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The University of Adelaide Library
University of Adelaide
South Australia 5005
Anno 1595. May 27.
Imprinted at London
by Thomas Dawson
Dwelling at The Three Cranes in the Vinetree.
And are there to be sold.
To The Right Honorable Lordes of Her Maiesties most Honorable Priuie Counsayle.
My most honorable good Lords for as much as it hath pleased God, not only to bestow vpon your Lordships, the excellent gifts of natures benefite, but hath also beautified the same with such speciall ornamentes of perfection: As that thereby the mindes and attentiue industrie of all, haue no small regard vnto your honorable proceedings. And so much the rather, because to the great content of all her maiesties most louing subiectes; it hath pleased her highnes in her stately regard of gouernment, to make choise of your honours as speciall members in the regall disposition of the mightinesse of her imperiall command: Emboldeneth me among the rest to humble myself at your honorable feete, in presenting vnto the fauour of your excellent iudgementes this short treatise of the Worldes Hydrographicall bands. And knowing that not onely your renowned places, but also the singularitie of your education, by the prudent care of your noble progenitors hath and still doth induce and drawe you to fauour and imbrace whatsoeuer beareth but a seeming of the commonweales good: Much more then that which in substantiall truth shal be most beneficiall to the same. I am therefore the more encouraged not to slacke this my enterprise, because that through your honorable assistance when in the ballance of your wisedomes this discouery shall haue indifferent consideration, I knowe it will be ordered by you to bee a matter of no small moment to the good of our countrie. For thereby wee shall not onely haue a copious and rich vent for al our naturall and artificiall comodities of England, in short time by safe passage, and without offence of any, but also shall by the first imployment retourne into our countrey by spedie passage, all Indian commodities in the ripenes of their perfection, whereby her Maiesties dominions should bee the storehouse of Europe, the nurse of the world and the glory of nations, in yielding all forrayne naturall benefites by an easie rate: In communicating vnto all whatsoeuer God hath vnto any one assigned: And by the increase of all nations through the mightinesse of trade. Then should the merchant, tradesman, and poore artificer, haue imployment equall to their power and expedition, whereby what notable benefites would growe to her Maiestie, the state, and communaltie, I refer to your perfect iudgementes. And for that I am desirous to auoyde the contradiction of vulgar conceipts, I haue thought it my best course, before I make profe of the certaintie of this discouerie, to lay downe whatsoeuer may against the same be obiected, and in the ouerthrowe of those conceipted hinderances the safenes of the passage shall most manifestly appeare, which when your wisdomes, shall with your patience peruse, I doe in no sort distruct your fauorable acceptance and honorable assistance of the same. And although for diuers considerations I doe not in this treatis discouer my full knowledge for the place and altitude of this passage, yet whensoeuer it shall so please your honours to commaund I will in few wordes make the full certainty thereof knowne vnto your honours being alwaies redie with my person and poore habilitie to prosecute this action as your honours shall direct, beseeching God so to support you with all happines of this life, fauour of her Maiestie, loue of her highnes subiectes, and increase of honour as may be to your best content.
I most humbly take my leaue from Sandrudg by Dartmouth
this 27. of May 1595.
Your Honors in all dutifull seruice to command
The Worlds Hydrographicall Obiections Against al Northerly Discoueries.
All impediments in nature, and circumstances of former practises duly considered. The Northerly passage to China seme very improbable. For first it is a matter very doubtfull whether there bee any such passage or no, sith it hath beene so often attempted and neuer performed, as by historical relation appeareth, whereby wee may fully perswade our selues that America and Asia, or some other continent are so conioyned togeather as that it is impossible for any such passage to be, the certaintie whereof is substantially proued vnto vs by the experience of Sebastian Gabota an expert Pylot, and a man reported of especiall iudgement, who being that wayes imployed returned without successe. Iasper Corteriallis a man of no meane practise did likewise put the same in execution, with diuers others, all which in the best parte haue concluded ignorance. If not a full consent of such matter. And therfore sith practise hath reproued the same, there is no reason why men should dote vpon so great an incertayntie, but if a passage may bee prooued and that the contenentes are disioyned whereof there is small hope, yet the impedimentes of the clymate (wherein the same is supposed to lie) are such, and so offensiue as that all hope is thereby likewise vtterly secluded, for with the frozen zone no reasonable creature will deny, but that the extremitie of colde is of such forceable action, (being the lest in the fulnes of his owne nature without mitigation,) as that it is impossible for any mortall creature to indure the same, by the vertue of whose working power, those Northerly Seas are wholly congealed, making but one mas or contenent of yse, which is the more credible because the ordenary experience of our fishermen geueth vs sufficient notice thereof, by reason of the great quantitie of yse which they find to be brought vpon the cost of newefound land from those Northerne regions. By the aboundance whereof they are so noysomly pestred, as that in many weekes they haue not beene able to recouer the shore, yea and many times recouer it not vntill the season of fishing bee ouer passed. This then being so in the Septentrionall latitude of 46, 47 and 48 degrees, which by natures benifit are latitudes of better temperature than ours of England, what hope should there remayne for a nauegable passing to be by the norwest, in the altitude of 60, 70 or 80 degres, as it may bee more Northerly, when in these temperate partes of the world the shod of that frozen sea breadeth such noysome pester: as the pore fishermen doe continually sustain. And therefore it seemeth to be more then ignorance that men should attempt Nauigation in desperate clymates and through seas congeled that neuer dissolue, where the stiffnes of the colde maketh the ayre palpably grosse without certainty that the landes are disioyned.
All which impediments if they were not, yet in that part of the world, Nauigation cannot be performed as ordenarily as it vsed, for no ordenarie sea chart can describe those regions either in the partes Geographicall or Hydrographicall, where the Meridians doe so spedily gather themselues togeather, the parallels beeing a verye small proportion to a great circle, where quicke and vncertayne variation of the Compasse may greatly hinder or vtterly ouerthrow the attempt. So that for lack of Curious lyned globes to the right vse of Nauigation; with many other instruments either vnknowne or out of vse, and yet of necessitie for that voyage, it should with great difficultie be attayned. All which the premises considered I refer the conclusion of these obiections and certainty of this passage to the generall opinion of my louing countrymen, whose dangerous attemptes in those desperate uncertainties I wish to be altered, and better imployed in matters of great probabilitie.
To prove a passage by the Norwest, without any land impedimentes to hinder the same, by aucthoritie of writters, and experience of trauellers, contrary to the former obiections.
Homer an ancient writer affirmeth that, the world being diuided into Asia, Africa, and Europe is an Iland, which is likewise so reported by Strabo in his erst book of Cosmographie, Pomponius Mela in his third booke, Higinius, Solinus, with others. Whereby it is manifest that America was then vndiscovered and to them vnknowne, otherwise they would haue made relation of it as of the rest. Neither could they in reason haue reported Asia, Africa and Europa to bee an Iland vnles they had knowne the same to be conioyned and in all his partes to be inuironed with the seas. And further America being very neere of equall quantitie with all the rest could not be reported as a parte either of Africa, Asia, or Europa in the ordenarie lymites of discretion. And therefore of necessitie it must be concluded that Asia, Africa and Europa the first reueiled world being knowne to bee an Iland, America must likewise be in the same nature because in no parte it conioyneth with the first.
By experience of Trauellers to proue this passage.
And that wee neede not to range after forrayne and ancient authorities, wherat curious wittes may take many exceptions, let vs consider the late discoueryes performed, within the space of two ages not yet passed, whereby it shall so manifestly appeare that Asia, Africa, and Europa are knit togeather, making one continent, and are wholy inuironed with the seas, as that no reasonable creature shall haue occasion thereof to doubt. And first beginning at the north of Europe, from the north cape in 71 degrees, whereby our merchantes passe in their trade to S. Nicholas in Rouscia descending towardes the South, the Nauigation is without impediment to the cape of Bona Esperanca, ordenarilie traded and daily practised. And therefore not to be gaynesayd: which two capes are distant more then 2000 leagues by the neerest tract, in all which distaunces America is not founde to bee any thing neere the coastes either of Europe or Afric, for from England the chefest of the partes of Europa to Newfoundland being parte of America it is 600. leagues the neerest distance that any part thereof beareth vnto Europa. And from cape Verde in Gynny being parte of Africa, vnto cape Saint Augustine in Brasill beeing parte of America, it wanteth but little of 500 leagues the neerest distance betweene Africa and America. Likewise from the sayd North Cape to Noua Zemla by the course of East and West neerest, there is passable sayling, and the North partes of Tartaria are well knowne to be banded with the Scithian Seas to the promontory Tabin so that truely it is apparant that America is farre remooued and by a great sea diuided from any parte of Africa or Europa. And for the Southerne partes of the firste reueiled worlde it is most manifest that from the cape of Bona Esperanca towardes the east, the costes of Safalla, Mosombique, Melinde, Arabia, and Persia, whose gulfes lye open to the mayne occian: And all the coastes of East India to the capes of Callacut and Malacca, are banded with a mightie sea vpon the South whose lymmates are yet vndiscouered. And from the cape of Malacca towardes the North so high as the Ile of Iapan, and from thence the cost of China being part of Asia continueth still North to the promontory Tabin, where the Scithian sea and this Indian sea haue recourse togeather, no part of America being neere the same by many 100 leages to hinder this passage.
For from the Callafornia beeing parte of America, to the yles of Philippina bordering vpon the coastes of China being parte of Asia is 2100 leages and therefore America is farther separated from Asia, then from any the sea coastes either of Europe or Africa. Whereby it is most manifest that Asia, Africa and Europa are conioyned in an Iland. And therefore of necessity followeth that America is contained vnder one or many ylands, for from the septentrionall lat. of 75 deg. vnto the straights of Magilan it is knowne to be nauigable and hath our west occian to lymet the borders thereof, and through the straightes of Magillane no man doubteth but there is Nauigable passage, from which straightes, vpon all the Westerne borders of America, the costs of Chili, Chuli, Rocha, Baldiuia, Peru to the ystmos of Dariena and so the whole West shores of Noua Hispania are banded out by a long and mightie sea, not hauing any shore neere vnto it by one thousand leagues towardes the West, howe then may it be possible that Asia and America should make one contenent:
To proue the premisses by the attemptes of our owne Countreymen, besides others.
But lest it should be obiected that the premises are conceites, the acting aucthors not nominated, I will vse some boldnes to recyte our owne countreymen by whose paynefull trauells these truthes are made manifest vnto vs. Hoping and intreting that it may not bee offensiue, though in this sorte I make relation of their actions. And firste to begin with the North partes of Europe, it is not vnknowne to all our countrymen that from the famous citie of London Syr Huge Willobie, knight, gaue the first attempt for the North estren discoueries, which were afterward most notably accomplished by master Borrowes, a Pylot of excellent iudgemente and fortunate in his actions, so farre as Golgoua Vaygats and Noua Zemla, with trade thereby procured to S. Nicholas in Rouscia. Then succeded master Ginkinson who by his land trauell discouered the Scithian sea to lymit the North coastes of Tartaria, so farre as the riuer Ob. So that by our countrymen the North partes of Europe are at full made knowne vnto vs: and prooued to ioyne with no other continent to hinder this passage. The common and ordenary trade of the Spanyard and Portingall from Lysbome to the coasts of Guyny, Bynny, Mina, Angola, Manicongo, and the cost of Ethiopia to the cape of Bona Esperanca, and all the cost of Est India and Illes of Molucca, (by which wonderfull and copious trade, they are so mightily inriched, as that now they challeng a monarchy vnto themselues vpon the whole face of the earth) that their trade I say, prooueth that America is farre separated from any parte of Africa or the South of Asia. And the same Spaniard trading in the Citye of Canton within the kingdome of China, hauing layd his storehouse of aboundance in Manellia a Citye by him erected in Luzon one of the Illes of Philippa bordring vpon the cost of China, doth by his common and ordenarie passages to Iapan and other the borders of the coast, knowe that the Est continent of Asia lieth due North and South so high as the promontory Tabin, wher the Scithian sea and his maine occian of China are conioyned. But with what care they labour to conceale that matter of Hydrographie for the better preseruation of their fortunate estate, I refer to the excellent iudgement of statesmen, that painefully labour in the glorious administration of a well gouerned Common weale, so that by them Africa and Asia are proued in no parte to ioyne with America, thereby to hinder this passage.
By late experience to prone that America is an Iland, and may be sayled round about contrary to the former obiection.
Asia, Africa and Europa being prooued to be conioyned and an Iland, it now resteth to bee knowne by what authoritie America is proued to be likewise an Iland, so that thereby all land impedimentes are remoued, which might brede the dread or vncertaynty of this passage. The first Englishman that gaue any attempt vpon the coastes of West India being parte of America was syr Iohn Hawkins knight: who there and in that attempt as in many others sithins, did and hath prooued himselfe to be a man of excellent capacity, great gouernment, and perfect resolution. For before he attempted the same it was a matter doubtfull and reported the extremest lymit of danger to sayle vpon those coastes. So that it was generally in dread among vs, such is the slownes of our nation, for the most part of vs rather ioy at home like Epicures to sit and carpe at other mens hassardes, our selues not daring to giue any attempt. (I meane such as are at leisure to seeke the good of their countrie not being any wayes imployed as paynefull members of a common weale,) then either to further or giue due commendations to the deseruers, howe then may Syr Iohn Hawkins bee esteemed, who being a man of good account in his Country, of wealth and great imployment, did notwithstanding for the good of his Countrey, to procure trade, giue that notable and resolute attempt. Whose steps many hundreds following sithins haue made themselues men of good esteeme, and fit for the seruice of her sacrid maiestie.
And by that his attempt of America (wherof West India is a parte) is well prooued to be many hundred leagues distant from any part of Afric or Europe.
Then succeeded Syr Francis Drake in his famous and euer renowned voyage about the world, who departing from Plimouth directed his course for the straightes of Magillane, which place was also reported to be most dangerous by reason of the continuall violent and vnresistable current that was reported to haue continuall passage into the straightes, so that once entring therein there was no more hope remayning of returne, besides the perill of shelues, straightness of the passage and vncertayne wyndinges of the same, all which bread dread in the highest degree, the distance and dangers considered. So that before his revealing of the same the matter was in question, whether there were such a passage or no, or whether Magillane did passe the same, if there was such a man so named, but Syr Frauncis Drake, considering the great benefit that might arise by his voyage through that passage, and the notable discoueries, that might be thereby performed, regarded not these dastardly affections of the idle multitude, but considering with iudgement that in nature there cold be no such perpetuitie of violence where the occian is in no sorte straighted, proceeded with discreet prouision and so departing from England arriued vnto the same, and with good sucesse (through Gods most fauorable mercy passed through) wherein his resolution hath deserued euerlasting commendations. For the place in viewe is dangerous and verye vnpleasing, and in the execution to passe Nothing may seeme more doubtful, for 14 leagues west within the cape of Saint Maria lyeth the first straight, where it floweth and ebbeth with violent swiftnes, the straight not half a mile broad, the first fall into which straight is verye dangerous and doubtfull. This straight lasteth in his narrownes, 3 leages, then falling into another sea 8 leages broad and 8 leages through there lyeth the second straight due west. South West from the firste, which course being vnknowne it is no small perill in finding this second straightes, and that agayne is not a myle broad and continueth the bredth 3 or 4 leages Southwest, with violent swiftnes of flowing and reflowing, and there agayne he falleth into another Sea, through which due, South South West, lyeth the cape Froward, and his straight (so rightly named in the true nature of his peruersnes, for be the wind neuer so fauorable, at that cape it will be directly agaynst you with violent and daungerous flaughes) where there are three places probable to continue the passage. But the true straight lyeth from this cape West Nor West, where the land is very high all couered with snowe, and full of dangerous counter-windes, that beate with violence from those huge mountaines, from which cape the straight is neuer broder then 2 leages and in many places not halfe a mile, without hope of ancorage, the channell beeing shore deepe more then tow hundreth fadomes, and so continueth to the South sea forty leages only to bee releued in little dangerous coues, with many turnings and chang of courses; how perilous then was this passage to Syr Frauncis Drake, to whom at that time no parte thereof was knowne. And being without reliefe of ancorage was inforced to follow his course in the hell darke nights, and in all the fury of tempestious stormes. I am the bolder to make this particuler relation in the praise of his perfect constancy and magnanemitye of spirite, because I haue thrise passed the same straights and haue felt the most bitter and mercyles fury thereof. But now knowing the place as I doe (for I haue described euery creke therein) I know it to be a voiage of as great certaynty, pleasure and ease, as any whatsoeuer that beareth but 1/4 the distaunce from England that these straightes doe. And this straight is founde to be 1200 leages from any parte of Africa so that truely it is manifest that these two landes are by no small distance seperated.
And after that Syr Frauncis was entred into the South Seas he coasted all the Westerne shores of America vntill he came into the Septentrionall latitude of forty eight degrees being on the backe syde of Newfound land. And from thence shaping his course towardes Asia found by his trauells that the Ills of Molucca are distant from America more then two hundreth leages, howe then can Asia and Africa be conioyned and made one continent to hinder the passage, the men yet liuing that can reproue the same, but this conceipt is the bastard of ignorance borne through the fornication of the malitious multitude that onely desire to hinder when themselues can doe no good.
Now their onely resteth the North parts of America, vpon which coast my selfe haue had most experience of any in our age: for thrise I was that waye imployed for the discouery of this notable passage, by the honourable care and some charge of Syr Francis Walsingham knight, principall secretary to her Maiestie, with whom diuers noble men and worshipfull marchants of London ioyned in purse and willingnesse for the furtherance of that attempt, but when his honour dyed the voyage was friendlesse, and mens mindes alienated from aduenturing therein.
The 1 voyage. In my first voyage not experienced of the nature of those climates, and hauing no direction either by Chart, Globe, or other certaine relation in what altitude that passage was to be searched, I shaped a Northerly course and so sought the same toward the South, and in that my Northerly course I fell vpon the shore which in ancient time was called Groenland, fiue hundred leagues distant from the Durseys Westnorthwest Northerly, the land being very high and full of mightie mountaines all couered with snow, no viewe of wood, grass or earth to be seene, and the shore two leagues off into the sea so full of yce that no shipping could by any meanes come neere the same. The lothsome view of the shore, and irksome noyse of the yce was such, as that it bred strange conceites among vs, so that we supposed the place to be wast and voyd of any sensible or vegitable creatures, whereupon I called the same Desolation: so coasting this shore towards the South in the latitude of sixtie degrees, I found it to trend towards the West, I still followed the leading therof in the same height, and after fifty or sixtie leagues it fayled and lay directly North, which I still followed, and in thirtie leagues sayling vpon the West side of this coast by me named Desolation, we were past al the yce and found many greene and pleasant Isles bordering vpon the shore, but the mountaines of the maine were still couered with great quantities of snow, I brought my ship among those Isles and there mored to refresh ourselues in our weary trauell, in the latitude of sixtie foure degrees or there about. The people of the countrey hauing espyed our shippes came downe vnto vs in their Canoas, and holding vp their right hand to the Sunne and crying Yliaout, would strike their breasts: we doing the like the people came aboard our shippes, men of good stature, vnbearded, small eyed and of tractable conditions, by whome as signes would permit, we vnderstood that towards the North and West there was a great sea, and vsing the people with kindenes in giuing them nayles and kniues which of all things they most desired, we departed, and finding the sea free from yce supposing our selues to be past al daunger we shaped our course Westnorthwest thinking thereby to passe for China, but in the latitude of sixtie sixe degrees we fell with another shore, and there found another passage of twenty leagues broad directly West into the same, which we supposed to be our hoped straight, we entered into the same thirty or fortie leagues, finding it neither to wyden nor streighten, then considering that the yeere was spent (for this was in the fine of August) not knowing the length of the straight and dangers thereof, we tooke it our best course to returne with notice of our good successe for this small time of search. And so returning in a sharpe fret of Westerly windes the 29. of September we arriued at Dartmouth. And acquainting master Secretary with the rest of the honourable and worshipfull aduenturers of all our proceedings, I was appointed againe the second yere to search the bottome of this straight, because by all likelihood it was the place and passage by vs laboured for.
The 2 voyage.
In this second attempt the marchants of Exeter, and other places of the West became aduenturers in the action, so that being sufficiently furnished for sixe moneths, and hauing direction to search these straights, vntill we found the same to fall into another sea vpon the West side of this part of America, we should againe returne: for then it was not to be doubted, but shipping with trade might safely be conueied to China and the parts of Asia. We departed from Dartmouth, and arriuing vnto the South part of the coast of Desolation coasted the same vpon his West shore to the latitude of sixetie sixe degrees, and there ancored among the Isles bordering vpon the same, where we refreshed our selues, the people of this place came likewise vnto vs, by whom I vnderstood through their signes that towards the North the sea was large. At this place the chiefe ship whereupon I trusted, called the Mermayd of Dartmouth, found many occasions of discontentment, and being vnwilling to proceed, shee there forsook me. Then considering how I had giuen my faith and most constant promise to my worshipfull good friend master William Sanderson, who of all men was the greatest aduenturer in that action, and tooke such care for the performance thereof that he hath to my knowledge at one time disbursed as much money as any fiue others whatsoeuer out of his owne purse, when some of the companie haue bene slacke in giuing in their aduenture: And also knowing that I should loose the fauour of M. Secretary Walsingham, if I should shrink from his direction; in one small barke of 30 Tunnes, whereof M. Sanderson was owner, alone without farther comfort or company I proceeded on my voyage, and arriuing at these straights followed the same 80 leagues, vntill I came among many Islands, where the water did ebbe and flow sixe fadome vpright, and where there had bene great trade of people to make traine.
The North parts of America all Islands.
But by such things as there we found, wee knew that they were not Christians of Europe that had vsed that trade: in fine by searching with our boat, we found small hope to passe any farther that way, and therefore retourning agayne recouered the sea and coasted the shore towards the South, and in so doing (for it was too late to search towards the North) we found another great inlet neere 40 leagues broad, where the water entered in with violent swiftnesse, this we also thought might be a passage: for no doubt the North partes of America are all Islands by ought that I could perceiue therein: but because I was alone in a small barque of thirtie tunnes, and the yeere spent, I entred not into the same, for it was now the seuenth of September, but coasting the shore towardes the South wee saw an incredible number of birds: hauing diuers fishermen aboord our barke they all concluded that there was a great skull of fish, we being vnprouided of fishing furniture with a long spike nayle made a hooke, and fastening the same to one of our sounding lines, before the bait was changed we tooke more than fortie great Cods, the fish swimming so abundantly thicke about our barke as is incredible to bee reported, of which with a small portion of salt that we had, we presented some thirtie couple, or thereaboutes, and so returned for England. And hauing reported to M. Secretarie Walsingham the whole successe of this attempt, he commanded me to present vnto the most honourable Lord high Treasurour of England, some part of that fish: which when his Lordship saw, and heard at large the relation of this second attempt, I receiued fauourable countenance from his honour, aduising me to prosecute the action, of which his lordship conceiued a very good opinion. The next yere, although diuers of the aduenturers fell from the Action, as all the Westerne marchants, and most of those in London: yet some of the aduenturers both honorable and worshipfull continued their willing fauour and charge, so that by this meanes the next yere two shippes were appointed for the fishing and one pinnesse for the discouerie.
The 3 voyage. Departing from Dartmouth, through Gods mercifull fauour, I arrived at the place of fishing, and there according to my direction I left the two ships to follow that busines, taking their faithful promise not to depart vntill my returne vnto them, which should be in the fine of August, and so in the barke I proceeded for the discouerie: but after my departure, in sixteene dayes the two shippes had finished their voyage, but so presently departed for England, without regard of their promise: my selfe not distrusting any such hard measure proceeded for the discouerie, and followed my course in the free and open sea betweene North and Northwest to the latitude of 67 degrees, and there I might see America West from me, and Desolation, East: then when I saw the land of both sides I began to distrust it would prooue but a gulfe: notwithstanding desirous to know the full certainty I proceeded, and in 68 degrees the passage enlarged, so that I could not see the Westerne shore: thus I continued to the latitude of 73 degrees, in a great sea, free from yce, coasting the Westerne shore of Desolation: the people came continually rowing out vnto me in their Canoas, twenty, forty, and one hundred at a time, and would giue me fishes dryed, Salmon, Salmon peale, Cod, Caplin, Lumpe, Stonebase and such like, besides diuers kinds of birds, as Partrige, Fesant, Guls, Sea birds and other kindes of flesh: I still laboured by signes to know from them what they knew of any sea toward the North, they still made signes of a great sea as we vnderstood them, then I departed from that coast, thinking to discouer the North parts of America: and after I had sailed towards the West 40 leagues, I fel vpon a great banke of yce: the winde being North and blew much, I was constrained to coast the same toward the South, not seeing any shore West from me, neither was there any yce towards the North, but a great sea, free, large very salt and blew, and of an vnsearcheable depth: So coasting towards the South I came to the place where I left the ships to fish, but found them not. Then being forsaken and left in this distresse referring my self to the mercifull prouidence of God, I shaped my course for England, and vnhoped for of any, God alone releeuing me, I arriued at Dartmouth. By this last discouery it seemed most manifest that the passage was free and without impediment toward the North: but by reason of the Spanish fleet and vnfortunate time of M. Secretaries death, the voyage was omitted and neuer sithens attempted. The cause why I vse this particular relation of all my proceedings for this discouery, is to stay this obiection, why hath not Dauis discovered this passage being thrise that wayes imployed? How far I proceeded and in what form this discouery lieth, doth appeare vpon the Globe which M. Sanderson to his very great charge hath published, for the which he deserueth great fauor and commendations. Made by master Emery Mullineux a man well qualited of a good iudgment and very experte in many excellente practises, in myselfe being the onely meane with master Sanderson to imploy master Mulineux therein, whereby he is now growne to a most exquisite perfection.
Anthony de Mendoza viceroy of Mexico, sent certayne of his captaynes by land and also a nauy of ships by sea to search out the Norwest passage, who affirmed by his letters dated from Mexico in anno 1541 vnto the Emperour being then in Flaunders, that towardes the Norwest hee had founde the Kingdome of Cette, Citta, Alls, Ceuera, seuen cities and howe beyond the sayd Kingdome farther towardes the Norwest, Francisco Vasques of Coronado hauing passed great desarts came to the sea side, where he found certayne shippes which sayled by that sea with merchandize, and had in their banners vpon the prows of their shippes, certayne fowles made of golde and siluer, named Alcatrazzi, and that the mariners signified vnto him by signes that they were thirtie dayes comming to the hauen, whereby he vnderstoode that those could be of no other country but of Asia, the next knowne continent towardes the West. And farther the sayd Anthony affirmed that by men wel practised hee vnderstoode that 950. leages of that country was discouered vpon the same Sea, now if the cost in that distance of leages should lye to the West, it would then adioyne with the Northe partes of Asia, and then it would be a far shorter voyage then thirtie dayes sayling, but that it is nothing neere Asia by former authoritie is sufficiently expressed, then if it should lie towardes the North, it would extend itself almost vnto the pole, a voiage ouer tedious to be perfourmed by land trauell. Therefore of necessity this distance of 950 leages must lie betweene the North and East, which by Anthony de Especio in his late trauells vpon the North of America is sufficiently discouered, then this beeing so, the distance is very small betweene the East parte of this discouered Sea and the passage wherein I haue so painefully laboured, what doth then hinder vs of England vnto whom of all nations this discouery would be most beneficiall to be incredulous slow of vnderstanding, and negligent in the highest degree, for the search of this passage which is most apparently prooued and of wonderfull benefit to the vniversal state of our countrey. Why should we be thus blinded seeing our enemies to possess the fruites of our blessednes and yet will not perceiue the same. But I hope the eternall maiestie of God the sole disposer of all thinges will also make this to appeare in his good time.
Cornelius Nepos recyteth that when Quintus Metellus Cæsar was proconsull for the Romanes in Fraunce, the King of Sueuia gaue him certayne Indians, which sayling out of India for merchandize were by tempest driuen vpon the coastes of Germany, a matter very strange that Indians in the fury of stormes should ariue vpon that coast, it resteth now carefully to consider by what winde they were so driuen, if they had beene of any parte of Africa how could they escape the ylls of Cape Verd, or the ylles of Canaria, the coastes of Spayne, Fraunce, Ireland or England to arriue as they, but it was neuer knowne that any the natyues of Afric or Ethiopia haue vsed shippings. Therefore they could not bee of that parte of the worlde, for in that distance sayling they would haue been starued if no other shore had giuen them relefe. And that they were not of America is verye manifest, for vpon all the Est parte of that continent, beeing now thereby discouered, it hath not at any time beene perceiued that those people were euer accustomed to any order of shipping, which appeareth by the arriual of Colon vpon those coastes, for they had his shipping in such wonderfull admiration that they supposed him and his companie to haue descended from heauen, so rare and strange a thing was shipping in their eyes. Therefore those Indians could not bee of America safely to bee driuen vpon the coastes of Germany, the distance and impedimentes well considered.
Then comming neither from Afric nor America, they must of necessitie come from Asia by the Noreast or Norwest passages. But it should seme that they came not by the Noreast to double the promontory Tabin, to bee forced through the Scithian Sea, and to haue good passage through the narrow straight of Noua Zemla and neuer to recouer any shore is a matter of great impossibilitie. Therefore it must heedes be concluded that they came by the North partes of America through that discouered sea of 950 leages, and that they were of those people which Francisco Vasques of Coronado discouered, all which premises considered there remaineth no more doubting but that the landes are disioyned and that there is a Nauigable passage by the Norwest, of God for vs alone ordained to our infinite happines and for the euer being glory of her maiestie, for then her stately seate of London should be the storehouse of Europe: the nurse of the world: and the renowne of Nations, in yielding all forraine naturall benifits, by an easie rate, in short time returned vnto vs, and in the fulnes of their natural perfection: by natural participation through the world of all naturall and artificiall benefites, for want whereof at this present the most part liue distressed: and by the excellent comoditie of her seate, the mightines of her trade, with force of shipping thereby arising, and most aboundant accesse and intercourse from all the Kingdomes of the worlde, then should the ydle hand bee scorned and plenty by industry in all this land should be proclamed.
And therefore the passage prooued and the benefites to all most apparant, let vs no longer neglect our happines, but like Christians with grilling and voluntary spirits labour without fainting for this so excellent a benefit.
To prooue by experience that the sea fryseth not.
Hauing sufficiensly prooued that there is a passage without a land impediments to hinder the same, contrary to the first obiection, it nowe resteth that the other supposed impediments bee likewise answered. And firste as touching the frost and fresing of the seas, it is supposed that the frozen zone is not habitable, and seas innauigable by reason of the vehemencie of cold, by the diuine creator allotted to that part of the world, and we are drawn into that absurdity of this opinion by a coniectural reason of the sunnes far distance and long absence vnder the horizon of the greatest parte of that zone, whereby the working power of colde perfourmeth the fulnesse of his nature, not hauing any contrary disposition to hinder the same and when the Sunne by his presence should comfort that parte of the world, his beames are so far remoued from perpendicularitie by reason of his continuall neerenes to the horizon, as that the effectes thereof answere not the violence of the winters cold. And therefore those seas remayne for euer vndissolued. Which if it be so, that the nature of cold can congeale the seas, it is very likely that his first working power, beginneth vpon the vpper face of the waters, and so descending worketh his effect, which if it were, howe then commeth it to passe that shippes sayle by the North cape, to Saint Nicholas fiue degrees or more within the frozen zone, and finde the seas from pester of yse, the farther from the shore the clearer from yse. And myselfe likewise howe coulde I haue sayled to the septentrionall latitude of seuentie fiue degrees, being nine degrees within the frozen zone, betweene two lands where the sea was straightened not fortie leages broade in some places, and thereby restrained from the violent motion and set of the maine occian and yet founde the same Nauigable and free from yse not onely in the midst of the chanell, but also close aborde the estern shore by me name Desolation, and therefore what neede the repetition of authorities from writers, or wrested philosophical reasons, when playne experience maketh the matter so manifest, and yet I deny not but that I haue seene in some part of those seas, tow sortes of yse, in very great quantity, as a kind of yse by seamen name ylands of yse, being very high aboue the water, fortie and fiftie fadomes by estimation and higher, and euery of those haue beene seuen times as much vnder the water, which I haue proued by taking a peece of yse and haue put the same in a vessell of salt water, and still haue found the seuenth part thereof to bee aboue the water, into what forme soeuer I haue reduced the same, and this kind of yse is nothing but snow, which falleth in those great peeces, from the high mountains bordering close vpon the shore depe seas. (For all the sea coastes of Desolation are mountains of equall height with the pike of Tenerif with verye great vallies betweene them) which I haue seene incredible to bee reported, that vpon the toppe of some of these ylls of yse, there haue beene stones of more then one hundreth tonnes wayght, which in his fall, that snowe hath torne from the clyffe, and in falling maketh such an horible noyse as if there were one hundreth canons shot of at one instant, and this kind of yse is verye white, and freshe, and with shore winds is many times beaten far of into the seas, perhaps twentie leages and that is the farthest distance that they haue euer bin seene from the shore. The other kind is called flake yse, blue, very hard and thinne not aboue three fadomes thick at the farthest, and this kinde of yse bordreth close vpon the shore. And as the nature of heate with apt vessels diuideth the pure spirit from his grosse partes by the coning practice of distillation: so doth the colde in these regions deuide and congeale the fresh water from the salt, nere such shores where by the aboundance of freshe rivers, the saltnes of the sea is mittigated, and not else where, for all yse in general beeing dissolued is very fresh water, so that by the experience of all that haue euer trauelled towardes the North it is well knowne that the sea neuer fryseth, but wee know that the sea dissolueth this yse with great speede, for in twentie foure houres I haue seen an ylande of yse turne vp and downe, as the common phrase is, because it hath melted so fast vnder water that the heauier parte hathe beene vpwarde, which hath beene the cause of his so turning, for the heuiest part of all things swiming is by nature downwards, and therefore sith the sea is by his heate of power to dissolue yse, it is greatly against reason that the same should be frozen, so that the congealation of the seas can bee no hinderance to the execution of this passage, contrary to the former obiection, by late experience reprooued, yet if experience wanted in ordenary reason men should not suppose nature to bee monstrous, for if all such yse and snowe as congealeth and descendeth in the winter did not by natures benefit dissolue in the sommer, but that the cold were more actual then the heate, that difference of inequalitie bee it neuer so little would by time bread natures ouerthrowe, for if the one thousand parte of the yse which in winter is congealed, did the next sommer remayne vndissolued, that continual difference sithins the worldes creation, would not onely haue conuerted all those North Seas into yse, but would also by continuall accesse of snow haue extended himselfe aboue all the ayers regions by which reason all such exalations as should be drawn from the earth and seas within the temperate zones and by windes driuen into these stiffe regions, that moysture was no more to bee hoped for that by dissolution it should haue any returne, so that by time the world should be left waterlesse. And therefore how ridiculous this imagination of the seas frysing is, I refer to the worlds generall opinion.
That the ayre in colde regions is tollerable.
And now for a full answer of all obiections, if the ayre bee proued tollerable then this most excellent and commodious passage is without al contradiction to be perfourmed. And that the ayre is tollerable as well in the winter as in the Sommer is thus proued. The inhabitantes of Moscouia, Lapland, Swethland, Norway and Tartaria omit not to trauel for their commodity: in the deepest of winter, passing by sleades ouer the yse and congealed snowe being made very slipperie and compact like yse by reason of much wearing and trading, hauing the vse of a kind of stag by them called Reen to drawe those their sleades.
Groynland (by me lately named Desolation) is likewise inhabited by a people of good stature and tractable conditions, it also mayntayneth diuers kinde of foules and beastes which I haue their seene, but know not their names, and these must trauell for their food in winter, and therefore the ayre is not intolerable in the extremest nature of coldnes: and for the quality thereof in Sommer by my owne experience I knowe that vpon the shore it is as hot there as it is at the ylls of cape de Verde in which place there is such aboundance of moskeetes, (a kind of gnat that is in India very offensiue and in great quantitie) as that we were stong with them like lepers, not beeing able to haue quiet being vpon the shore.
And vnder the clyfe in the pooles vnto which the streames aryse not, I haue found salt in great plenty as whyte as the salt of Mayo congeled from the salt water which the spryng tyds bring into those poles, which could not be but by the benefit of a noble heat, of which salt I brought with me and gaue to master Secretory Walsingham and to master Sanderson, as a rare thing to be found in those parts and farther the same was of an extraordenary saltnes. And therefore it is an idle dreame that the ayre should there be insufferable, for ourselues haue with the water of those seas made salt, because we desired to know whether the benefit of the sunne were the cause of this cogulation, what better confirmation then can there be then this.
Island is likewise inhabited and yeldeth haukes in great store, as falcons, Ierfalcons, lanardes and sparrow haukes, rauens, crowes, beares, hares and foxes, with horses and other kinde of cattell, vpon which coast in August and September the yse is vtterly dissolued, all which the premises are certainly verified by such as trade thither from Lubec, Hambro, Amsterdam and England yerely, then why should wee dread this fayned distemperature: from cold regions come our most costly furres as sables beeing esteemed for a principall ornament and the beastes that yeld us those furres are chiefly hunted in the winter, how grieuous then shall we thinke the winter to be, or howe insufferable the ayre, where this little tender beast liueth so well, and where the hunters may search the dennes and hauntes of such beastes through the woods and snow.
Vpsaliensis affirmeth that he hath felt the Sommer nights in Gotland scarcely tollerable for heate, whereas in Rome he hath felt them cold.
The Mountaynes of Norway and Swethland are fruitefull of mettalls in which siluer and copper are concoct and molten in veines, which may scarcely bee done with fornaces, by which reason also the vapors and hot exhalations pearcing the earth and the waters and through both those natures breathing forth into the ayre, tempereth the quantitie thereof making it tollerable, as wyttnes the huge bignes of whales in those seas, with the strength of body and long life of such beastes as liue on the land, which thing could not bee except all thinges were there comodiously nourished, by the benefit of the heauen and the ayre, for nothing that in time of increase is hindred by any iniury or that is euill seed all the time it liueth can prosper well.
Also it is a thing vndoubtedly knowne by experience that vpon the coastes of newfounde land, (as such as the yse remayneth vndissolued vpon those shores,) the wind being esterly, comming from the seas, causeth very sharpe colde, and yet the same is sufferable, but comming from the shore, yt presently yeldeth heat aboundantly according to the true nature of the scituation of the place, whereby it plainly appeareth that the very breth of the yse is rather the cause of this cold, then the distempreture of the ayre.
Wherefore if in winter where is aboundance of yse and snowe the ayre is so sufferable, as that traueling and hunting may be exercised how much rather may wee iudge the seas to be Nauigable, and that in the deepest of winter, where there is neither yse nor snow that may yeld any such damps or cold breathings to the anoiance of such as shall take these interprises in hand. And therefore the Summer in no sort to be feared, but some curious witt may obiect that the naturall anoyance of cold is preuented by reason of the trauell of the body with other artificiall prouisions to defend the fury thereof, as also the whot vapors which the earth may yeld, whereof experience vrgeth confession, but vpon the seas it cannot be sith it is a cold body subiect to yeld great dampes and cold brethinges most offensiue to nature. To the which I answere in the vniuersall knowledge of all creatures that God the most glorious incomprehensible and euer being sole creatour of all thinges visible, invisible, rationall, irrationall, momentory and eternall in his diuine prouidence hath made nothing vncommunicable, but hath giuen such order vnto all things, whereby euery thing may be tollerable to the next, the extremities of ellements consent with their next the ayre is grosse about the earth and water, but thinn and hot about the fyer, by this prouidence in nature the sea is very salt, and salt (sayth Plinie) yeldeth the fatnes of oyle, but oyle by a certayne natiue heate is of propertie agreeable to fire, then being all of such qualitie by reason of the saltnes thereof moueth and stirreth vp generatiue heate, &c. Whereby the sea hath a working force in the dissolution of yse for things of so great contrariety as heate and cold haue togeather no affinitye in coniunction, but the one must of necessitye auoyde, the seas not being able by the bandes of nature to step backe, doth therefore cause the coldnesse of the ayre (by reason of his naturall heate) to giue place, whereby extremities being auoyded, the ayre must of necessitie remayne temperate, for in nature the ayre is hote and moyst, the colde then being but accidentall is the soner auoided, and natures wrongs with ease redressed.
That vnder the Pole is the place of greatest dignitie.
Reason teacheth vs and experience confirmeth the same, that the Sun is the onely sufficient cause of heat through the whole world and therefore in such places where the Sunne hath longest continuance, the ayre there receueth the greatest impression of heat, as also in his absence it is in like sort afflicted with colde. And as the heate in all clymates is indurable, by the eternall ordinance of the creator, so likewise the cold is sufferable by his euerlasting decree, for otherwise nature should bee monstrous and his creation wast, as it hath beene ydly affirmed by the most Cosmographicall writers, distinguishing the sphere into fiue Zones haue concluded three of them to be wast, as vaynely created, the burning zone betweene the two tropikes, and the two frozen Zones, but experience hauing reprooued the grosenes of that errour it shall be needlesse to say further therein. For although in the burning Zone the sun beames are at such right angles as that by the actuall reuerberation thereof the lower region of the ayre is greatly by that reflexion warmed, yet his equall absence breadeth such mitigation as that there we find the ayre tollerable, and the countries pleasant and fruitfull, being populos and well inhabited: so likewise vnder the pole being the center of the supposed frozen Zone, during the time that the Sunne is in the South signes, which is from the thirteenth of September vnto the 10 of March, it is there more cold then in any place of the world, because the Sunne in all that time doth neuer appeare aboue the Horyzon, but during the time that the Sunne is in the North signes which is from the tenth of March vnto the thirteenth of September he is in continuall view to all such as posses that place, by which his continuall presence, he worketh that notable effect, as that therby all the force of frysing is wholy redressed and vtterly taken away, working then and there more actuall then in any other part of the world. In which place there continuall day from the Sunne rising to the sunne setting is equall with twenty sixe weekes and fiue dayes, after our rate: and their night is equall with twenty fiue weekes and three dayes such as we haue, so that our whole yeere is with them but one night and one day, a wonderfull difference from al the rest of the world, and therefore no doubt but those people haue a wonderfull excellencie and an exceeding prorogatiue aboue all nations of the earth and this which is more to be noted. In all other places of the world the absence and presence of the Sun is in equall proportion of time, hauing as much night as day, but vnder the Pole their artificiall day (that is the continuall presence of the Sunne before he sett) is nine of our naturall dayes or two hundreth 16 houres longer then is their night, whereby it appeareth that they haue the life, light and comfort of nature in a higher measure then all the nations of the earth. How blessed then may we thinke this nation to be: for they are in perpetuall light, and neuer know what darknesse meaneth, by the benefit of twylight and full moones, as the learned in Astronomie doe very well knowe, which people if they haue the notice of their eternitie by the comfortable light of the Gospel, then are they blessed and of all nations most blessed. Why then doe we neglect the search of this excellent discouery, agaynst which there can be nothing sayd to hinder the same. Why doe we refuse to see the dignity of Gods Creation, sith it hath pleased his diuine Maiestie to place vs the nerest neighbor therevnto. I know there is no true Englishman that can in conscience refuse to be a contributer to procure this so great a happines to his country, whereby not onely the Prince and mightie men of the land shall be highly renowned, but also the Merchant, tradesman and artificer mightily inriched.
And now as touching the last obiection that the want of skill in Nauigation with curious instrumentes, should be the hinderance or ouerthrow of this action. I holde that to bee so friuolous as not worth the answering, for it is wel knowne that we haue globes in the most excellent perfection of arte, and haue the vse of them in as exquisite sort, as master Robert Hues in his book of the globes vse, lately published hath at large made knowne, and for Horizontall paradox and great circle sayling I am myself a witnesse in the behalfe of many, that we are not ignorant of them, as lately I haue made knowne in a briefe treatis of Nauigation naming it the Seamans Secreats. And therfore this as the rest breadeth no hinderance to this most commodious discouery.
What benefits would growe vnto Englande by this passage being discouered,
The benefits which may growe by this discouery, are copious and of two sorts, a benifit spirituall and a benifit corporall. Both which sith by the awes of God and nature we are bound to regard, yet principally we are admonished first to seeke the Kingdome of God and the righteousnes thereof and all thinges shall be giuen vnto vs. And therfore in seeking the Kingdome of God we are not onely tied to the depe search of Gods sacred word and to liue within the perfect lymits of Christianity, but also by al meanes we are bound to multiply, and increase the flocke of the faithfull. Which by this discouery wil be most aboundantly perfourmed to the preseruation of many thousands which now most miserably are couered vnder the lothsome vayle of ignorance, neither can we in any sort doubt of their recouery by this passage discouered, Gods prouidence therein being considered who most mercifully sayth by the mouth of his prophet Esaias 66 I will come to gather all people and tongues, then shall they come and see my glory, of them that shall be saued. I will send some to the Gentils in the sea and the yls far of that haue not heard speak of me, and haue not sene my glory, shall preach my peace among the Gentiles.
And in this 65 Chapter he farther sayth, They seeke me that hitherto haue not asked for me, they find me that hitherto haue not sought me.
And againe chapter 49 I wil make waies vpon al my mountains and my footpathes shall be exalted, and behold these shall come from farre, some from the North and West, some from the land of Symis which is in the South. Then sith it is so appointed that there shal be one shepheard and one flocke, what hindreth vs of England, (being by Gods mercy for the same purpose at this present most aptly prepared,) not to attempt that which God himselfe hath appointed to be performed, there is no doubt but that wee of England are this saued people by the eternal and infallible presence of the Lord predestinated to be sent vnto these Gentiles in the sea, to those ylls and femous Kingdoms ther to preach the peace of the Lorde, for are not we onely set vpon Mount Sion to giue light to all the rest of the world, haue not we the true handmayd of the Lord to rule vs, vnto whom the eternall maiestie of God hath reueled his truth and supreme power of excellencye, by whom then shall the truth be preached, but by them vnto whom the truth shall be reueled, it is onely we therefore that must be these shining messengers of the Lord and none but we for as the prophet sayth, O how beautifull are the feet of the messenger that bringeth the message from the mountain, that proclameth peace, that bringeth the good tidings and preacheth health and sayth to Sion thy God is King, so that hereby the spirituall benefit arising by this discouery is most apparant, for which if there were no other cause wee are all bound to labour with purse and minde for the discouery of this notable passage. And nowe as touching the corporall and worldly benefits which will thereby arise, our owne late experience leadeth vs to the full knowledge thereof, as by the communitie of trade groweth the mightines of riches, so by the kinde and guide of such tradinges may grow the multiplication of such benifits, with assurance how the same may in the best sort be continued. In the consideration whereof it is first to bee regarded with what commodities our owne country aboundeth either naturall or artificiall, what quantity may be spared, and wher the same may with the easiest rate be gained, and how in his best nature vnto vs returned, all which by this passage shall be vnto vs most plentifully effected, and not onely that, but this also which is most to be regarded that in our thus trading wee shall by no meanes inrich the next adioyning states vnto vs, for riches bread dread, and pouertie increaseth feare, but here I cease fering to offend, yet it is a question whether it were better by an easy rate to vent our commodities far of or by a more plentifull gayne to passe them to our neerer neighbours, and those therby more inriched then ourselues, the premises considered wee finde our country to abound with woll, and wollen cloth, with lead, tin, copper and yron, matters of great moment, wee also knowe our soyle to be fertill, and would if trad did so permit haue equal imploiment with any of our neighbours, in linnen cloth, fustians, seys, grograms or any other forraine artificiall commodities, besides the excellent labours of the artsman, either in metallyne mechanicall faculties, or other artificiall ornaments, whereof India is well knowne to receiue all that Europe can afford, rating our commodities in the highest esteeme of valewe, which by this passage is speedily perfourmed, and then none of these should lie dead vpon our handes as now they doe, neither should we bee then ignorant as now we are in many excellent practices into which by trade wee shoulde bee drawne. And by the same passage in this ample vent, we should also at the first hand receiue all Indian commodities both naturall and artificial in a far greter measure by an easier rate and in better condition, then nowe they are by many exchaunges brought vnto vs, then would all nations of Europe repayre vnto England not only for these forraine merchandizes by reason of their plenty, perfection and easy rates, but also to passe away that which God in nature hath bestowed vpon them and their countrie, wherby her maiestie and her highnes successors for euer, should be monarks of the earth and commaunders of the Seas, through the aboundance of trade her coustomes would be mightily augmented, her state highly inriched, and her force of shipping greatly aduanced, as that thereby shee should be to all nations moste dredful, and we her subiects through imploiment should imbrace aboundance and be clothed with plenty. The glory whereof would be a deadly horrer to her aduersaries, increase friendly loue with al and procure her maiestie stately and perpetuall peace, for it is no small aduantage that ariseth to a state by the mightines of trade: being by necessity linked to no other nation, the same also beeing in commodities of the highest esteeme, as gold, siluer, stones of price, iuels, pearls, spice, drugs, silkes raw and wrought, veluetts, cloth of gold, besides many other commodities with vs of rare and high esteeme, whereof as yet our countrie is by nature depriued, al which India doth yeld at reasonable rates in great aboundance receiuing ours in the highest esteeme, so that hereby plenty retourning by trade abroade, and no smale quantity prouided by industry at home, all want then banished in the aboundance of her maiesties royalty, so through dred in glory, peace and loue, her maiesty should be the commaunding light of the world, and we her subiects the stars of wonder to al nations of the earth. Al which the premises considered it is impossible that any true English hart should be staied from willing contribution to the performance of this so excellent a discouery, the Lords and subiectes spirituall for the sole publication of Gods glorious gospell. And the Lords and subiectes temporal for the renowne of their prince and glory of their nation should be thervnto most vehemently effected. Which when it shall so please God in the mightines of his mercy, I beseech him to effect. Amen.
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