put in Lettice, Sorrel, Purslane, Borage and Bugloss, or what other pot-herbs you like. But green herbs do rob the strength and vigor and Cream of the Potage.

The Queen’s ordinary Bouillon de santé in a morning was thus. A Hen, a handful of Parsley, a sprig of Thyme, three of Spear-minth, a little balm, half a great Onion, a little Pepper and Salt, and a Clove, as much water as would cover the Hen; and this boiled to less then a pint, for one good Porrenger full.

Nourissant Potage De SantÉ

Fill a large earthen pot with water, and make it boil; then take out half the water, and put in Beef and Mutton (fit pieces) and boil and skim: and as soon as it boils, season it with Salt and Pepper. After an hour and half, or two hours, put in a Capon, and four or five Cloves; when it is within a good half hour of being boiled enough, put in such herbs, as you intend, as Sorrel, Lettice, Purslane, Borage and Bugloss, or Green-pease; and in the Winter, Parsley-roots and White-endive, or Navets, &c. so pour the broth upon tosted light bread, and let it stew a while in the dish covered. You should never put in fresh water. And if you should through the consuming of the water by long boiling, it must be boiling hot. The less broth remains, the better is the Potage, were it but a Porrenger full, so that it would be stiff gelly when it is cold. It is good to put into the water, at the first, a whole Onion or two; and if you will, a spoonful of well-beaten orge mondé or bottom crust of bread, or some of the bottom of a Venison Pasty.

Potage De SantÉ

Make strong broth with a piece of Beef, Mutton and Veal, adding a piece of the sinews of the leg of Beef, seasoning it with two great Onions quartered, some Cloves, and White-pepper. In due time put in a Capon, or take some broth out to boil it in. But before you put in the Capon, take out some of the Broth, in which boil and stew Turneps first prepared thus. Fry them in scalding butter, till they be tender; then take them out with a holed skimmer, and lay them in a holed dish warmed, set in another whole dish. When all the butter is quite drained out, stew them in a Pipkin in the broth, as is said above. When you will make up your potage, put some Ladlefuls of the broth of the great pot (driving away the fat with the ladle) upon slices of scorched bread in a deep dish. Let this mittonner a while. Then lay the Capon upon it, and pour the Turneps and broth of them over all. A Duck in lieu of a Capon will make very good potage. But then it is best, to fry that first, as the Turneps, then boil it.

Potage De SantÉ

Make a good and well-seasoned bouillon with lean Beef, Mutton and Veal, in which boil a Capon. Boil with it either Cabbage, or Turneps, or whole Onions. The first two you put into the broth all over the dish; but the Onions you lay all round about the brim, when you serve it in. Whiles the meat is boiling to make the bouillon, you rost a fleshy piece of Beef (without fat) of two or three pound; and when it is half rosted, squeese out all the juyce, and put the flesh into the pot with the rest of the meat to boil, which will both colour and strengthen it. When you find your Bouillon good, pour it into the dish, where your bread lieth sliced (which must be very light and spungy, and dryed first, after it is sliced) and let it mittonner a little. Then pour your gravy of beef upon it, (or of mutton) and lay your Capon upon it, and lay in your roots round about it. It is best to boil by themselves in some of the bouillon in a pot a part, the roots or Onions.

Potage De SantÉ

Mounsieur De S. Euremont makes thus his potage de santé and boiled meat for dinner, being very Valetudinary. Put a knuckle of Veal and a Hen into an earthen Pipkin with a Gallon of water (about nine of the Clock forenoon) and boil it gently till you have skimmed it well. When no more scum riseth (which will be in about a quarter of an hour), take out the Hen (which else would be too much boiled,) and continue boiling gently till about half an hour past ten. Then put in the Hen again, and a handful of white Endive uncut at length, which requireth more boiling then tenderer herbs. Near half hour after eleven, put in two good handfuls of tender Sorrel, Borage, Bugloss, Lettice, Purslane (these two come later then the others, therefore are not to be had all the winter) a handful a piece, a little Cersevil, and a little Beet-leaves. When he is in pretty good health, that he may venture upon more savoury hotter things, he puts in a large Onion stuck round with Cloves, and sometimes a little bundle of Thyme and other hot savoury herbs; which let boil a good half hour or better, and take them out, and throw them away, when you put in the tender herbs. About three quarters after eleven, have your slice dried bread ready in a dish, and pour a ladleful of the broth upon it. Let it stew covered upon a Chafing-dish. When that is soaked in, put on more. So continue till it be well mittonée, and the bread grown spungy, and like a gelly. Then fill up the dish with broth, and put the Hen and Veal upon it, and cover them over with herbs, and so serve it in. He keeps of this broth to drink at night, or make a Pan-cotto, as also for next morning. I like to adde to this, a rand of tender brisket Beef, and the Cragg-end of a neck of Mutton. But the Beef must have six hours boiling. So put it on with all the rest at six a Clock. When it is well scummed, take out all the rest. At nine, put in the Veal and Mutton, and thenceforwards, as is said above. But to so much meat, and for so long boiling, you must have at least three Gallons of water. Either way you must boil always but leisurely, and the pot covered as much as is convenient, and season it in due time with a little salt, as also with Pepper, if you like it; and if you be in vigorous health, you may put a greater store of Onions quartered. The beets have no very good taste, peradventure it were best leave them out. In health you may season the potage with a little juyce of Orange. In season green Pease are good, also Cucumbers. In winter, Roots, Cabbage, Poix chiches, Vermicelli at any time. You may use yolks of Eggs beaten with some of the broth and juyce of Oranges or Verjuyce, then poured upon the whole quantity.

Tea with Eggs

The Jesuite that came from China, Ann. 1664, told Mr. Waller, That there they use sometimes in this manner. To near a pint of the infusion, take two yolks of new laid-eggs, and beat them very well with as much fine Sugar as is sufficient for this quantity of Liquor; when they are very well incorporated, pour your Tea upon the Eggs and Sugar, and stir them well together. So drink it hot. This is when you come home from attending business abroad, and are very hungry, and yet have not conveniency to eat presently a competent meal. This presently discusseth and satisfieth all rawness and indigence of the stomack, flyeth suddainly over the whole body and into the veins, and strengthneth exceedingly, and preserves one a good while from necessity of eating. Mr. Waller findeth all those effects of it thus with Eggs. In these parts, He saith, we let the hot water remain too long soaking upon the Tea, which makes it extract into it self the earthy parts of the herb. The water is to remain upon it, no longer that whiles you can say the Miserere Psalm very leisurely. Then pour it upon the sugar, or sugar and Eggs. Thus you have only the spiritual parts of the Tea, which is much more active, penetrative and friendly to nature. You may from this regard take a little more of the herb; about one dragm of Tea, will serve for a pint of water; which makes three ordinary draughts.

Nourishing Broth

Make a very good gelly-broth of Mutton, Veal, joynt-bones of each, a Hen, and some bones (with a little meat upon them) of rosted Veal or Mutton, breaking the bones that the marrow may boil out. Put to boil with these some barley (first boiled in water, that you throw away) some Harts-horn rasped, and some stoned raisins of the Sun. When the broth is thoroughly well boiled, pour it from the Ingredients, and let it cool and harden into a gelly: then take from it the fat on the top, and the dregs in the bottom. To a porrenger full of this melted, put the yolk of a new-laid egg beaten with the juyce of an Orange (or less if you like it not so sharp) and a little Sugar; and let this stew gently a little while altogether, and so drink it. Some flesh of rosted Veal or Mutton, or Capon, besides the rosted-bones, that have marrow in them, doth much amend the broth.

The Joynts I have mentioned above, are those, which the Butchers cut off, and throw to their dogs, from the ends of shoulders, legs, and other bare long parts, and have the sinews sticking to them.

Good Nourishing Potage

Take any bones of rosted or boiled Beef, from which the meat is never so clean eaten and picked; as the Ribs, the Chine-bones, the buckler plate-bone, marrow-bones, or any other, that you would think never so dry and insipid. Break them into such convenient pieces, as may lie in your pipkin or pot; also you may bruise them. Put with them a good piece of the bloody piece of the throat of the Beef, where he is sticked, and store of water to these. Boil and scum them, till the first foul scum is risen and taken away; afterwards scum no more, but let the blood boil into the broth. You may put a quartered Onion or two to them, if you like them. After four or five hours boyling, put in a good knuckle with some of the leg of Veal; and, if you please, a crag-end or two of necks of Mutton. Let these boil very well with the rest. You may put in what herbs you please, in due time, as Lettice, Sorrel, Borage and Bugloss, Spinage and Endive, Purslane, &c. and a bundle of sweet herbs: In winter, Cabbage, or Turneps, or Parsley-roots, or Endive, &c. It will be done in two or three hours after the Veal and Mutton are in. Pour out the broth, and boil it a little by it self over a Chafing-dish, in some deep vessel, to scum off the superfluous fat. Then pour it upon tosted bread (by degrees, if you will, stewing it, to gelly it) to serve it in (after it hath stewed a little,) you must remember to season it with salt, Pepper and Cloves, in the due time. You will do well to quicken it with some Verjuyce, or juyce of Orange; or with some yolks of Eggs and the juyces, if the broth be not over-strong. Green-pease in the season do well with the Potage. You may put in, near the beginning, some bottom of a Peppered Pasty, or of a loaf of bread.

Wheaten Flommery

In the West-country, they make a kind of Flomery of wheat flower, which they judge to be more harty and pleasant then that of Oat-meal, Thus; Take half, or a quarter of a bushel of good Bran of the best wheat (which containeth the purest flower of it, though little, and is used to make starch,) and in a great woodden bowl or pail, let it soak with cold water upon it three or four days. Then strain out the milky water from it, and boil it up to a gelly or like starch. Which you may season with Sugar and Rose or Orange-flower-water, and let it stand till it be cold, and gellied. Then eat it with white or Rhenish-wine, or Cream, or Milk, or Ale.

Pap of Oat-Meal

Beat Oat-meal small; put a little of it to milk, and let it boil stewingly, till you see that the milk begins to thicken with it. Then strain the milk from the Oat-meal (this is as when you soak or boil out the substance of Oatmeal with water, to make Flomery,) then boil up that milk to the height of Pap, which sweeten with a little Sugar, and put to it some yolks of Eggs dissolved in Rose or Orange-Flower-water, and let it mittonner a while upon the Chafing-dish, and a little Butter, if you like it. You may boil a little Mace in the Milk.


Beat a couple of New-laid-eggs in good clear broth; heat this a little, stirring it all the while. Then pour this upon a Panado made thick of the same broth; and keep them a little upon a Chafing-dish to incorporate, stirring them all the while.

Barley Pap

Boil Barley in water usq. ad Putrilaginem, with a flake or two of Mace or a quartered Nutmeg; and when it is in a manner dissolved in water with long boiling, strain out all the Cream or Pap, leaving the husks behind. At the same time beat (for one mess) two Ounces of blanched Almonds with Rose-water; and when they are throughly beaten, strain out their milk, (or you may put this to the Barley before it is strained, and strain them together) and put it to the Barley Pap, and let them stew a while together; then sweeten it with Sugar to your taste. Or when you have boiled the Barley in water very tender as above, you may put Milk to it, and boil again to fitting thickness; Then strain it, adding Almonds as above. Or if you will, and your stomack will bear it, you may eat it without straining the barley (but the Almonds must be strained) and you may put Butter to it if you please.

You may do the like with Oat-meal or Rice; or put Pine Kernels (first well watered) with the Almonds.

Oat-Meal Pap. Sir John Colladon

Put beaten Oat-meal to soak an hour or two in milk, as you do in water, when you make Flomery. Then strain it out into a Possnet through a fitting strainer; and if you judge it too thick of the Oat-meal for sufficient boiling, add more milk to it. Set this to boil, putting then into it a lump of Sugar, (about as big as a little Wall nut) and stir it well all the while, that it burn not too. About an hours boiling is sufficient, by which time it should be grown pretty thick. Put then a good lump of fresh-butter to it, which being well melted and stirred into the Pap and incorporated with it, take it from the fire, and put it into a dish, and strew some fine sugar upon it, or mingle some sugar with it to sweeten the whole quantity. You may season it also with Rose-water or Orange flower-water, or Ambergreece, or some Yolks of New-laid-eggs. You may put in a very little Salt at the first.

Rice and Orge MondÉ

Boil a quart of Milk in a large Pipkin; as soon as it boileth, take it from the fire, and instantly put into it five or six good spoonfuls of picked Rice, and cover it close, and so let it stand soaking in the Chimney-corner two hours. Then set in on the fire again, to make it stew or boil simpringly for an hour, or an hour and half more, till it be enough. Then put sugar to it, and so serve it in.

Orge mondé is done in the same manner; only, you let that stand covered and warm all the while, during three, four or five hours, and then you boil it simpringly three or four hours more. The quantity must be more or less, as you desire it thicker or thinner, which after once tryal, you will easily know how to proportion out. The chief care must be, that the Rice or Barley be well homogeneated with the Milk.

Smallage Gruel

In a Marble mortar beat great Oat-meal to meal (which requireth long beating) then boil it three or four hours in Spring water. To a possnet full of two or three quarts of water put about half a Porrenger full of Oat-meal, before it is beaten; for after beating it appeareth more. To this quantity put as much Smallage as you buy for a peny, which maketh it strong of the Herb, and very green. Chop the smallage exceeding small, and put it in a good half hour before you are to take your possnet from the fire. You are to season your Gruel with a little salt, at the due time; and you may put in a little Nutmeg and Mace to it. When you have taken it from the fire, put into it a good proportion of butter, which stir well, to incorporate with the Gruel, when it is melted.

About Water Gruel

When you set to the fire a big pot of Oat-meal, (which must be but once cut, that is, every corn cut once a two) and water, to make water-gruel; Let it boil long, till it be almost boiled enough, then make it rise in a great ebullition, in great galloping waves, and skim of all the top, that riseth; which may be a third part of the whole, and is the Cream, and hath no gross-visible Oat-meal in it. Boil that a while longer by it self, with a little Mace and Nutmeg, and season it with Salt. When it is enough, take it off, and put Sugar, Butter, and a little Red rose-water to it, and an Egg with a little White-wine, if you like it, and would have it more nourishing. This is by much better, then the part which remaineth below with the body of the Oat-meal. Yet that will make good Water-gruel for the servants.

If you boil it more leisurely you must skim off the Cream, as it riseth in boiling; else it will quickly sink down again to the rest of the gross Oat-meal. And thus you may have a finer Cream then with hasty boiling.

An Excellent and Wholesome Water-Gruel with Wood-Sorrel and Currants

Into a Possnet of two quarts of water, besides the due proportion of beaten Oat-meal, put two handfuls of Wood-sorrel a little-chopped and bruised, and a good quantity of picked and washed currants, tyed loosly in a thin stuff bag (as a bolter cloth). Boil these very well together, seasoning the Composition in due time, with Salt, Nutmeg, Mace, or what else you please, as Rosemary &c. when it is sufficiently boiled, strain the Oat-meal, and press out all the juyce and humidity of the Currants and Herbs, throwing away the insipid husks; and season it with Sugar and Butter; and to each Porrenger-ful two spoonfuls of Rhenish-wine and the yolk of an Egg.

The Queens Barley-Cream

You must make a good barley-water, throwing away the three first waters as soon as they boil; which will take up about three quarters of an hour. Then you boil a large quantity of water with the Barley (which thus prepared makes the water no more Red or Russet) during an hours space or more; (that it may be strong of the Barley; perle-Barley is best,) towards the latter end put in the Pullet flead, and the legs cut off; If it should boil too long, the emulsion would taste too fleshy. When it is enough, let the broth run clear from the Barley and pullet, and beat the Almonds with the broth, and strain them from it. Then sweeten it with Sugar. This is to make at least two English quarts of Emulsion. I should like to put some pulp of Barley, boiled by it self, to strain with the Almond-Milk, and, if you will, some Melon seeds. You may put some juyce of Limon or Orange to it. Also season it with Cinnamon, and make the broth stronger of the flesh.

The Queens white Potage is made only of the white flesh of Capon beaten with good broth and strained, and a little juyce of Limon or Orange; but no Almonds.

Pressis Nourissant

The Queen Mothers Pressis was thus made. Take un Gigot of Mutton, a piece of Veal, and a Capon (or half the quantity of each of these) and put them to rost with convenient fire, till they are above half rosted, or rather, till they be two thirds rosted. Then take them off, and squeese out all their juyce in a press with screws, and scum all the fat from it, and put it between two dishes upon a Chafing-dish of Coals to boil a very little, or rather but to heat well; for by then it is through hot, the juyce will be ripened enough to drink, whereas before it was raw and bloody; then if you perceive any fat to remain and swim upon it, clense it away with a Feather. Squeese the juyce of an Orange (through a holed spoon) into half a Porrenger full of this, and add a little Salt, and drink it. The Queen used this at nights in stead of a Supper; for when she took this, she did eat nothing else. It is of great, yet temperate nourishment. If you take a couple of Partridges in stead of a Capon, it will be of more nourishment, but hotter. Great weaknesses and Consumptions have been recovered with long use of this, and strength and long life continued notably. It is good to take two or three spoonfuls of it in a good ordinary bouillon. I should like better the boiling the same things in a close flagon in bulliente Balneo, as my Lady Kent, and My Mother used.

Broth and Potage

Mounsieur de Bourdeaux used to take a mornings a broth, thus made. Make a very good broth (so as to gelly, when it is cold), a lean piece of a leg of Veal, the Crag-end of a neck of Mutton, and a Pullet, seasoning it with a little Salt, Cloves and Pepper to your mind. Beat some of it with a handful of blanched Almonds and twenty husked-seeds of Citron and strain it to the whole; put Sugar to it, and so drink it as an Emulsion.

Otherwhiles He would make a Potage of the broth, (made without fruit), boiling and stewing it with some light-bread.

Pan Cotto

To make a Pan Cotto, as the Cardinals use in Rome, Take much thinner broth, made of the fleshes as above (or of Mutton alone) and boil it three hours, gently and close covered in una pignata, with lumps of fine light-bread tosted or dried. Un Pan grattato is made the same way with fine light-bread grated. Season the broth of either lightly with Salt, and put in the Spice at the last, when the bread is almost boiled or stewed enough. You may use juyce of Oranges to any of these. A wholesom course of diet is, to eat one of these, or Panada, or Cream of Oat-meal, or Barley, or two New-laid-eggs for break-fast; and dine at four or five a Clock, with Capon or Pullet or Partridg, &c. beginning your meal with a little good nourishing Potage. Two Poched Eggs with a few fine dry-fryed collops of pure Bacon, are not bad for break-fast, or to begin a meal.

My Lord Lumley’s Pease-Porage

Take two quarts of Pease, and put them into an Ordinary quantity of Water, and when they are almost boiled, take out a pint of the Pease whole, and strain all the rest. A little before you take out the pint of Pease, when they are all boiling together, put in almost an Ounce of Coriander-seed beaten very small, one Onion, some Mint, Parsley, Winter-savoury, Sweet-Marjoram, all minced very small; when you have strained the Pease, put in the whole Pease and the strained again into the pot, and let them boil again, and a little before you take them up, put in half a pound of Sweet-butter. You must season them in due time, and in the ordinary proportion with Pepper and Salt.

This is a proportion to make about a Gallon of Pease-porage. The quantities are set down by guess. The Coriander-seeds are as much as you can conveniently take in the hollow of your hand. You may put in a great good Onion or two. A pretty deal of Parsley, and if you will, and the season afford them, you may add what you like of other Porage herbs, such as they use for their Porages in France. But if you take the savoury herbs dry, you must crumble or beat them to small Powder (as you do the Coriander-seed) and if any part of them be too big to pass through the strainer, after they have given their taste to the quantity, in boiling a sufficient while therein, you put them away with the husks of the Pease. The Pint of Pease that you reserve whole, is only to show that it is Pease-porage. They must be of the thickness of ordinary Pease-porage. For which these proportions will make about a Gallon.

Broth for Sick and Convalescent Persons

Put a Crag-end of a Neck of Mutton, a Knuckle of Veal, and a Pullet into a Pipkin of water, with a spoonful or two of French-barley first scalded in a water or two. The Pullet is put in after the other meat is well skimmed, and hath boiled an hour. A good hour after that, put in a large quantity of Sorrel, Lettice, Purslane, Borage and Bugloss, and boil an hour more at least three hours in all. Before you put in the herbs, season the broth with Salt, a little Pepper and Cloves, strain out the broth and drink it.

But for Potage, put at first a good piece of fleshy young Beef with the rest of the meat. And put not in your herbs till half an hour before you take off the Pot. When you use not herbs, but Carrots and Turneps, put in a little Peny-royal and a sprig of Thyme. Vary in the season with Green-pease, or Cucumber quartered longwise, or Green sower Verjuyce Grapes; always well-seasoned with Pepper and Salt and Cloves. You pour some of the broth upon the sliced-bread by little and little, stewing it, before you put the Herbs upon the Potage.

The best way of ordering your bread in Potages, is thus. Take light spungy fine white French-bread, cut only the crusts into tosts. Tost them exceeding dry before the fire, so that they be yellow. Then put them hot into a hot dish, and pour upon them some very good strong broth, boiling hot. Cover this, and let them stew together gently, not boil; and feed it with fresh-broth, still as it needeth; This will make the bread swell much, and become like gelly.

An Excellent Posset

Take half a pint of Sack, and as much Rhenish wine, sweeten them to your taste with Sugar. Beat ten yolks of Eggs, and eight of whites exceeding well, first taking out the Cocks-tread, and if you will the skins of the yolks; sweeten these also, and pour them to the wine, add a stick or two of Cinnamon bruised, set this upon a Chafing-dish to heat strongly, but not to boil; but it must begin to thicken. In the mean time boil for a quarter of an hour three pints of Cream seasoned duly with Sugar and some Cinnamon in it. Then take it off from boiling, but let it stand near the fire, that it may continue scalding-hot whiles the wine is heating. When both are as scalding-hot as they can be without boiling, pour the Cream into the wine from as high as you can. When all is in, set it upon the fire to stew for 1/8 of an hour. Then sprinkle all about the top of it the juyce of a 1/4 part of a Limon; and if you will, you may strew Powder of Cinnamon and Sugar, or Ambergreece upon it.

Pease of the Seedy Buds of Tulips

In the Spring (about the beginning of May) the flowry-leaves of Tulips do fall away, and there remains within them the end of the stalk, which in time will turn to seed. Take that seedy end (then very tender) and pick from it the little excrescencies about it, and cut it into short pieces, and boil them and dress them as you would do Pease; and they will taste like Pease, and be very savoury.

Boiled Rice Dry

The manner of boiling Rice to eat with Butter, is this. In a Pipkin pour upon it as much water, as will swim a good fingers breadth over it. Boil it gently, till it be tender, and all the water drunk into the Rice; which may be in a quarter of an hour or less. Stir it often with a woodden spatule or spoon, that it burn not to the bottom: But break it not. When it is enough, pour it into a dish, and stew it with some Butter, and season it with sugar and Cinnamon. This Rice is to appear dry, excepting for the Butter, that is melted in it.

Marrow Sops with Wine

Make thin tosts or slices of light French bread, which dry well, or toste a little by the fire, then Soak them in Canary or old Malaga-wine, or fine Muscat, and lay a row of them in a deep dish or bason; then a row of lumps of Marrow upon that; then strew a little fine sugar mingled with some Powder of Cinnamon and Ambergreece (and Nutmeg, if you like it) upon that. Then another row of sops, &c. repeating this, till the dish be full: and more Sugar, Cinnamon and Amber at the top, then on the other rows. If you will, you may put a row of stoned Raisins of the Sun upon every row of Marrow. Then cover the dish, and put it in an Oven to bake for half-an hour; or till the Marrow be sufficiently baked.

Capon in White-Broth

My Lady of Monmouth boileth a Capon with white broth thus. Make reasonable good broth, with the crag-ends of Necks of Mutton and Veal (of which you must have so much as to be at least three quarts of White-broth in the dish with the Capon, when all is done, else it will not come high enough upon the Capon). Beat a quarter of a pound of blanched Almonds with three or four spoonfuls of Cream, and, if you will, a little Rose water; then add some of your broth to it, so to draw out all their substance, mingling it with the rest of your broth. Boil your Capon in fair-water by it self; and a Marrow-bone or two by themselves in other water. Likewise some Chess-nuts (in stead of which you may use Pistaccios, or macerated Pine kernels) and in other water some Skirrits or Endive, or Parsley-roots, according to the season. Also plumpsome Raisins of the Sun, and stew some sliced Dates with Sugar and water. When all is ready to joyn, beat two or three New-laid-eggs (whites and all) with some of the White-broth, that must then be boiling, and mingle it with the rest, and let it boil on: and mingle the other prepared things with it, as also a little sliced Oringiado (from which the hard Candy-sugar hath been soaked off with warm-water) or a little peel of Orange (or some Limon Pickled with Sugar and Vinegar, such as serves for Salets) which you throw away, after it hath been a while boiled in it: and put a little Sack to your broth, and some Ambergreece, if you will, and a small portion of Sugar; and last of all, put in the Marrow in lumps that you have knocked out of the boiled bones. Then lay your Capon taken hot from the Liquor, he is boiled in, upon sippets and slices of tosted light bread, and pour your broth and mixture upon it, and cover it with another dish, and let all stew together a while: then serve it up. You must remember to season your broth in due time with salt and such spices as you like.

To Butter Eggs with Cream

Take to a dozen of Eggs a pint of Cream; beat them well together, and put three quarters of a pound of Butter to them, and so set them on the fire to harden, and stir them, till they are as hard, as you would have them.

To Make Cock-Ale

Take eight Gallons of Ale; take a Cock and boil him well; then take four pounds of Raisins of the Sun well stoned, two or three Nutmegs, three or four flakes of Mace, half a pound of Dates; beat these all in a Mortar, and put to them two quarts of the best Sack; and when the Ale hath done working, put these in, and stop it close six or seven days, and then bottle it, and a month after you may drink it.

To Make Plague-Water

Take a pound of Rue, of Rosemary, Sage, Sorrel, Celandine, Mugwort, of the tops of red brambles of Pimpernel, Wild-dragons, Agrimony, Balm, Angelica of each a pound. Put these Compounds in a Pot, fill it with White-wine above the herbs, so let it stand four days. Then still it for your use in a Limbeck.

Another Plague-Water

Take Rue, Agrimony, Wormwood, Celandine, Sage, Balm, Mugwort, Dragons, Pimpernel, Marygold, Fetherfew, Burnet, Sorrel, and Elicampane-roots scraped and sliced small. Scabious, Wood-betony, Brown-mayweed, Mints, Avence, Tormentil, Carduus benedictus, and Rosemary as much as of anything else, and Angelica if you will. You must have like weight of all them, except Rosemary aforesaid, which you must have twice as much of as of any of the rest; then mingle them altogether and shred them very small; then steep them in the best White-wine you can get, three days and three nights, stirring them once or twice a day, putting no more wine then will cover the Herbs well; then still it in a Common-still; and take not too much of the first-water, and but a little of the second, according as you feel the strength, else it will be sower. There must be but half so much Elicampane as of the rest.

To Make Rasbery-Wine

Take four Gallons of Deal wine, put it into an earthen jugg; put to it four Gallons of Rasberries; let them stand so infusing seven days; then press it out gently; Then infuse as many more Rasberries seven days longer, and so three times if you please; put to it as much fine Sugar as will make it pleasant; Put it into a Runlet close stopped, let it stand till it is fine; and then draw it into bottles, and keep it till it be fine.

To Keep Quince All the Year Good

Take all your least and worst Quinces, that are found, and cut them in pieces, with all the Corings and Parings you make; boil them more then an hour; then put the Quinces into this boiling liquor, and take them forth presently, not letting them boil, and lay them to cool one by one a part; then take the liquor and strain it; and put for every Gallon of liquor half a pint of honey; then boil it and scum it clean; let it be cold; and then put your Quinces into a pot or tub, that they be covered with the liquor, and stop it very close with your Paste.

To Make a White-Pot

Take three quarts of Cream, and put into it the yolks of twelve Eggs; the whites of four, being first very well beaten between three quarters of a pound of Sugar, two Nutmegs grated, a little Salt; half a pound of Raisins first plump’d. These being sliced together, cut some thin slices of a stale Manchet; dry them in a dish against the fire, and lay them on the top of the Cream, and some Marrow again upon the bread, and so bake it.

To Make an Hotchpot

Take a piece of Brisket-beef; a piece of Mutton; a knuckle of Veal; a good Colander of pot-herbs; half minced Carrots, Onions and Cabbage a little broken. Boil all these together until they be very thick.

Another Hotchpot

Take a Pot of two Gallons or more; and take a brisket rand of Beef; any piece of Mutton, and a piece of Veal; put this with sufficient water into the pot, and after it hath boiled, and been skimmed, put in a great Colander full of ordinary pot-herbs; a piece of Cabbage, all half cut; a good quantity of Onions whole, six Carrots cut and sliced, and two or three Pippins quartered. Let this boil three hours until it be almost a gelly, and stir it often, least it burn.

To Stew Beef

Take good fat Beef, slice it very thin into small pieces, and beat it well with the back of a chopping Knife. Then put it into a Pipkin, and cover it with wine and water, and put unto it a handful of good Herbs, and an Onion, with an Anchoves. Let it boil two hours; A little before you take it up, put in a few Marygold-flowers; and so season it with what Spice you please, and serve them up both with sippets.

Another to Stew Beef

Take very good Beef, and slice it very thin; and beat it with the back of a Knife; Put it to the gravy of some meat, and some wine or strong broth, sweet-herbs a quantity, let it stew till it be very tender; season it to your liking; and varnish your dish with Marygold-flowers or Barberries.

To Stew a Breast of Veal

Take a Breast of Veal half rosted, and put it a stewing with some wine and gravy; three or four yolks of Eggs minced small; a pretty quantity of Sweet-herbs with an Onion, Anchoves or Limon; stick it either with Thyme or Limon-peels, and season it to your liking.

Sauce of Horse Radish

Take Roots of Horse-radish scraped clean, and lay them to soak in fair-water for an hour. Then rasp them upon a Grater, and you shall have them all in a tender spungy Pap. Put Vinegar to it, and a very little Sugar, not so much as to be tasted, but to quicken (by contrariety) the taste of the other.

The Queens Hotchpot from Her Escuyer De Cuisine, Mr. La Montague

The Queen Mothers Hotchpot of Mutton, is thus made. It is exceeding good of fresh Beef also, for those whose Stomacks can digest it. Cut a neck of Mutton, Crag-end and all into steaks (which you may beat, if you will; but they will be very tender without beating) and in the mean time prepare your water to boil in a Possnet, (which must be of a convenient bigness to have water enough, to cover the meat, and serve all the stewing it, without needing to add any more to it; and yet no superfluous water at last.) Put your meat into the boiling water, and when you have scummed it clean, put into it a good handful of Parsley, and as much of Sibboulets (young Onions or Sives) chopped small, if you like to eat them in substance; otherwise tied up in a bouquet, to throw them away, when they have communicated to the water all their taste; some Pepper; three or four Cloves, and a little Salt, and half a Limon first pared. These must stew or boil simpringly, (covered) at least three or four hours (a good deal more, if Beef) stirring it often, that it burn not too. A good hour before you intend to take it off, put some quartered Turneps to it, or, if you like them, some Carrots. A while after, take a good lump of Houshold-bread, bigger than your fist, crust and crum, broil it upon a Gridiron, that it be throughly rosted; scrape off the black burning on the on side; then soak it throughly in Vinegar, and put this lump of tost into your possnet to stew with it; which you take out and throw away after a while. About a quarter of an hour before you serve it up melt a good lump of Butter (as much as a great Egg) till it grow red; then take it from the fire, and put to it a little fine flower to thicken it (about a couple of spoonfuls) like thick Pap. Stir them very well together; then set them on the fire again, till it grow-red, stirring it all the while; then put to it a ladleful of the liquor of the pot, and let them stew a while together to incorporate, stirring it always. Then pour this to the whole substance in the Possnet, to Incorporate with all the liquor, and so let them stew a while together. Then pour it out of the possnet into your dish, meat and all: for it will be so tender, it will not endure taking up piece by piece with your hand. If you find the taste not quick enough, put into it the juyce of the half Limon, you reserved. For I should have said, that when you put in the Herbs, you squeese in also the juyce of half a Limon (pared from the yellow rinde, which else would make it bitter) and throw the pared and squeesed half (the substance) into it afterwards. The last things (of Butter, bread, flower) cause the liaison and thickening of the liquor. If this should not be enough, you may also put a little gravy of Mutton into it; stirring it well when it is in, least it curdle in stewing, or you may put the yolk of an Egg or two to your liaison of Butter, Flower, and ladleful of broth. For gravy of Mutton. Rost a juycy leg of Mutton three quarters. Then gash it in several places, and press out the juyce by a screw-press.

A Savoury and Nourishing Boiled Capon Del Conte Di Trino, À Milano

Take a fat and fleshy Capon, or a like Hen; Dress it in the ordinary manner, and cleanse it within from the guts, &c. Then put in the fat again into the belly, and split the bones of the legs and wings (as far as you may, not to deface the fowl) so as the Marrow may distil out of them. Add a little fresh Butter and Marrow to it; season it with Salt, Pepper, and, what other Spice you like, as also savoury herbs. Put the Capon with all these condiments into a large strong sound bladder of an Ox (first well washed and scoured with Red-wine) and tie it very close and fast to the top, that nothing may ouse out, nor any water get in (and there must be void space in the bladder, that the flesh may have room to swell and ferment in; therefore it must be a large one). Put this to boil for a couple of hours in a Kettle of water, or till you find by touching the Bladder, that the Capon is tender and boiled enough. Then serve it up in a dish, in the Bladder (dry wiped) which when you cut, you will find a precious and nourishing liquor to eat with bread, and the Capon will be short, tender, most savoury and full of juyce, and very nourishing.

I conceive, that if you put enough Ox-marrow, you need no butter; and that it may do well to add Ambergreece, Dates-sliced and pithed, Raisins, Currants, and a little Sugar.

Peradventure this might be done well in a Silver-flagon close luted, set in Balneo bulliente, as I make the nourishing broth or gelly of Mutton or Chickens, &c.

An Excellent Baked Pudding

Slice thin two peny-roles, or one, of French-bread, the tender part. Lay it in a dish or pan. Pour upon it a quart of Cream, that hath been well boiled. Let it stand almost half an hour, till it be almost cold. Then stir the bread and Cream very well together, till the bread be well broken and Incorporated. (If you have no French bread, take stale Kingston bread, grated) add to this two spoonfuls of fine Wheat-flower, the yolks of four Eggs, and the whites of two; a Nutmeg — grated small; Sugar to your tast; a little Salt, and the Marrow of two bones a little shreded. Stir all these together; then pour it into a dish greased over with Butter, and set it uncovered in the Oven to bake. About half an hour will serve, and give the top a yellow crispiness. Before you put in the Marrow, put in a quarter of a pound and a half of Raisins of the Sun, and as much of Currants; Ordering them so, that they may not fall to the bottom, but be all about the pudding.

My Lady of Portland’s Minced Pyes

Take four pounds of Beef, Veal or Neats-Tongues, and eight pounds of Suet; and mince both the meat and Suet very small, befor you put them together. Then mingle them well together and mince it very small, and put to it six pounds of Currants washed and picked very clean. Then take the Peel of two Limons, and half a score of Pippins, and mince them very small. Then take above an Ounce of Nutmegs, and a quarter of an Ounce of Mace, some Cloves and Cinnamon, and put them together, and sweeten them with Rose-water and Sugar. And when you are ready to put them into your Paste, take Citron and Orangiadoe, and slice them very thin, and lay them upon the meat. If you please, put dates upon the top of them. And put amongst the meat an Ounce of Caraway seeds. Be sure you have very fine Paste.

My Lady of Portland told me since, that she finds Neats-tongues to be the best flesh for Pies. Parboil them first. For the proportion of the Ingredients she likes best to take equal parts of flesh, of suet, of currants and of Raisins of the Sun. The other things in proportion as is said above. You may either put the Raisins in whole, or stone the greatest part, and Mince them with the Meat. Keep some whole ones, to lay a bed of them at the top of the Pye, when all is in. You will do well to stick the Candid Orange-peel, and green Citron-peel into the meat. You may put a little Sack or Greek Muscadine into each Pye. A little Amber-sugar doth well here. A pound of flesh, and proportionably of all things else, is enough for once in a large family.

Another Way of Making Excellent Minced Pyes of My Lady Portlands

Parboil Neats-tongues. Then Peel and hash them with as much as they weigh of Beef-suet, and stoned Raisins and picked Currants. Chop all exceeding small, that it be like Pap. Employ therein at least an hour more, then ordinarily is used. Then mingle a very little Sugar with them, and a little wine, and thrust in up and down some thin slices of green Candyed Citron-peel. And put this into coffins of fine light well reared crust. Half an hour baking will be enough. If you strew a few Carvi comfits on the top, it will not be amiss.

Minced Pyes

My Lady Lasson makes her finest minced Pyes of Neats-tongues; But she holdeth the most savoury ones to be of Veal and Mutton equal parts very small minced. Her finest crust is made by sprinkling the flower (as much as it needeth) with cold water, and then working the past with little pieces of raw Butter in good quantity. So that she useth neither hot water, nor melted butter in them; And this makes the crust short and light. After all the meat and seasoning, and Plums and Citron Peel, &c. is in the Coffin, she puts a little Ambered-sugar upon it, thus; Grind much two grains of Ambergreece and half a one of Musk, with a little piece of hard loaf Sugar. This will serve six or eight pyes, strewed all over the top. Then cover it with the Liddle, and set it in the oven.

To Rost Fine Meat

When the Capon, Chickens, or Fowl, have been long enough before the fire, to be through hot, and that it is time to begin to baste them: baste them once all over very well with fresh Butter; then presently powder it all over very thin with Flower. This by continuing turning before the fire, will make a thin crust, which will keep in all the juyce of the meat. Therefore baste no more, nor do any thing to it, till the meat be enough rosted. Then baste it well with Butter as before, which will make the crust relent and fall away; which being done, and that the meat is growing brown on the Out-side, besprinkle it over with a little ordinary white Salt in gross-grains; and continue turning, till the outside be brown enough.

The Queen useth to baste such meat with yolks of fresh Eggs beaten thin, which continue to do all the while it is rosting.

Savoury Collops of Veal

Cut a Leg of Veal into thin Collops, and beat them well with the back of a Knife. Then lay them in soak a good half hour in the yolks of four eggs, and the whites of two very well beaten, and a little small shreded Thyme mingled with it; then lay them in the Frying-pan, wherein is boiling Butter, and pour upon them the rest of the Eggs, that the Collops have not Imbibed, and carry with them, and fry them very well, turning them in due time. Then pour away all the Butter, and make them a Sauce of Gravy seasoned with Salt and Spice, and juyce of Orange at last squeesed upon them.

A Fricacee of Lamb-Stones, or Sweet-Breads, or Chicken, or Veal, or Mutton

Boil the meat in little pieces (if Chicken, flead and beaten) in the Pan with a pint of fair-water, with due seasoning. When it is very tender, put some Butter to it, and pour upon it a Liquor made of four yolks of Eggs beaten with a little white wine and some Verjuyce; and keep this in motion over the fire, till it be sufficiently thickened. Then pour it into a warm dish, and squeese some juyce of Orange upon it, and so serve it up. If you would have the meat first made brown and Rissolé, fry it first with Butter, till it be brown on the outside; then pour out all the Butter, and put water to it, in which boil it, and do all as before. If you like Onions or Garlike, you may put some to the water. Fresh broth may be used (both ways) instead of water, and maketh it more Savoury.

A Nourishing Hachy

Take good Gravy of Mutton or Veal, or of both, with the fat clean skimmed off. Break into it a couple of new-laid Eggs, and stir them in it over a Chafing-dish of Coals; in the mean time, mingle some small cut juycy hashy of Rabet, Capon or Mutton with another parcel of like Gravy as above, till it be pretty thin. Then put this to the other upon the fire, and stir them well with a spoon, whiles they heat. When all is heated through, it will quicken of a sudden. You may put in at first a little chipping of crusty bread, if you will. Season this with white Pepper, Salt, juyce of Orange or Verjuyce, of Berberies, or Onion, or what you like best.

A pint of Gravy (or less) four or five spoonfulls of hashy, and two Eggs, is a convenient proportion for a light Supper.

Such Gravy, with an Onion split in two, lying in it, whiles it is heating, and a little Pepper and Salt, and juyce of Limon or Orange, and a few Chippings of light-bread, is very good Sauce for Partridges or Cocks.

Excellent Marrow-Spinage-Pasties

Take Spinage, and chop it a little; then boil it, till it be tender. In the mean time make the best rich light Crust you can, and roul it out, and put a little of your Spinage into it, and Currants and Sugar, and store of lumps of Marrow; Clap the Past over this to make little Pasties deep within, and fry them with clarified Butter.

To Pickle Capons My Lady Portland’s Way

Take two large fleshy Capons, not too fat; when you have draw’d and trussed them, lay them upon a Chafing-dish of Charcoal to singe them, turning them on all sides, till the hair and down be clean singed off. Then take three pounds of good Lard, and cut it into larding pieces, about the thickness of a two-peny cord, and Lard it well, but first season your bits of Lard, with half an Ounce of Pepper, and a handful of Salt, then bind each of them well over with Pack-thread, and have ready over the fire about two Gallons of Beef-broth, and put them in a little before it boileth; when they boil, and are clean skimmed, then put in some six Bay-leaves; a little bunch of Thyme; two ordinary Onions stuck full of Cloves, and Salt, if it be not Salt enough already for pickle; when it hath boiled about half an hour, put in another half Ounce of beaten White-Pepper, and a little after, put in a quart of White-wine; So let it boil, until it hath boiled in all an hour; and so let it lie in the pickle till you use it; which you may do the next day, or any time within a fortnight; in stead of broth you may use water, which is better; in case you do four or six, which of themselves will make the pickle strong enough. If you will keep them above four days, you must make the pickle sharp with Vinegar.

Very Good Sauce for Partridges or Chicken

To ordinary Sauce of sliced or grated-bread soaked in good Bouillon, with Butter melted in it, put Gravy of Mutton, and a Cloven-Onion or two, to stew with it whiles you put it upon the fire to heat anew. Then take out the Onion, and put in some Limon sliced, or juyce of Limon, and some white Pepper. You put in his proportion of Salt before.

To Make Minced Pyes

Take two Neats-tongues, and boil them. Shred them with Beef-suet, and put in Cloves and Mace, beaten very small, with Raisins, Currants and Sugar; you must mingle them before you put in your Suet. Fat double tripes boiled tender, then minced, make very good Pyes.

To Make a French Barley Posset

Take two quarts of Milk to half a pound of French-barley; boil it, until it is enough; when the Milk is almost boiled away, put to it three Pintes of good Cream. Let it boil together a quarter of an hour; then sweeten it; and put in Mace, Cinnamon in the beginning, when you first put in your Cream. When you have done so, take White-wine a Pint, or Sack and White-wine together, of each half a Pint; sweeten it, as you love it, with Sugar; pour in all the Cream, but leave your Barley behind in the Skillet. This will make an Excellent Posset; nothing else but a tender Curd to the bottom; let it stand on the Coals half a quarter of an hour.

To Make Puff-Past

Take a Gill of cold-water; two whites of Eggs, and one yolk; to a quart of Flower one pound of Butter; so rowl it up, but keep out of the Flower so much as will rowl it up.

To Make a Pudding with Puff-Past

Take a new French peny-loaf, and slice it very thin, and lay it in a dish; and take three pints of Cream, and boil it with a little Mace and Nutmeg grated; sweeten it with a little Sugar, and add to it a little Salt. Then let it stand till it be cold. Then take ten yolks of Eggs; and beat them very well with two or three spoonfuls of the Cream; then put it into the Cream, and stir them well together: Take the Marrow of three bones; lay half the Marrow upon the bread in good big lumps, and some Citron, and Candid Limon, and what other sweet meats you like. Then pour it all upon the bread; then put the rest of your Marrow on the top with Citron and Candid Limon. I forgat to tell you, that you must lay a Puff-paste at the bottom of the dish, before you put in the bread, and cover it with the same.

To Make Pear-Puddings

Take a cold Turky, Capon or cold Veal. Shred it very small; and put almost as much Beef-suet as your meat, and mince it very small. Then put Salt and Nutmeg grated, half a pound of Currants; a little grated-bread, and a little Flower. Then put in three yolks of Eggs, and one of the whites, beaten very well. Then take so much Cream, as will wet them, and make them up as big as a Bon-christian pear; and as you make them up, take a little flower in your hand, that they may not cling. Then put in little sticks at the bottom like the stems of Pears; or make them up in Balls. Butter the dish very well, and send them up in the same dish you bake them in. They will be baked in about half an hour: I think the dish needeth not to be covered, whiles it baketh. You may make minced Pyes thus: and bake them with Puff-past in a dish like a Florenden, and use Marrow instead of Suet.


Take the pith of Beeves; a good spoonful of Almonds very small beaten with Rose-water: beat the pith, when the skin is taken off very well with a spoon; then mingle it with the Almonds, and put in it six yolks of Eggs well beaten, and four spoonfuls of Cream boiled and cold, it must be very thick; put in a little Ambergreece, and as much Sugar, as will sweeten them; a little Salt, and the Marrow of two good bones, cut in little pieces. When your Beefs-guts are seasoned, fit them up and boil them.

To Make Red Dear

Take a piece of the Buttock of Beef, the leanest of it, and beat it with a rowling-pin the space of an hour, till you think you have broken the grain of it, and have made it very open both to receive the sowsing-drink, and also to make it tender. Then take a pint of Vinegar, and a pint of Claret-wine and let it lie therein two nights, and two days. Then beat a couple of Nutmegs, and put them into the sowsing-drink; then Lard it. Your Lard must be as big as your greatest finger for consuming. Then take Pepper, Cloves, Mace and Nutmegs, and season it very well in every place, and so bake it in Pye-paste, and let it stand in the oven six or seven hours. And when it hath stood three hours in your oven, then put it in your sowsing-drink as is aforesaid; and you may keep it a quarter of a year, if it be kept close.

To Make a Shoulder of Mutton Like Venison

Save the blood of your sheep, and strain it. Take grated bread almost the quantity of a Peny loaf, Pepper, Thyme, chopp’d small; mingle these Ingredients with a little of the blood, and stuff the Mutton. Then wrap up your shoulder of Mutton, and lay it in the blood twenty four hours; prick the shoulder with your Knife, to let the blood into the flesh, and so serve it with Venison Sawce.

To Stew a Rump of Beef

Take a Rump of Beef, and season it with Nutmegs grated, and some Pepper and Salt mingled together, and season the Beef on the Bony-side; lay it in a pipkin with the flat-side downward. Take three pints of Elder-wine-vinegar, and as much water, and three great Onions, and a bunch of Rosemary tyed up together. Put them all into a Pipkin, and stew them three or four hours together with a soft fire being covered close. Then dish it up upon sippets, blowing off the fat from the Gravy; and some of the Gravy put into the Beef, and serve it up.

To Boil Smoaked Flesh

Mounsieur Overbec doth tell me, that when He boileth a Gambon of Bacon, or any salted flesh and hanged in the smoak (as Neats-tongues, Hung-beef, and Hogs-cheeks, &c.), He putteth into the Kettle of water to boil with them three or four handfuls of fleur de foin, (more or less according to the quantity of flesh and water,) tyed loosly in a bag of course-cloth. This maketh it much tenderer, shorter, mellower, and of a finer colour.

A Plain but Good Spanish Oglia

Take a Rump of Beef, or some of Brisket or Buttock cut into pieces, a loin of Mutton, with the superfluous fat taken off, and a fleshy piece of the Leg of Veal or a Knuckle, a piece of enterlarded Bacon, three or 4 Onions (or some Garlike) and if you will, a Capon or two, or three great tame Pigeons. First, put into the water the Beef and the Bacon; After a while, the Mutton and Veal and Onions. But not the Capon or Pigeons till only so much time remain, as will serve barely to boil them enough. If you have Garavanzas, put them in at the first, after they have been soaked with Ashes all night in heat, and well washed with warm water, after they are taken out; or if you will have Cabbage, or Roots, or Leeks, or whole Onions, put them in time enough to be sufficiently boiled. You may at first put in some Crusts of Bread, or Venison Pye crust. It must boil in all five or six hours gently, like stewing after it is well boiled. A quarter or half an hour before you intend to take it off, take out a porrenger full of broth, and put to it some Pepper and five or six Cloves and a Nutmeg, and some Saffran, and mingle them well in it. Then put that into the pot, and let it boil or stew with the rest a while. You may put in a bundle of Sweet-herbs. Salt must be put in as soon as the water is skimmed.

Vuova Lattate

Take a quart of good, but fine broth; beat with it very well eight New laid-eggs (whites and all) and put in a little Sugar, and if you will a little Amber, or some Mace, or Nutmeg. Put all this into a fit Pipkin, and set this in a great one, or a kettle of boiling water, till it be stiffened like a Custard.

Vuova Spersa

When some broth is boiling in a Pipkin, pour into it some Eggs well beaten, and they will curdle in a lump, when they are enough; take them out with a holed ladle, and lay them upon the bread in the Minestra.

To Make Excellent Black-Puddings

Take a quart of Sheeps blood, and a quart of Cream; ten Eggs, the yolks and the whites beaten well together; stir all this Liquor very well, then thicken it with grated Bread, and Oat-meal finely beaten, of each a like quantity; Beef-suet finely shred and Marrow in little lumps: season it with a little Nutmeg and Cloves and Mace mingled with Salt, a little Sweet-marjoram, Thyme and Peny-royal shred very well together, and mingle them with the other things: Some put in a few Currants; then fill them in cleansed guts, and boil them carefully.

A Receipt to Make White Puddings

Take a fillet of Veal, and a good fleshy Capon; then half rost them both, and take off their skins: which being done, take only the wings and brawns with an equal proportion of Veal, which must be shred very small as is done for Sassages. To this shred half a pound of the belly part of interlarded Bacon, and half a pound of the finest leaf (la panne) of Hog cleared from the skin; then take the yolks of eighteen or twenty Eggs, and the whites of six well beaten with as much Milk and Cream, as will make it of convenient thickness; and then season it with Salt, Cloves, Nutmeg, Mace, Pepper, and Ginger, if you please. The Puddings must be boiled in half Milk and half water. You are to use small-guts, such as for white-Marrow-puddings, and they are to be cleansed in the Ordinary manner; and filled very lankley; for they will swell much in the boiling, and break if they be too full.

To Make an Excellent Pudding

Take of the Tripes of Veal the whitest and finest you can find; wash them well, and let them lie in fair Fountain or River water, till they do not smell like Tripes. This done, cut them so small as is necessary to pass through a Funnel. Take also one or two pounds of Pork, that hath not been salted, and cut it as small as the Tripes, and mingle them altogether; which season with Salt, White-pepper, Anis-seeds beaten and Coriander-seeds; Then make a Liaison with a little Milk and yolks of Eggs; and after all is well mingled and thickned, as it ought to be, you must fill with it the greatest guts of a Hog, that may be had, with a Funnel of White iron, having first tyed the end of the gut below. Do not fill it too full, for fear they should break in the boiling, but leave room enough for the flesh to swell. When you are going to boil them, put them into a Kettle with as much Milk as will cover and boil them, being boiled, let them lie in the liquor till they are almost cold, then take them out and lay them in a basket upon a clean linnen cloth to cool. If they are well seasoned, they will keep twelve or fifteen days; provided you keep them in a good place, not moist, nor of any bad smell. You must still turn them and remove them from one place to another.

Scotch Collops

My Lord of Bristol’s Scotch Collops are thus made: Take a leg of fine Sweet-Mutton, that, to make it tender, is kept as long as possible may be without stinking. In Winter seven or eight days. Cut it into slices with a sharp Knife as thin as possibly you can. Then beat it with the back of a heavy Knife, as long as you can, not breaking it in pieces. Then sprinkle them with Salt, and lay them upon the Gridiron over a small Charcoal-fire, to broil, till you perceive that side is enough, and before any moisture run out of them upon the fire. Then lay the Collops into a warm dish close covered, till the Gravy be run out of them. Then lay their other side upon the Gridiron, and make an end of broiling them, and put them again into the dish, where the former Gravy run out. Add to this more Gravy of Mutton, heightened with Garlike or Onions, or Eschalots; and let them stew a while together, then serve them in very hot.

They are also very good of a Rump of tender Beef.

To Rost Wild-Boar

At Franckfort, when they rost Wild-boar (or Robuck or other Venison) they lay it to soak, six or eight or ten days (according to the thickness and firmness of the piece and Penetrability of it) in good Vinegar, wherein is Salt and Juniper-berries bruised (if you will, you may add bruised Garlick or what other Haut-goust you like) the Vinegar coming up half way the flesh, and turn it twice a day. Then if you will, you may Lard it.

When it is rosted, it will be very mellow and tender. They do the like with a leg or other part of Fresh-pork.


I made good Pyes there with two Hares, a good Goose and (as much as the Goose is) the lean of fresh good Pork, all well hashed and seasoned; then larded with great Lardons well seasoned (first sprinkled with Vinegar and Wine) and covered with Bay-leaves, and sheets of Lard; then laid inpast, and baked.

I made also good Pyes of Red-Deer, larding well the lean, then laying under it a thick Plastron (or Cake of a Finger thick) of Beef-suet, first chapped small, and seasoned well with Pepper and Salt, then beaten into a Cake fit for the meat. And another such Cake upon the Deers-flesh, and so well baked in strong crust, and soaked two or three hours in the oven after it was baked enough, which required six good hours. If you use no Suet, put in Butter enough; as also, put in enough to fill the paste, after it is baked and half cold, by a hole made in the top, when it is near half baked.

Baked Venison

My Lady of Newport bakes her Venison in a dish thus; A side or a hanch serves for two dishes. Season it as for a Pasty. Line the dish with a thin crust, of good pure Past, but make it pretty thick upwards towards the brim, that it may be there Pudding crust. Lay then the Venison in a round piece upon the Paste in the dish, that must not fill it up to touch the Pudding, but lie at ease; put over it a cover, and let it over-reach upon the brim with some carved Pasty work to grace it, which must go up with a border like a lace growing a little way upwards upon the Cover, which is a little arched up, and hath a little hole in the top to pour in unto the meat the strong well seasoned broth that is made of the broken bones, and remaining lean flesh of the Venison. Put a little pure Butter or Beef-suet to the Venison, before you put the cover on, unless it be exceeding fat. This must bake five or six hours or more as an ordinary Pasty. An hour, or an hour and half before you take it out to serve it up, open the Oven, and draw out the dish far enough to pour in at the little hole of the cover the strong decoction (in stead of decoction in water, you may boil it by it self in Balneo in duplici vase; or bake it in a pot with broth and Gravy of Mutton) of the broken bones and flesh. Then set it in again, to make an end of his baking and soaking. The meat within (even the lean) will be exceeding tender and like a gelly; so that you may cut all of it with a spoon. If you bake a side at once in two dishes, the one will be very good to keep cold; and when it is so, you may, if you please, bake it again, to have it hot; not so long as at first, but enough to have it all perfectly heated through. She bakes thus in Pewter-dishes of a large cise.

Mutton or Veal may be thus baked with their due seasoning; as with Onions, or Onions and Apples, or Larding, or a Cawdle, &c. Sweetbreads, Beatilles, Champignons, Treuffles, &c.

An Excellent Way of Making Mutton Steaks

Cut a Rack of Mutton into tender Steaks, Rib by Rib, and beat the flesh well with the back of a Knife. Then have a composition ready, made of Crumbs of stale Manchet grated small, and a little Salt (a fit proportion to Salt the meat) and a less quantity of White-pepper. Cover over on both sides all the flesh with this, pretty thick, pressing it on with your fingers and flat Knife, to make it lie on. Then lay the Steaks upon a Gridiron over a very quick fire (for herein consisteth the well doing) and when the fire hath pierced in a little on the one side, turn the other, before any juyce drop down through the Powder. This turning the steaks will make the juyce run back the other way; and before it run through, and drop through this side, you must turn again the other side; doing so till the Steaks be broiled enough. Thus you keep all the juyce in them, so that when you go to eat them (which must be presently, as they are taken from the fire) abundance of juyce runneth out as soon as your Knife entereth into the flesh. The same Person, that doth this, rosteth a Capon so as to keep all its juyce in it. The mystery of it is in turning it so quick, that nothing can drop down. This maketh it the longer in rosting. But when you cut it up, the juyce runneth out, as out of a juycie leg of Mutton; and it is excellent meat.

Excellent Good Collops

Take two legs of fleshy juycie tender young Mutton, cut them into as thin slices as may be. Beat them with the back of a thick Knife, with smart, but gentle blows, for a long time, on both sides. And the stroaks crossing one another every way, so that the Collops be so short, that they scarce hang together. This quantity is near two hours beating. Then lay them in a clean frying-pan, and hold them over a smart fire: And it is best to have a fit cover for the Pan, with a handle at the top of it, to take it off when you will. Let them fry so covered, till the side next the Pan be done enough; then turn the other side, and let that fry, till it be enough. Then Pour them with all the Gravy (which will be much) into a hot dish, which cover with another hot one, and so serve it in to eat presently. You must season the Collops with Salt sprinkled upon them, either at the latter end of beating them, or whiles they fry. And if you love the taste of Onions, you may rub the Pan well over with one, before you lay in the Steaks or Collops; or when they are in the dish, you may beat some Onion-water amongst the Gravy. You may also put a little fresh-butter into the pan to melt, and line it all over before you put in the Collops, that you may be sure, they burn not to the pan. You must put no more Collops into one pan, at once, then meerly to cover it with one Lare; that the Collops may not lye one upon another.

Black Puddings

Take three pints of Cream, and boil it with a Nutmeg quartered, three or four leaves of large Mace, and a stick of Cinnamon. Then take half a pound of Almonds, beat them and strain them with the Cream. Then take a few fine Herbs, beat them and strain them to the Cream, which came from the Almonds. Then take two or three spoonfuls (or more) of Chickens blood; and two or three spoonfuls of grated-bread, and the Marrow of six or seven bones, with Sugar and Salt, and a little Rose-water. Mix all together, and fill your Puddings. You may put in eight or ten Eggs, with the whites of two well-beaten. Put in some Musk or Ambergreece.

To Make Pith Puddings

Take a good quantity of the pith of Oxen, and let it lie all night in water to soak out the blood. The next morning, strip it out of the skin, and so beat it with the back of a spoon, till it be as fine as Pap: You must beat a little Rose-water with it. Then take three pints of good thick Cream, and boil it with a Nutmeg quartered, three or four leaves of large Mace; and a stick of Cinnamon. Then take half a pound of the best Jordan Almonds. Blanch them in cold water all night; then beat them in a Mortar with some of your Cream; and as they grow dry, still put in more Cream; and when they be well beaten, strain the Cream from the Almonds into the Pith. Then beat them still, until the Cream be done, and strain it still to the pith. Then take the yolks of ten Eggs, with the Whites of two; beat them well, and put them to your former Ingredients. Then take a spoonful of grated-bread. Mingle all these together, with half a pound of fine-sugar, the Marrow of six or seven bones, and some Salt, and so fill your Puddings.

They will be much the better, if you put in some Ambergreece.

Red-Herrings Broyled

My Lord d’Aubigny eats Red-herrings thus broiled. After they are opened and prepared for the Gridiron, soak them (both sides) in Oyl and Vinegar beaten together in pretty quantity in a little Dish. Then broil them, till they are hot through, but not dry. Then soak them again in the same Liquor as before, and broil them a second time. You may soak and broil them again a third time; but twice may serve. They will be then very short and crisp and savoury. Lay them upon your Sallet, and you may also put upon it, the Oyl and Vinegar, you soaked the Herrings in.

An Oat-Meal-Pudding

Take a Pint of Milk; and put to it a Pint of large or midling Oat-meal; let it stand upon the fire, until it be scalding hot: Then let it stand by and soak about half an hour: Then pick a few sweet Herbs and shred them, and put in half a pound of Currants, and half a pound of Suet, and about two spoonfuls of Sugar, and three or four Eggs. These put into a bag, and boiled, do make a very good Pudding.

To Make Pear-Puddings

Take a cold Capon, or half-rosted, which is much better; then take Suet, shred very small the meat and Suet together; then half as much grated bread, two spoonfuls of Flower, Nutmegs, Clove and Mace; Sugar as much as you please; half a Pound of Currants; the yolks of two Eggs, and the white of one; and as much Cream, as will make it up in a stiff Paste. Then make it up in fashion of a pear, a stick of Cinnamon for the stalk, and the head a Clove.

To Make Call-Puddings

Take three Marrow-bones, slice them; water the Marrow over night, to take away the blood. Then take the smallest of the Marrow, and put it into the Puddings, with a Peny-loaf grated, a spoonful of Flower, and Spice as before; a quarter of a pound of Currants; Sugar as much as you please, four Eggs, two of the whites taken away. Cream as much as will make it as stiff as other Puddings. Stuff the Call of Veal cut into the bigness of little Hogs-puddings; you must sow them all to one end; and so fill them; then sow up the other end, and when they are boiled, take hold of the thred, and they will all come out. You must boil them in half white Wine and half Water; with one large Mace, a few Currants, a spoonful of the Pudding stuff, the Marrow in whole lumps; all this first boiled up, then put in your Puddings, and when half boiled, put in your Marrow. One hour will boil them. Serve them up with Sippets, and no more Liquor, then will serve them up; you must put Salt in all the Puddings.

A Barley Pudding

Take two Ounces of Barley pick’d and washed; boil it in Milk, till it is tender; then let your Milk run from it; Then take half a Pint of Cream, and six spoonfuls of the boiled Barley; eight spoonfuls of grated bread, four Eggs, two whites taken away. Spice as you please, and Sugar and Salt as you think fit, one Marrow-bone, put in the lumps as whole as you can; Then make Puff-paste, and rowl a thin sheet of it, and lay it in a dish. Then take a piece of Green-citron sliced thin, lay it all over the dish. Then take Cream, grated bread, your Spice, Sugar, Eggs and Salt; beat all these very well together half a quarter of an hour, pour it on your dish where Citron is, then cover it over with puff-paste, and let it bake in a quick oven three quarters of an hour. Scrape Sugar on it, and serve it up.

A Pippin-Pudding

Take Pippins and pare, and cut off the tops of them pretty deep. Then take out as much of your Apple as you can take without breaking your Apple, then fill your Apple with pudding-stuff, made with Cream, a little Sack, Marrow, Grated bread, Eggs, Sugar, Spice and Salt; Make it pretty stiff. Put it into the Pippins; lay the tops of the Pippins upon the Pippins again, stick it through with a stick of Cinnamon. Set as many upright in your dish as you can: and so fill it up with Cream, and sweeten it with Sugar and Mace; and stew them between two dishes.

To Make a Baked Oatmeal-Pudding

Take middle Oat-meal, pick it very clean, steep it all night in Cream, half a Pint of Oat-meal, to a quart of Cream, make your Cream scalding hot, before you put in your Oat-meal, so cover it close. Take a good handful of Penny-royal, shred it very small, with a pound of Beef-suet. Put it to your Cream with half a pound of Raisins of the Sun, Sugar, Spice, four or five Eggs, two whites away. So bake it three quarters of an hour; and then serve it up.

A Plain Quaking-Pudding

Take about three Pints of new morning Milk, and six or seven new laid Eggs, putting away half the whites, and two spoonfuls of fine-flower, about a quarter of a Nutmeg grated, and about a quarter of a pound of Sugar (more or less, according to your taste,) After all these are perfectly mingled and incorporated together, put the matter into a fit bag, and so put it into boiling water, and boil it up with a quick fire. If you boil it too long, the Milk will turn to whay in the body or substance of the Pudding, and there will be a slimy gelly all about the outside. But in about half an hour, it will be tenderly firm, and of an uniform consistence all over. You need not put in any Butter or Marrow or Suet, or other Spice, but the small proportion of Nutmeg set down, not grated bread. For the Sauce, you pour upon it thickened melted Butter, beaten with a little Sack, or Orange-flower water, and Sugar; or compounded in what manner you please, as in other such like Puddings.

A Good Quaking Bag-Pudding

Set a quart of good morning Milk upon the fire, having seasoned it with Salt, and sliced or grated Nutmeg. When it beginneth to boil, take it from the fire, and put into it four peny Manchets of light French-bread sliced very thin (If it were Kingstone-bread, which is firmer, it must be grated) and a lump of Sweet-butter as big as a Wall-nut, and enough Sugar to season it; and cover the possnet with a plate to keep the heat in, that the bread may soak perfectly. Whiles this standeth thus, take ten yolks of New-laid-eggs, with one White, and beat them very well with a spoonful or two of Milk; and when the Milk is cooled enough, pour it (with the bread in it,) into the bason, where the beaten Eggs are, (which likewise should first be sweetned with Sugar to their proportion,) and put about three spoonfuls of fine flower into the composition, and knead them well together. If you will, you may put in a spoonful of Sack or Muscadine, and Ambared Sugar, working all well together; as also, some lumps of Marrow or Suet shred very small: but it will be very good without either of these. Then put this mixtion into a deep Woodden dish (like a great Butter-box) which must first be on the inside a little greased with Butter, and a little Flower sprinkled thereon, to save the Pudding from sticking to the sides of the dish. Then put a linnen cloth or handkercher over the mouth of the dish, and reverse the mouth downwards, so that you may tye the Napkin close with two knots by the corners cross, or with a strong thred, upon the bottom of the dish, then turned upwards; all which is, that the matter may not get out, and yet the boiling water get through the linnen upon it on one side enough to bake the pudding sufficiently. Put the Woodden-dish thus filled and tyed up into a great Possnet or little Kettle of boiling water. The faster it boils, the better it will be. The dish will turn and rowl up and down in the water, as it gallopeth in boiling. An hours boiling is sufficient. Then unty your linnen, and take it off, and reverse the mouth of the dish downwards into the Silver-dish you will serve it up in; wherein is sufficient melted Butter thickened with beating, and sweetened to your taste with Sugar, to serve for Sauce. You may beat a little Sack or Muscadine, or Rose, or Orange-flower-water with the Sauce; a little of any of which may also go into the Composition of the Pudding. If you put in more Flower, or more then one white of Egg to this proportion, it will binde the Pudding too close and stiff.

In plain Bag-puddings it makes them much more savoury, to put into them a little Penny-royal shreded very small, as also other sweet-Herbs. You must put in so little, as not to taste strong of them, but onely to quicken the other flat Ingredients.

Another Baked Pudding

Take a Pint and half of good Sweet-cream; set it on the fire, and let it just boil up, take a peny Manchet, not too new, cut off the crust, and slice it very thin, put it into a clean earthen pan, and pour the Cream upon it, and cover it very close an hour or thereabouts, to steep the bread; when it is steeped enough, take four New laid-eggs, yolks and whites, beat them with a spoonful of Rose-water, and two of Sack; grate into it half a Nutmeg, and put into it a quarter of a pound of good white-Sugar finely beaten, stir all this together with the Cream and Bread; then shred very small half a pound of good Beef-kidney-suet, and put this to the rest, and mingle them very well together with a slice or spoon; then size your dish, that you intend to bake it in, and rub the bottom of it with a little sweet-Butter; then put your pudding into it, and take the Marrow of two good bones, and stick it in lumps here and there all over your Pudding; so put it into the oven three quarters of an hour, in which time it will be well baked. Strew on it some fine Sugar, and serve it.

To Make Black Puddings

Take a pottle of half-cut Groats; pick them clean, that there may be no husks nor foulness in them; then put them into a Mortar, bruise them a little with a Pestle; then have ready either Milk, or fresh meat-broth boiled up, and the Oat-meal immediately put into it; It must be just so much as will cover it; then cover the thing close that it is in, and let it steep twenty four hours; To this two quarts of Oatmeal, put a pint and half of blood, season it well with Salt, and a little Pepper, and a little beaten Cloves and Mace, eight Eggs, yolks and whites, five pound of Kidney-beef-suet shred, but not too small; then put in of these herbs; Peny-royal, Fennel, Leek-blades, Parsley, Sage, Straw-berry-leaves and Violet leaves, equal parts, in all to the quantity of a good handful; let them be pick’d and washed very clean, and chop’d very small, and mingled well with the former things; Then fill your Puddings.

Make ready your guts in this manner. Cleanse them very well, when they are fresh taken out of the Hog; and after they are well washed and scowred, lay them to soak in fair water three days and three nights, shifting the water twice every day: and every time you shift the water, scour them first with Water and Salt. An hour and a quarter is enough to boil them.

To Preserve Pippins in Jelly, Either in Quarters, or in Slices

Take good sound clear Pippins, pare, quarter and coar them; then put them into a skillet of Conduit-water, such a proportion as you intend to make; boil it very well: then let the liquor run from the pulp through a sieve, without forcing, and let it stand till the next morning. Take Orange or Limon peel, and boil in a skillet of water, till they are tender; then rowl them up in a linnen cloth to dry the water well out of them; let them lie so all night. Then take of double refined and finely beaten and searced Sugar a pound to every pint of Pippin Liquor that ran through the sieve, and to every pound of Sugar, and pint of liquor, put ten Ounces of Pippins in quarters or in slices, but cut them not too thin; boil them a little while very fast in the Pippin-liquor, before you put in the Sugar, then strew in the Sugar all over them as it boileth, till it is all in, keeping it still fast boiling, until they look very clear; by that you may know they are enough. While they boil, you must still be scumming them; then put in your juyce of Limon to your last, and Amber, if you please; and after let it boil half a dozen walms, but no more. Then take it from the fire, and have ready some very thin Brown-paper, and clap a single sheet close upon it, and if any scum remain, it will stick to the Paper. Then put your quarters or slices into your Glasses, and strew upon them very small slices of Limon or Orange (which you please) which you had before boiled; then fill up your Glasses with your jelly.

For making your Pippin-liquor, you may take about some fourty Pippins to two quarts of water, or so much as to make your Pippin-liquor strong of the Pippins, and the juyce of about four Limons.

My Lady Diana Porter’s Scotch Collops

Cut a leg or two of Mutton into thin slices, which beat very well. Put them to fry over a very quick fire in a pan first glased over, with no more Butter melted in it, then just to besmear a little all the bottom of the Pan. Turn them in due time. There must never be but one row in the pan, nor any slice lying upon another; but every one immediate to the pan. When they are fryed enough, lay them in a hot dish covered, over a Chafing-dish, and pour upon them the Gravy that run out of them into the Pan. Then lay another row of slices in the Pan to fry as before; and when they are enough, put them into the dish to the other. When you have enough, by such repetitions, or by doing them in two or three pans, all at a time; take a Porrenger full of Gravy of Mutton, and put into it a piece of Butter as much a Wall-nut, and a quartered Onion if you will (or rub the dish afterwards with Garlike) and Pepper and Salt, and let this boil to be very hot; then throw away the Onion, and pour this into the dish upon the slices, and let them stew a little together; then squeese an Orange upon it, and serve it up.

A Fricacee of Veal

Cut a leg of Veal into thin slices, and beat them; or the like with Chicken, which must be flead off their skin. Put about half a pint of water or flesh-broth to them in a frying-pan, and some Thyme, and Sweet-marjoram, and an Onion or two quartered, and boil them till they be tender, having seasoned them with Salt, and about twenty Corns of whole white Pepper, and four or five Cloves. When they are enough, take half a pint of White wine, four yolks of Eggs, a quarter of a pound of butter (or more) a good spoonful of Thyme, Sweet-Marjoram and Parsley (more Parsley then of the others) all minced small; a Porrenger full of gravy. When all these are well incorporated together over the fire, and well beaten, pour it into the pan to the rest, and turn it continually up and down over the fire, till all be well incorporated. Then throw away the Onion and first sprigs of Herbs, squeese Orange to it, and so serve it up hot.

If instead of a Fricacee, you will make un estuveé de veau, stew or boil simpringly your slices of Veal in White-wine and water, ana, with a good lump of Butter, seasoning it with Pepper and Salt and Onions. When it is enough, put to it store of yolks of Eggs beaten with Verjuyce, or White-wine and Vinegar, and some Nutmeg (and gravy if you will) and some Herbs as in the Fricacee; and stir all very well over the fire till the sauce be well lié together.

A Tansy

Take three pints of Cream, fourteen New-laid-eggs (seven whites put away) one pint of juyce of Spinage, six or seven spoonfuls of juyce of Tansy, a Nutmeg (or two) sliced small, half a pound of Sugar, and a little Salt. Beat all these well together, then fryit in a pan with no more Butter then is necessary. When it is enough, serve it up with juyce of Orange or slices of Limon upon it.

To Stew Oysters

Take what quantity you will of the best Oysters to eat raw. Open them, putting all their water with the fish into a bason. Take out the Oysters one by one (that you may have them washed clean in their own water) and lay them in the dish you intend to stew them in. Then let their water run upon them through a fine linnen, that all their foulness may remain behind. Then put a good great lump of Butter to them, which may be (when melted) half as much, as their water. Season them with Salt, Nutmeg, and a very few Cloves. Let this boil smartly, covered. When it is half boiled, put in some crusts of light French-bread, and boil on, till all be enough, and then serve them up.

You may put in three or four grains of Ambergreece, when you put in the Nutmeg, that in the boiling it may melt. You may also put in a little White-wine or Verjuyce at the last, or some juyce of Orange.

To Dress Lamprey’s

At Glocester they use Lamprey’s thus. Heat water in a Pot or Kettle with a narrow mouth, till it be near ready to boil; so that you may endure to dip your hand into it, but not to let it stay in. Put your Lamprey’s, as they come out of the River, into this scalding-water, and cover the pot, that little while they remain in, which must be but a moment, about an Ave Maria while. Then with a Woodden ladle take them out, and lay them upon a table, and hold their head in a Napkin (else it will slip away, if held in the bare hand) and with the back of a knife scrape off the mud, which will have risen out all along the fish. A great deal and very thick will come off: and then the skin will look clean and shining and blew, which must never be flead off. Then open their bellies all along, and with a Pen-knife loosen the string which begins under the gall (having first cast away the gall and entrails) then pull it out, and in the pulling away, it will stretch much in length; then pick out a black substance, that is all along under the string, cutting towards the back as much as is needful for this end. Then rowl them up and down in a soft and dry napkin, changing this as soon as it is wet for another, using so many Napkins as may make the fishes perfectly dry; for in that consisteth a chief part of their preparation. Then powder them well with Pepper and Salt, rubbing them in well, and lay them round in a Pot or strong crust upon a good Lare of Butter, and store of Onions every where about them, and chiefly a good company in the middle. Then put more Butter upon them, covering the pot with a fit cover, and so set them into a quick oven, that is strongly heated; where they will require three or four hours (at least) baking. When they are taken out of the oven and begin to cool, pour store of melted Butter upon them, to fill up the pot at least three fingers breadth above the fish, and then let it cool and harden; And thus it will keep a year, if need be, so the Butter be not opened, nor craked, that the air get into the fish.

To eat them presently, They dress them thus: When they are prepared, as abovesaid, (ready for baking) boil them with store of Salt and gross Pepper, and many Onions, in no more water, then is necessary to cover them, as when you boil a Carp or Pike au Court bouillon. In half or three quarters of an hour, they will be boiled tender. Then take them and drain them from the water, and serve them with thickened Butter, and some of the Onions minced into it, and a little Pepper, laying the fish upon some sippets of spungy bread, that may soak up the water, if any come from the fish; and pour butter upon the fish; so serve it up hot.

To Dress Stock Fish, Somewhat Differingly from the Way of Holland

Beat the fish very well with a large Woodden-Mallet, so as not to break it, but to loosen all the flakes within. It is the best way to have them beaten with hard heavy Ropes. And though thus beaten, they will keep a long time, if you put them into Pease straw, so thrust in as to keep them from all air, and that they touch not one another, but have straw enough between every fish. When you will make the best dish of them, take only the tails, and tye up half a dozen or eight of them with White-thred. First, they must be laid to soak over night in cold water. About an hour and half, (or a little more) before they are to be eaten, put them to boil in a pot or Pipkin, that you may cover with a cover of Tin or Letton so close, that no steam can get out; and lay a stone or other weight upon it, to keep the cover from being driven off by the steam of the water. Put in no more water, then well to cover them. They must never boil strongly, but very leasurely and but simpringly. It will be near half an hour before the water begin to boil so: And from their beginning to do so, they must boil a good hour. You must never put in any new water, though hot, for that will make the fish hard. After the hour, take out the fishes and untie them, and lay them loose in a colander with holes to drain out the water, and toss them in it up and down very well, as you use to do Butter and Pease; and that will loosen and break asunder all the flakes, which will make them the more susceptible of the Butter, when you stew them in it, and make it pierce the better into the flakes, and make them tender. Then lay them by thin rows in the dish, they are to be served up in: casting upon every row a little salt, and some green Parsley minced very small. They who love young-green Onions or sives, or other savory Herbs, or Pepper, may use them also in the same manner, when they are in season. When all is in, fill up with sweet Butter well melted and thickened; and so let it stew there a while, to soak well into the fish; which will lie in fine loose tender flakes, well buttered and seasoned. You may eat it with Mustard besides.

Buttered Whitings with Eggs

Boil Whitings as if you would eat them in the Ordinary way with thick Butter-sauce. Pick them clean from skin and bones, and mingle them well with butter, and break them very small, and season them pretty high with Salt. In the mean time Butter some Eggs in the best manner, and mingle them with the buttered Whitings, and mash them well together. The Eggs must not be so many by a good deal as the Fish. It is a most savoury dish.

To Dress Poor-John and Buckorn

The way of dressing Poor-John, to make it very tender and good meat, is this. Put it into the Kettle in cold water, and so hang it over the fire; and so let it soak and stew without boiling for 3 hours: but the water must be very hot. Then make it boil two or three walms. By this time it will be very tender and swelled up. Then take out the back-bone, and put it to fry with Onions. If you put it first into hot water (as ling and such salt fish,) or being boiled, if you let it cool, and heat it again it will be tough and hard.

Buckorne is to be watered a good hour before you put it to the fire. Then boil it till it be tender, which it will be quickly. Then Butter it as you do Ling; and if you will, put Eggs to it.

The Way of Dressing Stock-Fish in Holland

First beat it exceedingly well, a long time, but with moderate blows, that you do not break it in pieces, but that you shake and loosen all the inward Fibers. Then put it into water (which may be a little warmed) to soak, and infuse so during twelve or fourteen hours (or more, if it be not yet pierced into the heart by the water, and grown tender.) Then put it to boil very gently, (and with no more water, then well to cover it, which you must supply with new hot water as it consumeth) for six or seven hours at least, that it may be very tender and loose and swelled up. Then press and drain out all the water from it; and heat it again in a dish, with store of melted Butter thickened; and if you like it, you may season it also with Pepper and Mustard. But it will be yet better, if after it is well and tender boiled in water, and that you have pressed all the water you can out of it, you boil it again an hour longer in Milk; out of which when you take it, to put it into the dish with butter, you do not industriously press out all the Milk, as you did the water, but only drain it out gently, pressing it moderately. In the stewing it with butter, season it to your taste, with what you think fitting.

Another Way to Dress Stock-Fish

Beat it exceeding well with a large woodden Mallet, till you may easily pluck it all in pieces, severing every flake from other, and every one of them in it so being loose, spungy and limber, as the whole fish must be, and plyant like a glove, which will be in less then an hour. Pull then the bones out, and throw them away, and pluck off the skin (as whole as you can; but it will have many breaches and holes in it, by the beating) then gather all the fish together, and lap it in the skin as well as you can, into a round lump, like a bag-pudding, and tye it about with cords or strings (like a little Collar of Brawn, or souced fish) and so put it into lukewarm water (overnight) to soak, covering the vessel close; but you need not keep it near any heat whiles it lyeth soaking. Next morning take it out that water and vessel, and put it into another, with a moderate quantity of other water, to boil; which it must do very leisurely, and but simpringly. The main care must be, that the vessel it boileth in, be covered so exceeding close, that not the least breath of steam get out, else it will not be tender, but tough and hard. It will be boiled enough, and become very tender in about a good half hour. Then take it out, unty it, and throw away the skin, and lay the flaky fish in a Cullender, to drain away the water from it. You must presently throw a little Salt upon it, and all about in it, to season it. For then it will imbibe it into it self presently; whereas if you Salt it not, till it grow cold in the air, it will not take it in. Mean while prepare your sauce of melted well thickened butter (which you may heighten with shreded Onions or Syves, or what well tasted herbs you please) and if you will, you may first strew upon the fish some very small shreded young Onions, or Sibbouls, or Syves, or Parsley. Then upon that pour the melted butter to cover the fish all over, and soak into it. Serve it in warm and covered.

To Dress Parsneps

Scrape well three or four good large roots, cleansing well their outside, and cutting off as much of the little end as is Fibrous, and of the great end as is hard. Put them into a possnet or pot, with about a quart of Milk upon them, or as much as will cover them in boiling, which do moderately, till you find they are very tender. This may be in an hour and half, sooner or later, as the roots are of a good kind. Then take them out, and scrape all the outside into a pulpe, like the pulpe of roasted apples, which put in a dish upon a chafing dish of Coals, with a little of the Milk, you boiled them in, put to them; not so much as to drown them, but only to imbibe them: and then with stewing, the pulpe will imbibe all that Milk. When you see it is drunk in, put to the pulpe a little more of the same Milk, and stew that, till it be drunk in. Continue doing thus till it hath drunk in a good quantity of the Milk, and is well swelled with it, and will take in no more, which may be in a good half hour. Eat them so, without Sugar or Butter; for they will have a natural sweetness, that is beyond sugar, and will be Unctuous, so as not to need Butter.

Parsneps (raw) cut into little pieces, is the best food for tame Rabets, and makes them sweet. As Rice (raw) is for tame Pigeons, and they like it best, varying it sometimes with right tares, and other seeds.

Cream with Rice

A very good Cream to eat hot, is thus made. Into a quart of sweet Cream, put a spoonful of very fine powder of Rice, and boil them together sufficiently, adding Cinnamon, or Mace and Nutmeg to your liking. When it is boiled enough take it from the fire, and beat a couple of yolks of new-laid Eggs, to colour it yellow. Sweeten it to your taste. Put bread to it, in it’s due time.

Grewel of Oat-Meal and Rice

Doctor Pridion ordered my Lord Cornwallis, for his chief diet in his looseness, the following grewel, which he found very tastefull.

Take about two parts of Oat-meal well beaten in a Mortar, and one part of Rice in subtile powder. Boil these well in water, as you make water-grewel, adding a good proportion of Cinnamon to boil also in due time, then strain it through a cloth, and sweeten it to your taste.

The yolk of an Egg beaten with a little Sherry-sack, and put to it, is not bad in a looseness. At other times you may add Butter. It is very tasteful and nourishing.

Sauce for a Carp or Pike. To Butter Pease

Take two or three spoonfuls of the Liquor the Carp was boiled in, and put it into a pipkin; There must be no more, then even to cover the bottom of the pipkin. Make this boil by itself; as soon as it doth so, put to this half a pound of sweet butter, let it melt gently, or suddenly, it imports not, so as the liquor boiled, when you did put the butter in; when the butter is melted, then take it from the fire, and holding the handle in your hand, shake it round a good while and strongly, and it will come to be thick, that you may almost cut it with a Knife. Then squeese juyce of Limon into it, or of sharp Orange, or Verjuyce or Vinegar; and heat it again as much as you please upon the fire. It will ever after continue thick, and never again, upon any heating, grow oily, though it be cold and heated again twenty times. Butter done with fair water, as is said above, with the other Liquor, will be thick in the same manner, (for the liquors make no difference in that:)

Put of this butter to boiled Pease in their dish, which cover with another; so shake them very strongly, and a good while together. This is by much the best way to butter pease, and not to let the butter melt in the middle of them, and then stir them long with a spoon. This will grow Oily (though it be good at the first doing) if you heat them again: The other, never; and therefore, is the best way upon all occasions to make such thickened melted Butter. You may make sauce for a Pike in the same manner you did for a Carpe; putting Horse-radish to it if you please.

A Herring-Pye

Put great store of sliced Onions, with Currants and Raisins of the Sun both above and under the Herrings, and store of Butter, and so bake them.

A Syllabub

Take a reasonable quantity (as about half a Porrenger full) of the Syrup, that hath served in the making of dryed plums; and into a large Syllabub-pot milk or squirt, or let fall from high a sufficient quantity of Milk or Cream. This Syrup is very quick of the fruit, and very weak of Sugar; and therefore makes the Syllabub exceeding well tasted. You may also use the Syrup used in the like manner in the drying of Cherries.

Butter and Oil to Fry Fish

The best Liquor to fry Fish in, is to take Butter and Salet Oyl, first well clarified together. This hath not the unsavoury taste of Oyl alone, nor the blackness of Butter alone. It fryeth Fish crisp, yellow, and well tasted.

To Prepare Shrimps for Dressing

When you will Butter Shrimps, first wash them well in warm Milk and Water equally mingled together, and let them soak a little in it; then wash them again in fresh Milk and Water warmed, letting them also soak therein a while. Do this twice or thrice with fresh Milk and Water. This will take away all the rankness and slimyness of them. Then Butter them, or prepare them for the table, as you think fit.

Tosts of Veal

My Lady Lusson makes thus her plain tosts of kidney of Veal: Cut the kidney with all the fat about it, and a good piece of the lean flesh besides. Hash all this as small as you can. Put to it a quarter of a pound of picked and washed Currants, and as much Sugar, one Nutmeg grated, four yolks and two whites of new-laid Eggs raw; work all these very well together, seasoning it with Salt. Spread it thick upon slices of light white-bread cut like tosts. Then fry them in Butter, such quantity as may boil over the tops of the tosts.

To Make Mustard

The best way of making Mustard is this: Take of the best Mustard-seed (which is black) for example a quart. Dry it gently in an oven, and beat it to subtle powder, and searse it. Then mingle well strong Wine-vinegar with it, so much that it be pretty liquid, for it will dry with keeping. Put to this a little Pepper beaten small (white is the best) at discretion, as about a good pugil, and put a good spoonful of Sugar to it (which is not to make it taste sweet, but rather quick, and to help the fermentation) lay a good Onion in the bottom, quartered if you will, and a Race of Ginger scraped and bruised; and stir it often with a Horse-radish root cleansed, which let always lie in the pot, till it have lost it’s vertue, then take a new one. This will keep long, and grow better for a while. It is not good till after a month, that it have fermented a while.

Some think it will be the quicker, if the seed be ground with fair water, in stead of vinegar, putting store of Onions in it.

My Lady Holmeby makes her quick fine Mustard thus: Choose true Mustard-seed; dry it in an oven, after the bread is out. Beat and searse it to a most subtle powder. Mingle Sherry-sack with it (stirring it a long time very well, so much as to have it of a fit consistence for Mustard. Then put a good quantity of fine Sugar to it, as five or six spoonfuls, or more, to a pint of Mustard. Stir and incorporate all well together. This will keep good a long time. Some do like to put to it a little (but a little) of very sharp Wine-vinegar.

To Make a White-Pot

Boil three pints of sweet Cream with a very little Salt and some sliced Nutmeg. As soon as it begins to boil, take it from the fire. In the mean time beat the yolks of twelve or fifteen new-laid Eggs very well with some Rose or Orange-flower-water, and sweeten the Cream to your taste with Sugar. Then beat three or four spoonfuls of Cream with them, and quickly as many more; so proceeding, till you have incorporated all the Cream and all the Eggs. Then pour the Eggs and Cream into a deep dish laid over with sippets of fine light bread, which will rise up to the top for the most part. When it is cooled and thickened enough to bear Raisins of the Sun, strew all over the top with them (well-washed.) Then press a little way into it with great lumps of raw Marrow. Two bones will suffice. Cover your dish with another, and set it upon a great pot of boiling water, with a good space between the water and the dish, that there be room for the hot steam to rise and strike upon the dish. Keep good fire always under your pot. In less then an hour (usually) it is baked enough. You will perceive that, if the Marrow look brown, and be enough baked. If it should continue longer on the heat, it would melt. You may bake it in an oven if you will; but it is hard to regulate it so, that it be not too much or too little: whereas the boiling water is certain. You may strew Ambred Sugar upon it, either before you set it to bake, or after it is done.

For Rosting of Meat

To rost fine meat (as Partridge, Pheasant, Chicken, Pigeon) that it be full of juyce; baste it as soon as it is through hot, and time to baste, with Butter. When it is very moist all over, sprinkle flower upon it every where, that by turning about the fire, it may become a thin crust. Then baste it no more till the latter end. This crust will keep in all the juyce. A little before you take it up, baste it again with Butter, and this will melt away all the crust. Then give it three or four turns of the spit, that it may make the outside yellow and crisp.

You may also baste such meat with yolks of new-laid Eggs, beaten into a thin oyl. But with this you continue basting all the while the meat rosteth.

To Stew a Rump of Beef

Take a rump of Beef, break all the bones; season it with Pepper and Salt to your liking; Take three or four Nutmegs, and a quantity of Mace, beat them grossly; Then take a bunch of very good sweet herbs, and one good Onion cut in quarters, or Garlike, as you like it. Put in half a pint of White-wine Vinegar, and one pint of good Claret, one handful of Sugar; and a piece or two of beef Suet or Butter: shred some Cabbage under and over, and scrape in a pound of good old Cheese. Put all these into an earthen pot, and let it stand in an oven with brown-bread four or five hours; but let the pot be covered close with paste.

To Stew a Rump of Beef

Take a fat rump of young Beef, as it comes from the Butcher, and take out all the bones, excepting the tip of it towards the tail that is all fat, which you cannot take out, without spoiling or defacing or breaking it. But take out all the thick bones towards the Chine, and the thick Sinews, that are on the outer sides of the flesh; (which will never become tender with boiling) so that you have nothing but the pure flesh and fat, without any bony or tough substance. Then beat well the lean part with a woodden roling pin, and when you have beaten well one side, turn the other. Then rub it well with Pepper grosly beaten, and salt; just as you would do, to season a Venison pasty, making the seasoning higher or gentler according to your taste. Then lay it in a fit vessel, with a flat bottom (pipkin or kettle as you have conveniency) that will but just contain it, but so that it may lye at ease. Or you may tye it up in a loose thin linnen cloth, or boulter, as they do Capons à la mode, or Brawn, or the like. Then put water upon it, but just to cover it, and boil it close covered a matter of two hours pretty smartly, so that it be well half boiled. Then take it out of that, and put it into another fit vessel, or the same cleansed, and put upon it about two quarts of good strong deep well bodied Claret-wine, and a good bundle of sweet-herbs, (Penny-royal, Sweet-Marjoram, Winter-savory, Limon Thyme, &c.) and a good large Onion peeled, and stuck as close with Cloves, as you can stick it, if you like the taste of Onions. They must be the strong biting Onions, that are round and red: a little Nutmeg, and some Mace. Put to the wine about a pint of the Liquor that you have already boiled the Beef in; and if you would have it strong of the seasoning of Pepper, and Salt; take the bottom of this Liquor. Thus let it boil very gently, simpringly, or rather stew with Char-coal over a little furnace, or a fit Chafing-dish, a matter of three hours, close covered. If the Liquor waste too much, you may recruit it with what you have kept of that, which your beef was boiled in. When it is near time to take it up, stew some Oysters in their own Liquor (to which you may add at the latter end, some of the winy Liquor, that the Beef is now stewing in, or some of the first Beef-broth, or use some good pickled Oysters) and at the same time make some thin tostes of Kingstone manchet, which toste very leisurely, or rather dry them throughly, and very hard, and Crisp, but not burned, by lying long before the fire. And if you have fresh Champignons, dress a good dish full of them, to be ready at the same time, when all the rest is ready; If not, use pickled ones, without further dressing. When you find your Beef is as tender as can be, and will scarcely hold together, to be taken up together, and that all the other things are ready, lay the tostes in the dish, where the Beef is to lye; pour some of the Liquor upon it. Then lay the Beef upon the tosts; throw away the bundle of Herbs and Onions; and pour the rest of the Liquor upon the Beef, as also the Oysters, and the Mushrooms, to which add a pretty deal, about half a pint of Broom-buds: and so let it stand a while well covered over coals to Mittoner; and to have all the several substances communicate their tastes to one another, and to have the tostes swell up like a gelly. Then serve it up. If you want Liquor, you may still recruit your self out of the first Beef-broth, which you keep all to supply any want afterwards. Have a care, whiles it is stewing, in the Winy-liquor, to lift the flesh sometimes up from the bottom of the vessel, least if it should lye always still, it may stick to the bottom, and burn; but you cannot take it out, for it would fall in pieces. It will be yet better meat, if you add to it, at the last (when you add all the other heightnings) some Marrow, and some Chess-nuts, and some Pistachios, if you will. Put to your Broom-buds (before you put them in to the rest) some elder Vinegar, enough to soak them, and even to cover them. If you find this make your composition of the whole too sharp, you may next time take less. When you put the Beef to stew with the wine (or a while after) you may put to it a pretty quantity (as much as you can take in both hands at once) of shreded Cabbage, if it be the season; or of Turneps, if you like either of these. Carrots make it somewhat flat. If the wine be not quick enough, you may put a little elder Vinegar to it. If you like Garlike, you may put in a little, or rub the dish with it.

Pickled Champignons

Champignons are best, that grow upon gravelly dry rising Grounds. Gather them of the last nights growth; and to preserve them white, it is well to cast them into a pitcher of fair-water, as you gather them: But that is not absolutely necessary, if you will go about dressing them as soon as you come home. Cut the great ones into halves or quarters, seeing carefully there be no worms in them; and peel off their upper skin on the tops: the little ones, peel whole. As you peel them, throw them into a bason of fair-water, which preserves them white. Then put them into a pipkin or possnet of Copper (no Iron) and put a very little water to them, and a large proportion of Salt. If you have a pottle of Mushrooms, you may put to them ten or twelve spoonfuls of water, and two or three of Salt. Boil them with pretty quick-fire, and scum them well all the while, taking away a great deal of foulness, that will rise. They will shrink into a very little room. When they are sufficiently parboiled to be tender, and well cleansed of their scum, (which will be in about a quarter of an hour,) take them out, and put them into a Colander, that all the moisture may drain from them. In the mean time make your pickle thus: Take a quart of pure sharp white Wine Vinegar (elder-Vinegar is best) put two or three spoonfuls of whole Pepper to it, twenty or thirty Cloves, one Nutmeg quartered, two or three flakes of Mace, three Bay-leaves; (some like Limon-Thyme and Rose-mary; but then it must be a very little of each) boil all these together, till the Vinegar be well impregnated with the Ingredients, which will be in about half an hour. Then take it from the fire, and let it cool. When the pickle is quite cold, and the Mushrooms also quite cold, and drained from all moisture: put them into the Liquor (with all the Ingredients in it) which you must be sure, be enough to cover them. In ten or twelve days, they will have taken into them the full taste of the pickle, and will keep very good half a year. If you have much supernatant Liquor, you may parboil more Mushrooms next day, and put them to the first. If you have not gathered at once enough for a dressing, you may keep them all night in water to preserve them white, and gather more the next day, to joyn to them.

To Stew Wardens or Pears

Pare them, put them into a Pipkin, with so much Red or Claret Wine and water, ana, as will near reach to the top of the Pears. Stew or boil gently, till they grow tender, which may be in two hours. After a while, put in some sticks of Cinnamon bruised and a few Cloves. When they are almost done, put in Sugar enough to season them well and their Syrup, which you pour out upon them in a deep Plate.

To Stew Apples

Pare them and cut them into slices. Stew them with Wine and Water as the Pears, and season them in like manner with Spice. Towards the end sweeten them with Sugar, breaking the Apples into Pap by stirring them. When you are ready to take them off, put in good store of fresh-butter, and incorporate it well with them, by stirring them together. You stew these between two dishes. The quickest Apples are the best.

Portuguez Eggs

The way that the Countess de Penalva makes the Portuguez Eggs for the Queen, is this. Take the yolks (clean picked from the whites and germ) of twelve new-laid Eggs. Beat them exceedingly with a little (scarce a spoonful) of Orange-flower-water. When they are exceeding liquid, clear, and uniformly a thin Liquor, put to them one pound of pure double refined Sugar (if it be not so pure, it must be clarified before) and stew them in your dish or bason over a very gentle fire, stirring them continually, whiles they are over it, so that the whole may become one uniform substance, of the consistence of an Electuary (beware they grow not too hard; for without much caution and attention, that will happen on a sudden) which then you may eat presently, or put into pots to keep. You may dissolve Ambergreece (if you will, ground first very much with Sugar) in Orange-flower or Rose-water, before hand, and put it (warm and dissolved) to the Eggs, when you set them to stew. If you clarifie your Sugar, do it with one of these waters, and whites of Eggs. The flavor of these sweet-waters goeth almost all away with boiling. Therefore half a spoonful put into the composition, when you take it from the fire, seasoneth it more then ten times as much, put in at the first.

To Boil Eggs

A certain and infallible method to boil new-laid Eggs to sup up, and yet that they have the white turned to milk, is thus: Break a very little hole, at the bigger end of the shell, and put it into the water, whiles it boileth. Let it remain boiling, whiles your Pulse beateth two hundred stroaks. Then take it out immediately, and you will find it of an exact temper: others put Eggs into boyling water just as you take it from the fire, and let them remain there, till the water be so cooled, that you may just put in your hand, and take out the Eggs.

Others put the Eggs into cold water, which they set upon the fire, and as soon as the water begins to boil, the Eggs are enough.

To Make Clear Gelly of Bran

Take two pound of the broadest open Bran of the best Wheat, and put it to infuse in a Gallon of Water, during two or three days, that the water may soak into the pure flower, that sticks to the bran. Then boil it three or four walms, and presently take it from the fire, and strain it through some fine strainer. A milky substance will come out, which let stand to settle about half a day. Pour off the clear water, that swimmeth over the starch or flomery, that is in the bottom (which is very good for Pap, &c.) and boil it up to a gelly, as you do Harts-horn gelly or the like, and season it to your taste.

To Bake Venison

Boil the bones (well broken) and remaining flesh of the Venison, from whence the meat of the Pasty is cut, in the Liquor, wherein Capons and Veal, or Mutton have been boiled, so to make very strong broth of them. The bones must be broken, that you may have the Marrow of them in the Liquor; and they must stew a long time (covering the pot close:) that you may make the broth as strong as you can; and if you put some gravy of Mutton or Veal to it, it will be the better. When the Pasty is half baked, pour some of this broth into it, by the hole at the top; and the rest of it, when it is quite baked, and wanteth but standing in the oven to soak. Or put it all in at once, when the Pasty is sufficiently baked, and afterwards let it remain in the oven a good while soaking.

You may bake the bones (broken) with the broth and gravy, or for want thereof, with only water in an earthen pot close stopped, till you have all the substance in the Liquor; which you may pour into the Pasty an hour before it is baked enough.

If you are in a Park, you may soak the Venison a night in the blood of the Deer; and cover the flesh with it, clotted together when you put it in paste. Mutton blood also upon Venison, is very good. You may season your blood a little with Pepper and Salt.

To Bake Venison to Keep

After you have boned it, and cut away all the sinews, then season it with Pepper and Salt pretty high, and divide a Stag into four pots; then put about a pound of Butter upon the top of each pot, and cover it with Rye-past pretty thick. Your oven must be so hot, that after a whole night it maybe baked very tender, which is a great help to the keeping of it. And when you draw it, drain all the Liquor from it, and turn your pot upon a pie plate, with the bottom upwards, and so let it stand, until it is cold; Then wipe your pot, that no gravy remain therein, and then put your Venison into the same pot again; then have your Butter very well clarified, that there be no dross remaining; Then fill up your pot about two Inches above the meat with Butter, or else it will mould. And so the next day binde it up very close, with a piece of sheeps Leather so that no air can get in. After which you may keep it as long as you please.

Master Adrian May put’s up His Venison in pots, to keep long, thus: Immediately as soon as He hath killed it, he seasoneth and baketh it as soon as He can, so that the flesh may never be cold. And this maketh that the fat runneth in among the lean, and is like calvered Salmon, and eats much more mellow and tender. But before the Deer be killed, he ought to be hunted and chafed as much as may be. Then seasoned and put in the oven before it be cold. Be sure to pour out all the gravy, that settleth to the bottom, under the flesh after the baking, before you put the Butter to it, that is to lie very thick upon the meat, to keep it all the year.

About Making of Brawn

It must be a very large oven, that so it may contract the stronger heat, and keep it the longer. It must be at least eight hours heating with wood, that it be as hot as is possible. If the Brawn be young, it will suffice eight hours or a little more in the oven. But if old, it must be ten or eleven. Put but two Collars into each pot, for bigger are unwieldy. Into every pot, put twelve corns of whole Pepper, four Cloves, a great Onion peeled and quartered, and two bay-leaves, before you put them into the oven. Before they are set in, you do not fill them with water to the top, least any should spill in sliding them in; but fill them up by a bowl fastned to a long Pole. No water must be put in, after the oven is closed (nor the oven ever be opened, till after all is throughly baked) and therefore you must put in enough at first to serve to the last; you must rowl your Collars as close as may be, that no air may be left in the folds of them: and sow them up in exceeding strong cloth, which a strong man must pull as hard as He can in the sowing. Their cloths must not be pulled off, till the Collars have been three or four days out of the oven, least you pull off part of the Brawn with them. You may put the same proportion of Pepper, Cloves, &c. into the Souce drink as you did in the baking them; which at either time (especially at first) give them a fine taste. The Souce-drink is made of six shillings Beer, and Thames or River-water, of each an equal quantity, well boiled with Salt. When boiled and cold, put in to it two or three quarts of skimmed Milk, only to colour it; and so change it once in three Weeks. Tender Brawn sliced thin, and laid Sallet-wise in a dish as the sliced Capon, and seasoned with Pepper, Salt and Vinegar and Oyl, with a little Limon, is a very good Sallet.

Sallet of Cold Capon Rosted

It is a good Sallet, to slice a cold Capon thin; mingle with it some Sibbolds, Lettice, Rocket and Tarragon sliced small. Season all with Pepper, Salt, Vinegar and Oyl, and sliced Limon. A little Origanum doth well with it.

Mutton Baked Like Venison, Soaking Either in Their Blood

Take a large fat loin of Mutton (or two) boned after the manner of Venison. Season it well to your taste with Pepper and Salt. Then lay it to steep all night in enough of the sheep’s blood, to cover it over, and soak well into it. Then lay it into the past, with all the clotted thick blood, under it, upon it, and hanging about it. You may season the blood with Pepper and Salt, before you lay the meat in it. But though you do not, it will not be amiss, so as the meat be seasoned high enough. Then bake it as you do an ordinary Pasty; and you may put gravy of Mutton or strong broth into it. You may do it in a dish with past; as My Lady of Newport doth Her Venison. This way of steeping in blood before you bake it, is very good also for Venison.

To Make an Excellent Hare-Pye

Hash the flesh of as many Hares, as you please, very small. Then beat them strongly in a Mortar into a Paste, which season duly with Pepper and Salt. Lard it throughly all over with great Lardons of Lard well rowled in Pepper and Salt. Put this into a straight earthen pot, to lye close in it. If you like Onions, you may put one or two quartered into the bottom of the Pot. Put store of Sweet-butter upon the meat, and upon that, some strong red Claret-wine. Cover the pot with a double strong brown paper, tyed close about the mouth of it. Set it to bake with houshold-bread (or in an oven, as a Venison pasty) for eight or ten hours. Then take out the pot, and thence the meat, and pour away all the Liquor, which let settle. Then take all the congealed Butter, and clarifie it well. Put your meat again into the pot, and put upon it your clarified Butter, and as much more as is necessary. And I believe the putting of Claret-wine to it now is better, and to omit it before. Bake it again, but a less while. Pour out all the Liquor, when it is baked, and clarifie the Butter again, and pour it upon the meat, and so let it cool; The Butter must be at least two or three fingers breadth over the meat.

To Bake Beef

Bone it, and beat it exceeding well on all sides, with a roling pin, upon a table. Then season it with Pepper and Salt, (rubbing them in very well) and some Parsley, and a few Sweet herbs (Penny-royal, Winter-savoury, Sweet-marjoram, Limon Thyme, Red-sage, which yet to some seems to have a Physical taste) an Onion if you will. Squeese it into the pot as close as you can. Put Butter upon it, and Claret-wine, and covered all as above. Bake it in a strong oven eight or ten hours. Take it out of the oven, and the meat out of the pot, which make clean, from all settlings; and squeese all the juyce from it (even by a gentle press.) Then put it in again hard pressed into the pot. Clarifie the Butter, that you poured with the Liquor from the meat out of the pot; and pour it again with more flesh, to have enough to cover it two or three fingers thick.

To Bake Pidgeons, (Which are Thus Excellent, and Will Keep a Quarter of a Year) Or Teals, or Wild-Ducks

Season them duly with Pepper and Salt; then lay them in the pot, and put store of Butter, and some Claret-wine to them. Cover and bake as above: but a less while according to the tenderness of the meat. In due time take out your pot, and your birds out of it, which press not, but only wipe off the Liquor. Pour it out all. Clarifie the Butter; put in the birds again, and the clarified butter, and as much more as needs (all melted) upon them, and let it cool. You may put a few Bay-leaves upon any of these baked meats, between the meat and the Butter.


An excellent cold Pye is thus made. Take two fat Green-geese; bone them, and lay them in paste one upon the other, seasoning them well with Pepper and Salt, and some little Nutmeg, both above and below and between the two Geese. When it is well-baked and out of the oven, pour in melted Butter at a hole made in the top. The crust is much better than of a Stubble-goose.

To Boil Beef or Venison Tender and Savoury

The way to have Beef tenderest, short and best boiled, as my Lord of Saint Alban’s useth it, is thus. Take a rump or brisket of beef; keep it without salt as long as you may, without danger to have it smell ill. For so it groweth mellow and tender, which it would not do, if it were presently salted. When it is sufficiently mortified, rub it well with Salt; let it lie so but a day and a night, or at most two nights and a day. Then boil it in no more water then is necessary. Boil it pretty smartly at first, but afterwards but a simpring or stewing boiling, which must continue seven or eight hours. Sometimes he boileth it half over night, and the rest next morning. If you should not have time to Salt it, you may supply that want thus; When the Beef is through boiled, you may put so much Salt into the pot as to make the broth like brine, and then boil it gently an hour longer; or take out the Beef, and put it into a deep dish, and put to it some of his broth made brine, and cover it with another dish, and stew it so an hour. A hanch of Venison may be done the same way.

To Bake Wilde-Ducks or Teals

Season your Duck and Teal with Pepper and Salt, both within and without, so much as you think may season them; then crack their bones with a roling pin; then put them into an earthen pot close, and cover them with Butter, and bake them in an oven as hot as for bread, and let them stand three or four hours; when you take them out of the oven, pour out all the Liquor from them, then melt so much Butter as will cover them; when you have melted your Butter, let it stand a while, until all the dross be settled to the bottom, and put in the clear Butter, which must cover the Fowl.

To Season Humble-Pyes: And to Rost Wilde-Ducks

Bake Humble-Pyes without chapping them small in a Pye, seasoned with Pepper and Salt, adding a pretty deal of Parsley, a little sweet-marjoram and Savoury, and a very little Thyme.

Rost wilde Ducks putting into their Bellies some Sage and a little Onion (both well shreded) wrought into a lump with butter, adding a little Pepper and Salt. And let their sauce be a little gravy of Mutton, to enlarge the seasoned gravy, that comes from the Ducks when they are cut up.

To Souce Turkeys

Take a good fat Turkey or two; dress them clean, and bone them; then tye them up in the manner of Sturgeon with some thing clean washed. Take your kettle, and put into it a pottle of good White-wine, a quart of Water, and a quart of Vinegar; make it boil, and season it with Salt pretty well. Then put in your Turkeys, and let them boil till they be very tender. When they are enough boiled, take them out, and taste the Liquor; if it be not sharp enough, put more Vinegar, and let it boil a little; then put it into an earthen pot, that will hold both Turkeys. When it is cold enough, and the Turkeys through-cold, put them into the Liquor in the Pot, and be sure they be quite covered with the Liquor; Let them lye in it three weeks or a month; Then serve it to the table, with Fennel on it, and eat it with elder Vinegar.

You may do a Capon or two put together in the same manner: but first larding it with great Lardons rowled in Pepper and Salt. A shorter time lying in the pickle will serve.

An Excellent Meat of Goose or Turkey

Take a fat Goose, and Powder it with Salt eight or ten days; Then boil it tender, and put it into pickle, like Sturgeon-pickle. You may do the like with a very fat Turkey; but the best pickle of that is, the Italian Marinating, boiling Mace, Nutmeg, &c. in it. You may boil Garlick in the belly of the fouls, if you like it, or in the pickle.

To Pickle an Old Fat Goose

Cut it down the back, and take out all the bones; Lard it very well with green Bacon, and season it well with three quarters of an Ounce of Pepper; half an Ounce of Ginger; a quarter of an Ounce of Cloves, and Salt as you judge proportionable; a pint of white wine and some Butter. Put three or four Bay-leaves under the meat, and bake it with Brown-bread in an earthen pot close covered, and the edges of the cover closed with Paste. Let it stand three or four days in the pickle; then eat it cold with Vinegar.

About Ordering Bacon for Gambons, and to Keep

At Franckfort they use the following cautions about the Bacon they salt for Gambons or sides to keep. The best is of male Hogs of two year old, that have been gelt, when they were young. They kill them in the wane of the Moon, from a day or two after the full, till the last quarter. They fetch off their hair with warm-water, not by burning (which melteth the fat, and maketh it apt to grow resty), and after it hath lain in the open air a full day, they salt it with dry Salt, rubbing it in well: Then lay what quantity you will in a tub for seven or eight days (in which time the Salt dissolveth to water); then take it out, and wipe it dry, and hang it in a room, where they keep fire, either on a hearth, or that smoak cometh out of a stove into the room (as most of those rooms do smoak) but hang them not in the Chimney, that the hot smoak striketh upon them; but if you have a very large Chimney, hang them pretty high and aside, that the smoak may not come full upon them. After a while, (when they are dry) take them thence, and hang them from the smoak in a dry warm room. When the weather groweth warm as in May, there will drop from them a kinde of melted oyly grease, and they will heat, and grow resty, if not remedied. Take them down then, and lay them in a cold dry place, with hay all about them, that one may not touch another. Change the Hay every thirty, or twenty, or fifteen days, till September, when the weather groweth cool; then hang them up again in the free air, in a dry Chamber. If you make the shoulders into Gambons, you must have a care to cut away a little piece of flesh within, called in Dutch the Mause; for if that remain in it, the Bacon will grow resty.

To Make a Tansey

Take Spinage, Sorrel, Tansey, Wheat, a quart of Cream; bread (the quantity of a two peny loaf) twenty Eggs, and half the whites, one Nutmeg, half a pound of Sugar, and the juyce of a couple of Limons. Spinage is the chief herb to have the juyce; Wheat also is very good, when it is young and tender. You must not take much Sorrel, for fear of turning the Cream; but less Tansey, so little that it may not taste distinctly in the composition. The juyce of Limons is put in at the end of all. You may lay thin slices of Limon upon the Tansey made, and Sugar upon them.

Another Way

Beat twelve Eggs (six whites put away) by themselves exceeding well (two or three hours), sometimes putting in a spoonful of Cream to keep them from oyling; Then mingle them well with a quart of Cream; to which put about half a pint of juyce of Spinage (as much as will make the Cream green) or of green wheat, and four spoonfuls of juyce or Tansey, one Nutmeg scraped into thin slices, and half a pound of Sugar; All things exceeding well Incorporated together; Fry this with fresh butter, no more then to glase the Pan over, and keep the Tansey from sticking to the Pan.

To Make Cheese-Cakes

Take twelve quarts of Milk warm from the Cow, turn it with a good spoonful of Runnet. Break it well, and put it into a large strainer, in which rowl it up and down, that all the Whey may run out into a little tub; when all that will is run out, wring out more. Then break the curds well; then wring it again, and more whey will come. Thus break and wring till no more come. Then work the Curds exceedingly with your hand in a tray, till they become a short uniform Paste. Then put to it the yolks of eight new laid Eggs, and two whites, and a pound of butter. Work all this long together.

In the long working (at the several times) consisteth the making them good. Then season them to your taste with Sugar finely beaten; and put in some Cloves and Mace in subtile powder. Then lay them thick in Coffins of fine Paste, and bake them.

Short and Crisp Crust for Tarts and Pyes

To half a peck of fine flower, take a pound and half of Butter, in this manner. Put your Butter with at least three quarts of cold water (it imports not how much or how little the water is) into a little kettle to melt, and boil gently: as soon as it is melted, scum off the Butter with a ladle, pouring it by ladlefuls (one a little after another, as you knead it with the flower) to some of the flower (which you take not all at once, that you may the better discern, how much Liquor is needful) and work it very well into Paste. When all your butter is kneaded, with as much of the flower, as serves to make paste of a fitting consistence, take of the water that the Butter was melted in, so much as to make the rest of the flower into Paste of due consistence; then joyn it to the Paste made with Butter, and work them both very well together, of this make your covers and coffins thin. If you are to make more paste for more Tarts or Pyes, the water that hath already served, will serve again better then fresh.

To make Goose-pyes, and such of thick crust, you must put at least two pound of Butter to half a peck of flower. Put no more Salt to your Past, then what is in the Butter, which must be the best new Butter that is sold in the Market.

To Make a Cake

Take eight wine quarts of flower; one pound of loaf Sugar beaten and searsed; one ounce of Mace, beat it very fine: then take thirty Eggs, fifteen whites, beat them well; then put to them a quart of new Ale-yest; beat them very well together, and strain them into your flower; then take a pint of Rose-water, wherein six grains of Ambergreece and Musk have been over night. Then take a pint and half of Cream or something more, and set it on the fire, and put into it four pounds and three quarters of Butter; And when it is all melted, take it off the fire and stir it about, until it be pretty cool; And pour all into your flower, and stir it up quick with your hands, like a lith pudding; Then dust a little flower over it, and let it stand covered with a Flannel, or other woollen cloth, a quarter of an hour before the fire, that it may rise; Then have ready twelve pounds of Currants very well washed and pick’d, that there may be neither stalks, nor broken Currants in them. Then let your Currants be very well dryed before the fire, and put warm into your Cake; then mingle them well together with your hands; then get a tin hoop that will contain that quantity, and butter it well, and put it upon two sheets of paper well buttered; so pour in your Cake, and so set it into the oven, being quick that it may be well soaked, but not to burn. It must bake above an hour and a quarter; near an hour and half. Take then a pound and half of double refined Sugar purely beaten and searsed; put into the whites of five Eggs; two or 3 spoonfuls of rose-water; keep it a beating all the time, that the Cake is a baking which will be two hours; Then draw your Cake out of the oven, and pick the dry Currants from the top of it, and so spread all that you have beaten over it, very smooth, and set it a little into the oven, that it may dry.

Another Cake

Take three pounds and an half of flower; one penny worth of Cloves and Mace; and a quarter of a pound of Sugar and Salt, and strew it on the flower. Then take the yolks of eight Eggs well beaten, with a spoonful and half of rose water; Then take a pint of thick Cream, and a pound of Butter; Melt them together, and when it is so, take three quarters of a pint of Ale-yest, and mingle the yest and Eggs together. Then take the warm liquor, and mingle all together; when you have done, take all, and pour it in the bowl, and so cover the flower over the liquor; then cover the pan with a Napkin, and when it is risen, take four pounds of Currants, well washed and dryed, and half a pound of Raisins of the Sun sliced, and let them be well dryed and hot, and so stir them in. When it is risen, have your oven hot against the Cake is made; let it stand three quarters of an hour. When it is half baked, Ice it over with fine Sugar and Rose-water, and the whites of Eggs, and Musk and Ambergreece.

When you mingle your yest and Eggs together for the Cake, put Musk and Amber to that.

To Make a Plumb-Cake

Take a peck of flower, and put it in half. Then take two quarts of good Ale-yest, and strain it into half the flower, and some new milk boiled, and almost cold again; make it into a very light paste, and set it before the fire to rise; Then take five pound of Butter, and melt it in a skillet, with a quarter of a pint of Rose-water; when your paste is risen, and your oven almost hot, which will be by this time, take your paste from the fire, and break it into small pieces, and take your other part of flower, and strew it round your paste; Then take the melted Butter, and put it to the past, and by degrees work the paste and flower together, till you have mingled all very well. Take six Nutmegs, some Cinnamon and Mace well beaten, and two pound of Sugar, and strew it into the Paste, as they are a working it. Take three pounds of Raisins stoned, and twelve pounds of Currants very well washed and dryed again; one pound of Dates sliced; half a pound of green Citron dryed and sliced very thin; strew all these into the paste, till it have received them all; Then let your oven be ready, and make up your Cake, and set it into the oven; but you must have a great care, it doth not take cold. Then to Ice it, take a pound and half of double refined Sugar beaten and searsed; The whites of three Eggs new-laid, and a little Orange-flower-water, with a little musk and Ambergreece, beaten and searsed, and put to your sugar; Then strew your Sugar into the Eggs, and beat it in a stone Mortar with a Woodden Pestel, till it be as white as snow, which will be by that time the Cake is baked; Then draw it to the ovens mouth, and drop it on, in what form you will; let it stand a little again in the oven to harden.

To Make an Excellent Cake

To a Peck of fine flower, take six pounds of fresh butter, which must be tenderly melted, ten pounds of Currants, of Cloves and Mace, half an ounce of each, an ounce of Cinnamon, half an ounce of Nutmegs, four ounces of Sugar, one pint of Sack mixed with a quart at least of thick barm of Ale (as soon as it is settled, to have the thick fall to the bottom, which will be, when it is about two days old) half a pint of Rose-water; half a quarter of an ounce of Saffron. Then make your paste, strewing the spices, finely beaten, upon the flower: Then put the melted butter (but even just melted) to it; then the barm, and other liquors: and put it into the oven well heated presently. For the better baking of it, put it in a hoop, and let it stand in the oven one hour and half. You Ice the Cake with the whites of two Eggs, a small quantity of Rose-water, and some Sugar.

To Make Bisket

To half a peck of flower, take three spoonfuls of barm, two ounces of seeds; Aniseeds or Fennel-seeds. Make the paste very stiff, with nothing but water, and dry it (they must not have so much heat, as to make them rise, but only dry by degrees; as in an oven after Manchet is taken out, or a gentle stove) in flat Cakes very well in an oven or stove.

To Make a Caraway-Cake

Take three pound and a half of the finest flower and dry it in an oven; one pound and a half of sweet butter, and mix it with the flower, until it be crumbled very small, that none of it be seen; Then take three quarters of a pint of new Ale-yeast, and half a pint of Sack, and half a pint of new milk; six spoonfuls of Rose-water, four yolks, and two whites of Eggs; Then let it lie before the fire half an hour or more. And when you go to make it up, put in three quarters of a pound of Caraway-Confits, and a pound and half of biskets. Put it into the oven, and let it stand an hour and half.

Another Very Good Cake

Take four quarts of fine flower, two pound and half of butter, three quarters of a pound of Sugar, four Nutmegs; a little Mace; a pound of Almonds finely beaten, half a pint of Sack, a pint of good Ale-yest, a pint of boiled Cream, twelve yolks, and four whites of Eggs; four pound of Currants. When you have wrought all these into a very fine past, let it be kept warm before the fire half an hour, before you set it into the oven. If you please, you may put into it, two pound of Raisins of the Sun stoned and quartered. Let your oven be of a temperate heat, and let your Cake stand therein two hours and a half, before you Ice it; and afterwards only to harden the Ice. The Ice for this Cake is made thus: Take the whites of three new laid Eggs, and three quarters of a pound of fine Sugar finely beaten; beat it well together with the whites of the Eggs, and Ice the Cake. If you please you may add a little Musk or Ambergreece.

Excellent Small Cakes

Take three pound of very fine flower well dryed by the fire, and put to it a pound and half of loaf Sugar sifted in a very fine sieve and dryed; Three pounds of Currants well washed and dryed in a cloth and set by the fire; When your flower is well mixed with the Sugar and Currants, you must put in it a pound and half of unmelted butter, ten spoonfuls of Cream, with the yolks of three new-laid Eggs beat with it, one Nutmeg; and if you please, three spoonfuls of Sack. When you have wrought your paste well, you must put it in a cloth, and set it in a dish before the fire, till it be through warm. Then make them up in little Cakes, and prick them full of holes; you must bake them in a quick oven unclosed. Afterwards Ice them over with Sugar. The Cakes should be about the bigness of a hand-breadth and thin: of the cise of the Sugar Cakes sold at Barnet.

My Lord of Denbigh’s Almond March-Pane

Blanch Nut-Kernels from the Husks in the best manner you can. Then pun them with a due proportion of Sugar, and a little Orange-flower, or Rose-water. When it is in a fitting uniform paste, make it into round Cakes, about the bigness of your hand, or a little larger, and about a finger thick; and lay every one upon a fine paper cut fit to it; which lay upon a table. You must have a pan like a tourtiere, made to contain coals on the top, that is flat, with edges round about to hold in the coals, which set over the Cakes, with fire upon it. Let this remain upon the Cakes, till you conceive, it hath dryed them sufficiently for once; which may be within a quarter of an hour; but you take it off two or three times in that time, to see you scorch not the outside, but only dry it a little. Then remove it to others, that lye by them; and pull the Papers from the first, and turn them upon new Papers. When the others are dryed enough, remove the pan back to the first, to dry their other side: which being enough, remove it back to the second, that by this time are turned, and laid upon new Papers. Repeat this turning the Cakes, and changing the Pan, till they are sufficiently dry: which you must not do all at once, least you scorch them: and though the outside be dry, the inside must be very moist and tender. Then you must Ice them thus: Make a thick pap with Orange flower or Rose-water, and purest white Sugar: a little of the whites of Eggs, not above half a spoonful of that Oyl of Eggs, to a Porrenger full of thick Pap, beaten exceeding well with it, and a little juyce of Limons. Lay this smooth upon the Cakes with a Knife, and smoothen it with a feather. Then set the pan over them to dry them. Which being if there be any unevenness, or cracks or discolouring, lay on a little more of that Mortar, and dry it as before. Repeat this, till it be as clear, and smooth, and white, as you would have it. Then turn the other sides, and do the like to them. You must take care, not to scorch them: for then they would look yellow or red, and they must be pure, white and smooth like Silver between polished and matte, or like a looking Glass. This Coat preserves the substance of the Cakes within, the longer moist. You may beat dissolved Amber, or Essence of Cinnamon, with them.

To Make Slipp Coat Cheese

According to the bigness of your moulds proportion your stroakings for your Cheese-curds. To six quarts of stroakings, take a pint of Springwater: if the weather be hot, then let the water be cold, and before you put it into the stroakings, let them stand a while to cool after they are milked, and then put in the water with a little Salt first stirred in it: and having stirred it well together, let it stand a little while, and then put in about two good spoonfuls of Runnet, stir it well together, and cover it with a fair linnen-cloth, and when it is become hard like a thick jelly, with a skimming-dish lay it gently into the moulds, and as it sinks down into the moulds, fill it still up again, till all be in, which will require some three or four hours time. Then lay a clean fine cloth into another mould of the same cise, and turn it into it, and then turn the skirts of the cloth over it, and lay upon that a thin board, and upon that as much weight, as with the board may make two pound or thereabouts. And about an hour after, lay another clean cloth into the other mould, and turn the Cheese into that; then lay upon the board so much, as will make it six or seven pound weight; and thus continue turning of it till night: then take away the weight, and lay it no more on it; then take a very small quantity of Salt finely beaten, and sprinkle the Cheese all over with it as lightly as can be imagined. Next morning turn it into another dry cloth, and let it lye out of the mould upon a plain board, and change it as often as it wets the cloth, which must be three or four times a day: when it is so dry, that it wets the cloth no more, lay it upon a bed of green-rushes, and lay a row upon it; but be sure to pick the bents clean off, and lay them even all one way: if you cannot get good rushes, take nettles or grass. If the weather is cold, cover them with a linnen and woollen cloth; in case you cannot get stroakings, take five quarts of new Milk, and one of Cream. If the weather be cold, heat the water that you put to the stroakings. Turn the Cheese every day, and put to it fresh of whatsoever you keep it in. They are usually ripe in ten days.

To Make Slipp-Coat-Cheese

Master Phillips his Method and proportions in making slippe-coat Cheese, are these. Take six wine quarts of stroakings, and two quarts of Cream; mingle these well together, and let them stand in a bowl, till they are cold. Then power upon them three pints of boiling fair water, and mingle them well together; then let them stand, till they are almost cold, colder then milk-warm. Then put to it a moderate quantity of Runnet, made with fair water (not whey, or any other thing then water; this is an important point), and let it stand till it come. Have a care not to break the Curds, nor ever to touch them with your hands, but only with your skimming dish. In due time lade the Curds with the dish, into a thin fine Napkin, held up by two persons, that the whey may run from them through the bunt of the Napkin, which you rowl gently about, that the Curds may dry without breaking. When the whey is well drained out, put the Curds as whole as you can into the Cheese-fat, upon a napkin, in the fat. Change the Napkin, and turn the Cheese every quarter of an hour, and less, for ten, twelve or fourteen times; that is, still as soon as you perceive the Napkin wet with the whay running from the Curds. Then press it with a half pound weight for two or three hours. Then add half a pound more for as long time, then another half pound for as long, and lastly another half pound, which is two pounds in all; which weight must never be exceeded. The next day, (when about twenty four hours are past in all) salt your Cheese moderately with white Salt, and then turn it but three or four times a day, and keep it in a cotton cloth, which will make it mellow and sweet, not rank, and will preserve the coat smooth. It may be ready to eat in about twelve days. Some lay it to ripen in dock-leaves, and it is not amiss; but that in rain they will be wet, which moulds the Cheese. Others in flat fit boxes of wood, turning them, as is said, three or four times a day. But a cotton cloth is best. This quantity is for a round large Cheese, of about the bigness of a sale ten peny Cheese, a good fingers-breadth thick. Long broad grass ripeneth them well, and sucketh out the moisture. Rushes are good also. They are hot, but dry not the moisture so well.

My Lady of Middlesex makes excellent slipp-coat Cheese of good morning milk, putting Cream to it. A quart of Cream is the proportion she useth to as much milk, as both together make a large round Cheese of the bigness of an ordinary Tart-plate, or Cheese-plate; as big as an ordinary soft cheese, that the Market-women sell for ten pence. Thus for want of stroakings at London, you may take one part of Cream to five or six of morning milk, and for the rest proceed as with stroakings; and these will prove as good.

Slipp-Coat Cheese

Take three quarts of the last of the stroakings of as many Cows as you have; keep it covered, that it may continue warm; put to it a skimming dishful of Spring-water; then put in two spoonfuls of Runnet, so let it stand until it be hard come: when it is hard come, set your fat on the bottome of a hair-sieve, take it up by degrees, but break it not; when you have laid it all in the fat, take a fine cloth, and lay it over the Cheese, and work it in about the sides, with the back of a Knife; then lay a board on it, for half an hour: after half an hour, set on the board an half pound stone, so let it stand two hours; then turn it on that board, and let the cloth be both under and over it, then pour it into the fat again; Then lay a pound and half weight on it; Two hours after turn it again on a dry cloth, and salt it, then set on it two pound weight, and let it stand until the next morning. Then turn it out of the Cheese-fat, on a dry board, and so keep it with turning on dry boards three days. In case it run abroad, you must set it up with wedges; when it begins to stiffen, lay green grass or rushes upon it: when it is stiff enough, let rushes be laid both under and over it. If this Cheese be rightly made, and the weather good to dry it, it will be ready in eight days: but in case it doth not dry well, you must lay it on linnen-cloth, and woollen upon it, to hasten the ripening of it.

To Make a Scalded Cheese

Take six gallons of new milk: put to it two quarts of the evening Cream; then put to it good runnet for winter Cheese; let it stand, till it be even well, then sink it as long as you can get any whey out: then put it into your fat, and set it in the press, and let it stand half an hour: in this time turn it once. When you take it out of the Press, set on the fire two gallons of the same whey; then put your Cheese in a big bowl, break the Curd as small with your hands as you do your Cheese-cakes: when your whey is scalding hot, take off the scum: lay your strainer over the Curd, and put in your whey: take a slice, and stir up your Curd, that it may scald all alike: put in as much whey as will cover it well: if you find that cold, put it out, and put in more to it that is hot. Stir it as before: then cover it with a linnen and woollen cloth: then set some new whey on the fire, put in your Cheese-fat and suter and cloth. After three quarters of an hour, take up the Curd, and put it into the Cheese fat, as fast, as two can work it in: then put it into the hot cloth, and set it into the Press. Have a care to look to it, and after a while turn it, and so keep it in the press with turning, till the next day: then take it forth and Salt it.

The Cream-Courds

Strain your Whey, and set it on the fire: make a clear and gentle fire under the kettle: as they rise, put in whey, so continuing, till they are ready to skim. Then take your skimmer, and put them on the bottom of a hair-sieve: so let them drain till they are cold. Then take them off, and put them into a bason, and beat them with three or four spoonfuls of Cream and Sugar.

Savoury Tosted or Melted Cheese

Cut pieces of quick, fat, rich, well tasted cheese, (as the best of Brye, Cheshire, &c. or sharp thick Cream-Cheese) into a dish of thick beaten melted Butter, that hath served for Sparages or the like, or pease, or other boiled Sallet, or ragout of meat, or gravy of Mutton: and, if you will, Chop some of the Asparages among it, or slices of Gambon of Bacon, or fresh-collops, or Onions, or Sibboulets, or Anchovis, and set all this to melt upon a Chafing-dish of Coals, and stir all well together, to Incorporate them; and when all is of an equal consistence, strew some gross White-Pepper on it, and eat it with tosts or crusts of White-bread. You may scorch it at the top with a hot Fire-Shovel.

To Feed Chicken

First give them for two days paste made of Barley Meal and Milk with Clyster Sugar to scowre them. Then feed them with nothing but hashed Raisins of the Sun. The less drink they have, the better it is: for it washeth away their fat; but that little they have, let it be broken Beer; Milk were as good or better; but then you must be careful to have it always sweet in their trough, and no sowerness there to turn the Milk. They will be prodigiously fat in about twelve days: And you must kill them, when they are at their height: Else they will soon fall back, and grow fat no more.

Others make their Paste of Barley meal with Milk and a little course Sugar, and mingle with it a little (about an eight part) of powder of green Glass beaten exceeding small. Give this only for two days to cleanse their stomacks. Then feed them with paste of Barley-meal, made sometimes with Milk and Sugar, and sometimes with the fat skimmed off from the pot, giving them drink as above.

Others make a pretty stiff paste for them with Barley-meal (a little of the coursest bran sifted from it) and the fat scummed off from the boiling pot, be it of Beef (even salted) or Mutton, &c. Lay this before them for their food for four days. Then give them still the same, but mingled with a little powder of Glass for 4 or five days more. In which time they will be extremely fat and good. For their drink, give them the droppings of good Ale or good Beer. When you eat them, you will find some of the powder of glass in their stomacks, i.e. gizzards.

To Feed Poultry

My Lady Fanshaws way of feeding Capons, Pullets, Hens, Chickens or Turkies, is thus. Have Coops, wherein every fowl is a part, and not room to turn in, and means to cleanse daily the ordure behind them, and two troughs; for before that, one may be scalding and drying the day the other is used, and before every fowl one partition for meat, another for drink. All their Meat is this: Boil Barley in water, till it be tender, keep some so, and another parcel of it boil with Milk, and another with strong Ale. Let them be boiled as wheat that is creed. Use them different days for variety, to get the fowl appetite. Lay it in their trough, with some Brown-Sugar mingled with it. In the partition for Liquor, let them have water or strong Ale to drink. They will be very drunk and sleep; then eat again. Let a Candle stand all night over the Coop, and then they will eat much of the night. With this course they will be prodigiously fat in a fortnight. Be sure to keep them very sweet. This maketh the taste pure.

Another Way of Feeding Chicken

Take Barley meal, and with droppings of small Ale, (or Ale it self) make it into a consistence of batter for Pan-cakes. Let this be all their food. Which put into the troughs before them, renewing it thrice a day, morning, noon and evening; making their troughs very clean every time, and keeping their Coops always very clean and sweet. This is to serve them for drink as well as meat, and no other drink be given them. Feed them thus six days; the seventh give them nothing in their troughs but powder of brick searced, which scowreth and cleanseth them much, and makes their flesh exceeding white. The next day fall to their former food for six days more, and the seventh again to powder of Brick. Then again to barley Meal and Ale. Thus they will be exceeding fat in fifteen days, and purely white and sweet.

To Fatten Young Chickens in a Wonderfull Degree

Boil Rice in Milk till it be very tender and Pulpy, as when you make Milk Potage. It must be thick, almost so thick, that a spoon may stand an-end in it. Sweeten this very well with ordinary Sugar. Put this into their troughs where they feed, that they may be always eating of it. It must be made fresh every day. Their drink must be onely Milk, in another little trough by their meat-trough. Let a candle (fitly disposed) stand by them all night; for seeing their meat, they will eat all night long. You put the Chicken up, as soon as they can feed of themselves; which will be within a day or two after they are hatched, and in twelve days, or a fortnight, they will be prodigiously fat; but after they have come to their height, they will presently fall back. Therefore they must be eaten as soon as they are come to their height. Their Pen or Coop must be contrived so, that the Hen (who must be with them, to sit over them) may not go at liberty to eat away their meat, but be kept to her own diet, in a part of the Coop that she cannot get out of. But the Chicken must have liberty to go from her to other parts of the Coop, where they may eat their own meat, and come in again to the Hen, to be warmed by her, at their pleasure. You must be careful to keep their Coop very clean.

To Feed Chicken

Fatten your Chicken the first week with Oatmeal scalded in Milk; the second with Rice and Sugar in Milk. In a fortnight they will be prodigiously fat. It is good to give them sometimes a little Gravel, or powder of Glass, to cleanse their maws, and give them appetite.

If you put a little bran with their meat, it will keep their maws clean, and give them appetite.

Another Excellent Way to Fatten Chicken

Boil white bread in Milk, as though you were to eat it; but make it thick of the bread, which is sliced into it in thin slices, not so thick as if it were to make a pudding; but so, that when the bread is eaten out, there may some liquid milk remain for the Chicken to drink; or that at first you may take up some liquid Milk in a spoon, if you industriously avoid the bread: sweeten very well this potage with good Kitchin Sugar of six pence a pound; so put it into the trough before them. Put there but a little at a time, (two or three spoonfuls) that you may not clog them, and feed them five times a day, between their wakening in the morning, and their roosting at night. Give them no other drink; the Milk that remaineth after they have eaten the bread, is sufficient; neither give them Gravel, or ought else. Keep their Coops very clean, as also their troughs, cleansing them very well every morning. To half a dozen very little Chickens, little bigger then black-birds, an ordinary porenger full every day may serve. And in eight days they will be prodigiously fat, one peny loaf, and less then two quarts of Milk and about half a pound of Sugar will serve little ones the whole time. Bigger Chickens will require more, and two or three days longer time. When any of them are at their height of fat, you must eat them; for if they live longer, they will fall back, and grow lean. Be sure to make their potage very sweet.

An Excellent Way to Cram Chicken

Stone a pound of Raisins of the Sun, and beat them in a Mortar to Pulp; pour a quart of Milk upon them, and let them soak so all night. Next morning stir them well together, and put to them so much Crums of Grated stale white bread as to bring it to a soft paste, work all well together, and lay it in the trough before the Chicken (which must not be above six in a pen, and keep it very clean) and let a candle be by them all night. The delight of this meat will make them eat continually; and they will be so fat (when they are but of the bigness of a Black-bird) that they will not be able to stand, but lie down upon their bellies to eat.

To Feed Partridges that You have Taken Wilde

You must often change their food, giving them but of one kind at a time, that so their appetites may be fresh to the others, when they are weary of the present. Sometimes dry wheat; Sometimes wheat soaked two or three days in water, to make it soft and tender; Sometimes barley so used; Sometimes oats in like manner. Give them continually to lie by them; Some of the great green leaves of Cabbages, that grow at the bottom of the stalk, and that are thrown away, when you gather the Cabbage; which you may give them either whole or a little chopped. Give them often Ants and their Eggs, laying near them the inward mould of an Ant hill, taken up with the Ants in it.

To Make Puffs

Take new milk Curds, strained well from the whey; then rub them very well; season them with Nutmeg, Mace, Rose-water and Sugar; then take an Egg or two, a good piece of Butter, and a handful of flower; work all together, and make them into Balls; bake them in an oven, upon sheets of Paper; when they are baked, serve them up with butter melted and beaten with Rose-water and Sugar. In stead of flower, you may take fine grated-bread, dried very well, but not Crisp.

Apples in Gelly

My Lady Paget makes her fine preserved Pippins, thus: They are done best, when Pippins are in their prime for quickness, which is in November. Make your Pippin-water as strong as you can of the Apples, and that it may be the less boiled, and consequently the paler, put in at first the greatest quantity of pared and quartered Apples, the water will bear. To every Pint of Pippin-water add (when you put the Sugar to it) a quarter of a pint of fair spring-water, that will bear soap (of which sort only you must use) and use half a pound of Sugar, the purest double refined. If you will have much gelly, two Pippins finely pared and whole, will be enough; you may put in more, if you will have a greater proportion of substance to the gelly. Put at first but half the Sugar to the Liquor; for so it will be the paler. Boil the Apples by themselves in fair water, with a very little Sugar, to make them tender; then put them into the liquor, and the rest, the other half of the Sugar with them. Boil them with a quick fire, till they be enough, and the liquor do gelly, and that you see the Apples look very clear, and as though they were transparent. You must put the juyce of two Limons and half an Orange to this in the due time. Every Pippin should be lapped over in a broad-pill of Orange; which you must prepare thus. Pare your Orange broad and very thin, and all hanging together, rub it with Salt, prick it, and boil it in several waters, to take away the bitterness, and make it tender. Then preserve it by it self with sufficient quantity of Sugar. When it is throughly done, and very tender (which you must cast to do before hand, to be ready when the Apples are ready to be put up) take them out of their Syrup, and lap every Pippin in an Orange-peel, and put them into a pot or glass, and pour the liquor upon them: which will be gelly over and about the Apples, when all is cold. This proportion of liquor, Apples, and Orange-peels, will take up about three quarters of a pound of Sugar in all. If you would keep them any time, you must put in weight for weight of Sugar.

I conceive Apple-John’s in stead of Pippins will do better, both for the gelly and Syrup; especially at the latter end of the year; and I like them thin sliced, rather than whole; and the Orange-peels scattered among them in little pieces or chipps.

Syrup of Pippins

Quarter and Core your Pippins; then stamp them in a Mortar, and strain out the Juyce. Let it settle, that the thick dregs may go to the bottom; then pour off the clear; and to have it more clear and pure, filter it through sucking Paper in a glass funnel. To one pound of this take one pound and an half of pure double refined Sugar, and boil it very gently (scarce simpringly, and but a very little while) till you have scummed away all the froth and foulness (which will be but little) and that it be of the consistence of Syrup. If you put two pound of Sugar to one pound of juyce, you must boil it more & stronglier. This will keep longer, but the colour is not so fine. It is of a deeper yellow. If you put but equal parts of juyce and Sugar, you must not boil it, but set it in a Cucurbite in bulliente Balneo, till all the scum be taken away, and the Sugar well dissolved. This will be very pale and pleasant, but will not keep long.

You may make your Syrup with a strong decoction of Apples in water (as when you make gelly of Pippins) when they are green; but when they are old and mellow, the substance of the Apple will dissolve into pap, by boiling in water.

Take three or four spoonfuls of this Syrup in a large draught of fountain water, or small posset-Ale, pro ardore urinæ to cool and smoothen, two or three times a day.

Gelly of Pippins or John-Apples

Cut your Apples into quarters (either pared or unpared). Boil them in a sufficient quantity of water, till it be very strong of the Apples. Take the clear liquor, and put to it sufficient Sugar to make gelly, and the slices of Apple; so boil them all together, till the slices be enough, and the liquor gelly; or you may boil the slices, in Apple-liquor without Sugar, and make gelly of other liquor, and put the slices into it, when it is gelly, and they be sufficiently boiled. Either way, you must put at the last some juyce of Limon to it; and Amber and Musk if you will. You may do it with halves or quartered Apples, in deep glasses, with store of gelly about them. To have these clear, take the pieces out of the gelly they are boiled in, with a slice, so as you may have all the rags run from them, and then put neat clean pieces into clear gelly.

Preserved Wardens

Pare and Core the Wardens, and put a little of the thin rind of a Limon into the hole that the Core leaveth. To every pound of Wardens, take half a pound of Sugar, and half a pint of water. Make a Syrup of your Sugar and Water; when it is well scummed, put it into a Pewter dish, and your Wardens into the Syrup, and cover it with another Pewter dish; and so let this boil very gently, or rather stew, keeping it very well covered, that the steam get out as little as may be. Continue this, till the Wardens are very tender, and very red, which may be in five, or six, or seven hours. Then boil them up to the height the Syrup ought to be to keep: which yet will not be well above three or four months. The whole secret of making them red, consisteth in doing them in Pewter, which spoileth other preserves, and in any other mettal these will not be red. If you will have any Amber in them, you may to ten or twelve pounds of Wardens, put in about twenty grains of Amber, and one, or at most, two grains of Musk, ground with a little Sugar, and so put in at the last. Though the Wardens be not covered over with the Syrup in the stewing by a good deal, yet the steam, that riseth and cannot get out, but circulateth, will serve both to stew them, and to make them red and tender.

Sweet Meat of Apples

My Lady Barclay makes her fine Apple-gelly with slices of John apples. Sometimes she mingles a few Pippins with the John’s to make the Gelly. But she liketh best the John’s single, and the colour is paler. You first fill the glass with slices round-wise cut, and then the Gelly is poured in to fill up the vacuities. The Gelly must be boiled to a good stiffness. Then when it is ready to take from the fire, you put in some juyce of Limon, and of Orange too, if you like it: but these must not boil; yet it must stand a while upon the fire stewing in good heat, to have the juyces Incorporate and Penetrate well. You must also put in some Ambergreece, which doth exceeding well in this sweet-meat.

A Flomery-Caudle

When Flomery is made and cold, you may make a pleasant and wholesome caudle of it, by taking some lumps and spoonfuls of it, and boil it with Ale and White wine, then sweeten it to your taste with Sugar. There will remain in the Caudle some lumps of the congealed flomery, which are not ungrateful.

Pleasant Cordial Tablets, which are Very Comforting, and Strengthen Nature Much

Take four ounces of blanched Almonds; of Pine kernels, and of Pistachios, ana, four Ounces. Erin-go-roots, Candid-Limon peels, ana, three Ounces, Candid Orange peels two Ounces, Candid Citron-peels four Ounces, of powder of white Amber, as much as will lie upon a shilling; and as much of the powder of pearl, 20 grains of Ambergreece, three grains of Musk, a book of leaf gold, Cloves and Mace, of each as much as will lie upon a three pence; cut all these as small as possible you can. Then take a pound of Sugar, and half a pint of water, boil it to a candy-height, then put in the Ambergreece and Musk, with three or four spoonfulls of Orange flower water. Then put in all the other things and stir them well together, and cast them upon plates, and set them to dry: when both sides are dry, take Orange-flower-water and Sugar, and Ice them.

To Make Harts-Horn Gelly

Take four Ounces of Harts-horn rasped, boil it in four pound of water, till it will be a gelly, which you may try upon a plate (it will be so, in four or five or six hours gentle boiling) and then pass the clear liquor from the horn (which will be a good quart) then set it on the fire again with fine Sugar in it to your taste; when that is dissolved (or at the same time you put that in) put half a pound of white-wine or Sack into it, and a bag of Spice, containing a little Ginger, a stick of Cinnamon bruised, a Nutmeg quartered, two or three Cloves, and what other Spice you like, but Pepper. As soon as it beginneth to boil, put into it the whites of three or four Eggs beaten, and let it boil up gently, till the Eggs harden into a curd. Then open it with a spoon, and pour into it the juyce of three or four good Limons; then take it presently off the fire, letting it not boil more above a walm: Then run it through a Hippocras bag, putting spirit of Cinnamon, or of Ambergreece, or what you please to it.

For gelly of flesh you proceed in the same manner, with a brawny Capon or Cock, and a rouelle of Veal (first skinned, and soaked from the blood) in stead of Harts-horn: and when the broth will gelly, do as above, using a double or treble proportion of wine. Boil no Salt in it at first, for that will make the gelly black.

Harts-Horn Gelly

Take a pound of Harts-horn, and boil it in five quarts of water, until it come to three pints, then strain it through a sieve or strainer, and so let it stand, until it be cold; and according to the strength you may take more or less of the following Ingredients. First, take your stock of gelly, & put it into a skillet or pipkin with a pound of fine loaf Sugar, and set it over a fire of Charcoal; and when it begins to boil, put in a pint or more of Rhenish-wine. Then take the whites of Eggs six or eight, beaten very well, with three or four spoonfuls of Rose-water, and put into the gelly. Then take two grains of Amber, and one grain of Musk, and put thereto, so let it boil a quarter of an hour, but not too violent; Then put in three or four spoonfuls of Cinnamon-water, with the juyce of seven or eight Limons; boil it one walm more, and run it very hot through your gelly-bag; this done, run it again as cool and softly as you can into your Glasses and Pots.

To Make Harts-Horn Gelly

Take a pound of Harts-horn, and a prety big lean Chicken, and put it into a skillet with about nine quarts of water, and boil your stock prety stiff, so that you may cut it with a knife; you may try it in a spoon, as it is a boiling. Then drain your liquor clear away from the Harts-horn through a fine searse, and let it stand until the next morning; Then if there be any fat upon it, pare it away, and likewise the settlings at the bottom. Then put your Gelly into a good big skillet, and put to it a quart of the palest white-wine that you can procure, or a quart of Rhenish-wine, and one pound of double refined Sugar, and half an Ounce of Cinnamon broken into small pieces, with three or four flakes of Mace. Then set it upon the fire, and boil it a good pace. Then have the whites of sixteen Eggs beaten to a high froth; so put in the froth of your Eggs, and boil it five or six Walms; then put in the juyce of six Limons, and boil it a little while after, and then run it into a silver bason through your gelly-bag: and keep it warm by the fire, until it have run through the second time. You must observe to put but a very little into your bag at a time for the second running, that it may but little more then drop; and it will be so much the clearer: and you must not remove the whites of Eggs nor Spice out of the bag, all the while it is running. And if the weather be hot, you need not put in so much wine; for it will not then be so apt to gelly as in cold weather.

Another Way to Make Harts-Horn-Gelly

Take a small Cock-chick, when it is scalded, slit it in two pieces, lay it to soak in warm water, until the blood be well out of it. Then take a calves foot half boiled, slit it in the middle and pick out the fat and black of it. Put these into a Gallon of fair-water; skim it very well; Then put into it one Ounce of Harts-horn, and one Ounce of Ivory. When it is half consumed, take some of it up in a spoon; and if it gelly, take it all up, and put it into a silver bason, or such a Pewter one as will endure Char-coal. Then beat four whites of Eggs, with three or four spoonfuls of Damask-Rose-water very well together. Then put these into the gelly, with a quarter of an Ounce of Cinnamon broken into very small pieces; one flake of Mace; three or four thin slices of Ginger; sweeten it with loaf Sugar to your liking; set it then over a chafing dish of coals; stir it well, and cover it close; blow under it, until there arise a scum or curd; let it boil a little, then put into it one top of Rose-mary, two or three of sweet Marjoram; wring into it the juyce of half a Limon; let not your curd fall again, for it will spoil the clearness of the gelly. If you will have it more Cordial, you may grind in a Sawcer, with a little hard Sugar, half a grain of Musk, a grain of Ambergreece. It must be boiled in an earthen pipkin, or a very sweet Iron-pot, after the Harts-horn and Ivory is in it. It must constantly boil, until it gellieth. If there arise any scum, it must be taken off.

Marmulate of Pippins

Take the quickest Pippins, when they are newly gathered, and are sharp; Pare and Core and cut them into half quarters. Put to them their weight of the finest Sugar in Powder, or broken into little pieces. Put upon these in your preserving pan, as much fountain water, as will even cover them. Boil them with a quick-fire, till by trying a little upon a Plate, you find it gellieth. When it is cold (which may be in less then half an hour) then take it from the fire, and put into it a little of the yellow rind of Limons rasped very small, and a little of the Yellow rinde of Oranges boiled tender (casting away the first waters to correct their bitterness) and cut into narrow slices (as in the gelly of Pippins) and some Ambergreece, with a fourth part of Musk, and break the Apples with the back of your preserving spoon, whiles it cooleth. If you like them sharper, you may put in a little juyce of Limon, a little before you take the pan from the fire. When it is cold, put it into pots. This will keep a year or two.

Try if the juyce of Apples (strained out of rasped Apples) in such sort, as you make Marmulate of Quinces, with the juyce of Quinces, would not be better, then fair-water, to boil your Apples and Sugar in.

Gelly of Quinces

My last Gelly of Quinces I made thus. The Quinces being very ripe, and having been long gathered, I took the flesh of twelve Quinces in quarters, and the juyce of fifteen or sixteen others, which made me two pounds of juyce; And I made a strong decoction of about twenty four others, adding to these twenty four (to make the decoction the stronger, and more slimy) the Cores and the Parings of the twelve in quarters; and I used the Cores sliced and Parings of all these. All this boiled about an hour and half in eight or ten pound of water; Then I strained and pressed out the decoction (which was a little viscous, as I desired) and had between 4 and five pound of strong decoction. To the decoction and Syrup, I put three pound of pure Sugar, which being dissolved and scummed, I put in the flesh, and in near an hour of temperate boiling (covered) and often turning the quarters, it was enough. When it was cold, it was store of firm clear red gelly, environing in great quantity the quarters, that were also very tender and well penetrated with the Sugar. I found by this making, that the juyce of Quinces is not so good to make gelly. It maketh it somewhat running like Syrup, and tasteth sweetish, mellowy, syrupy.

The Decoction of the flesh is only good for Syrup. I conceive, it would be a grateful sweetmeat to mingle a good quantity of good gelly with the Marmulate, when it is ready to put into pots. To that end they must both be making at the same time: or if one be a little sooner done then the other, they may be kept a while warm (fit to mingle) without prejudice. Though the Gelly be cold and settled, it will melt again with the warmth of the Marmulate, and so mingle with it, and make a Marmulate, that will appear very gellyish; or peradventure it may be well to fill up a pot or glass with gelly, when it is first half filled with Marmulate a little cooled.

Preserved Quince with Gelly

When I made Quinces with Gelly, I used the first time these proportions; of the decoction of Quinces three pound; of Sugar one pound three quarters; Flesh of Quince two pound and an half; The second time these, of decoction two pound and an half, Sugar two pound and a quarter, Of flesh two pound three quarters. I made the decoction by boyling gently each time a dozen or fourteen Quinces in a Pottle of water, an hour and a half, or two hours, so that the decoction was very strong of the Quinces. I boiled the parings (which for that end were pared very thick, after the Quinces were well wiped) with all the substance of the Quince in thick slices, and part of the Core (excepting all the Kernels) and then let it run through a loose Napkin, pressing gently with two plates, that all the decoction might come out; but be clear without any flesh or mash. The first making I intended should be red; and therefore both the decoction, and the whole were boiled covered, and it proved a fine clear red. This boiled above an hour, when all was in. The other boiled not above half an hour, always uncovered (as also in making his decoction) and the Gelly was of a fine pale yellow. I first did put the Sugar upon the fire with the decoction, and as soon as it was dissolved, I put in the flesh in quarters and halves; and turned the pieces often in the pan; else the bottom of such as lay long unturned, would be of a deeper colour then the upper part. The flesh was very tender and good. I put some of the pieces into Jar-glasses (carefully, not to break them,) and then poured gelly upon them. Then more pieces, then more gelly, &c. all having stood a while to cool a little.

To Make Fine White Gelly of Quinces

Take Quinces newly from the tree, fair and sound, wipe them clean, and boil them whole in a large quantity of water, the more the better, and with a quick fire, till the Quinces crack and are soft, which will be in a good half hour, or an hour. Then take out the Quinces, and press out their juyce, with your hands hard, or gently in a press through a strainer, that only the clear liquor or juyce run out, but none of the pap, or solid and fleshy substance of the Quince. (The water, they were boiled in, you may throw away.) This liquor will be slimy and mucilaginous, which proceedeth much from the seeds that remaining within the Quinces, do contribute to making this Liquor. Take three pound of it, and one pound of fine Sugar, and boil them up to a gelly, with a moderate fire, so that they boil every where, but not violently. They may require near an hours boiling to come to a gelly. The tryal of that is, to take a tin or silver plate, and wet it with fair-water, and drop a little of the boiling juyce upon the wet plate; if it stick to the plate, it is not enough; but if it fall off (when you slope the Plate) without sticking at all to it, then is it enough: and then you put it into flat shallow Tin forms, first wetted with cold water, and let it stand in them four or five hours in a cold place, till it be quite cold. Then reverse the plates, that it may shale and fall out, and so put the parcels up in boxes.

Note, you take fountain water, and put the Quinces into it, both of them being cold. Then set your Kettle to boil with a very quick-fire, that giveth a clear smart flame to the bottom of the Kettle, which must be uncovered all the while, that the gelly may prove the whiter; And so likewise it must be whiles the juyce or expression is boiling with the Sugar, which must be the finest, that it may not need clarifying with an Egg; but that little scum that riseth at the sides at the beginning of moderate boiling must be scummed away. You let your juyce or expression settle a while, that if any of the thick substance be come out with it, it may settle to the bottom; for you are to use for this only the clear juyce: which to have it the clearer, you may let it run through a large, thin, open, strainer, without pressing it. When you boil the whole Quinces, you take them out, to strain them as soon as their skins crack, and that they are quite soft; which will not happen to them all at the same time, but according to their bigness and ripeness. Therefore first take out and press those, that are ready first: and the rest still as they grow to a fit state to press. You shall have more juyce by pressing the Quinces in a torcular, but it will be clearer, doing it with your hands; both ways, you lap them in a strainer.

White Marmulate, the Queens Way

Take a pound and an half of flesh of Quinces sliced, one pound of Sugar, and one pound of Liquor (which is a decoction made very strong of Quinces boiled in fair water). Boil these with a pretty quick fire, till they be enough, and that you find it gellieth. Then proceed as in my way.

My Lady of Bath’s Way

Take six pounds of flesh of Quince, and two pound of Sugar moistened well with juyce of Quinces. Boil these together in a fit kettle; first gently, till the Liquor be sweated out from the quince, and have dissolved all the Sugar; Then very quick and fast, proceeding as in my way, (bruising the Quinces with a spoon, &c.) till it be enough. This will be very fine and quick in taste; but will not keep well beyond Easter. In this course you may make Marmulate without any juyce or water (by the meer sweeting of the flesh) if you be careful, proceeding slowly till juyce enough be sweated out, least else it burn to; and then quick, that the flesh may be boiled enough, before the Moisture be evaporated away.

Paste of Quinces

Take a quart of the juyce of Quince, and when it is on the fire, put into it, pared, quartered and Cored as much Quince, as the juyce will cover; when it is boiled tender, pass the Liquor through a sieve & put the pulp into a stone Mortar, and beat it very fine with a Woodden Pestel; then weigh it, and to every pound of pulp, take a quarter of a pound of loaf Sugar, and boil it up to a candy-height in some of the juyce, which you passed through the sieve; then put therein your pulp, stirring it well together, till it hath had one boil and no more; Then drop it on glasses, or spread it on plates, and set it to dry.

Into the juyce that remains, you may put more flesh of Quinces, and boil it tender, doing all as at the first. Then adding it (beaten to pulp in a Mortar) unto the former pulp; repeating this, till you have taken up all your juyce. Then put your proportion of Sugar to the whole quantity of pulp, and so make it up into paste, and dry it, and sometimes before a gentle fire, sometimes in a very moderate stove.

Paste of Quinces with Very Little Sugar

To one pound of flesh or solid substance of Quinces (when they are pared, cored, and quartered,) take but a quarter of double refined Sugar. Do thus, scald your flesh of Quinces in a little of the juyce of other Quinces, that they may become tender, as if they were coddled.

Then beat them in a mortar to a subtle uniform smooth pulp (which you may pass through a searce.) In the mean time let your Sugar be dissolved, and boiling upon the fire. When it is of a candy-height, put the pulp of Quince to it, and let it remain a little while upon the fire, till it boil up one little puff or bubbling, and that it is uniformly mixed with the Sugar; you must stir it well all the while. Then take it off, and drop it into little Cakes, or put it thin into shallow glasses which you may afterwards cut into slices. Dry the cakes and slices gently and by degrees in a stove, turning them often. These will keep all the year, and are very quick of taste.

Another Paste of Quinces

Put the Quinces whole into scalding water, and let them boil there, till they be tender. Then take them out and peel them, and scrape off the pulp, which pass through a strainer; and when it is cold enough to every pound put three quarters of a pound of double refined Sugar in subtile powder; work them well together into an uniform paste; then make little cakes of it, and dry them in a stove. If you would have the Cakes red, put a little (very little; the colour will tell you, when it is enough) of juyce of barberies to the paste or pulp. You have the juyce of Barberries thus: Put them ripe into a pot over the fire, till you see the juyce sweat out. Then strain them, and take the clear juyce. If you would have the paste tarter, you may put a little juyce of Limons to it.

A pleasant Gelly in the beginning of the winter is made, of Pearmains, Pippins and juyce of Quinces. Also a Marmulate made of those Apples, and juyce of Quinces, is very good.

A Smoothening Quiddany or Gelly of the Cores of Quinces

Take only the Cores, and slice them thin, with the seeds in them. If you have a pound of them, you may put a pottle of water to them. Boil them, till they be all Mash, and that the water hath drawn the Mucilage out of them, and that the decoction will be a gelly, when it is cold. Then let it run through a widestrainer or fitcolender (that the gross part may remain behind, but all the slyminess go through), and to every pint of Liquor take about half a pound of double refined Sugar, and boil it up to a gelly. If you put in a little juyce of Quince, when you boil it up, it will be the quicker.

You may also take a pound of the flesh of Quinces (when you have not cores enow, to make as much as you desire) and one ounce of seeds of other Quinces, and boil them each a part, till the one be a strong decoction; the other a substantial Mucilage. Then strain each from their course fæces: and mingle the decoctions, and put Sugar to them, and boil them up to a Gelly.

Or with the flesh and some juyce of Quinces, make Marmulate in the Ordinary way; which whiles it is boiling, put to it the Mucilage of the seeds to Incorporate it with the Marmulate. You may take to this a less proportion of Sugar than to my Marmulate.

Marmulate of Cherries

Take four pound of the best Kentish Cherries, before they be stoned, to one pound of pure loaf Sugar, which beat into small Powder: stone the Cherries, and put them into your preserving pan over a gentle fire, that they may not boil, but resolve much into Liquor. Take away with the spoon much of the thin Liquor, (for else the Marmulate will be Glewy) leaving the Cherries moist enough, but not swimming in clear Liquor. Then put to them half your Sugar, and boil it up quick, and scum away the froth that riseth. When that is well Incorporated and clear, strew in a little more of the Sugar; and continue doing so by little and little, till you have put in all your Sugar; which course will make the colour the finer. When they are boiled enough, take them off, and bruise them with the back of a spoon; and when they are cold, put them up in pots.

You may do the same with Morello Cherries; which will have a quicker-tast, and have a fine, pure, shining, dark colour.

Both sorts will keep well all the year.

Marmulate of Cherries with Juyce of Raspes and Currants

Mingle juyce of Raspes and red Currants with the stoned Cherries, and boil this mixture into Marmulate, with a quarter, or at most, a third part of Sugar. The juyces must be so much as to make Gelly of them to mingle handsomely with the Cherries, to appear among and between them.

Madam Plancy (who maketh this sweet-meat for the Queen) useth this proportion. Take three pounds of Cherries stoned; half a pound of clear juyce of raspes, and one pound of the juyce of red currants, and one pound of fine Sugar. Put them all together into the preserving pan; boil them with a quick fire, especially at the first, skimming them all the while, as any scum riseth. When you find them of a fit consistence, with a fine clear gelly, mingled with the Cherries, take the preserving pan from the fire, and braise the Cherries with the back of your preserving spoon; and when they are of a fit temper of coolness, pot them up.

Peradventure, to keep all the year, there may be requisite a little more Sugar.

To Make an Excellent Syrup of Apples

Slice a dozen or twenty Pippins into thin slices, and lay them in a deep dish, stratum super stratum, with pure double refined Sugar in powder. Put two or three spoonfuls of water to them, and cover them close with another dish, luting their joyning that nothing may expire. Then set them into an oven. And when you take out the dish, you will have an excellent Syrup, and the remaining substance of the Apples will be insipid.

You may proceed with Damsens, or other plumms, in the same manner, and you will have excellent stewed Damsens, (as fair as preserved ones) swimming in a very fine Syrup.

Sweet-Meats of My Lady Windebanks

She maketh the past of Apricocks (which is both very beautiful and clear, and tasteth most quick of the fruit) thus, Take six pound of pared and sliced Apricocks, put them into a high pot, which stop close, and set it in a kettle of boiling water, till you perceive the flesh is all become an uniform pulp; then put it out into your preserving pan or possenet, and boil it gently till it be grown thick, stirring it carefully all the while. Then put two pound of pure Sugar to it, and mingle it well, and let it boil gently, till you see the matter come to such a thickness and solidity, that it will not stick to a plate. Then make it up into what form you will. The like you may do with Raspes or Currants.

It is a pleasant and beautiful sweet meat to do thus: Boil Raspes in such a pot, till they be all come to such a Liquor; Then let the clear run through a strainer; to a pound, or English wine pint whereof, put a pound of red Currants (first stoned and the black ends cut off) and a pound of Sugar. Boil these, till the Liquor be gellied. Then put it in Glasses. It will look like Rubies in clear Gelly. You may do the like with Cherries, either stoned, and the stalks cut off, or three or four capped upon one stalk, and the stone left in the first, and boiled in Liquor of Raspes.

She makes her curious red Marmulate thus: Take six pounds of Quince-flesh; six pounds of pure Sugar; and eight pints of juyce; boil this up with quick fire, till you have scummed it, then pull away all the Coals, and let it but simper, for four or five hours, remaining covered, renewing from time to time so little fire, as to cause it so to continue simpring. But as soon as it is scummed, put into it a handful of Quince kernels, two races of Ginger sliced, and fourteen or fifteen Cloves whole; all these put into a Tyffany-bag tyed fast; when you finde that the colour is almost to your minde, make a quick fire, and boil it up a pace, then throw away your bag of kernels, Ginger and Cloves, and pot up your Marmulate, when it is cool enough.

She makes her red Gelly of Quince thus: Put the Quinces pared and sliced into a pot, as above; and to every pound of this flesh put about half a demistier of fair water, and put this into a kettle of boiling water, till you perceive all the juyce is boiled out of the Quince. Then strain it out, and boil this Liquor (which will not yet be clear) till you perceive it gellieth upon a plate. Then to every pint of Liquor put a pound of Sugar, and boil it up to a gelly, skimming it well, as the scum riseth, and you will have a pure gelly.

Gelly of Red Currants

Take them clean picked, and fresh gathered in the morning, in a bason, set them over the fire, that their juyce may sweat out, pressing them all the while with the back of your preserving spoon, to squeese out of them all that is good. When you see all is out, strain the Liquor from them, and let it stand to settle four or five hours, that the gross matter may sink to the bottom. Then take the pure clear, (the thick settling will serve to add in making of Marmulate of Cherries, or the like) and to every pint or pound of it, put three quarters of a pound of the purest refined Sugar, and boil them up with a quick fire, till they come to a gelly height (which will be done immediately in less then a quarter of an hour) which you may try with a drop upon a plate. Then take it off, and when it is cold enough, put it into Glasses. You must be careful to skim it well in due time, and with thin brown Paper to take off the froth, if you will be so curious.

Gelly of Currants, with the Fruit Whole in it

Take four pound of good Sugar, clarifie it with whites of Eggs, then boil it up to a candid height (that is, till throwing it, it goeth into flakes): Then put into it five pound (or at discretion) of pure juyce of red Currants first boiled to clarifie it by skimming it. Boil them together a little while, till it be well scummed, and enough to become gelly. Then put a good handful or two of the berries of Currants whole, and cleansed from the stalks and black ends, and boil them a little till they be enough.

You need not to boil the juyce, before you put it to the Sugar, and consequently do not scum it before the Sugar and it boil together: but then scum it perfectly: and take care before, that the juyce be very clear and well strained.

Marmulate of Red Currants

Take some juyce of red Currants, and put into it a convenient proportion of some entire Currants cleansed from the stalks and buttons at the other end. Let these boil a little together. Have also ready some fine Sugar boiled to a candy height. Put of this to the Currants at discretion, and boil them together, till they be enough: and bruise them with the back of your spoon, that they may be in the consistence of Marmulate (like that of Cherries) which put in pots, when it is cool enough. You do not stone the whole Currants put into the juyce, unless you please.

Sucket of Mallow Stalks

To candy or preserve the tender stalks of Mallows, do thus; Take them in the spring, when they are very young and tender; and peel off the strings that are round about the outside, as you do French-beans, and boil them, till they are very tender. In the mean time prepare a high Syrup of pure Sugar, and put the boiled stalkes into it, whiles it is boiling hot, but taken from the fire. Let them lie soaking there till the next morning. Then take out the stalks, and heat the Syrup again, scalding hot, and return the stalks into it, letting them lie there till next morning; (Note, that the stalks must never boil in the Syrup,) Repeat this six, or eight, or nine times, that is to say, till they are sufficiently Imbibed with the Syrup. When they are at this pass, you may either keep them as a wet sucket in Syrup, or dry them in a stove upon Papers, turning them continually, in such sort as dried sweet-meats are to be made. I like them best dry, but soft and moist within (Medullosi) like Candied Eryngos. In Italy they eat much of them, for sharpness and heat of Urine, and in Gonorrhœa’s to take away pain in Urining.

A Sucket is made in like manner of the Carneous substance of stalks of Lettice. It is the knob, out of which the Lettice groweth, which being pared, and all the tough rind being taken off, is very tender and so it is a pretty way downwards the root. This also is very cooling and smoothing.

In Italy these tender stalks of Mallows are called Mazzocchi, and they eat them (boiled tender) in Sallets, either hot or cold, with Vinegar and Oyl, or Butter and Vinegar, or juyce of Oranges.

Conserve of Red Roses

Doctor Glisson makes his conserve of red Roses thus: Boil gently a pound of red Rose leaves (well picked, and the Nails cut off) in about a pint and a half (or a little more, as by discretion you shall judge fit, after having done it once; The Doctors Apothecary takes two pints) of Spring water; till the water have drawn out all the Tincture of the Roses into it self, and that the leaves be very tender, and look pale like Linnen; which may be in a good half hour, or an hour, keeping the pot covered whiles it boileth. Then pour the tincted Liquor from the pale Leaves (strain it out, pressing it gently, so that you may have Liquor enough to dissolve your Sugar) and set it upon the fire by it self to boil, putting into it a pound of pure double refined Sugar in small Powder; which as soon as it is dissolved, put in a second pound; then a third, lastly a fourth, so that you have four pound of Sugar to every pound of Rose-leaves. (The Apothecary useth to put all the four pounds into the Liquor altogether at once,) Boil these four pounds of Sugar with the tincted Liquor, till it be a high Syrup, very near a candy height, (as high as it can be, not to flake or candy) Then put the pale Rose-leaves, into this high Syrup, as it yet standeth upon the fire, or immediately upon the taking it off the fire. But presently take it from the fire, and stir them exceeding well together, to mix them uniformly; then let them stand till they be cold; then pot them up. If you put up your Conserve into pots, whiles it is yet throughly warm, and leave them uncovered some days, putting them in the hot Sun or stove, there will grow a fine candy upon the top, which will preserve the conserve without paper upon it, from moulding, till you break the candied crust, to take out some of the conserve.

The colour both of the Rose-leaves and the Syrup about them, will be exceeding beautiful and red, and the taste excellent; and the whole very tender and smoothing, and easie to digest in the stomack without clogging it, as doth the ordinary rough conserve made of raw Roses beaten with Sugar, which is very rough in the throat. The worst of it is, that if you put not a Paper to lie always close upon the top of the conserve, it will be apt to grow mouldy there on the top; especially aprés que le pot est entamé.

The Conserve of Roses, besides being good for Colds and Coughs, and for the Lunges, is exceeding good for sharpness and heat of Urine, and soreness of the bladder, eaten much by it self, or drunk with Milk, or distilled water of Mallows, and Plantaine, or of Milk.

Another Conserve of Roses

Doctor Bacon related to me, that Mr. Minito the Roman Apothecary, made him some conserve of Roses, in this manner. He took twelve pounds (of sixteen Ounces to the pound) of the best lump or Kitchin Sugar, and clarified it very well with whites of Eggs, using Spring-water in doing this. He made his reckoning, that his twelve pound of Sugar, came to be but nine pound, when all the scum was taken away, and the Sugar perfectly clarified. Boil it then to a Syrup, and when it is about half boiled, go roundly about your Rose-leaves. They must be picked and the white nails cut off before-hand; but begin not to beat them before your Syrup is half boiled. Then put thirty Ounces (which is two pound and an half of Roses to every pound of such Sugar) of your Red-Roses into the Mortar, and beat them well, squeesing into them, as you beat them, some of the subtilest and best part (which comes out first) of about two Limons, which brings out their colour finely. You must have finished beating your Roses, by then the Sugar is come by boiling to a high Syrup (for if you should let them lie still in the Air, but a little while, they would grow black, and of ill colour) then with your ladle put the Roses to the Sugar, and stir them very well in it, to Incorporate all well and uniformly together. So let them boil on gently (for all this while you take not your preserving pan from the fire, and a thick scum of the Roses will rise, which you scum off from time to time continually as it comes up, and reserve this in a pot by it self, for it will be good hard Sugar of Roses, and may be about an eight or ninth part of the whole. After it is clear from scum, and hath boiled near a quarter of an hour with the Roses in it, and that you see by a drop upon a plate, that it is of a due consistence; take your pan from the fire, and stir all very well together, and put it into pots, which leave uncovered during ten or twelve days, setting them in the hot strong Sun all the day long during that time, to give the Roses a fine hard crust or candy at the top; but under it, in the substance of the matter, it will be like a fine clear Syrupy gelly. If the Sun favour you not, then you may use a stove. After twelve days, tie covers of Paper, upon the pots.

Doctor Bacon useth to make a pleasant Julep of this Conserve of Roses, by putting a good spoonful of it into a large drinking glass or cup; upon which squeese the juyce of a Limon, and clip in unto it a little of the yellow rinde of the Limon; work these well together with the back of a spoon, putting water to it by little and little, till you have filled up the glass with Spring-water: so drink it. He sometimes passeth it through an Hypocras bag, and then it is a beautiful and pleasant Liquor.


Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:53