A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature, by John W. Cousin


Habington, William (1605–1654). — Poet, son of a Worcestershire Roman Catholic gentleman, was ed. at St. Omer’s, but refused to become a Jesuit. He married Lucia, daughter of Lord Powis, whom he celebrated in his poem Castara (1634), in which he sang the praises of chaste love. He also wrote a tragi-comedy, The Queen of Arragon (1640), and a Historie of Edward IV. His verse is graceful and tender.

Hailes, Dalrymple David, Lord (1726–1792). — Scottish judge and historical writer, was born at Edinburgh Belonging to a family famous as lawyers, he was called to the Bar in 1748, and raised to the Bench in 1766. An excellent judge, he was also untiring in the pursuit of his favourite studies, and produced several works of permanent value on Scottish history and antiquities, including Annals of Scotland (1776), and Canons of the Church of Scotland (1769). He was a friend and correspondent of Dr. Johnson.

Hake, Thomas Gordon (1809–1895). — Poet, born at Leeds, ed. at Christ’s Hospital, was a physician, and practised at various places. His books include Madeline (1871), Parables and Tales (1873), The Serpent Play (1883), New Day Sonnets (1890), and Memoirs of Eighty Years (1893).

Hakluyt, Richard (1553?-1616). — Collector of voyages, belonged to a good Herefordshire family of Dutch descent, was born either at Eyton in that county or in London, and ed. at Westminster School and Oxford The sight of a map of the world fired his imagination and implanted in his mind the interest in geography and the lives and adventures of our great navigators and discoverers, which became the ruling passion of his life; and in order to increase his knowledge of these matters he studied various foreign languages and the art of navigation. He took orders, and was chaplain of the English Embassy in Paris, Rector of Witheringsett, Suffolk, 1590, Archdeacon of Westminster, 1602, and Rector of Gedney, Lincolnshire, 1612. After a first collection of voyages to America and the West Indies he compiled, while at Paris, his great work, The Principal Navigations, Voyages . . . and Discoveries of the English Nation made by Sea or over Land to the Remote and Farthest Distant Quarters of the Earth . . . within the Compass of these 1500 Years. It appeared in its final form (three folio vols.) in 1599. Besides it he published A Discourse of Western Planting, and he left a vast mass of MS. afterwards used (in far inferior style) by S. Purchas (q.v.). In all his work H. was actuated not only by the love of knowledge, but by a noble patriotism: he wished to see England the great sea-power of the world, and he lived to see it so. His work, as has been said, is “our English epic.” In addition to his original writings he translated various works, among them being The Discoveries of the World, from the Portuguese of Antonio Galvano.

Hale, Sir Matthew (1609–1676). — Jurist and miscellaneous writer, has left a great reputation as a lawyer and judge. Steering a neutral course during the political changes of his time, he served under the Protectorate and after the Restoration, and rose to be Chief Justice of the King’s Bench. He is mentioned here as the author of several works on science, divinity, and law. Among them are The Primitive Origination of Mankind, and Contemplations, Moral and Divine. His legal works are still of great authority. Though somewhat dissipated in early youth, he has handed down a high reputation for wisdom and piety.

Hales, John (1584–1656). — Theologian, born at Bath, and ed. there and at Oxford, became one of the best Greek scholars of his day, and lectured on that language at Oxford In 1616 he accompanied the English ambassador to the Hague in the capacity of chaplain, and attended the Synod of Dort, where he was converted from Calvinism to Arminianism. A lover of quiet and learned leisure, he declined all high and responsible ecclesiastical preferment, and chose and obtained scholarly retirement in a Fellowship of Eton, of which his friends Sir Henry Savile and Sir Henry Wotton were successively Provost. A treatise on Schism and Schismatics (1636?) gave offence to Laud, but H. defended himself so well that Laud made him a Prebendary of Windsor. Refusing to acknowledge the Commonwealth, he was deprived, fell into poverty, and had to sell his library. After his death his writings were published in 1659 as The Golden Remains of the Ever–Memorable Mr. John Hales of Eton College.

Haliburton, Thomas Chandler (1796–1865). — Born at Windsor, Nova Scotia, was a lawyer, and rose to be Judge of the Supreme Court of the Colony. He was the author of The Clock-maker, or Sayings and Doings of Samuel Slick of Slickville, and a continuation, The Attaché, or Sam Slick in England. In these he made a distinctly original contribution to English fiction, full of shrewdness and humour. He may be regarded as the pioneer of the American school of humorists. He wrote various other works, including The Old Judge, Nature and Human Nature, A Historical and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia, etc. In 1856 he settled in England, and sat in the House of Commons for Launceston.

Halifax, Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of (1661–1715). — A famous wit, statesman, and patron of literature, was ed. at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge Entering Parliament he became Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1694, and First Lord of the Treasury 1697. Vain and arrogant, he soon lost popularity and power. His chief literary effort was his collaboration with Prior in The Town and Country Mouse (1687), a parody of and reply to Dryden’s Hind and Panther. H. was the friend and patron of Addison, Steele, Congreve, and many other of the classical writers of his day. He became a peer in 1701.

Hall, Mrs. Anna Maria (Fielding) (1800–1881). — Novelist, was born in Dublin, but left Ireland at the age of 15. Nevertheless, that country gave her the motive of several of her most successful books, such as Sketches of Irish Character (1829), Lights and Shadows of Irish Character (1838), Marian (1839), and The White Boy (1845). Other works are The Buccaneer, and Midsummer Eve, a fairy tale, and many sketches in the Art Journal, of which her husband, SAMUEL CARTER Hall (1800–1889), was ed. With him she also collaborated in a work entitled Ireland, its Scenery, Character, etc. Mrs. H. was a very voluminous writer; her descriptive talents were considerable, as also was her power of depicting character. Her husband was likewise a writer of some note, chiefly on art.

Hall, Basil (1788–1844). — Traveller, son of Sir James H., an eminent man of science, was in the navy, and rose to be captain. He was one of the first to visit Corea, and wrote Voyage of Discovery to Corea (1818), also Travels in North America in 1827–28, a lively work which gave some offence in the U.S., Fragments of Voyages and Travels (1831–40), and some tales and romances. He was latterly insane.

Hall, or Halle, Edward (1499?-1547). — Chronicler, born in London, studied successively at Cambridge and Oxford He was a lawyer, and sat in Parliament for Bridgnorth, and served on various Commissions. He wrote a history of The Union of the two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre and Yorke, commonly called Hall’s Chronicle. It was published after the author’s death by Richard Grafton, and was prohibited by Queen Mary.

Hall, Joseph (1574–1656). — Divine, born at Ashby-de-la-Zouche, and ed. at Cambridge, he entered the Church, and became in 1627 Bishop of Exeter, and in 1641 Bishop of Norwich. He had a chequered career. He accompanied James I. to Scotland in 1617, and was a Deputy to the Synod of Dort. Accused of Puritanism, and at enmity with Laud, he fell on troublous days, and was, in 1641, imprisoned in the Tower for joining those bishops who protested against the validity of laws passed during their exclusion (owing to tumult in the streets) from Parliament. Returning to Norwich he found that his revenues had been sequestrated, and his private property seized. In 1647 he retired to a small farm near Norwich, where he passed the remainder of his life. Among his works are Contemplations, Characters of Virtues and Vices (1614), and his Virgidemiarum, or Satires (1597–8), the last written before he was in orders, and condemned by Archbishop Whitgift to be burned. Pope, however, thought them “the best poetry and truest satire in the English language.” H.’s Divine Right of Episcopacy gave rise to much controversy, in which Archbishop Ussher, Milton, and the writers who called themselves “Smectymnuus” (a combination of their initials) took part.

Hall, Robert (1764–1831). — Divine, born at Arnsby, Leicestershire, the son of a Baptist minister of some note, was ed. at a Baptist Academy, and at the University of Aberdeen, from which he received the degree of D.D. in 1817. He ministered to congregations at Bristol, Cambridge, Leicester, and again at Bristol, and became one of the greatest pulpit orators of his day. His most famous sermon was that on the Death of the Princess Charlotte (1817). Another which created a great impression was that on Modern Infidelity. H. was a life-long sufferer, and was occasionally insane, yet his intellectual activity was unceasing. After his death a collection of 50 of his sermons was published (1843), and Miscellaneous Works and Remains (1846).

Hallam, Henry (1777–1859). — Historian, son of a Dean of Wells, was born at Windsor, and ed. at Eton and Oxford He was called to the Bar at the Inner Temple, and appointed a Commissioner of Stamps. Among his earliest writings were papers in the Edinburgh Review; but in 1818 he leaped into a foremost place among historical writers by the publication of his View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages. This was followed in 1827 by The Constitutional History of England from the Accession of Henry VII. to the Death of George II., and his third great work, Introduction to the Literature of Europe in the 15th, 16th, and 17th Centuries, in 4 vols., appeared in 1837–39. All these, which have gone through several ed., and have been translated into the principal languages of Europe, are characterised by wide and profound learning, indefatigable research, and judicial impartiality. They opened a new field of investigation in which their author has had few, if any, superiors. In politics H. was a Whig; but he took no active share in party warfare. He had two sons of great promise, both of whom predeceased him. Of these the elder, ARTHUR Henry, is the subject of Tennyson’s In Memoriam, and of him his father wrote a touching memoir prefixed to his literary remains.

Halleck, Fitzgreene (1790–1867). — Poet, born at Guilford, Conn., wrote, with Rodman Drake, a young poet who died at 25, The Croaker Papers, a series of satirical and humorous verses, and Fanny, also a satire. In 1822 he visited Europe, and the traces of this are found in most of his subsequent poetry, e.g. his lines on Burns, and on Alnwick Castle.

Halliwell-Phillips, James Orchard (1820–1889). — Archæologist and Shakespearian scholar, ed. at Cambridge, was the author of a Life of Shakespeare (1848), New Boke about Shakespeare and Stratford upon Avon (1850), Folio Edition of Shakespeare (1853–65), and various other works relative to him, also Dictionary of Old English Plays (1860). He also ed. works for the Camden and Percy Societies, and compiled a Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words. In 1872 he added his wife’s name of Phillips to his own.

Hamerton, Philip Gilbert (1834–1894). — Artist and writer on æsthetics, son of a solicitor, was born near Oldham. Originally intended for the Church, he decided for art and literature. After working as an artist in the Highlands with his wife, who was a Frenchwoman, he settled in France, and devoted himself to writing on art. Among his works are Etching and Etchers, etc. (1868), Painting in France after the Decline of Classicism (1869), The Intellectual Life (1873), Human Intercourse (1884), The Graphic Arts (1882), Landscape (1885), some of which were magnificently illustrated. He also left an autobiography. His writings had a great influence upon artists, and also in stimulating and diffusing the love of art among the public.

Hamilton, Alexander (1757–1804). — Statesman and political writer, born in the West Indies, was one of the framers of the Constitution of the United States, and was the first Sec. of the national Treasury. He was one of the greatest of American statesmen, and has also a place in literature as the principal writer in the Federalist, a periodical founded to expound and defend the new Constitution, which was afterwards published as a permanent work. He contributed 51 of its 85 articles.

Hamilton, Elizabeth (1758–1816). — Wrote The Cottagers of Glenburnie, a tale which had much popularity in its day, and perhaps had some effect in the improvement of certain aspects of humble domestic life in Scotland. She also wrote Letters on Education, Essays on the Human Mind, and The Hindoo Rajah.

Hamilton, Thomas (1789–1842). — Novelist, brother of Sir William Hamilton (q.v.), wrote a novel, Cyril Thornton (1827), which was received with great favour. He was an officer in the army, and, on his retirement, settled in Edinburgh, and became a contributor to Blackwood. He was also the author of Annals of the Peninsular Campaign (1829), and Men and Manners in America (1833).

Hamilton, William (of Bangour) (1704–1754). — Poet, was born at the family seat in Linlithgowshire. Cultivated and brilliant, he was a favourite of society, and began his literary career by contributing verses to Allan Ramsay’s Tea Table Miscellany. He joined the Pretender in 1745, and celebrated the Battle of Prestonpans in Gladsmuir. After Culloden he wandered in the Highlands, where he wrote his Soliloquy, and escaped to France. His friends, however, succeeded in obtaining his pardon, and he returned to his native country. In 1750, on the death of his brother, he succeeded to the family estate, which, however, he did not long live to enjoy. He is best remembered for his fine ballad of The Braes of Yarrow. He also wrote The Episode of the Thistle. He died at Lyons.

Hamilton, William (of Gilbertfield) (1665?-1751). — Poet, served in the army, from which he retired with the rank of Lieutenant. He wrote poetical Epistles to Allan Ramsay, and an abridgment in modern Scotch of Blind Harry’s Life of Sir William Wallace.

Hamilton, Sir William (1788–1856). — Metaphysician, born in Glasgow, in the University of which his father and grandfather successively filled the Chair of Anatomy and Botany, ed. there and at Balliol College, Oxford, was called to the Scottish Bar, at which he attained little practice, but was appointed Solicitor of Teinds. In 1816 he established his claim to the baronetcy of H. of Preston. On the death of Dr. Thomas Brown in 1820, he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Chair of Moral Philosophy in Edinburgh, but in the following year he was appointed Prof. of History. It was not until 1829 that he gave full proof of his remarkable powers and attainments as a philosopher in a famous article in the Edinburgh Review, a critique of Victor Cousin’s doctrine of the Infinite. This paper carried his name over Europe, and won for him the homage of continental philosophers, including Cousin himself. After this H. continued to contribute to the Review, many of his papers being translated into French, German, and Italian. In 1852 they were collected with notes and additions, and published as Discussions in Philosophy and Literature, etc. In 1836 H. was elected Professor of Logic and Metaphysics at Edinburgh, which office he held with great reputation until his death, after which the lectures he had delivered were edited and published by Prof. Mansel and Veitch. His magnum opus was his edition of the Works of Dr. Thomas Reid, left unfinished, and completed by Mansel. H. was the last, and certainly the most learned and accomplished, of the Scottish school of philosophy, which he considered it his mission to develop and correlate to the systems of other times and countries. He also made various important contributions to the science of logic. During his later years he suffered from paralysis of one side, which, though it left his mind unaffected, impaired his powers of work. A Memoir of H. by Prof. Veitch appeared in 1869.

Hanna, William (1808–1882). — Divine and biographer, son of Samuel H., Prof. of Divinity in the Presbyterian College, Belfast, was born there, became a distinguished minister of the Free Church of Scotland, and colleague of Dr. T. Guthrie (q.v.). He wrote an admirable Life of Dr. Chalmers, whose son-inlaw he was, and ed. his works. He also ed. the Letters of Thomas Erskine of Linlathen (q.v.), and wrote various theological works.

Hannay, James (1827–1873). — Novelist and journalist, was born at Dumfries, and after serving for some years in the navy took to literature, and became ed. of the Edinburgh Courant. He wrote two novels, Singleton Fontenoy (1850), and Eustace Conyers (1855); also Lectures on Satire and Satirists, and Studies on Thackeray. For the last five years of his life he was British Consul at Barcelona.

Hare, Augustus John Cuthbert (1834–1903). — Youngest son of Francis H., and nephew of Aug. and Julius H. (q.v.), born at Rome, practically adopted by his aunt, the widow of Aug. H., and ed. at Harrow. He was the author of a large number of books, which fall into two classes: biographies of members and connections of his family, and descriptive and historical accounts of various countries and cities. To the first belong Memorials of a Quiet Life (his adoptive mother’s), Story of Two Noble Lives (Lady Canning and Lady Waterford), The Gurneys of Earlham, and an inordinately extended autobiography; to the second, Walks in Rome, Walks in London, Wanderings in Spain, Cities of Northern, Southern, and Central Italy (separate works), and many others. His writings are all interesting and informing, but in general suffer from his tendency to diffuseness.

Hare, Augustus William (1792–1834). — Was the son of Francis Hare–Naylor, who married a cousin of the famous Duchess of Devonshire, and was the author of a history of Germany. He was sent by the widow of Sir W. Jones, whose godson he was, to Winchester, and New College, Oxford, in the latter of which he was for some time a tutor. Entering the Church he became incumbent of the rural parish of Alton Barnes where, leading an absolutely unselfish life, he was the father and friend of his parishioners. In addition to writing in conjunction with his brother Julius (q.v.), Guesses at Truth, a work containing short essays on multifarious subjects, which attracted much attention, he left two vols. of sermons.

Hare, Julius Charles (1795–1855). — Essayist, etc., younger brother of the above, was born at Vicenza. When two years old his parents left him to the care of Clotilda Tambroni, female Prof. of Greek at Bologna. Ed. at Charterhouse and Cambridge, he took orders and, in 1832, was appointed to the rich family living of Hurstmonceau, which Augustus had refused. Here he had John Sterling (q.v.) for curate, and Bunsen for a neighbour. He was also Archdeacon of Lewes and a Chaplain to the Queen. His first work was Guesses at Truth (1827), jointly with his brother, and he also published, jointly with Thirlwall (q.v.), a translation of Niebuhr’s History of Rome, wrote The Victory of Faith and other theological books and pamphlets on Church and other questions, A Life of Sterling, and a Vindication of Luther. H., though a lovable, was an eccentric, man of strong antipathies, unmethodical, and unpunctual.

Harington, Sir John (1561–1612). — Miscellaneous writer, and translator, born at Kelston Park near Bath, and ed. at Eton and Cambridge, became a courtier of Queen Elizabeth, whose godson he was. In 1599 he served in Ireland under Essex, by whom he was knighted on the field, a stretch of authority which was much resented by the Queen. While there he wrote A Short View of the State of Ireland, first published 1880. He was in repute for his epigrams, of which some have wit, but others are only indelicate. His translation of the Orlando Furioso of Ariosto, in the metre of the original, is a somewhat free paraphrase, and is now superseded. It first appeared in the form of extracts, which were handed in MS. about the Court until they reached the Queen, who reprimanded the translator for corrupting the morals of her ladies by translating the most unedifying passages, and banished him to his country seat until he should have translated the whole poem. His most valuable work is one which was published in 1769 by a descendant, under the title of Nugæ Antiquæ (Old-time Trifles), a miscellaneous collection from his writings and papers, containing many things of interest, e.g., a minute account of the Queen’s last illness, and letters and verses by her and other eminent persons.

Harland, Henry (1861–1905). — Novelist, born of American parentage at St. Petersburg, and ed. at Rome. Thereafter he went to Paris, and thence to America, where he graduated at Harvard, and settled in New York. His literary career falls into two distinctly marked sections, very diverse in character. During the first of these he produced, under the pseudonym of “Sidney Luska,” a series of highly sensational novels, thrown off with little regard to literary quality, and which it was his wish should be forgotten; but about 1890 his aspirations underwent a complete change, and he became an enthusiast in regard to style and the mot propre. The first novels of this new era, Mademoiselle Miss (1893), Grey Roses (1895), and Comedies and Errors (1898), though obtaining the approval of the literary elect, had little general popularity; but the tide turned with the appearance of The Cardinal’s Snuff-box (1900), which was widely admired. It was followed by The Lady Paramount (1901), and My Friend Prospero (1903). H. died at San Remo after a prolonged illness.

Harrington, James (1611–1677). — Political theorist, son of Sir Sapcotes H., was born at Upton, Northamptonshire, and ed. at Oxford, where he was a pupil of Chillingworth. After leaving the university he travelled on the Continent, visiting, among other places, The Hague and Venice, where he imbibed republican principles. He was for some time a groom of the bedchamber to Charles I. On the outbreak of the Civil War he sided with the Parliament, but disapproved of the execution of the King, for whom he appears, notwithstanding his political theories, to have cherished a personal attachment. Thereafter he withdrew from active life, and devoted himself to composing his political romance (as it may be called) of Oceana, which he published in 1656, and in which Oceana represents England, Marpesia Scotland, and Panopæa Ireland. In this work he propounds the theory that the natural element of power in states is property, of which land is the most important. He further endeavoured to propagate his views by establishing a debating society called the Rota, and by his conversations with his friends. After the Restoration he was confined in the Tower, and subsequently at Plymouth. He issued several defences of Oceana, and made translations from Virgil. In his later years he laboured under mental delusions. Aubrey describes him as of middle stature, strong, well-set, with quick, fiery hazel eyes, and thick curly hair.

Harris, James (1709–1780). — Grammarian, was a wealthy country gentleman and member of Parliament, who held office in the Admiralty and the Treasury. He was the author of a singular and learned work entitled Hermes, or a Philosophical Inquiry concerning Universal Grammar. For the purpose which it had in view it is useless; but it contains much curious matter. His son was the eminent diplomatist, James H., 1st Earl of Malmesbury.

Harris, Joel Chandler (1848–1908). — Writer of tales, etc., born at Eatonton, Georgia, was successively printer, lawyer, and journalist. He struck out an original line in his stories of animal life as it presents itself to the mind of the Southern negro, in whose dialect they are written. These not only achieved and retain an exceptional popularity among children, to whom they were in the first instance addressed, but attracted the attention of students of folklore and anthology. Among his writings are Uncle Remus (1880), Nights with Uncle Remus (1884), Mr. Rabbit at Home (1895), Aaron in the Wild Woods (1897), Chronicles of Aunt Minervy Ann (1899), etc.

Harte, Francis Bret (1839–1902). — American humorist, born in Albany, N.Y., but when still a boy went to California. He had a somewhat varied career as a teacher, miner, and journalist, and it is as a realistic chronicler of the gold-field and an original humorist that his chief literary triumphs were achieved. Among his best known writings are Condensed Novels, in which he showed great skill as a parodist, The Luck of Roaring Camp, The Idyll of Red Gulch, and The Heathen Chinee. In 1880 he came to Glasgow as U.S. Consul, and from 1885 he lived in London. His writings often show the tenderness and fine feeling that are allied to the higher forms of humour, and he may be said to have created a special form of short story in his Californian tales and prose idylls.

Hartley, David (1705–1757). — Philosopher, born at Luddenden, Yorkshire, and ed. at Cambridge, studied for the Church, but owing to theological difficulties turned to medicine as a profession, and practised with success at various places, including London and Bath. He also attained eminence as a writer on philosophy, and indeed may be said to have founded a school of thought based upon two theories, (1) the Doctrine of Vibrations, and (2) that of Association of Ideas. These he developed in an elaborate treatise, Observations on Man, his Frame, his Duty, and his Expectations. Though his system has long been discarded, its main ideas have continued to influence thought and investigation.

Harvey, Gabriel (1545?-1630). — Poet, son of a ropemaker, was born at Saffron Walden, ed. at Cambridge, and became the friend of Spenser, being the Hobbinol of The Shepheard’s Calendar. He wrote various satirical pieces, sonnets, and pamphlets. Vain and ill-tempered, he was a remorseless critic of others, and was involved in perpetual controversy, specially with Greene and Nash, the latter of whom was able to silence him. He wrote treatises on rhetoric, claimed to have introduced hexameters into English, was a foe to rhyme, and persuaded Spenser temporarily to abandon it.

Hawes, Stephen (died 1523?). — Poet; very little concerning him is known with certainty. He is believed to have been born in Suffolk, and may have studied at Oxford or Cambridge He first comes clearly into view as a Groom of the Chamber in 1502, in which year he dedicated to Henry VII. his Pastyme of Pleasure, first printed in 1509 by Wynkyn de Worde. In the same year appeared the Convercyon of Swerers (1509), and A Joyful Meditacyon of all England (1509), on the coronation of Henry VIII. He also wrote the Exemple of Vertu. H. was a scholar, and was familiar with French and Italian poetry. No great poet, he yet had a considerable share in regularising the language.

Hawker, Robert Stephen (1804–1875). — Poet and antiquary, ed. at Cheltenham and Oxford, became parson of Morwenstow, a smuggling and wrecking community on the Cornish coast, where he exercised a reforming and beneficent, though extremely unconventional, influence until his death, shortly before which he was received into the Roman Catholic Church. He wrote some poems of great originality and charm, Records of the Western Shore (1832–36), and The Quest of the Sangraal (1863) among them, besides short poems, of which perhaps the best known is Shall Trelawny Die? which, based as it is on an old rhyme, deceived both Scott and Macaulay into thinking it an ancient fragment. He also published a collection of papers, Footprints of Former Men in Cornwall (1870).

Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1804–1864). — Novelist, born at Salem, Massachusetts, son. of a sea captain, who died in 1808, after which his mother led the life of a recluse. An accident when at play conduced to an early taste for reading, and from boyhood he cherished literary aspirations. His education was completed at Bowdoin College, where he had Longfellow for a fellow-student. After graduating, he obtained a post in the Custom–House, which, however, he did not find congenial, and soon gave up, betaking himself to literature, his earliest efforts, besides a novel, Fanshawe, which had no success, being short tales and sketches, which, after appearing in periodicals, were collected and published as Twice-told Tales (1837), followed by a second series in 1842. In 1841 he joined for a few months the socialistic community at Brook Farm, but soon tired of it, and in the next year he married and set up house in Concord in an old manse, formerly tenanted by Emerson, whence proceeded Mosses from an Old Manse (1846). It was followed by The Snow Image (1851), The Scarlet Letter (1850), his most powerful work, The House of Seven Gables, and The Blithedale Romance (1852), besides his children’s books, The Wonder Book, and The Tanglewood Tales. Such business as he had occupied himself with had been in connection with Custom–House appointments at different places; but in 1853 he received from his friend Franklin Pierce, on his election to the Presidency, the appointment of United States Consul at Liverpool, which he retained for four years, when, in consequence of a threatened failure of health, he went to Italy and began his story of The Marble Faun, published in England in 1860 under the title of The Transformation. The last of his books published during his lifetime was Our Old Home (1863), notes on England and the English. He had returned to America in 1860, where, with failing health and powers, he passed his remaining four years. After his death there were published The Ancestral Footstep, Septimus Felton, Dr. Grimshawe’s Secret, and The Dolliver Romance, all more or less fragmentary. Most of H.’s work is pervaded by a strong element of mysticism, and a tendency to dwell in the border-land between the seen and the unseen. His style is characterised by a distinctive grace and charm, rich, varied, suggestive, and imaginative. On the whole he is undoubtedly the greatest imaginative writer yet produced by America.

There are several ed. of the Works, e.g. Little Classics, 25 vols.; Riverside, 15 vols.; Standard Library, 15 vols.; the two last have biographies. Lives by his son Julian, H. James (English Men of Letters, 1850), M.D. Conway (Great Writers, 1890), etc.

Hay, John (1838–1906). — Diplomatist and poet, born at Salem, Indiana, ed. at Brown University, and called to the Illinois Bar, served in the army, and was one of President Lincoln’s secs. He then held diplomatic posts at Paris, Madrid, and Vienna, was Ambassador to Great Britain, and was in 1898 appointed Sec. of State. He has a place in literature by virtue of his Pike County Ballads, and Castilian Days (1871).

Hayley, William (1745–1820). — Poet and biographer, was born at Chichester, and ed. at Eton and Cambridge Though overstrained and romantic, he had some literary ability, and was a good conversationalist. He was the friend of Cowper, whose Life he wrote; and it was to his influence with Pitt that the granting of a pension to the poet was due. He was the author of numerous poems, including The Triumph of Temper, and of Essays on History and Epic Poetry, and, in addition to his biography of Cowper, wrote a Life of Milton. On the death of Thos. Warton in 1790 he was offered, but declined, the Laureateship. Of him Southey said, “Everything about that man is good except his poetry.”

Hayne, Paul Hamilton (1830–1886). — Poet, born at Charleston, S. Carolina, of an old family, contributed to various magazines, and published Poems (1885), containing “Legends and Lyrics.” His graceful verses show the influence of Keats. His sonnets are some of his best work.

Hayward, Abraham (1802–1884). — Miscellaneous writer, belonged to an old Wiltshire family and was ed. at Tiverton School. He studied law at the Inner Temple, and was called to the Bar 1832. He had a great reputation as a raconteur and sayer of good things, and he was a copious contributor to periodicals, especially the Quarterly Review. Many of his articles were reprinted as Biographical and Critical Essays, and Eminent Statesmen and Writers; he also wrote Lives of George Selwyn and Lord Chesterfield, and books on Whist, Junius, and The Art of Dining. His Select Correspondence appeared posthumously.

Hayward, Sir John (1564?-1627). — Historian, born at Felixstowe, was the author of various historical works, the earliest of which, The First Part of the Life and Reign of King Henry IV., was published in 1599, and gave such offence to Queen Elizabeth that the author was imprisoned. He, however, managed to ingratiate himself with James I. by supporting his views of kingly prerogative. He also, at the request of Prince Henry, wrote a History of the three Norman Kings of England (William I., William II., and Henry I.) The Life and Reign of Edward VI. was published posthumously in 1630.

Haywood, Mrs. Eliza (Fowler) (1693–1756). — Dramatist and novelist, born in London, was early married to a Mr. H., but the union turning out unhappily, she took to the stage, upon which she appeared in Dublin about 1715. She afterwards settled in London, and produced numerous plays and novels, into which she introduced scandalous episodes regarding living persons whose identity was very thinly veiled, a practice which, along with her political satires, more than once involved her in trouble, and together with certain attacks upon Pope, made in concert with Curll the bookseller, procured for her a place in The Dunciad. Her enemies called her reputation in question, but nothing very serious appears to have been proved. She is repeatedly referred to by Steele, and has been doubtfully identified with his “Sappho.” Some of her works, such as The History of Jemmy and Jenny Jessamy had great popularity. Others were The Fair Captive (1721), Idalia (1723), Love in Excess (1724), Memoirs of a Certain Island adjacent to Utopia (anonymously) (1725), Secret History of Present Intrigues at the Court of Caramania (anonymously) (1727). She also conducted The Female Spectator, and other papers.

Hazlitt, William (1778–1830). — Essayist and critic, born at Maidstone, was the son of a Unitarian minister. At his father’s request he studied for the ministry at a Unitarian College at Hackney. His interests, however, were much more philosophical and political than theological. The turning point in his intellectual development was his meeting with Coleridge in 1798. Soon after this he studied art with the view of becoming a painter, and devoted himself specially to portraiture, but though so good a judge as his friend, J. Northcote, R.A., believed he had the talent requisite for success, he could not satisfy himself, and gave up the idea, though always retaining his love of art. He then definitely turned to literature, and in 1805 published his first book, Essay on the Principles of Human Action, which was followed by various other philosophical and political essays. About 1812 he became parliamentary and dramatic reporter to the Morning Chronicle; in 1814 a contributor to the Edinburgh Review; and in 1817 he published a vol. of literary sketches, The Round Table. In the last named year appeared his Characters of Shakespeare’s Plays, which was severely attacked in the Quarterly Review and Blackwood’s Magazine, to which his democratic views made him obnoxious. He defended himself in a cutting Letter to William Gifford, the ed. of the former. The best of H.’s critical work — his three courses of Lectures, On the English Poets, On the English Comic Writers, and On the Dramatic Literature of the Age of Queen Elizabeth — appeared successively in 1818, 1819, and 1820. His next works were Table Talk, in which he attacked Shelley (1821–22), and The Spirit of the Age (1825), in which he criticised some of his contemporaries. He then commenced what he intended to be his chief literary undertaking, a life of Napoleon Buonaparte, in 4 vols. (1828–30). Though written with great literary ability, its views and sympathies were unpopular, and it failed in attaining success. His last work was a Life of Titian, in which he collaborated with Northcote. H. is one of the most subtle and acute of English critics, though, when contemporaries came under review, he sometimes allowed himself to be unduly swayed by personal or political feeling, from which he had himself often suffered at the hands of others. His chief principle of criticism as avowed by himself was that “a genuine criticism should reflect the colour, the light and shade, the soul and body of a work.” In his private life he was not happy. His first marriage, entered into in 1807, ended in a divorce in 1822, and was followed by an amour with his landlady’s daughter, which he celebrated in Liber Amoris, a work which exposed him to severe censure. A second marriage with a Mrs. Bridgewater ended by the lady leaving him shortly after. The fact is that H. was possessed of a peculiar temper, which led to his quarrelling with most of his friends. He was, however, a man of honest and sincere convictions. There is a collected ed. of his works, the “Winterslow,” by A.R. Waller and A. Glover, 12 vols., with introduction by W.E. Henley, etc.

Head, Sir Francis Bond (1793–1875). — Traveller, essayist, and biographer, served in the Engineers, went to South America as manager of a mining company, which failed, and then turned to literature, and made considerable reputation by a book of travels, Rapid Journeys across the Pampas and among the Andes (1827), which was followed by Bubbles from the Brunnens of Nassau (1834). He was Governor of Upper Canada 1835–37, but was not a great success. Thereafter he contributed to the Quarterly Review, and repub. his articles as Stokers and Pokers — Highways and Byways, and wrote a Life of Bruce, the Abyssinian traveller. He was made a Baronet in 1836.

Hearn, Lafcadio (1850–1906). — Journalist and writer on Japan, son of an Irish Army surgeon and of a Greek lady, born in Leucadia, Ionian Islands, lost his parents early, and was sent home to be taken charge of by an aunt in Wales, a Roman Catholic. On her death, when he was still a boy, he was left penniless, delicate, and half blind, and after experiencing great hardships, in spite of which he ed. himself, he took to journalism. Going to New Orleans he attained a considerable reputation as a writer with a distinctly individual style. He came under the influence of Herbert Spencer, and devoted himself largely to the study of social questions. After spending three years in the French West Indies, he was in 1890 sent by a publisher to Japan to write a book on that country, and there he remained, becoming a naturalised subject, taking the name of Yakomo Koizumi, and marrying a Japanese lady. He lectured on English literature in the Imperial University at Tokio. Though getting nearer than, perhaps, any other Western to an understanding of the Japanese, he felt himself to the end to be still an alien. Among his writings, which are distinguished by acute observation, imagination, and descriptive power of a high order, are Stray Leaves from Strange Literature (1884), Some Chinese Ghosts (1887), Gleanings in Buddha Fields (1897), Ghostly Japan, Kokoro, Hints and Echoes of Japanese Inner Life, etc. He was also an admirable letter-writer.

Hearne, Thomas (1678–1735). — Antiquary, born at White Waltham., Berkshire, and ed. at Oxford, where in 1712 he became second keeper of the Bodleian Library. A strong Jacobite, he was deprived of his post in 1716, and afterwards he refused, on political grounds, the chief librarianship. He published a large number of antiquarian works, including Reliquiæ Bodleianæ (1703), and ed. of Leland’s Itinerary and Collectanea, Camden’s Annals, and Fordun’s Scotochronicon. Some of his own collections were published posthumously.

Heber, Reginald (1783–1826). — Poet, son of the Rector of Malpas, a man of family and wealth, and half-brother of Richard H., the famous book-collector, was ed. at Oxford, where he gained the Newdigate prize for his poem, Palestine, and was elected in 1805 Fellow of All Souls. After travelling in Germany and Russia, he took orders in 1807, and became Rector of the family living of Hodnet. In 1822, after two refusals, he accepted the Bishopric of Calcutta, an office in which he showed great zeal and capacity. He died of apoplexy in his bath at Trichinopoly in 1826. In addition to Palestine he wrote Europe, a poem having reference specially to the Peninsular War, and left various fragments, including an Oriental romance based on the story of Bluebeard. H.’s reputation now rests mainly on his hymns, of which several, e.g., From Greenland’s Icy Mountains, Brightest and Best of the Sons of the Morning, and Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, are sung wherever the English language is known. He also wrote a Life of Jeremy Taylor (1822). H. was a scholar and wit as well as a devoted Christian and Churchman.

Helps, Sir Arthur (1813–1875). — Essayist and historian, was born at Streatham, Surrey, and ed. at Eton and Cambridge After leaving the University he was private secretary to various public men, and in 1841, his circumstances rendering him independent of employment, he retired to Bishop’s Waltham, and devoted himself for 20 years to study and writing. Appointed, in 1860, Clerk to the Privy Council, he became known to, and a favourite of, Queen Victoria, who entrusted him with the task of editing the Speeches and Addresses of the Prince Consort (1862), and her own book, Leaves from the Journal of our Life in the Highlands (1868). Of his own publications the first was Thoughts in the Cloister and the Crowd (1835), a series of aphorisms, and there followed, among others, Essays written in the Intervals of Business (1841), Friends in Council, 4 series (1847–59), Realmah (1869), and Conversations on War and General Culture (1871). In history H. wrote The Conquerors of the New World (1848–52), and The Spanish Conquests in America, 4 vols. (1855–61). He also wrote a Life of Thos. Brassey, and, as the demand for his historical works fell off, he repub. parts of them as individual biographies of Las Casas, Columbus, Pizarro, and Cortez. He also tried the drama, but without success. His essays are his most successful work, containing as they do the thoughts and opinions of a shrewd, experienced, and highly cultivated man, written in what Ruskin called “beautiful quiet English.” They have not, however, any exceptional depth or originality.

Hemans, Felicia Dorothea (Browne) (1793–1835). — Poetess, daughter of a Liverpool merchant, who, owing to reverses, retired to North Wales. While yet little more than a child she published her first poems, the reception of which was not encouraging. In the same year, 1808, a further publication appeared which drew a letter from Shelley. Her first important work, The Domestic Affections, appeared in 1812, in which year she was married to Captain Hemans, an Irish officer. The union, however, was not a happy one, and her husband practically deserted her and her five sons in 1818. Her literary activity was continued during the whole of her short life, and her works include, The Vespers of Palermo, a drama, which was not successful, The Forest Sanctuary (1826), her best poem, Records of Woman, Lays of Leisure Hours, Songs of the Affections, Hymns for Childhood, and Thoughts during Sickness (1834), her last effort. In 1829 she visited Scotland, where she was the guest of Scott, who held her in affectionate regard. She also enjoyed the friendship of Wordsworth. Always somewhat delicate, her health latterly entirely gave way, and she died of a decline in 1835. Her shorter pieces enjoyed much popularity, and still, owing to their grace and tenderness, retain a certain place, but her long poems are lacking in energy and depth, and are forgotten.

Henley, William Ernest (1849–1903). — Poet and critic, born at Gloucester, made the acquaintance of Robert Louis Stevenson (q.v.), and collaborated with him in several dramas, including Deacon Brodie, and Robert Macaire. He engaged in journalism, and became ed. of The Magazine of Art, The National Observer, and The New Review, compiled Lyra Heroica, an anthology of English poetry for boys, and, with Mr. Farmer, ed. a Dictionary of Slang. His poems, which include Hospital Rhymes, London Voluntaries, The Song of the Sword, For England’s Sake, and Hawthorn and Lavender, are very unequal in quality, and range from strains of the purest music to an uncouth and unmusical realism of no poetic worth. He wrote with T.F. Henderson a Life of Burns, in which the poet is set forth as a “lewd peasant of genius.”

Complete works, 7 vols., 1908.

Henry Viii. (1491–1547). — Besides writing songs including The Kings Ballad, was a learned controversialist, and contended against Luther in Assertio Septem Sacramentorum (Defence of the Seven Sacraments), a treatise which gained for him the title of Defender of the Faith.

Henry of Huntingdon (1084–1155). — Historian, was Archdeacon of Huntingdon from 1109. His Historia Anglorum (History of the English) comes down to 1154. He also wrote a treatise, De Contemptu Mundi (on Contempt of the World).

Henry, Matthew (1662–1714). — Commentator, son of Philip H., a learned Nonconformist divine, was born in Flintshire. He was originally destined for the law, and studied at Gray’s Inn, but turned his mind to theology, and, in 1687, became minister of a Nonconformist church at Chester. Here he remained until 1712, when he went to take the oversight of a congregation at Hackney, where he died two years later. He wrote many religious works, but is chiefly remembered by his Exposition of the Old and New Testaments, which he did not live to complete beyond the Acts. The comment on the Epistles was, however, furnished after his death by 13 Nonconformist divines. Though long superseded from a critical point of view, the work still maintains its place as a book of practical religion, being distinguished by great freshness and ingenuity of thought, and pointed and vigorous expression.

Henry, Robert (1718–1790). — Historian, born at St. Ninians, Stirlingshire, entered the Church of Scotland, becoming one of the ministers of Edinburgh He wrote the History of Great Britain on a New Plan (1771–93), in 6 vols., covering the period from the Roman invasion until the reign of Henry VIII. The novelty consisted in dividing the subjects into different heads, civil history, military, social, and so on, and following out each of them separately. The work was mainly a compilation, having no critical qualities, and is now of little value. Notwithstanding the persistent and ferocious attacks of Dr. Gilbert Stewart (q.v.), it had a great success, and brought the author over £3000, and a government pension of £100.

Henry, the Minstrel, (see Blind Harry).

Henryson, Robert (1430?-1506?). — Scottish poet. Few details of his life are known, even the dates of his birth and death being uncertain. He appears to have been a schoolmaster, perhaps in the Benedictine Convent, at Dunfermline, and was a member of the University of Glasgow in 1462. He also practised as a Notary Public, and may have been in orders. His principal poems are The Moral Fables of Esope the Phrygian, The Testament of Cresseide, a sequel to the Troilus and Cressida of Chaucer, to whom it was, until 1721, attributed, Robene and Makyne, the first pastoral, not only in Scottish vernacular, but in the English tongue, The Uplandis Mous and The Burges Mous (Country and Town Mouse), and the Garmond of Gude Ladeis. H., who was versed in the learning and general culture of his day, had a true poetic gift. His verse is strong and swift, full of descriptive power, and sparkling with wit. He is the first Scottish lyrist and the introducer of the pastoral to English literature.

Henty, George Alfred (1832–1902). — Boys’ novelist, wrote over 80 books for boys, which had great popularity. Among them are By England’s Aid, Dash for Khartoum, Facing Death, In Freedom’s Cause, Out on the Pampas, etc., all full of adventure and interest, and conveying information as well as amusement.

Heraud, John Abraham (1799–1887). — Poet, born in London, of Huguenot descent, he contributed to various periodicals, and published two poems, which attracted some attention, The Descent into Hell (1830), and The Judgment of the Flood (1834). He also produced a few plays, miscellaneous poems, books of travel, etc.

Herbert, of Cherbury, Edward, 1st Lord (1583–1648). — Philosopher and historian, was the eldest son of Richard H., of Montgomery Castle, and was born there or at Eyton, Shropshire. He was at Oxford, and while there, at the age of 16, he married a kinswoman four years his senior, the daughter of Sir William H. Thereafter he returned to the University and devoted himself to study, and to the practice of manly sports and accomplishments. At his coronation in 1603 James I. made him a Knight of the Bath, and in 1608 he went to the Continent, where for some years he was engaged in military and diplomatic affairs, not without his share of troubles. In 1624 he was created an Irish, and a few years later, an English, peer, as Baron H., of Cherbury. On the outbreak of the Civil War he sided, though somewhat half-heartedly, with the Royalists, but in 1644 he surrendered to the Parliament, received a pension, held various offices, and died in 1648. It was in 1624 that he wrote his treatise, De Veritate, “An empirical theory of knowledge,” in which truth is distinguished from (1) revelation, (2) the probable, (3) the possible, (4) the false. It is the first purely metaphysical work written by an Englishman, and gave rise to much controversy. It was reprinted in 1645, when the author added two treatises, De Causis Errorum (concerning the Causes of Errors), and De Religione Laici (concerning the Religion of a Layman). His other chief philosophical work was De Religione Gentilium (1663), of which an English translation appeared in 1705, under the title of The Ancient Religion of the Gentiles and Cause of their Errors considered. It has been called “the charter of the Deists,” and was intended to prove that “all religions recognise five main articles — (1) a Supreme God, (2) who ought to be worshipped, (3) that virtue and purity are the essence of that worship, (4) that sin should be repented of, and (5) rewards and punishments in a future state.” Among his historical works are Expeditio Buckinghamii Ducis (1656), a vindication of the Rochelle expedition, a Life of Henry VIII. (1649), extremely partial to the King, his Autobiography, which gives a brilliant picture of his contemporaries, and of the manners and events of his time, and a somewhat vainglorious account of himself and his doings. He was also the author of some poems of a metaphysical cast. On the whole his is one of the most shining and spirited figures of the time.

Autobiography ed. by S. Lee (1886). Poems ed. by J. Churton Collins, etc.

Herbert, George (1593–1633). — Poet, brother of above, was ed. at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took his degree in 1616, and was public orator 1619–27. He became the friend of Sir H. Wotton, Donne, and Bacon, the last of whom is said to have held him in such high esteem as to submit his writings to him before publication. He acquired the favour of James I., who conferred upon him a sinecure worth £120 a year, and having powerful friends, he attached himself for some time to the Court in the hope of preferment. The death of two of his patrons, however, led him to change his views, and coming under the influence of Nicholas Ferrar, the quietist of Little Gidding, and of Laud, he took orders in 1626 and, after serving for a few years as prebendary of Layton Ecclesia, or Leighton Broomswold, he became in 1630 Rector of Bemerton, Wilts, where he passed the remainder of his life, discharging the duties of a parish priest with conscientious assiduity. His health, however, failed, and he died in his 40th year. His chief works are The Temple, or Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations (1634), The Country Parson (1652), and Jacula Prudentium, a collection of pithy proverbial sayings, the two last in prose. Not published until the year after his death, The Temple had immediate acceptance, 20,000 copies, according to I. Walton, who was H.’s biographer, having been sold in a few years. Among its admirers were Charles I., Cowper, and Coleridge. H. wrote some of the most exquisite sacred poetry in the language, although his style, influenced by Donne, is at times characterised by artificiality and conceits. He was an excellent classical scholar, and an accomplished musician.

Works with Life by Izaak Walton, ed. by Coleridge, 1846, etc.

Herbert, Sir Thomas (1606–1682). — Traveller and historian, belonged to an old Yorkshire family, studied at Oxford and Cambridge, and went in connection with an embassy to Persia, of which, and of other Oriental countries, he published a description. On the outbreak of the Civil War he was a Parliamentarian, but was afterwards taken into the household of the King, to whom he became much attached, was latterly his only attendant, and was with him on the scaffold. At the Restoration he was made a Baronet, and in 1678 published Threnodia Carolina, an account of the last two years of the King’s life.

Herd, David (1732–1810). — Scottish anthologist, son of a farmer in Kincardineshire, was clerk to an accountant in Edinburgh, and devoted his leisure to collecting old Scottish poems and songs, which he first published in 1769 as Ancient Scottish Songs, Heroic Ballads, etc. Other and enlarged ed. appeared in 1776 and 1791. Sir W. Scott made use of his MS. collections in his Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border.

Herrick, Robert (1591–1674). — Poet, born in London, was apprenticed as a goldsmith to his uncle, Sir William H., with whom he remained for 10 years. Thereafter he went to Cambridge, took orders, and was in 1629 presented by Charles I. to the living of Dean Prior, a remote parish in Devonshire, from which he was ejected in 1647, returning in 1662. In the interval he appears to have lived in Westminster, probably supported, more or less, by the gifts of wealthy Royalists. His Noble Numbers or Pious Pieces was published in 1647, his Hesperides or Works both Human and Divine in 1648, and the two together in one vol. in the latter year. Over 60, however, of the lighter poems included in Hesperides had previously appeared anonymously in a collection entitled Wit’s Recreations. H.’s early life in London had been a free one, and his secular poems, in which he appears much more at ease than in his sacred, show him to have been a thorough Epicurean, though he claims that his life was not to be judged by his muse. As a lyric poet H. stands in the front rank for sweetness, grace, and true poetic fire, and some of his love songs, e.g. Anthea, and Gather ye Rose-buds, are unsurpassed in their kind; while in such exquisite little poems as Blossoms, Daffodils, and others he finds a classic expression for his love of nature and country life. In his epigrams, however, he falls much below himself. He has been described as “the most frankly pagan of English poets.”

Poems ed. by Nutt (1810), Grosart (1876), Pollard (preface by Swinburne, 1891).

Herschel, Sir John Frederick William (1792–1871).S. of Sir William H., the eminent astronomer and discoverer of the planet Uranus, was born at Slough, and ed. at Cambridge, where he was Senior Wrangler and first Smith’s prizeman. He became one of the greatest of English astronomers. Among his writings are treatises on Sound and Light, and his Astronomy (1831) was for long the leading manual on the subject. He also published Popular Lectures and Collected Addresses, and made translations from Schiller, and from the Iliad.

Hervey, James (1714–1758). — Religious writer, Rector of Weston Favell, Northants, was the author of Meditations among the Tombs (1745–47), Theron and Aspasio, and other works, which had a great vogue in their day. They are characterised by over-wrought sentiment, and overloaded with florid ornament. H. was a devout and unselfish man, who by his labours broke down a delicate constitution.

Hervey, John, Lord (1696–1743). — Writer of memoirs, was a younger son of the 1st Earl of Bristol. Entering Parliament he proved an able debater, and held various offices, including that of Lord Privy Seal. He was a favourite with Queen Caroline, and a dexterous and supple courtier. He wrote Memoirs of the Reign of George II., which gives a very unfavourable view of the manners and morals of the Court. It is written in a lively, though often spiteful style, and contains many clever and discriminating character sketches. He was satirised by Pope under the name of “Sporus” and “Lord Fanny.”

Heylin, Peter (1600–1662). — Ecclesiastical writer, born at Burford, Oxon., was one of the clerical followers of Charles I., who suffered for his fidelity, being deprived under the Commonwealth of his living of Alresford, and other preferments. After the Restoration he was made sub-Dean of Westminster, but the failure of his health prevented further advancement. He was a voluminous writer, and a keen and acrimonious controversialist against the Puritans. Among his works are a History of the Reformation, and a Life of Laud (Cyprianus Anglicanus) (1668).

Heywood, John (1497?-1580?). — Dramatist and epigrammatist, is believed to have been born at North Mimms, Herts. He was a friend of Sir Thomas More, and through him gained the favour of Henry VIII., and was at the Court of Edward VI. and Mary, for whom, as a young Princess, he had a great regard. Being a supporter of the old religion, he enjoyed her favour, but on the accession of Elizabeth, he left the country, and went to Mechlin, where he died He was famous as a writer of interludes, a species of composition intermediate between the old “moralities” and the regular drama, and displayed considerable constructive skill, and a racy, if somewhat broad and even coarse, humour. Among his interludes are The Play of the Wether (1532), The Play of Love (1533), and The Pardoner and the Frere. An allegorical poem is The Spider and the Flie (1556), in which the Spider stands for the Protestants, and the Flie for the Roman Catholics. H. was likewise the author of some 600 epigrams, whence his title of “the old English epigrammatist.”

Heywood, Thomas (died 1650). — Dramatist. Few facts about him have come down, and these are almost entirely derived from his own writings. He appears to have been born in Lincolnshire, and was a Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge, and an ardent Protestant. His literary activity extends from about 1600 to 1641, and his production was unceasing; he claims to have written or “had a main finger in” 220 plays, of which only a small proportion (24) are known to be in existence, a fact partly accounted for by many of them having been written upon the backs of tavern bills, and by the circumstance that though a number of them were popular, few were published Among them may be mentioned The Four Prentices of London (1600) (ridiculed in Fletcher’s Knight of the Burning Pestle), Edward IV. (2 parts) in 1600 and 1605, The Royal King and the Loyal Subject (1637), A Woman Killed with Kindness (1603), Rape of Lucrece (1608), Fair Maid of the Exchange (1607), Love’s Mistress (1636), and Wise Woman of Hogsdon (1638). H. also wrote an Apology for Actors (1612), a poem, Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels (1635), and made various translations. He was thoroughly English in his subjects and treatment, and had invention, liveliness, and truth to nature, but lacked the higher poetic sense, and of course wrote far too much to write uniformly well.

Higden, Ranulf or Ralph (died 1364). — Chronicler, is believed to have been born in the West of England, took the monastic vow (Benedictine), at Chester in 1299, and seems to have travelled over the North of England. His fame rests on his Polychronicon, a universal history reaching down to contemporary events. The work is divided into 7 books and, though of no great value as an authority, has an interest as showing the state of historical and geographical knowledge at the time. Written in Latin, it was translated into English by John of Trevisa (q.v.) (1387), and printed by Caxton (1482), and by others. Another translation of the 15th century was issued in the Rolls Series. For two centuries it was an approved work. H. wrote various other treatises on theology and history.

Hill, Aaron (1685–1750). — Dramatist and miscellaneous writer, son of a country gentleman of Wiltshire, was ed. at Westminster School, and thereafter made a tour in the East. He was the author of 17 dramatic pieces, some of them, such as his versions of Voltaire’s Zaire and Merope, being adaptations. He also wrote a quantity of poetry, which, notwithstanding some good passages, is as a general rule dull and pompous. Having written some satiric lines on Pope he received in return a niche in The Dunciad, which led to a controversy, in which H. showed some spirit. Afterwards a reconciliation took place. He was a friend and correspondent of Richardson, whose Pamela he highly praised. In addition to his literary pursuits H. was a great projector, but his schemes were usually unsuccessful. He was a good and honourable man, but over-impressed with his own importance.

Hinton, James (1822–1875). — Writer on sociology and psychology, son of a Baptist minister, became a successful aurist, but his attention being arrested by social questions, he gave more and more of his time to the consideration and exposition of these. Open-minded and altruistic, his books are full of thought and suggestion. Among his writings may be mentioned Man and his Dwelling-place (1859), The Mystery of Pain (1866), The Law of Human Life (1874), Chapters on the Art of Thinking (1879), and Philosophy and Religion (1881).

Hoadley, Benjamin (1676–1761). — Theologian and controversialist, ed. at Cambridge, entered the Church, and became Bishop successively of Bangor, Hereford, Salisbury, and Winchester. He was a great supporter of the Revolution, and controvertor of the doctrines of divine right and passive obedience. His works were generally either the causes of controversy or elicited by it. One of his sermons, On the Nature of the Kingdom or Church of Christ was the originating cause of what was known as the Bangorian controversy, which raged for a long time with great bitterness.

Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679). — Philosopher, was born at Malmesbury, the son of a clergyman, and ed. at Oxford Thereafter he travelled as tutor through France, Italy, and Germany, with William Lord Cavendish, afterwards 2nd Earl of Devonshire, with whom he remained as secretary after the completion of the tour. While engaged in this capacity he became acquainted with Bacon (whose amanuensis he is said to have been), Herbert of Cherbury, and Ben Jonson. In 1629 he published a translation of Thucydides. After the death of his patron, which took place in 1626, he went in 1628 to Paris, where he remained for 18 months, and in 1631 he assumed the position of tutor to his son, afterwards the 3rd Earl, with whom he went in 1634 to France, Italy, and Savoy. When in Italy he was the friend of Galileo, Gassendi, and other eminent men. Returning to England he remained in the Earl’s service, and devoted himself to his studies on philosophy and politics. The commotions of the times, however, disturbed him; and his Royalist principles, expounded in his treatise, De Corpore Politico, led to his again, in 1641, leaving England and going to Paris, where he remained until 1652. While there, he entered into controversy on mathematical subjects with Descartes, published some of his principal works, including Leviathan, and received, in 1647, the appointment of mathematical tutor to the Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles II., who was then in that city. The views expressed in his works, however, brought him into such unpopularity that the Prince found it expedient to break the connection, and H. returned to England. In 1653 he resumed his relations with the Devonshire family, living, however, in London in habits of intimacy with Selden, Cowley, and Dr. Harvey. On the Restoration the King conferred upon him a pension of £100, but like most of the Royal benefactions of the day, it was but irregularly paid. His later years were spent in the family of his patron, chiefly at Chatsworth, where he continued his literary activity until his death, which occurred in 1679, in his 91st year. H. was one of the most prominent Englishmen of his day, and has continued to influence philosophical thought more or less ever since, generally, however, by evoking opposition. His fundamental proposition is that all human action is ultimately based upon selfishness (more or less enlightened), allowing no place to the moral or social sentiments. Similarly in his political writings man is viewed as a purely selfish being who must be held in restraint by the strong hand of authority. His chief philosophical works are De Corpore Politico, already mentioned, published in 1640; Philosophical Rudiments concerning Government and Society, originally in Latin, translated into English in 1650; Leviathan, or the Matter, Form, and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil (1651); Treatise on Human Nature (1650); and Letters upon Liberty and Necessity (1654). Generally speaking, all his works led him into controversy, one of his principal opponents being Clarendon. The Letters upon Liberty and Necessity, which is one of the ablest of them, and indeed one of the ablest ever written on the subject, brought him into collision with Bramhall, Bishop of Londonderry, whom he completely overthrew. He was not, however, so successful in his mathematical controversies, one of the chief of which was on the Quadrature of the Circle. Here his antagonist was the famous mathematician Wallis, who was able easily to demonstrate his errors. In 1672, when 84, H. wrote his autobiography in Latin verse, and in the same year translated 4 books of the Odyssey, which were so well received that he completed the remaining books, and also translated the whole of the Iliad. Though accurate as literal renderings of the sense, these works fail largely to convey the beauties of the original, notwithstanding which three ed. were issued within 10 years, and they long retained their popularity. His last work was Behemoth, a history of the Civil War, completed just before his death, which occurred at Hardwick Hall, one of the seats of the Devonshire family. Although a clear and bold thinker, and a keen controversialist, he was characterised by a certain constitutional timidity believed to have been caused by the alarm of his mother near the time of his birth at the threatened descent of the Spanish Armada. Though dogmatic and impatient of contradiction, faults which grew upon him with age, H. had the courage of his opinions, which he did not trim to suit the times.

Summary. — Born 1588, ed. Oxford, became acquainted with Bacon, went to Paris 1628, in Italy 1634, published De Corpore Politico (1640), again in Paris 1641–52, and while there was in controversy with Descartes, and published Leviathan (1651), appointed mathematical tutor to Charles II. 1647, returned to England 1652, pensioned at Restoration, later years spent at Chatsworth, published Human Nature 1650, Liberty and Necessity 1654, controversy with Bramhall and Wallis, writes autobiography 1672, translates Homer, published Behemoth 1679, died 1679.

Works ed. by Sir W. Molesworth (16 vols. 1839–46), monograph by Croom Robertson. Life by L. Stephen (English Men of Letters Series).

Hoby, Sir Thomas (1530–1566). — Translator, born at Leominster, and ed. at Cambridge, translated Bucer’s Gratulation to the Church of England, and The Courtyer of Count Baldessar Castilio, the latter of which had great popularity. H. died in Paris while Ambassador to France.

Hoccleve, or Occleve, Thomas (1368?-1450?). — Poet, probably born in London, where he appears to have spent most of his life, living in Chester’s Inn in the Strand. Originally intended for the Church, he received an appointment in the Privy Seal Office, which he retained until 1424, when quarters were assigned him in the Priory of Southwick, Hants. In 1399 a pension of £10, subsequently increased to £13, 6s. 8d., had been conferred upon him, which, however, was paid only intermittently, thus furnishing him with a perpetual grievance. His early life appears to have been irregular, and to the end he was a weak, vain, discontented man. His chief work is De Regimine Principum or Governail of Princes, written 1411–12. The best part of this is an autobiographical prelude Mal Regle de T. Hoccleve, in which he holds up his youthful follies as a warning. It is also interesting as containing, in the MS. in the British Museum, a drawing of Chaucer, from which all subsequent portraits have been taken.

Hoffman, Charles Fenno (1806–1884). — Poet, etc., born in New York, son of a lawyer, was bred to the same profession, but early deserted it for literature. He wrote a successful novel, Greyslaer, and much verse, some of which displayed more lyrical power than any which had preceded it in America.

Hogg, James (the Ettrick Shepherd) (1770–1835). — Poet, and writer of tales, belonged to a race of shepherds, and began life by herding cows until he was old enough to be trusted with a flock of sheep. His imagination was fed by his mother, who was possessed of an inexhaustible stock of ballads and folk-lore. He had little schooling, and had great difficulty in writing out his earlier poems, but was earnest in giving himself such culture as he could. Entering the service of Mr. Laidlaw, the friend of Scott, he was by him introduced to the poet, and assisted him in collecting material for his Border Minstrelsy. In 1796 he had begun to write his songs, and when on a visit to Edinburgh in 1801 he collected his poems under the title of Scottish Pastorals, etc., and in 1807 there followed The Mountain Bard. A treatise on the diseases of sheep brought him £300, on the strength of which he embarked upon a sheep-farming enterprise in Dumfriesshire which, like a previous smaller venture in Harris, proved a failure, and he returned to Ettrick bankrupt. Thenceforward he relied almost entirely on literature for support. With this view he, in 1810, settled in Edinburgh, published The Forest Minstrel, and started the Spy, a critical journal, which ran for a year. In 1813 The Queen’s Wake showed his full powers, and finally settled his right to an assured place among the poets of his country. He joined the staff of Blackwood, and became the friend of Wilson, Wordsworth, and Byron. Other poems followed, The Pilgrims of the Sun (1815), Madoc of the Moor, The Poetic Mirror, and Queen Hynde (1826); and in prose Winter Evening Tales (1820), The Three Perils of Man (1822), and The Three Perils of Woman. In his later years his home was a cottage at Altrive on 70 acres of moorland presented to him by the Duchess of Buccleuch, where he died greatly lamented. As might be expected from his almost total want of regular education, H. was often greatly wanting in taste, but he had real imagination and poetic faculty. Some of his lyrics like The Skylark are perfect in their spontaneity and sweetness, and his Kilmeny is one of the most exquisite fairy tales in the language. Hogg was vain and greedy of praise, but honest and, beyond his means, generous. He is a leading character, partly idealised, partly caricatured, in Wilson’s Noctes Ambrosianæ.

Hogg, Thomas Jefferson (1792–1862). — Biographer, son of John H., a country gentleman of Durham, ed. at Durham Grammar School, and University College, Oxford, where he made the acquaintance of Shelley, whose lifelong friend and biographer he became. Associated with S. in the famous pamphlet on The Necessity of Atheism, he shared in the expulsion from the University which it entailed, and thereafter devoted himself to the law, being called to the Bar in 1817. In 1832 he contributed to Bulwer’s New Monthly Magazine his Reminiscences of Shelley, which was much admired. Thereafter he was commissioned to write a biography of the poet, of which he completed 2 vols., but in so singular a fashion that the material with which he had been entrusted was withdrawn. The work, which is probably unique in the annals of biography, while giving a vivid and credible picture of S. externally, shows no true appreciation of him as a poet, and reflects with at least equal prominence the humorously eccentric personality of the author, which renders it entertaining in no common degree. Other works of H. were Memoirs of Prince Alexy Haimatoff, and a book of travels, Two Hundred and Nine Days (1827). He married the widow of Williams, Shelley’s friend, who was drowned along with him.

Holcroft, Thomas (1745–1809). — Dramatist, son of a small shoemaker in London, passed his youth as a pedlar, and as a Newmarket stable boy. A charitable person having given him some education he became a schoolmaster, but in 1770 went on the provincial stage. He then took to writing plays, and was the first to introduce the melodrama into England. Among his plays, The Road to Ruin (1792) is the best, and is still acted; others were Duplicity (1781), and A Tale of Mystery. Among his novels are Alwyn (1780), and Hugh Trevor, and he wrote the well-known song, Gaffer Gray. H. was a man of stern and irascible temper, industrious and energetic, and a sympathiser with the French Revolution.

Holinshed, or Hollingshead, Raphael or Ralph died (1580?). — Belonged to a Cheshire family, and is said by Anthony Wood to have been at one of the University, and to have been a priest. He came to London, and was in the employment of Reginald Wolf, a German printer, making translations and doing hack-work. His Chronicles of Englande, Scotlande, and Irelande, from which Shakespeare drew much of his history, was based to a considerable extent on the collections of Leland, and he had the assistance of W. Harrison, R. Stanyhurst, and others. The introductory description of England and the English was the work of Harrison, Stanyhurst did the part relating to Ireland, and H. himself the history of England and Scotland, the latter being mainly translated from the works of Boece and Major. Pub. in 1577 it had an eager welcome, and a wide and lasting popularity. A later ed. in 1586 was ed. by J. Hooker and Stow. It is a work of real value — a magazine of useful and interesting information, with the authorities cited. Its tone is strongly Protestant, its style clear.

Holland, Josiah Gilbert (1819–1881). — Novelist and poet, born in Massachusetts, helped to found and ed. Scribner’s Monthly (afterwards the Century Magazine), in which appeared his novels, Arthur Bonnicastle, The Story of Sevenoaks, Nicholas Minturn. In poetry he wrote Bitter Sweet (1858), Kathrina, etc.

Holland, Philemon (1552–1637). — Translator, born at Chelmsford, and ed. at Cambridge, was master of the free school at Coventry, where he also practised medicine. His chief translations, made in good Elizabethan English, are of Pliny’s Natural History, Plutarch’s Morals, Suetonius, Xenophon’s Cyropædia, and Camden’s Britannia. There are passages in the second of these which have hardly been excelled by any later prose translator of the classics. His later years were passed in poverty.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1809–1894). — Essayist, novelist, and poet, was born of good Dutch and English stock at Cambridge, Massachusetts, the seat of Harvard, where he graduated in 1829. He studied law, then medicine, first at home, latterly in Paris, whence he returned in 1835, and practised in his native town. In 1838 he was appointed Prof. of Anatomy and Physiology at Dartmouth College, from which he was in 1847 transferred to a similar chair at Harvard. Up to 1857 he had done little in literature: his first book of poems, containing “The Last Leaf,” had been published But in that year the Atlantic Monthly was started with Lowell for ed., and H. was engaged as a principal contributor. In it appeared the trilogy by which he is best known, The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table (1857), The Professor, The Poet (1872), all graceful, allusive, and pleasantly egotistical. He also wrote Elsie Venner (1861), which has been called “the snake story of literature,” and The Guardian Angel. By many readers he is valued most for the poems which lie imbedded in his books, such as “The Chambered Nautilus,” “The Last Leaf,” “Homesick in Heaven,” “The Voiceless,” and “The Boys.”

Home, John (1722–1808). — Dramatist, son of the Town–Clerk of Leith, where he was born, ed. there and at Edinburgh, and entered the Church. Before doing so, however, he had fought on the Royalist side in the ‘45, and had, after the Battle of Falkirk, been a prisoner in Doune Castle, whence he escaped. His ministerial life, which was passed at Athelstaneford, East Lothian, was brought to an end by the action of the Church Courts on his producing the play of Douglas. This drama, which had been rejected by Garrick, but brought out in Edinburgh in 1756, created an immense sensation, and made its appearance in London the following year. H. then became private secretary to the Earl of Bute, who gave him the sinecure of Conservator of Scots Privileges at Campvere in Holland. Thereafter he was tutor to the Prince of Wales (George III.), who on his accession conferred upon him a pension of £300. Other plays were The Siege of Aquileia, The Fatal Discovery (1769), Alonzo, and Alfred (1778), which was a total failure. He also wrote a History of the Rebellion. In 1778 he settled in Edinburgh, where he was one of the brilliant circle of literary men of which Robertson was the centre. He supported the claims of Macpherson to be the translator of Ossian.

Hone, William (1780–1842). — Miscellaneous writer, born at Bath, in his youth became a convinced and active democrat. His zeal in the propagation of his views, political and philanthropic, was so absorbing as to lead to a uniform want of success in his business undertakings. He published many satirical writings, which had immense popularity, among which were The Political House that Jack Built (1819), The Man in the Moon (1820), The Political Showman (1821), and The Apocryphal New Testament. For one of his earliest satires, The Political Litany, published in 1817, he was prosecuted, but acquitted. Later he brought out Ancient Mysteries (1823), Every Day Book (1826–27), Table Book (1827–28), and Year Book (1828). These works, in which he had the assistance of other writers, are full of curious learning on miscellaneous subjects, such as ceremonies, dress, sports, customs, etc. His last literary enterprise was an ed. of Strutt’s Sports and Pastimes (1830). Always a self-sacrificing and honest man, he was originally an unbeliever, but in his latter years he became a sincere Christian.

Hood, Thomas (1799–1845). — Poet and comic writer, son of a bookseller in London, where he was born, was put into a mercantile office, but the confinement proving adverse to his health, he was sent to Dundee, where the family had connections, and where he obtained some literary employment. His health being restored, he returned to London, and entered the employment of an uncle as an engraver. Here he acquired an acquaintance with drawing, which he afterwards turned to account in illustrating his comic writings. After working for a short time on his own account he became, at the age of 22, sub-editor of the London Magazine, and made the acquaintance of many literary men, including De Quincey, Lamb, and Hazlitt. His first separate publication, Odes and Addresses to Great People, appeared in 1825, and had an immediate success. Thus encouraged he produced in the next year Whims and Oddities, and in 1829, he commenced The Comic Annual, which he continued for 9 years, and wrote in The Gem his striking poem, Eugene Aram. Meanwhile he had married in 1824, a step which, though productive of the main happiness and comfort of his future life, could not be considered altogether prudent, as his health had begun to give way, and he had no means of support but his pen. Soon afterwards the failure of his publisher involved him in difficulties which, combined with his delicate health, made the remainder of his life a continual struggle. The years between 1834 and 1839 were the period of most acute difficulty, and for a part of this time he was obliged to live abroad. In 1840 friends came to his assistance, and he was able to return to England. His health was, however, quite broken down, but his industry never flagged. During the five years which remained to him he acted as ed. first of the New Monthly Magazine, and then of Hood’s Monthly Magazine. In his last year a Government pension of £100 was granted to his wife. Among his other writings may be mentioned Tylney Hall, a novel which had little success, and Up the Rhine, in which he satirised the English tourist. Considering the circumstances of pressure under which he wrote, it is little wonder that much of his work was ephemeral and beneath his powers, but in his particular line of humour he is unique, while his serious poems are instinct with imagination and true pathos. A few of them, such as The Song of the Shirt, and The Bridge of Sighs are perfect in their kind.

Life by his son and daughter Ed. of Works by same (7 vols. 1862). Selections, with Biography, by Ainger, 1897.

Hook, Theodore Edward (1788–1841). — Dramatist and novelist, son of James H., music-hall composer, was born in London, and ed. at Harrow. As a boy he wrote words for his father’s comic dramas. In 1805 he produced a comic opera, The Soldier’s Return, which was followed by Catch Him who Can. Both of them were highly successful, and were followed by many others. His marvellous powers as a conversationalist and improvisatore made him a favourite in the highest circles. In 1812 he received the appointment of Accountant–General of Mauritius, which he held for 5 years, when serious irregularities were discovered, and he was sent home in disgrace, prosecuted by Government for a claim of £12,000, and imprisoned. It subsequently appeared that the actual peculation had been the work of a subordinate, and that H. himself was only chargeable with gross neglect of duty, but though he was released the claims against him were not departed from. He then became ed. of John Bull, a journal of high Tory and aristocratic proclivities, which he conducted with great ability; he also ed. the New Monthly Magazine, and wrote many novels, among which were Sayings and Doings (3 series), Gilbert Gurney, and Jack Brag. Though making a large income, he was always in difficulties, and, after a long struggle with broken health and spirits, he died at Fulham in 1841.

Hook, Walter Farquhar (1798–1875). — Biographer, son of James H., Dean of Worcester, born at Worcester, and ed. at Winchester and Oxford Entering the Church, he held various benefices, and became Vicar of Leeds (where, largely owing to his exertions, 20 new churches and many schools were built), and afterwards Dean of Chichester. Besides his labours as a churchman he was a voluminous author, his works including Church Dictionary (1842), Dictionary of Ecclesiastical Biography (1845–52), and Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury (1860–75), on which he was still engaged at his death, and which he had brought down to Juxon, vol. xi. His sermon Hear the Church (1838), in which he affirmed the Apostolical succession of the Anglican episcopate, attracted much attention.

Hooker, Richard (1554?-1600). — Theologian, born near Exeter, of a family the original name of which was Vowell. His ability and gentleness as a schoolboy recommended him to the notice of Bishop Jewel, who sent him to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he graduated and became a Fellow in 1577. His proficiency in Hebrew led to his appointment in 1579 as Deputy Prof. Two years later, 1581, he took orders, and soon thereafter advantage was taken of his simplicity to entrap him into an unsuitable marriage with a woman named Joan Churchman, whose mother had nursed him in an illness. As might have been expected, the connection turned out unhappily, his wife being a scold, and, according to Anthony Wood, “a silly, clownish woman.” His fate may, however, have been mitigated by the fact that his own temper was so sweet that he is said never to have been seen angry. Some doubt, moreover, has been cast on some of the reported details of his domestic life. In 1584 he received the living of Drayton–Beauchamp, in Bucks, and in the following year was appointed Master of the Temple. Here he had for a colleague as evening lecturer Walter Travers, a man of mark among the Puritans. Though both men were of the finest moral character, their views on ecclesiastical questions were widely different, and as neither was disposed to conceal his opinions, it came to be said that in the Temple “the pulpit spake pure Canterbury in the morning and Geneva in the afternoon.” Things developed into an animated controversy, in which H. was considered to have triumphed, and the Archbishop (Whitgift) suspended Travers. The position, however, had become intolerable for H. who respected his opponent in spite of their differences, and he petitioned Whitgift that he might retire to the country and find time and quiet to complete his great work, the Ecclesiastical Polity, on which he was engaged. He was accordingly, in 1591, presented to the living of Boscombe near Amesbury, and made sub-Dean and a minor Prebendary of Salisbury. Here he finished The Four Books of the Lawes of Ecclesiastical Polity, published in 1594. The following year he was presented by Queen Elizabeth to the living of Bishopsbourne, Kent. Here the fifth book was published (1597), and here he died in 1600. The sixth and eighth books were not published until 1648, and the seventh only appeared in 1662. The Ecclesiastical Polity is one of the greatest achievements alike in English theology and English literature, a masterpiece of reasoning and eloquence, in a style stately and sonorous, though often laborious and involved. Hallam considered that no English writer had better displayed the capacities of the language. The argument is directed against the Romanists on the one hand and the Puritans on the other, and the fundamental idea is “the unity and all embracing character of law as the manifestation of the divine order of the universe.” The distinguishing note of H.’s character was what Fuller calls his “dove-like simplicity.” Izaak Walton, his biographer, describes him as “an obscure, harmless man, in poor clothes, of a mean stature and stooping . . . his body worn out, not with age, but study, and holy mortification, his face full of heat-pimples . . . and tho’ not purblind, yet short, or weak, sighted.” In his calling as a parish priest he was faithful and diligent. In preaching “his voice was low . . . gesture none at all, standing stone-still in the pulpit.” The sixth book of the Ecclesiastical Polity has been considered of doubtful authority, and to have no claim to its place, and the seventh and eighth are believed to have been put together from rough notes. Some of his MSS. were destroyed after his death by his wife’s relatives. The epithet “judicious” attached to his name first appears in the inscription on his monument at Bishopsbourne.

Works, ed. by Keble (1836); new ed. revised by Church, etc. (1888). It includes the Life by I. Walton.

Hoole, John (1727–1803). — Translator, son of a watch-maker and inventor, was born in London, and was in the India House, of which he rose to be principal auditor (1744–83). He translated Tasso’s Jerusalem Delivered (1763), and Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso (1773–83), as well as other works from the Italian. He was also the author of three dramas, which failed. He is described by Scott as “a noble transmuter of gold into lead.”

Hope, Thomas (1770–1831). — Novelist and writer on art, was a wealthy merchant of Amsterdam, of Scotch descent, his family having emigrated to Holland in the 17th century. In early life he spent much time in travel, studying architecture, and collecting objects of art. Returning, he settled in London, and occupied himself in arranging his vast collections. In 1807 he published a work on Household Furniture and Decoration, which had a great effect in improving the public taste in such matters. This was followed by two magnificent works, On the Costume of the Ancients (1809), and Designs of Modern Costumes (1812). Up to this time his reputation had been somewhat that of a transcendent upholsterer, but in 1819 he astonished the literary world by his novel, Anastasius; or, Memoirs of a Modern Greek, a work full of imagination, descriptive power, and knowledge of the world. This book, which was published anonymously, was attributed to Byron, and only credited to the author on his avowing it in Blackwood’s Magazine. H. also wrote a treatise on the Origin and Prospects of Man, and Essays on Architecture. He was a munificent and discerning patron of rising artists.

Horne, Richard Henry or Hengist (1803–1884). — Eccentric poet, was born in London, and ed. at Sandhurst for the East India Company Service, but failed to get a nomination. After a youth of adventure, partly in the Mexican Navy, he returned to England, and began in 1828 a highly combative literary career with a poem, Hecatompylos, in the Athenæum. His next appearance, The False Medium (1833), an exposition of the obstacles thrown in the way of “men of genius” by literary middlemen, raised a nest of hornets; and Orion, an “epic poem,” published 1843 at the price of one farthing, followed. His plays, which include Cosmo de Medici (1837), The Death of Marlowe (1837), and Judas Iscariot, did not add greatly to his reputation. In The New Spirit of the Age (1844), he had the assistance of Mrs. Browning. Though a writer of talent, he was not a poet.

Horne, Thomas Hartwell (1780–1862). — Theologian, ed. at Christ’s Hospital, was for a time in the law, but became a great biblical scholar, and in 1818 published Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures (1818), in consideration of which he was admitted to orders without the usual preliminaries, and in 1833 obtained a benefice in London and a prebend in St. Paul’s, and was senior assistant in the printed books department of the British Museum (1824–60). He wrote an Introduction to the Study of Bibliography (1814), and various other works, but he is chiefly remembered in connection with that first mentioned, which was frequently reprinted, and was very widely used as a text-book both at home and in America.

Houghton, Richard Monckton Milnes, 1st Lord (1809–1885). — Poet, son of Robert (known as “single-speech”) M., born in London, and ed. privately and at Cambridge He sat in the House of Commons for Pontefract from 1837–63, when he was raised to the Peerage. His interests were, however, mainly literary and philanthropic, and it was said of him that he “knew everybody worth knowing at home and abroad;” and his sympathies being of the widest, he was able to bring together the most opposite extremes of life and opinion. He championed the cause of oppressed nationalities, and of the slave. He published many vols. of poetry, among which were Poetry for the People (1840), and Palm Leaves (1848). He also wrote a Life of Keats, and various books of travels. Though he had not the depth of mind or intensity of feeling to make a great poet, his verse is the work of a man of high culture, graceful and refined, and a few of his shorter poems — such as The Beating of my own Heart, and Strangers Yet, strike a true note which gained for them wide acceptance.

Howard, Edward (died 1841). — Novelist, a sea-comrade of Captain Marryat, and as sub ed. assisted him in conducting the Metropolitan Magazine. He wrote several sea novels, of which Rattlin the Reefer, sometimes attributed to Marryat, is the best known. Others were Outward Bound and Jack Ashore.

Howard, Sir Robert (1626–1698). — Dramatist, son of the Earl of Berkshire, and brother-inlaw of Dryden. On the outbreak of the Civil War he was of the King’s party, and was imprisoned during the Commonwealth. After the Restoration, however, he was in favour with the Court, and held many important posts. He wrote some plays, of which the best was The Committee, and collaborated with Dryden in The Indian Queen. He was at odds with him, however, on the question of rhyme, the use of which he wrote against in very indifferent blank verse.

Howe, John (1630–1705). — Puritan divine, born at Loughborough, of which his father was curate, studied at Cambridge, and became, in 1652, minister of Great Torrington, Devonshire, where he was famous for the unusual length of his sermons and prayers. In 1657 Oliver Cromwell made him his resident chaplain at Whitehall, a position which he retained under Richard C., so long as the latter held the office of Protector. On the Restoration H. returned to Great Torrington, from which, however, he was ejected in 1662. Thereafter he wandered from place to place, preaching in secret until 1671, when he went to Ireland as chaplain to Lord Massareene, and in 1675 he became minister of a dissenting congregation in London. In 1685 he travelled with Lord Wharton on the Continent, but returned in 1687 to London, where he died in 1705. H. was the author of many excellent works of practical divinity, among which are The Living Temple, Inquiry into the Doctrine of the Trinity, and The Divine Presence. The substance of his writings is better than their style, which is involved and extremely diffuse, and evinces much vigour of mind. H. is described as of a fine presence and dignified manners.

Howell, James (1594?-1666). — Miscellaneous writer, son of a clergyman at Abernant, Caermarthenshire, was at Oxford and spent the greater part of his earlier life travelling in various Continental countries, including the Low Countries, France, Spain, and Italy, on various matters of business, during which he became versed in many languages, and amassed stores of information and observations on men and manners. He was a keen Royalist, and was on this account imprisoned in the Fleet, 1643–51. He wrote a large number of books, including Dodona’s Grove, a political allegory, Instructions for Foreign Travel (1642), England’s Tears for the Present Wars, A Trance, or News from Hell, and above all, Epistolæ Ho–Elianæ, Familiar Letters, chiefly written in the Fleet to imaginary correspondents, but no doubt based upon notes of his own travels. It is one of the most interesting and entertaining books in the language.

Howie, John (1735–1793). — Biographer, a Renfrewshire farmer, who claimed descent from an Albigensian refugee, wrote Lives of the martyrs of Scotland from Patrick Hamilton, the first, to James Renwick, the last, under the title of Scots Worthies. The work of an unlettered man, it has considerable merit as regards both matter and style, and was long a classic among the Scottish peasantry as well as higher orders of the people.

Howitt, William (1792–1879), Howitt, Mary (Botham) (1799–1888). — Miscellaneous writers. William H. was born at Heanor, Derbyshire, and was apprenticed to a builder; Mary was born at Coleford, Gloucestershire; they married in 1821, and settled at Hanley, where they carried on business as chemists. Two years later they removed to Nottingham, where they remained for 12 years, and where much of their literary work was accomplished. Thereafter they lived successively at Esher, London, Heidelberg, and Rome, at the last of which they both died Their literary work, which was very voluminous, was done partly in conjunction, partly independently, and covered a considerable variety of subjects — poetry, fiction, history, translations, and social and economical subjects. Useful and pleasing in its day, little of it is likely to survive. William’s works include A History of Priestcraft (1833), Rural Life in England (1837), Visits to Remarkable Places, Homes and Haunts of the Poets, Land, Labour, and Gold (1855), Rural Life in Germany, History of the Supernatural, and History of Discovery in Australia. Mary translated the Swedish novels of Frederica Bremer, H.C. Andersen’s Improvisatore, and wrote novels, including Wood Leighton and The Cost of Caergwyn, many successful tales and poems for children, and a History of the United States. Their joint productions include The Forest Minstrel, Book of the Seasons, and Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain. Both brought up as Quakers, they left that communion in 1847, and became believers in spiritualism; and in 1882 Mary joined the Church of Rome.

Huchown, or Sir Hugh of Eglinton (fl. 14th cent.). — Unless identified with Sir Hugh, Huchown is shrouded in mystery. He was a writer of alliterative verse, referred to by Andrew of Wyntoun. If he be identified with Sir Hugh, he was an Ayrshire nobleman related to Robert II., b.c. 1300–20, Chamberlain of Cunningham, Justiciar of Lothian, and Commissioner for the Borders. He also held office under David II. In that case also he is believed by some scholars to have translated the poems bearing the titles The Destruction of Troy and The Wars of Alexander.

Hughes, John (1677–1720). — Essayist and dramatist, was a clerk in the Ordnance Office, then secretary for the Commission of the Peace. He contributed to the Spectator, Tatler, and Guardian, ed. Spenser, and wrote several dramas, of which the best is The Siege of Damascus. It was his last, he having died on the first night of its performance. Addison thought so well of his dramatic talent that he requested him to write the conclusion of Cato. He, however, finished it himself. H. was a highly respectable person, and is affectionately commemorated by Sir Richard Steele.

Hughes, Thomas (1823?-1896). — Novelist and biographer, son of a Berkshire squire, was ed. at Rugby and Oxford, and called to the Bar in 1848. Much the most successful of his books was Tom Brown’s School-days (1856), which had an immense popularity, and perhaps remains the best picture of English public-school life in the language. Its sequel, Tom Brown at Oxford (1861), was a comparative failure, but his Scouring of the White Horse deals in a charming way with his own countryside. He also wrote Lives of Alfred the Great, Bishop Fraser, and D. Macmillan, the publisher. H. devoted much attention to philanthropic work in conjunction with Kingsley and Maurice. In 1882 he was appointed a County Court Judge.

Hume, Alexander (1560–1609). — Poet, son of Patrick, 5th Lord Polwarth, ed. at St. Andrews, and on the Continent, was originally destined for the law, but devoted himself to the service of the Church, and was minister of Logie in Stirlingshire. He published in 1599 Hymns and Sacred Songs, including the beautiful “Day Estival,” descriptive of a summer day.

Hume, David, (1711–1776). — Philosopher and historian, second son of Joseph H., of Ninewells, Berwickshire, was born and ed. in Edinburgh, and was intended for the law. For this, however, he had no aptitude, and commercial pursuits into which he was initiated in a counting-house in Bristol proving equally uncongenial, he was permitted to follow out his literary bent, and in 1734 went to France, where he passed three years at Rheims and La Flèche in study, living on a small allowance made him by his father In 1739 he published anonymously his Treatise on Human Nature, which attracted little attention. Having returned to Scotland, he wrote at Ninewells his Essays, Moral and Philosophical (1741–42). He now became desirous of finding some employment which would put him in a position of independence, and having been unsuccessful in his candidature for the Chair of Moral Philosophy in Edinburgh, he became in 1745 governor to the Marquis of Annandale, a nobleman whose state was little removed from insanity. Two years later he accepted the more congenial appointment of Judge–Advocate-General to General St. Clair on his expedition to Port L’Orient, and in 1748 accompanied him on a diplomatic mission to France, whence he passed on to Vienna and Turin. About the same time he produced his Philosophical Essays (1748), including the famous Essay in Miracles which gave rise to so much controversy. These were followed in 1751 by his Enquiry into the Principles of Morals, which he considered his best work; and in 1752 by his Political Discourses, which alone of his works had an immediate success. In the same year he applied unsuccessfully for the Chair of Logic in Glasgow, but was appointed Keeper of the Advocates’ Library in Edinburgh The access to books and original authorities which this position gave him appears to have suggested to his mind the idea of writing a history, and the first vol. of his History of England, containing the reigns of James I. and Charles I., was published in 1754. Its reception was not favourable, and the disappointment of the author was so great that, had it not been for the state of war between the two countries, he would have left his native land, changed his name, and settled permanently in France. The second vol., which appeared in 1757, dealing with the Commonwealth, and the reigns of Charles II. and James II., had a better reception, and had the effect of “buoying up its unfortunate brother.” Thereafter the tide completely turned, and the remaining four vols., 1759 and 1762, in which he turned back and finished the history from the invasion of Julius Cæsar to the accession of Henry VII., attained a vast popularity, which extended to the whole work. During the progress of the history H. published in 1757 Four Dissertations: the Natural History of Religion; of the Passions; of Tragedy; of the Standard of Taste. Two others on Suicide and on The Immortality of the Soul were cancelled, but published posthumously. In 1763 H. accompanied Lord Hertford to Paris, and for a few months acted as Chargé d’Affaires. While there he was introduced to the brilliant literary society for which the French capital was then famous. Among other acquaintances which he made was that of Rousseau, whom he persuaded to accompany him on his return home, and for whom he procured a pension. The suspicious and fickle character of R., however, soon brought the friendship to an end. Soon after his return H. received a pension, and from 1767–68 he was under-secretary to General Conway, then Sec. of State. In 1769 he retired, and returned to Edinburgh with an income of £1000 a year which, time and place considered, was an ample competence, and there he spent the remainder of his days, the recognised head of the intellectual and literary society of the city.

The mind of H. was one of the most original and operative of his age. His philosophy was largely a questioning of the views of previous metaphysicians, and he occupied towards mind, considered as a self-subsisting entity, a position analogous to that assumed by Berkeley towards matter similarly considered. He profoundly influenced European thought, and by indirectly calling into being the philosophy of Kant on the one hand, and that of the Scottish School on the other, created a new era of thought. As a historian he showed the same originality. He introduced a new and higher method of writing history than had previously been practised. Until his time chronicles and contemporary memoirs had, generally speaking, been all that had been produced; and though his great work cannot, from its frequent inaccuracies and the fact that it is not based upon original documents, claim the character of an authority, its clear, graceful, and spirited narrative style, and its reflection of the individuality of the writer, constitute it a classic, and it must always retain a place among the masterpieces of historical literature. In character H. was kindly, candid, and good-humoured, and he was beloved as a man even by many who held his views in what was little short of abhorrence.

Summary. — Born 1711, ed. at Edinburgh, tries law and commerce, but decides for literature, goes to France 1734–37, published Human Nature 1739, Essays Moral and Philosophical 1741–2, governor to M. of Annandale 1745, accompanies expedition to L’Orient, engaged diplomatically 1748, published Philosophical Essays, including Miracles 1748, Enquiry into Principles of Morals 1751, Political Discourses 1752, Keeper of Advocates’ Library 1752, published History of England 1754–62, Four Dissertations 1757, Chargé d’Affaires at Paris 1763, became acquainted with Rousseau, under-secretary of State 1767–8, retires and settles in Edinburgh 1769.

Life by Hill Burton (2 vols., 1846), shorter ones by Huxley, Knight, and Calderwood. Works ed. by Green and Grose (4 vols., 1874). History often reprinted with Smollett’s continuations.

Hunnis, William (died 1597). — Poet, was a gentleman of the Chapel Royal to Edward VI., imprisoned during the reign of Mary, but after the accession of Elizabeth was released, and in 1566 made “master of the children” of the Chapel Royal. He wrote metrical versions of the Psalms, and some vols. of verse, A Hiveful of Honey, and A Handful of Honeysuckles.

Hunt, James Henry Leigh (1784–1859). — Essayist and poet, was born at Southgate, and ed. at Christ’s Hospital. A selection of his earliest poems was published by his father in 1801 under the title of Juvenilia. In 1805 he joined his brother John in conducting a paper, the News, which the latter had started. Thereafter the brothers embarked upon the Examiner, a paper of pronounced Radical views. The appearance in this journal of an article on the Prince Regent in which he was described in words which have been condensed into “a fat Adonis of fifty,” led to H. being fined £500 and imprisoned for two years. With his customary genial philosophy, however, the prisoner made the best of things, turned his cell into a study, with bookcases and a piano, and his yard into a garden. He had the sympathy of many, and received his friends, including Byron, Moore, and Lamb. On his release he published his poem, The Story of Rimini. Two other vols. of poetry followed, The Feast of the Poets and Foliage, in 1814 and 1818 respectively. In the latter year he started the Indicator, a paper something in the style of the Spectator or Tatler, and after this had run its course the Companion, conceived on similar lines, took its place in 1828. In 1822 H. went to Italy with Byron, and there established the Liberal, a paper which did not prove a success. Disillusioned with Byron, H. returned home, and published in 1828 Lord Byron and his Contemporaries, a work which gave great offence to Byron’s friends, who accused the author of ingratitude. In 1834 H. started the London Journal, which he ed. for two years. Among his later works are Captain Sword and Captain Pen (1835), The Palfrey, a poem, A Legend of Florence (drama), Imagination and Fancy (1844), Wit and Humour (1846), A Jar of Honey from Mount Hybla (1848), The Old Court Suburb (1855), The Town, Sir Ralph Esher, a novel, and his Autobiography (1850). Although his poems have considerable descriptive power and brightness, he had not the depth and intensity to make a poet, and his reputation rests rather upon his essays, which are full of a genial philosophy, and display a love of books, and everything pleasant and beautiful. He did much to popularise the love of poetry and literature in general among his fellow-countrymen.

Hurd, Richard (1720–1808). — Divine, and miscellaneous writer, born at Congreve, Staffordshire, was ed. at Cambridge, and entering the Church, became Bishop successively of Lichfield and Worcester. He produced an ed. of the Ars Poetica of Horace, Dissertations on Poetry, Dialogues on Sincerity, Letters on Chivalry and Romance, and An Introduction to the Prophecies. He was in 1783 offered, but declined, the Primacy.

Hutcheson, Francis (1694–1746). — Philosopher, born in Ireland, and ed. for the Presbyterian ministry at Glasgow University. After keeping an academy at Dublin for some years he published his Enquiry into Beauty and Virtue, which won for him a great reputation. In 1729 he became Prof. of Moral Philosophy at Glasgow, where he exercised a great influence over his students, and also upon the Scottish system of philosophy. In his philosophical views he was to some extent a disciple of Shaftesbury. He introduced the term, “moral sense,” which he defined as a power of perceiving moral attributes in action. His System of Moral Philosophy appeared posthumously in two vols.

Hutchinson, Mrs. Lucy (born 1620). — Biographer, daughter of Sir Allan Apsley, Lieutenant of the Tower of London, married in 1638 John, afterwards Colonel, Hutchinson, one of those who signed the death-warrant of Charles I., but who afterwards protested against the assumption of supreme power by Cromwell. She has a place in literature for her Life of her husband, one of the most interesting biographies in the language, not only on account of its immediate subject, but of the light which it throws upon the characteristics and conditions of the life of Puritans of good family. Originally intended for her family only, it was printed by a descendant in 1806, and did much to clear away the false impressions as to the narrowness and austerity of the educated Puritans which had prevailed. Colonel H. and his wife were noble representatives of their class.

Hutton, Richard Holt (1826–1897). — Essayist and miscellaneous writer, was brought up as a Unitarian, and for some time was a preacher of that body, but coming under the influence of F.D. Maurice and others of his school, joined the Church of England. He was a frequent contributor to various magazines and reviews, and assisted Walter Bagehot in ed. the National Review. In 1861 he became joint-proprietor and ed. of the Spectator. Among his other writings may be mentioned Essays, Theological and Literary (1871), Modern Guides of English Thought (1887), and Contemporary Thought and Thinkers (1894), which were more or less reprints or expansions of his work in periodicals, and a memoir of Bagehot prefixed to an ed. of his works.

Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–1895). — Scientific writer, son of an assistant master in a public school, was born at Ealing. From childhood he was an insatiable reader. In his 13th year he became a medical apprentice, and in 1842 entered Charing Cross Hospital. Thereafter he was for a few months surgeon on board the Victory at Haslar, and was then appointed surgeon on H.M.S. Rattlesnake, which was sent to make surveys at Torres Strait. While in this position he made numerous observations, which he communicated to the Linnæan Society. In 1851 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1854 Prof. of Natural History at the School of Mines. Henceforth his life was a very full one, divided between scientific investigation and public work. He was recognised as the foremost English biologist, and was elected Pres. of the Royal Society 1883. He served on the London School Board and on various Royal Commissions. His writings are in the main distinguished by a clearness, force, and charm which entitle them to a place in literature; and besides the addition which they made to the stock of human knowledge, they did much to diffuse a love and study of science. H. was a keen controversialist, contending for the strictly scientific view of all subjects as distinguished from the metaphysical or theological, and accordingly encountered much opposition, and a good deal of abuse. Nevertheless, he was not a materialist, and was in sympathy with the moral and tender aspects of Christianity. He was a strong supporter of the theory of evolution. Among the more eminent of his opponents were Bishop Wilberforce and Mr. Gladstone. His published works, including scientific communications, are very numerous. Among the more important are those on the Medusæ, Zoological Evidences of Man’s Place in Nature (1863), Elementary Lessons on Physiology (1866), Evolution and Ethics (1893), Collected Essays (9 vols. 1893–4). He was also an admirable letter-writer, as appears from the Life and Letters, ed. by his son, and to him we owe the word, and almost the idea, “Agnostic.”


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