The Closet of Sir Kenelm Digby, Kt., Opened, by Kenelm Digby

Appendix III

A List of the Herbs, Flowers, Fruits, Etc., Referred to in The Closet Opened:

1. Agrimony; alexander; angelica; avens, leaves & flowers; balm; bay-leaves; beet leaves; bettony, wild; bettony, Paul’s; bistort; bloodwort; bluebottles; blue-button; borage, leaves & flowers; bramble, red, tops of; broom-buds; bugle; bugloss, leaves & flowers; burnet; carduus benedictus; carrot, wild; celandine; cersevril; chicory; chives; clove gilly-flowers; clown’s all-heal; coltsfoot; comfrey; cowslip & French cowslip flowers; dragons; elder flowers; endive; eyebright; fennel; fever-few; garlic; ground-ivy; groundsel; hart’s tongue, leaves; hops, flowers; horehound; hypericum, tops & flowers; hyssop; ladies’ mantle; lettuce, leaves & stalks; lily of the valley; liquorice; liverwort; maidenhair; marigold, flowers & leaves; marjoram, sweet; marjoram, wild; marshmallow, leaves, flowers, & stalks; may-weed, brown; meadowsweet; mellilot, flowers; mint; spearmint; mouse-ear; mugwort; muscovy; nettle, red; oak of Jerusalem; organ; origanum [wild marjoram]; oseille; parietary; peas (chick); pellitory-of-the-wall; penny-royal; philipendula; pimpernel; pourpier; primrose, flowers; purslane; ribwort; rocket; rosemary, tops, flowers, & sprigs; rose; rue; sage, (red & wild), leaves & flowers; saxifrage; sanicle; scabious; scurvy grass; self-heal; shallots; sibboulets; skirrets; smallage; sorrel (wood); spike [spignel?]; spleenwort; spinach; St. John’s wort; strawberry leaves; sweetbriar, leaves, tops, buds; sweet oak; sweetwort; tamarisk; tansy; thyme (broad, lemon, mother, & wild); violet, leaves & flowers; wallflowers (yellow); wall rue; watercress; wheat (green); white-wort; winter savoury; woodbine; wormwood (sea & Roman); yarrow. (From this list I have omitted the commoner vegetables.)

2. Roots. — Alexander; angelica; asparagus; beet; betony, bittersweet; bluebottle; borage; coltsfoot; elecampane; eringo; fennel; fern; galingale; horse-radish; marshmallow; nettle (red); orris; parsley; scabious; sorrel; strawberry; succory; thyme (wild); tormentilla.

3. Seeds. — Anise; cardamom; carraway; citron; coriander; fennel; gromwell; melon; musk grains; mustard; nettle; parsley; saffron; tulip, seedy buds of; wormwood.

4. Fruits. — Apples (codlings, ginet moils, pearmains, pippins, golden pippins, red streaks); apricots; barberries; bilberries; cherries (black, Kentish, Morello); currants (dried, black, red); damsons; dates; jujubes; juniper berries; lemons; pears (bon chrétien & wardens); plums; prunes; raisins; rasps; sweetbriar berries; strawberries.

5. Barks, woods. — Ash-tree bark; lignum cassiæ.

6. Nuts. — Almonds; chestnuts; pine kernels; pistachios; walnuts (green).

7. Juices. — Balm; celandine; cherry; hop; lemon; onion; orange; spearmint; spinach; tansy.

8. — Distilled waters of angelica; cinnamon; mallow; orange-flower; plantain; rose (red & damask).

9. Spices of all sorts; cloves; cinnamon (also oil of, & spirit of); ginger; mace; mustard; nutmeg; pepper; peppercorns.

10. Wines. — Canary sack; claret; Deal; elder; Malaga (old); Muscat; Muscadine (Greek); red; Rhenish; sack, sherry sack; Spanish; white.

11. Other liquors. — Ale & beer; afterworts; lees of beer & wine; aqua vitæ; orangeado.

12. Vinegars of elder wine, & of white wine.

13. Verjuice of cider, & green sour grapes.

14. Other notable seasonings and ingredients:—

Ambergris; ivory; leaf gold; powder of white amber; powder of pearl; Spanish pastilles (ambergris, sugar, & musk).


Ana, of each.

Apple-Johns, or John Apples, apples considered best when shrivelled, so called because they are ripe about St. John’s Day.

Aume, aam, awm, a liquid measure used for wine and oil. A Dutch aume of wine equalled about 41 English gallons.

Balneum, a vessel filled with water or sand, in which another vessel is placed to be heated.

Beatilies, beatilia, battalia, tit-bits (e.g. cockscombs or sweet-breads) in a pie.

Bragot, ale boiled with honey.

Bunt, the cavity or baggy part of a napkin when folded or tied as a bag.

Burthen, a quantity, here signifying no certain amount.

Call, a wedge.

Calvered, cut in thin slices when “fresh,” and pickled.

Canicular days, dog days.

Cock’s tread, “The opaque speck or germinal vesicle in the surface of the yolk in an impregnated egg.” M.

Coddle, to boil gently, to stew.

Coffin, a mould of paste for a pie.

Cucurbite, a gourd-shaped vessel; also a shallow vessel with a wide mouth, used for distillation.

Demistier = demi setier, a measure of quarter-pint capacity.

Electuary, a medical conserve or paste of powder mixed with honey, syrup, etc.

Fæces, dregs.

Fearced, forced, stuffed.

Florenden, florentine, a kind of pie, of minced meats, currants, spices, etc., baked in a dish with a cover of paste.

Gambon, gammon, a smoked ham.

Garavanzas, chick-peas.

Gelt, castrated.

Ginet-moils, gennet-moil, a kind of apple ripe before others.

Hippocras, hypocras bag, a bag used in making hippocras, a medicinal drink consisting of spiced wines.

Humble-pie, a pie made of umbles or numbles (the heart, liver, kidneys, etc.) of the deer.

Kiver, kive, keever, a large vessel for fermenting liquors; a mashing tub.

Lardons, strips of bacon or salt pork used for larding.

Laton, latton, latten, a utensil made of thin brass, or mixed metal.

Lith, smooth, thick.

Lute, to close v., to adhere.

Magma, grounds.

Manchet, roll, or small loaf of fine white bread.

Marinate, to salt or pickle, and then preserve in oil or vinegar.

Medullos, medullose, having the texture of pith.

Mittoner, Fr. Mitonner.

Mother of wine, lees.

Must, new wine.

Pearmains, a variety of apple, perhaps from permagnus.

Poix-chiches, chick-peas.

Posnet, possnet, possenet, a porringer.

Pottle, a measure of two quarts.

Pugil, a pinch.

Pun, to beat, to pound as in a mortar.

Race, a root.

Ranch-sieve, perhaps a sieve mounted on a stand, from rance, ranse a prop.

Rand, a strip or slice of meat cut from the margin of a part, or from between two joints.

Resty, reasty, rancid.

Rouelle, a rolled piece [of veal].

Rundlet, runlet, a small barrel.

Runnet, rennet.

Searse, searce, a fine sieve.

Souce-drink, pickle sauce.

Stroakings, the last milk drawn from a cow; strippings.

Stubble-goose, the grayling goose.

Tansy, see recipe. The dish has been traced to the Jewish custom of eating cakes with bitter herbs.

Tourtière, a pie-dish.

Tyffany, tyffany bag, bag made of thin silk or gauze.

Torcular, a press used in making wine.

Trivet, a tripod.

Walm, a bubble in boiling; a boiling-up.

Wardens, winter pears.

Wort, an infusion of malt which after fermentation becomes beer.

Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:53