Line and Form, by Walter Crane


Adaptability in design, 124-126.

Animal forms, use of in design, 106;
governed by inclosing boundaries, 104-106, 110-112.

Architectural mouldings, relief in, 190.

Architecture, spaces for sculpture in, 113-116.

Ardebil, holy carpet of the mosque of, f126.

Athens, the Tower of the Winds, 115-116.

Bari, 10;
the "Hundred Birds" of, f044.

Birds, Japanese drawing of, 68, f044;
decorative treatment of, f115.

Blake's Book of Job, "The Morning Stars," 19, f014, 152.

Border motives, recurrence in, f031, f032, f062.

Book decoration, 58, 59, 62;
example of page treatment, f041a.

Botticelli, frescoes in the Sistine Chapel, 226;
rendering of the "Primavera" in tapestry, 240;
his "Nativity," 272-275;
"Madonna and Child," 275-276.

Boundaries, definition of, 2, 3;
use of in designing sprays, 38, f027;
in designing animal forms, f063a;
influence of, 108;
relation of design to, f064;
decorative spacing of figures in geometric, f063b, 152-156.

Brush-work, 65-68.

Canterbury, St. Margaret Street, f086.

Ceiling decoration, 136.

Charcoal drawing, 68, 70.

Chartres, carving on the Cathedral, 197, f108, f109.

Chiaroscuro, 267-269.

Chinese porcelain, 101.

Colour, effect of texture on, 244;
in stained glass, 252;
expression of relief in line and form by, 256, 258;
radiation of, 258;
complements in, 260;
harmony in, 261;
colour sense, 261, 262;
colour proportions, 262;
importance of pure colour, 263.

Composition, formal, 152-156;
informal, 157-164.

Constantine, Arch of, sketch of, f069.

Contrast in design, 101;
use of, in pattern design, 166, et seq.;
principles of, in black and white, f111a.

Corinthian order, Roman treatment of, 192, f105.

Counterbalance, 43, 44, 95, f057, f058, 130.

Counterchange, in heraldry, 171-174.

Crivelli, "The Annunciation," 276-278.

Cube, the, 73;
use of in architecture, f045b, 77, f048a;
in nature, 76.

Dado, use of the, 234.

De Hooghe, Peter, 267.

Desiderio di Settignano, relief work of, 202;
"Madonna and Child," at South Kensington, by, 202.

Design, linear basis of, 35;
technical influence on, 58, 59, 62;
beauty in, 62, 63;
influence of material on, 64;
quantities in, 96-101;
contrast in, 101;
living tradition in, 126;
adaptability in, 124-126;
extension in, 126-131;
geometric structural plans in, 130;
essentials of, 138-139.

De Wint, brush-work of, 68.

Diaper, use of in Middle Ages, 171, 174-175.

Donatello, relief work of, 202.

Drapery, treatment of by the old masters, f099-186.

Drawing in line, methods of, 6, 7;
calligraphic method, 8;
tentative method, 9;
Japanese method, 10;
oval and rectangular methods, f008, 12.

Dürer, Albert, his "Geometrica," 5;
roofs in his engravings, 148;
"The Prodigal Son," f083;
"St. Anthony," f084;
principle in the treatment of drapery, f099, f100.

Egyptian sculpture, 192, 194-196.

Emotion, linear expression of, 18-21.

Emphasis, 54;
value of, 56;
effects of different emphasis, f038, f039, f040;
in relief of form, 180.

Equivalents in form, value of, 95, f057.

Extension in design, 126-131.

Figure composition, 160;
expression of repose and action in, f090.

Figure design, relief in, 204-207;
graphic and decorative treatment of, f114.

Figure designs, controlled by geometric boundaries, 152-156.

Flaxman's Homer, designs from, f015.

lines of characterization in design of, 12, 13;
forms controlled by inclosing boundaries, 110-112.

Foliage, principles of structure in, 143-146.

Form, its relation to line, 27;
importance of knowledge of, 31;
choice of, 73, 79;
elementary forms and their relation to forms in nature and art, 73-77;
grouping of, 83-87;
analogies of, 89-91;
typical forms of ornament, 92-95;
equivalents in, 95, f057;
variation of allied forms, 103;
governed by shape of inclosing boundary, f063b, 106, f066;
relief of, 165, et seq.;
expression of, by light and shade, 205, f112.

Frieze, origin of the, 113, 133;
and field, 133-135;
use of the, 236;
treatment of, 240.

Fruit forms, treatment of, f054, 89.

Gems, engraved, 200.

Geometric forms, elementary, 73;
structural plans in surface design, 128-133.

Ghirlandajo, 226.

Giotto, "Chastity," f119.

Gozzoli, Benozzo, 226.

Graphic aim, the, in drawing, 29-31, 205, 208-211.

Grouping of forms, 83-87.

Holbein, "The Ambassadors," f137.

Human figure, use of the,
in design, 104-107;
decorative spacing of within geometric boundaries, 105-106, 107;
governed by inclosing boundaries, 110, f066;
principles of line in, f081a.

Indian ornament, typical, 212, 216;
printed cotton designs, 246, f130.

Inlay work, choice of forms for, 81-83.

Japanese method of drawing with the brush, 10, 68;
diagonal pattern, f053;
colour prints, 266.

Keene, Charles, 190.

Landscape, expression of storm and calm in, 158, f089.

Lead pencil, 70.

Letters, formation of, 4;
Dürer's method, f005a.

Line, methods of drawing in, 6-12;
quality of, 12-14;
the language of, 23;
comparison of style in, 24;
scale of degrees and qualities of, 24, 25;
its relation to form, 27;
question and answer in, 35, f025;
recurring, f031, f032;
radiating principle of, 46-50;
range and use of, 47-49;
choice of, 51;
degree and emphasis of, 54;
influence of technical conditions on, 58-62;
controlling influence of, as a boundary of design, 106, 108-113;
value of recurring, 119-124;
combinations of, 139;
principles of structural and ornamental line, 140-145;
selection of, f117a, f117b.

Linear expression, of movement, 15, 16, 17;
of textures and surfaces, 18, 19;
of emotion, 19, 20, f015;
scale of, 21;
power of, 158, 160;
of fur and feathers, 208, f113.

Linear motives and pattern bases, simple, 109-111.

Lippi, Filippino, study of drapery by, f101.

Lorenzo di Credi, 226.

Lysicrates, monument of, 133.

Madox Brown, Ford, mural painting at Manchester, 226, 227;
"Christ washing Peter's feet," 280, f142.

Mantling, treatment of, 170-173.

Medals, 200, f110.

Memory, importance of, in design, 39.

Michael Angelo, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, 225.

Modelling, principle of relief in, 192.

Montague, mantling from Garter plate of, f094b.

Morris, William, tapestry of, 236, 240.

Movement, linear expression of, 15-17;
lines of, in a procession, f091a;
in a dancing figure, f117a;
in water, f118b.

Mural decoration, 224, 225;
diagram of systems of line governing, f121;
scale in, 230;
choice of line and form in, 236.

Nauplia, Gulf of, coast and mountain lines, f004, f118a.

Nerva, Forum of, 192, f105.

Nuremberg, ceiling in the Castle of, 136, 137.

Olive branch, study of from nature, f020;
decorative treatment of, f021.

Ornament, typical forms of, 92-94.

Ornamental purpose, the, in drawing, 29, 31-33, 210, et seq.

Ornamental units, 94;
use of intervals in repeating, f065.

Outline, origin and function of, 1.

Parthenon, the frieze of the, 46;
sketch of, f067.

Pattern and picture, difference between, 265;
pattern-pictures, 272.

Pen, the, compared with brush and pencil, 71.

Pencil drawing, 70, 71.

Persian carpets, principle of design in, 242;
treatment of borders in, f127;
white outline in, 260.

Persian ornament, typical, 212, f116.

Persian rugs, value of different quantities in, 98-101.

Perugino, National Gallery triptych, f140.

Photograph, influence of the, 55, 56;
principle of the, 187, 190.

Picture writing, 27, f019.

Pinturicchio, frescoes in the Sistine Chapel, 226;
mural painting at Siena, 226, f120;
frescoes in the Appartimenti Borgia, 238, f125.

Pisano, Vittore, medals of, 198, f110.

Poppy, horned study of, f022;
adaptation of for needlework, f023;
sketch of on different coloured grounds, f132, 258.

Prints, principles of design for, 246-251.

Procession, lines of movement in a, 160, 162-163.

Pyramid, the, 73;
use of in architecture, f045b, f048a.

Radiating principle of line, the, 46-50.

Raphael, study of drapery by, f102.

Ravenna, S. Vitale, sketch of apse, f070.

Recurring line and form, f031, f032;
value of in architecture, 119, 124.

Relief, methods of expressing, 165;
use of contrast, 166;
decorative relief, 171;
on diapered ground, 174-175;
by simple linear contrasts, 174, 176-178;
by linear shading, 176, 178;
by diagonal shading, 176, 178-180;
value of emphasis in, 180;
by light and shade alone, 187-190;
principle of in architectural mouldings, 190;
modelled, 192;
in sculpture, 192-199, f109;
Florentine fifteenth-century work, 202;
natural principle of, 204, f111b;
by colour, 256, 258.

Repeating patterns, 36, f026, f077b, f078;
method of testing, 38, f028.

Rhythm of design, the, 32.

Roofs, German, 146-148.

Rothenburg, roof-lines in, f085.

St. David's Cathedral, carvings in, 122-124;
Gothic tile pattern in, f074, f076.

Scale, importance of in mural decoration, 230, 232.

Sculpture, relief in, 192;
Egyptian, 192, 194;
Grecian, 194, f107, 197;
Gothics, 197;
on mediæval tombs, 198.

Selection, the test of artistic treatment, 214.

Shields, F. J., mural decoration, 228.

Silhouette, 2, f010a.

Skirting, the, 234.

Spaces, decorative, in design, 113;
apparent depth or width increased by use of vertical or horizontal lines, 232, f122.

Spacing, mural, 230, f121, f123.

Sphere, the, 73;
use of in architecture, f045b, f048a;
in nature, 76.

Stained glass, principles of design for, 252, 255.

Surfaces, linear expression of, 18.

Tapestry, 237;
Burgundian, 237, f124;
effect of texture on colour in, 244, f128.

Technical influence, the, 58-62.

Textile designing, 62;
examples of, f041b;
value of different qualities in, 97-101;
principles of, 241, 242;
colour in, 244.

Textures, linear expression of, 18.

Thebes, sculptured relief at, f106.

Titian, "Bacchus and Ariadne," 278-280;
"Sacred and Profane Love," 280.

Tivoli, Temple of the Sibyls at, 133.

Trees, effect of wind upon, f011;
general principles of line and form in foliage, etc., 143-145.

Typical treatment, 31;
ornament, 92-95.

Valence, Aymer de, tomb of, f094a.

Van Eyck, "Jan Arnolfini and his Wife," 267, f134, 270, 271.

Variation of allied forms, 103.

Variety in design, 40.

Ver Meer, "Lady at Spinet," f135, 270, 272.

Veronese, Paul, 280.

Visch, Martin de, brass of, f094b, f095.

Walberswick Church, f072.

Walker, Frederick, 190.

Wall, decorative spacing of the, 234, f123.

Wall-paper, principles of design for, 36, f026, 246;
relation between frieze and field in, 133, 134.

Water, lines of movement in, f118b.

Watercourse, lines left by a, f091b.

Wave lines, f011, f012.

Westminster, vaulting of chapter house, f035.

Winchelsea, tomb of Gervaise-Alard, f071.


This web edition published by:

The University of Adelaide Library
University of Adelaide
South Australia 5005

Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:52