Captain Cook’s Journal

Chapter 5

Exploration of North Island of New Zealand.

[October 1769. At Poverty Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

MONDAY, 9th October. Gentle breezes and Clear Weather. P.M. stood into the Bay and Anchored on the North-East side before the Entrance of a small River,* in 10 fathoms, a fine sandy bottom. The North-East point of the Bay bore East by South 1/2 South, and the South-West point South, distance from the Shore half a League. After this I went ashore with a Party of men in the Pinnace and yawl accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. We landed abreast of the Ship and on the East side of the River just mentioned; but seeing some of the Natives on the other side of the River of whom I was desirous of speaking with, and finding that we could not ford the River, I order’d the yawl in to carry us over, and the pinnace to lay at the Entrance. In the mean time the Indians made off. However we went as far as their Hutts which lay about 2 or 300 Yards from the water side, leaving 4 boys to take care of the Yawl, which we had no sooner left than 4 Men came out of the woods on the other side the River, and would certainly have cut her off had not the People in the Pinnace discover’d them and called to her to drop down the Stream, which they did, being closely persued by the Indians. The coxswain of the Pinnace, who had the charge of the Boats, seeing this, fir’d 2 Musquets over their Heads; the first made them stop and Look round them, but the 2nd they took no notice of; upon which a third was fir’d and kill’d one of them upon the Spot just as he was going to dart his spear at the Boat. At this the other 3 stood motionless for a Minute or two, seemingly quite surprised; wondering, no doubt, what it was that had thus kill’d their Comrade; but as soon as they recovered themselves they made off, dragging the Dead body a little way and then left it. Upon our hearing the report of the Musquets we immediately repair’d to the Boats, and after viewing the Dead body we return’d on board. In the morning, seeing a number of the Natives at the same place where we saw them last night, I went on shore with the Boats, mann’d and arm’d, and landed on the opposite side of the river. Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and myself only landed at first, and went to the side of the river, the natives being got together on the opposite side. We called to them in the George’s Island Language, but they answer’d us by flourishing their weapons over their heads and dancing, as we suppos’d, the War Dance; upon this we retir’d until the Marines were landed, which I order’d to be drawn up about 200 yards behind us. We went again to the river side, having Tupia, Mr. Green, and Dr. Monkhouse along with us. Tupia spoke to them in his own Language, and it was an agreeable surprize to us to find that they perfectly understood him. After some little conversation had passed one of them swam over to us, and after him 20 or 30 more; these last brought their Arms, which the first man did not. We made them every one presents, but this did not satisfy them; they wanted everything we had about us, particularly our Arms, and made several attempts to snatch them out of our hands. Tupia told us several times, as soon as they came over, to take care of ourselves for they were not our friends; and this we very soon found, for one of them snatched Mr. Green’s hanger from him and would not give it up; this encouraged the rest to be more insolent, and seeing others coming over to join them, I order’d the man who had taken the Hanger to be fir’d at, which was accordingly done, and wounded in such a manner that he died soon after. Upon the first fire, which was only 2 Musquets, the others retir’d to a Rock which lay nearly in the middle of the River; but on seeing the man fall they return’d, probably to carry him off or his Arms, the last of which they accomplished, and this we could not prevent unless we had run our Bayonets into them, for upon their returning from off the Rock, we had discharged off our Peices, which were loaded with small shott, and wounded 3 more; but these got over the River and were carried off by the others, who now thought proper to retire. Finding nothing was to be done with the People on this side, and the water in the river being salt, I embarked with an intent to row round the head of the Bay in search of fresh water, and if possible to surprise some of the Natives and to take them on board, and by good Treatment and Presents endeavour to gain their friendship with this view.

(* Tauranga nui. The township of Gisborne is now situated on its eastern bank.)

Tuesday, 10th. P.M., I rowed round the head of the bay, but could find no place to land on account of the Great Surf which beat everywhere upon the Shore. Seeing 2 Boats or Canoes coming in from Sea I rowed to one of them, in order to Seize upon the People; and came so near before they took notice of us that Tupia called to them to come alongside and we would not hurt them; but instead of doing this they endeavour’d to get away, upon which I order’d a Musquet to be fir’d over their Heads, thinking this would either make them surrender, or jump overboard; but here I was mistaken, for they immediately took to their Arms or whatever they had in the Boat, and began to attack us. This obliged us to fire upon them, and unfortunately either 2 or 3 were kill’d and one wounded, and 3 jumped overboard. These last we took up and brought on board, where they was Cloathed and Treated with all imaginable kindness; and to the Surprise of everybody became at once as cheerful and as merry as if they had been with their own Friends. They were all 3 Young, the eldest not above 20 years of Age, and the youngest about 10 or 12. I am aware that most Humane men who have not experienced things of this nature will Censure my Conduct in firing upon the People in their Boat, nor do I myself think that the reason I had for seizing upon her will at all justify me; and had I thought that they would have made the Least Resistance I would not have come near them; but as they did, I was not to stand still and suffer either myself or those that were with me to be knocked on the head.

In the morning, as I intended to put our 3 Prisoners ashore, and stay here the day to see what effect it might have upon the other Natives, I sent an Officer ashore with the Marines and a party of men to cut wood, and soon after followed myself, accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Tupia, taking the 3 Natives with us, whom we landed on the West side of the River before mentioned. They were very unwilling to leave us, pretending that they should fall into the hands of their Enemies, who would kill and Eat them. However, they at last of their own accord left us and hid themselves in some bushes. Soon after this we discover’d several bodys of the Natives marching towards us, upon which we retir’d aCross the River, and joind the wooders; and with us came the 3 Natives we had just parted with, for we could not prevail upon them to go to their own people. We had no sooner got over the River than the others assembled on the other side to the Number of 150 or 200, all Arm’d. Tupia now began to Parly with them, and the 3 we had with us shew’d everything we had given them, part of which they laid and left upon the Body of the Man that was Kill’d the day before. These things seem’d so far to Convince them of our friendly intentions that one man came over to us, while all the others sat down upon the Sand. We everyone made this man a present, and the 3 Natives that were with us likewise presented him with such things as they had got from us, with which, after a short Stay, he retir’d aCross the River. I now thought proper to take everybody on board, to prevent any more Quarrels, and with us came the 3 Natives, whom we could not prevail upon to stay behind; and this appear’d the more strange as the man that came over to us was Uncle to one of them. After we had return’d on board we saw them Carry off the Dead Man; but the one that was Kill’d the first evening we Landed remain’d in the very spot they had left him.

[Leave Poverty Bay.]

Wednesday, 11th. In the P.M., as I intended to sail in the Morning, we put the 3 Youths ashore, seemingly very much against their inclination; but whether this was owing to a desire they had to remain with us, or the fear of falling into the hands of their Enemies, as they pretended, I know not. The latter, however, seemed to be ill-founded, for we saw them carried aCross the River in a Catamaran, and walk Leasurely off with the other Natives. At 6 a.m. we weighed and stood out of the Bay, which I have named Poverty Bay, because it afforded us no one thing we wanted (Latitude 38 degrees 42 minutes South, Longitude 181 degrees 36 minutes West).* It is in the form of a Horse Shoe, and is known by an Island lying close under the North-East point. The 2 points which forms the Entrance are high, with Steap white Cliffs, and lay a League and a half or 2 Leagues from Each other, North-East by East and South-West by West. The Depth of Water in this Bay is from 12 to 6 and 5 fathoms, a sandy bottom and good Anchorage, but you lay open to the winds between the South and East. Boats can go in and out of the river above mentioned at any time of Tide in fine weather; but as there is a Bar at the Entrance, on which the Sea Sometimes runs so high that no Boat can either get in or out, which hapned while we laid here; however, I believe that Boats can generally land on the North-East side of the river. The shore of this Bay, from a little within each Entrance, is a low, flat sand; but this is only a Narrow Slip, for the face of the Country appears with a variety of hills and Vallies, all cloathed with woods and Verdure, and to all appearance well inhabited, especially in the Vallies leading up from the Bay, where we daily saw Smoke at a great distance inland, and far back in the Country are very high Mountains. At Noon the South-West point of Poverty Bay, which I have named Young Nicks head (after the Boy who first saw this land),† bore North by West, distance 3 or 4 leagues, being at this time about 3 Miles from the Shore, and had 25 fathoms Water, the Main Land extending from North-East by North to South. My intention is to follow the direction of the Coast to the Southward, as far as the Latitude of 40 or 41 degrees, and then to return to the Northward, in case we meet with nothing to incourage us to proceed farther.

(* latitude correct. Longitude is 181 degrees 57 minutes West.)

(† In Mr. Molineux’s Log, his name is given as Nicholas Young, but no such name appears in the official lists.)

[Off Portland Island, North Island, New Zealand.]

Thursday, 12th. Gentle breezes at North-West and North, with frequent Calms. In the Afternoon, while we lay becalm’d, several Canoes came off to the Ship, but keept at a distance until one, who appeared to come from a different part, came off and put alongside at once, and after her all the rest. The people in this boat had heard of the Treatment those had met with we had had on board before, and therefore came on board without hesitation; they were all kindly treated, and very soon entered into a Traffick with our People for George’s Island Cloth, etc.; giving in Exchange their Paddles, having little else to dispose of, and hardly left themselves a sufficient number to paddle ashore; nay, the people in one Canoe, after disposing of their Paddles, offer’d to sell the Canoe. After a stay of about 2 hours they went away, but by some means or other 3 were left on board, and not one boat would put back to take them in, and, what was more surprizing, those aboard did not seem at all uneasy with their situation. In the evening a light breeze springing up at North-West, we steer’d along Shore, under an easy sail, until midnight, then brought too. Soon after it fell Calm, and continued so until 8 o’Clock a.m., when a breeze sprung up at North, with which we stood along shore South-South-West. At and after sunrise found the variation to be 14 degrees 46 minutes East. About this time 2 Canoes came off to the Ship, one of which was prevailed upon to come along side to take in the 3 people we had had on board all night, who now seem’d glad of the opportunity to get ashore. As the People in the Canoe were a little shy at first, it was observed that one Argument those on board made use on to intice the others alongside, was in telling them that we did not Eat men; from which it should seem that these people have such a Custom among them. At the time we made sail we were abreast of the Point of Land set yesterday at Noon, from which the Land trends South-South-West. This point I have named Cape Table, on account of its shape and figure. It lies 7 Leagues to the Southward of Poverty Bay, in the latitude of 39 degrees 7 minutes South, longitude 181 degrees 36 minutes West, it is of a moderate height, makes in a sharpe Angle, and appears to be quite flat at Top. In steering along shore to the Southward of the Cape, at the distance of 2 or 3 miles off, our soundings were from 20 to 30 fathoms, having a Chain of Rocks that appears at different heights above water, laying between us and the Shore. At Noon, Cape Table bore North 20 degrees East, distant 4 Leagues, and a small Island (being the Southermost land in sight) bore South 70 degrees West, distant 3 miles. This Island I have named Isle of Portland, on account of its very great resemblance to Portland in the English Channel. It lies about a mile from a Point on the Main, but there appears to be a ledge of Rocks extending nearly, if not quite, aCross from the one to the other. North 57 degrees East, 2 Miles from the South point of Portland, lies a sunken rock whereon the sea breaks; we passed between this Rock and the land having 17, 18, and 20 fathom Water. We saw a great Number of the Natives assembled together on the Isle of Portland; we likewise saw some on the Main land, and several places that were Cultivated and laid out in square Plantations.

Friday, 13th. At 1 p.m. we discover’d land behind or to the Westward of Portland, extending to the Southward as far as we could see. In hauling round the South end of Portland we fell into Shoal Water and broken ground, which we, however, soon got clear of. At this time 4 Canoes came off to us full of People, and keept for sometime under our stern threatning of us all the while. As I did not know but what I might be obliged to send our Boats ahead to sound, I thought these Gentry would be as well out of the way. I order’d a Musquet shott to be fir’d close to one of them, but this they took no notice of. A 4 Pounder was then fir’d a little wide of them; at this they began to shake their Spears and Paddles at us, but notwithstanding this they thought fit to retire. Having got round Portland, we hauled in for the Land North-West, having a Gentle breeze at North-East, which died away at 5 o’Clock and obliged us to Anchor in 21 fathoms, a fine sandy bottom: the South Point of Portland bore South-East 1/2 South distant about 2 Leagues, and a low Point on the Main bore North 1/2 East. In this last direction there runs in a deep bay behind the Land on which is Table Cape, which makes this Land a Peninsula, joined to the Main by a low, narrow neck of land; the Cape is the North Point of the Peninsula, and Portland the South. While we lay at Anchor 2 Boats came off to us, and so near as to take up some things we throw’d them out of the Ship, but would not come alongside. At 5 a.m. a breeze springing northerly we weigh’d and steer’d in for the Land. The shore here forms a very large Bay, of which Portland is the North-East Point, and the Bay above mentioned is an Arm of it. I would gladly have examin’d this Arm, because there appear’d to be safe Anchorage in it, but as I was not certain of this, and the wind being right an End, I did not care to spend time in Turning up to it. At Noon Portland bore South 50 degrees East, and the Southermost land in sight bore South-South-West, distant 10 or 12 Leagues, being about 3 miles from the Shore, and in this situation had 12 fathoms water — 24 fathoms have been the most Water we have had since we have been within Portland, every where clear ground. The land near the Shore is of a moderate height, with white Cliffs and Sandy beaches. Inland are several Pretty high Mountains, and the whole face of the Country appears with a very hilly surface, and for the most part Covered with wood, and hath all the appearances of a very pleasant and fertile Country.

Saturday, 14th. P.M. had Gentle breezes between the North-East and North-West. Kept running down along shore at the distance of 2 or 3 miles off. Our sounding was from 20 to 13 fathoms, an even sandy bottom. We saw some Canoes or Boats in shore, and several houses upon the Land, but no harbour or Convenient watering place — the Main thing we were looking for. In the night had little wind, and Sometimes Calm with Dirty, rainy weather. A.M. had Variable light Airs next to a Calm and fair weather. In the morning, being not above 2 Leagues from the South-West corner of the great Bay we have been in for the 2 days past, the Pinnace and Long boat were hoisted out in order to search for Fresh Water; but just as they were ready to put off we observed several Boats full of People coming off from the Shore, and for that reason I did not think it prudent to send our own from the Ship. The first that came were 5 in Number, in them were between 80 and 90 men. Every Method was tried to gain their Friendship, and several things were thrown overboard to them; but all we could do was to no purpose, neither would they accept of any one thing from us, but seem’d fully bent on attacking us. In order to prevent this, and our being obliged to fire upon them, I order’d a 4 Pounder Loaded with grape to be fir’d a little wide of them, letting them know at the same time by Means of Tupia what we were going to do; this had the desir’d effect, and not one of these would afterwards trust themselves abreast of the Ship. Soon after 4 more came off; one of these put what Arms they had into another Boat, and then came alongside so near as to take what things we gave them, and I believe might have been Prevailed upon to come on board had not some of the first 5 came up under our Stern and began again to threaten us, at which the people in this one Boat seem’d displeased; immediately after this they all went ashore. At Noon latitude in per Observation 39 degrees 37 minutes South. Portland bore by our run from it East by North, distant 14 Leagues; the Southermost land in sight, and which is the South point of the Bay, South-East by South, distant 4 or 5 Leagues; and a Bluff head lying in the South-West corner of the Bay South by West 2 or 3 Miles. On each side of this bluff head is a low narrow sand or stone beach; between these beaches and the Main land is a pretty large lake of Salt Water, as I suppose. On the South-East side of this head is a very large flatt, which seems to extend a good way inland to the Westward; on this flatt are Several groves of Streight, tall Trees, but there seems to be a great Probability that the lake above mentiond extends itself a good way into this flatt Country. Inland are a Chain of Pretty high Mountains extending North and South; on the Summits and Sides of these Mountains were many Patches of Snow, but between them and the Sea the Land is Cloathed with wood.*

(* The Endeavour was now off what is called Ahuriri Bay. The bluff head is known as Ahuriri Bluff, and the town of Napier, of 8000 inhabitants, lies at the back of it. The large sheet of salt water is called Manganui-o-rotu. There was no sheltered harbour for a vessel in the Endeavour’s situation, but at present, harbour works have improved the entrance to the lagoon into which vessels drawing 12 feet can enter. Produce of the value of over a million pounds per annum is now exported from Napier.)

[In Hawkes Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 15th. P.M. stood over for the Southermost Land or South point of the Bay, having a light breeze at North-East, our soundings from 12 to 8 fathoms. Not reaching this point before dark, we stood Off and on all night, having Variable light Airs next to a Calm; depth of water from 8 to 7 fathoms; Variation 14 degrees 10 minutes East. At 8 a.m., being abreast of the South-West point of the Bay, some fishing Boats came off to us and sold us some stinking fish; however it was such as they had, and we were glad to enter into Traffick with them upon any Terms. These People behaved at first very well, until a large Arm’d boat, wherein were 22 Men, came alongside. We soon saw that this Boat had nothing for Traffick, yet as they came boldly alongside we gave them 2 or 3 pieces of Cloth, Articles they seem’d the most fond off. One Man in this Boat had on him a black skin, something like a Bear Skin, which I was desirous of having that I might be a better judge what sort of an Animal the first Owner was. I offer’d him for it a piece of Red Cloth, which he seem’d to jump at by immediately putting off the Skin and holding it up to us, but would not part with it until he had the Cloth in his possession and after that not at all, but put off the Boat and went away, and with them all the rest. But in a very short time they return’d again, and one of the fishing Boats came alongside and offer’d us some more fish. The Indian Boy Tiata, Tupia’s Servant, being over the side, they seiz’d hold of him, pull’d him into the Boat and endeavoured to carry him off; this obliged us to fire upon them, which gave the Boy an opportunity to jump overboard. We brought the Ship too, lower’d a Boat into the Water, and took him up unhurt. Two or 3 paid for this daring attempt with the loss of their lives, and many more would have suffer’d had it not been for fear of killing the Boy. This affair occasioned my giving this point of land the name of Cape Kidnapper. It is remarkable on account of 2 White rocks in form of Haystacks standing very near it. On each side of the Cape are Tolerable high white steep Cliffs, latitude 39 degrees 43 minutes South; Longitude 182 degrees 24 minutes West; it lies South-West by West, distant 13 Leagues from the Island of Portland. Between them is a large Bay wherein we have been for these 3 days past; this Bay I have named Hawkes Bay in Honour of Sir Edward, first Lord of the Admiralty; we found in it from 24 to 8 and 7 fathoms, everywhere good Anchoring. From Cape Kidnapper the Island Trends South-South-West, and in this direction we run along shore, keeping about a League off, having a steady breeze and Clear weather. At Noon the above Cape bore from us North 9 degrees East, distant 2 Leagues, and the Southermost land in sight South 25 degrees West latitude in Per Observation 39 degrees 50 minutes South.

Monday, 16th. First and latter part, fresh breezes, Northerly; in the night, Variable and sometimes calm. At 2 p.m. passed by a Small but a Pretty high white Island lying close to the Shore. On this Island we saw a good many Houses, Boats, and Some People. We concluded that they must be fishers, because the Island was quite barren; we likewise saw several people upon the Shore in a small Bay on the Main within the Island. At 7 the Southermost land in sight bore South-West by South, and Cape Kidnapper North 3/4 East, distant 8 leagues, being then about 2 Leagues from the Shore, and had 55 fathoms. At 11 brought too until daylight, then made Sail along shore to the Southward. At 7 passed a pretty high point of Land, which lies South-South-West, 12 Leagues from Cape Kidnapper. From this point the Land Trends 3/4 of a point more to the Westward. At 10 saw more land appear to the Southward, at South-West by South. At Noon the Southermost land in sight bore South 39 degrees West, distant 8 or 10 Leagues, and a high Bluff head with Yellowish Cliffs bore West, distant 2 miles, latitude observed 40 degrees 34 minutes South; depth of water 32 fathoms.

[Returning North from Cape Turnagain.]

Tuesday, 17th. P.M. winds at West, a fresh breeze; in the night, Variable light Airs and Calm; a.m. a Gentle breeze between the North-West and North-East. Seeing no likelyhood of meeting with a Harbour, and the face of the Country Visibly altering for the worse, I thought that the standing farther to the South would not be attended with any Valuable discovery, but would be loosing of Time, which might be better employ’d and with a greater Probability of success in examining the Coast to the Northward. With this View, at 1 p.m. Tack’d and stood to the Northward, having the Wind at West, a fresh breeze.* At this time we could see the land extending South-West by South, at least 10 or 12 Leagues. The Bluff head or high point of land we were abreast off at Noon I have called Cape Turnagain because here we returned. It lies in the Latitude of 40 degrees 34 minutes South, Longitude 182 degrees 55 West, and 18 Leagues South-South-West and South-South-West 1/2 West from Cape Kidnapper. The land between them is of a very unequal height; in some places it is high, with White Cliffs next the Sea — in others low, with sandy beaches. The face of the Country is not nearly so well Cloathed with wood as it is about Hawkes Bay, but for the most part looks like our high Downs in England, and to all appearance well inhabited, for we saw several Villages as we run along shore, not only in the Vallies, but on the Tops and sides of the Hills, and Smokes in other places. The ridge of Mountains before mentioned extends to the Southward farther than we could see, and are every where Checquer’d with Snow. This night saw 2 Large fires up in the inland Country, a sure sign that it must be inhabited. At Noon Cape Kidnapper bore North 56 degrees West, distant 7 Leagues; latitude observed 39 degrees 52 minutes South.

(* If Cook had known the exact shape of New Zealand, he could scarcely have taken a better resolve, in view of saving time, than to turn northward again when he did.)

Wednesday, 18th. Variable light winds and fine weather. At 4 a.m. Cape Kidnapper bore North 32 degrees West, distant 2 Leagues. In this situation had 62 fathoms; and when the said Cape bore West by North, distant 3 or 4 Leagues, had 45 fathoms; Midway between the Isle of Portland and Cape Kidnapper had 65 fathoms. At Noon the Isle of Portland bore North-East 1/2 East, distant 4 Leagues; latitude observ’d 39 degrees 34 minutes South.

Thursday, 19th. The first part had Gentle breezes at East and East-North-East; in the night, fresh Gales between the South and South-West; dark, Cloudy weather, with Lightning and rain. At 1/2 past 5 P.M. Tack’d and stood to the South-East: the Isle of Portland bore South-East, distant 3 Leagues. Soon after we Tacked a boat or Canoe came off from the Shore, wherein were 5 People. They came on board without shewing the least signs of fear, and insisted upon staying with us the whole night; indeed, there was no getting them away without turning them out of the Ship by force, and that I did not care to do; but to prevent them playing us any Trick I hoisted their Canoe up alongside. Two appear’d to be Chiefs, and the other 3 their Servants. One of the Chiefs seem’d to be of a free, open, and Gentle disposition; they both took great notice of everything they saw, and was very thankful for what was given them. The 2 Chiefs would neither Eat nor Drink with us, but the other 3 Eat whatever was offer’d them. Notwithstanding that these people had heard of the Treatment the others had meet with who had been on board before, yet it appear’d a little strange that they should place so much Confidence in us as to put themselves wholy in our power wether we would or no, especially as the others we had meet with in this bay had upon every occasion behaved in quite a different manner. At 11 brought too until daylight (the night being dark and rainy), then made sail. At 7 a.m. brought too under Cape Table, and sent away the Indian Canoe. At this Time some others were putting off from the Shore, but we did not wait their coming, but made sail to the Northward. At Noon the Northermost land in sight North 20 degrees East, and Young Nicks head, or the South point of Poverty Bay, West-Northerly, near 4 Leagues. latitude observed 38 degrees 44 minutes 30 seconds South.

Friday, 20th. P.M. a fresh breeze at South-South-West; in the night, variable light breezes, with rain; A.M. a fresh breeze at South-West. At 3 p.m. passed by a remarkable head, which I called Gable end Foreland on account of the very great resemblance the white cliff at the very point hath to the Gable end of a House. It is made still more remarkable by a Spir’d Rock standing a little distance from it. This head land lies from Cape Table North 24 degrees East, distant 12 Leagues. Between them the Shore forms a Bay, wherein lies Poverty Bay, 4 Leagues from the former and 8 Leagues from the Latter. From Gable end Foreland the land trends North by East as far as we could see. The land from Poverty Bay to this place is of a moderate but very unequal height, distinguished by Hills and Vallies that are Cover’d with woods. We saw, as we run along shore, several Villages, cultivated lands, and some of the Natives. In the evening some Canoes came off to the Ship, and one Man came on board to whom we gave a few Trifles and then sent him away. Stood off and on until daylight, and then made sail in shore in order to look into 2 Bays that appear’d to our view about 2 Leagues to the Northward of the Foreland. The Southermost we could not fetch, but in the other we Anchor’d about 11 o’Clock in 7 fathoms, a black sandy bottom. The North point bore North-East 1/2 North, distant 2 Miles, and the South Point South-East by East, distant one Mile, and about 3/4 of a Mile from the Shore. This Bay is not so much Shelter’d from the Sea as I at first thought it was; but as the Natives, many of whom came about us in their Canoes, appear’d to be of a friendly disposition, I was willing to try if we could not get a little water on board, and to see a little into the Nature of the Country before we proceeded further to the Northward.

Saturday, 21st. We had no sooner come to an Anchor, as mentioned above, than perceiving 2 old Men in the Canoes, who from their Garbe appear’d to be Chiefs, these I invited on board, and they came without Hesitation. To each I gave about 4 Yards of linnen and a Spike Nail; the linnen they were very fond of, but the Nails they seem’d to set no Value upon. Tupia explain’d to them the reasons of our Coming here, and that we should neither hurt nor Molest them if they did but behave in the same peaceable manner to us; indeed, we were under very little apprehension but what they would, as they had heard of what hapned in Poverty Bay. Between 1 and 2 p.m. I put off with the Boats mann’d and Arm’d in order to land to look for fresh Water, these 2 Men along with us; but the surf running very high, and it begun to blow and rain at the same time, I returned back to the Ship, having first put the 2 Chiefs into one of their Canoes. In the evening it fell moderate, and we landed and found 2 Small Streams of Fresh Water, and the Natives to all appearance very friendly and peaceable; on which account I resolved to Stay one day at least, to fill a little water and to give Mr. Banks an opportunity to Collect a little of the Produce of the Country. In the morning Lieutenant Gore went on shore to superintend the Watering with a Strong party of Men, but the getting the Casks off was so very difficult, on account of the Surf, that it was noon before one Turn came on board.

[At Tegadoo Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 22nd. P.M. light breezes and Cloudy. About or a little after Noon several of the Natives came off to the Ship in their Canoes and began to Traffick with us, our people giving them George’s Island Cloth for theirs, for they had little else to dispose of. This kind of exchange they seem’d at first very fond of, and prefer’d the Cloth we had got at the Islands to English Cloth; but it fell in its value above 500 p. ct. before night. I had some of them on board, and Shew’d them the Ship, with which they were well pleased. The same friendly disposition was observed by those on shore, and upon the whole they behaved as well or better than one could expect; but as the getting the Water from the Shore proved so very Tedious on account of the Surf, I resolved upon leaving this place in the morning, and accordingly, at 5 a.m., we weighed and put to Sea. This Bay is called by the Natives Tegadoo;* it lies in the latitude of 38 degrees 16 minutes South, but as it hath nothing to recommend it I shall give no discription of it. There is plenty of Wild Sellery, and we purchased of the Natives 10 or 15 pounds of sweet Potatoes. They have pretty large plantations of these, but at present they are scarce, it being too Early in the Season. At Noon the Bay of Tegadoo bore West 1/2 South, distant 8 Leagues, and a very high double peak’d Mountain some distance in land bore North-West by West. latitude observed 38 degrees 13 minutes South; Wind at North, a fresh Gale.

(* Anaura Bay.)

Monday, 23rd. P.M. fresh Gales at North, and Cloudy weather. At 1 Tack’d and stood in shore; at 6 Sounded, and had 56 fathoms fine sandy bottom; the Bay of Tegadoo bore South-West 1/2 West, distance 4 Leagues. At 8 Tack’d in 36 fathoms, being then about 2 Leagues from land; stood off and on all night, having Gentle breezes. At 8 a.m., being right before the Bay of Tegadoo and about a League from it, some of the Natives came off to us and inform’d us that in a Bay a little to the Southward (being the same that we could not fetch the day we put into Tegadoo) was fresh Water and easey getting at it; and as the wind was now against us, and we gain’d nothing by beating to windward, I thought the time would be better spent in this Bay* in getting on board a little water, and forming some Connections with the Natives, than by keeping the Sea. With this view we bore up for it, and sent 2 Boats in, Mann’d and Arm’d, to Examine the Watering Place, who returned about noon and conform’d the account the Natives had given. We then Anchor’d in 11 fathoms, fine sandy bottom; the North point of the Bay North by East and the South point South-East, and the watering place, which was in a Small Cove a little within the South point of the Bay, distance one Mile.

(* Tolaga.)

Tuesday, 24th. Winds Westerly and fine weather. This afternoon, as soon as the Ship was moor’d, I went ashore to Examine the watering place, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. I found the Water good and the Place pretty Convenient, and plenty of Wood close to high Water Mark, and the Natives to all appearance not only very friendly but ready to Traffick with us for what little they had. Early in the morning I sent Lieutenant Gore ashore to Superintend the Cutting wood and filling of Water, with a Sufficient number of men for both purposes, and all the Marines as a Guard. After breakfast I went myself, and remain’d there the whole day; but before this Mr. Green and I took several observations of the Sun and Moon. The mean result of them gave 180 degrees 47 minutes West Longitude from the Meridian of Greenwich; but as all the observations made before exceeded these, I have laid down this Coast agreeable to the means of the whole. At noon I took the Sun’s Meridian Altitude with the Astronomical Quadrant, and found the latitude 38 degrees 22 minutes 24 seconds South.

Wednesday, 25th. Winds and weather as Yesterday. P.M. set up the Armourer’s Forge to repair the Tiller braces, they being broke. By night we had got on board 12 Tons of Water and two or 3 Boats’ loads of Wood, and this I looked upon to be a good day’s work. The Natives gave us not the least disturbance, but brought us now and then different sorts of Fish out to the Ship and Watering place, which we purchased of them with Cloth, beads, etc.

Thursday, 26th. P.M. had the winds from between the South and South-West, fair weather; the remainder, rainy, dirty weather. Notwithstanding we continued getting on board Wood and Water.

Friday, 27th. Winds at South-West; first part rainy weather, the remainder fair. A.M. sent the Pinnace to drudge, but she met with no success; after this, I went and sounded the Bay. I made a Shift to land in 2 Places, the first time in the bottom of the bay, where I went a little way into the Country, but met with nothing extraordinary. The other place I landed at was at the North point of the Bay, where I got as much Sellery and Scurvy grass as loaded the Boat. This day we compleated our Water to 70 Tons, but not wood Enough.

Saturday, 28th. Gentle breezes Southerly and fine weather. Employ’d wooding, cutting, and making of Brooms, there being a Shrub here very fit for that purpose; and as I intended to sail in the morning some hands were employ’d picking of Sellery to take to Sea with us. This is found here in great plenty, and I have caused it to be boiled with Portable Soup and Oatmeal every morning for the people’s breakfast; and this I design to continue as long as it will last, or any is to be got, and I look upon it to be very wholesome and a great Antiscorbutick.

[At Tolaga Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

Monday, 29th. P.M. Gentle breezes with Thunder and Lightning up the Country; in the night had light Airs off the land and very foggy; in the forenoon had a gentle breeze at North-North-East and Clear weather. At 4 a.m. unmoor’d, and at 6 weigh’d and put to Sea. At Noon the bay sail’d from bore North 63 degrees West, distant 4 Leagues. This bay is called by the Natives Tolaga;* it is moderately large, and hath in it from 13 to 8 and 7 fathoms, clean sandy bottom and good Anchorage, and is shelterd from all winds except those that blow from the North-East Quarter. It lies in the latitude of 38 degrees 22 minutes South, and 4 1/2 Leagues to the Northward of Gable end Foreland. Off the South point lies a small but high Island, so near to the Main as not to be distinguished from it. Close to the North end of this Island, at the Entrance into the Bay, are 2 high Rocks; one is high and round like a Corn Stack, but the other is long with holes thro’ it like the Arches of a Bridge. Within these rocks is the Cove, where we cut wood and fill’d our Water. Off the North point of the Bay is a pretty high rocky Island, and about a Mile without it are some rocks and breakers. The variation of the Compass is here 14 degrees 31 minutes East, and the Tide flows at full and change of the Moon about 6 o’Clock, and rises and falls upon a Perpendicular 5 or 6 feet, but wether the flood comes from the Southward or Northward I have not been able to determine.

(* It still goes by this name.)

During our stay in this bay we had every day more or less Traffick with the Natives, they bringing us fish, and now and then a few sweet Potatoes and several trifles which we deemd Curiosities; for these we gave them Cloth, Beads, Nails, etc. The Cloth we got at King George’s Island and Ulietea, they valued more than anything we could give them, and as every one in the Ship were provided with some of this sort of Cloth, I suffer’d every body to purchase what ever they pleased without limitation; for by this means I knew that the Natives would not only sell but get a good Price for every thing they brought. This I thought would induce them to bring to Market whatever the Country afforded, and I have great reason to think that they did, yet it amounted to no more than what is above mentioned. We saw no 4 footed Animals, either Tame or Wild, or signs of any, except Dogs and Rats,* and these were very Scarce, especially the latter. The flesh of the former they eat, and ornament their clothing with their skins as we do ours with furs, etc. While we lay here I went upon some of the Hills in order to View the Country, but when I came there I could see but very little of it, the sight being interrupted by still higher hills. The Tops and ridges of the Hills are for the most part barren, at least little grows on them but fern; but the Valleys and sides of many of the Hills were luxuriously clothed with woods and Verdure and little Plantations of the Natives lying dispers’d up and down the Country. We found in the Woods, Trees of above 20 different sorts; Specimens of each I took on board, as all of them were unknown to any of us. The Tree which we cut for firing was something like Maple and yeilded a whitish Gum. There was another sort of a deep Yellow which we imagin’d might prove useful in dying. We likewise found one Cabage Tree† which we cut down for the sake of the cabage. The Country abounds with a great Number of Plants, and the woods with as great a variety of beautiful birds, many of them unknown to us. The soil of both the hills and Valleys is light and sandy, and very proper for producing all kinds of Roots, but we saw only sweet potatoes and Yams among them; these they plant in little round hills, and have plantations of them containing several Acres neatly laid out and keept in good order, and many of them are fenced in with low paling which can only serve for Ornament.

(* Cook’s powers of observation are here evident. There were no other quadrupeds in New Zealand.)

(† Palm.)

Monday, 30th. P.M. little wind and cloudy weather. At 1 Tack’d and stood in shore; at 7 o’Clock Tolaga Bay bore West-North-West, distant one League. Tack’d and lay her head off; had it calm until 2 a.m., when a breeze sprung up at South-West, and we made Sail to the Northward. At 6, Gable end Foreland bore South-South-West, and Tolaga bay South-South-West 1/4 West, distance 3 Leagues. At 8, being about 2 Miles from the shore, some Canoes that were fishing came after the Ship; but we having a fresh of wind they could not come up with us, and I did not chuse to wait for them. At Noon, latitude per observation 37 degrees 49 minutes South, a small Island lying off the Northernmost land in sight, bore North 16 degrees East, distant 4 Miles; course from Tolaga bay North by East 1/2 East, distance 13 Leagues. The Land from thence is of a moderate but unequal height, forming several small bays wherein are sandy beaches. Hazey, cloudy weather prevented us from seeing much of the inland country, but near the Shore we could see several Villages and Plantations of the Natives. Soundings from 20 to 30 fathoms.

[Off Cape Runaway, North Island, New Zealand.]

Tuesday, 31st. At half-past one p.m. hauled round the Island above mentioned, which lies East 1 Mile from the North-East point of the land. The lands from hence Trends North-West by West, and West-North-West, as far as we could see. This point of Land I have called East Cape, because I have great reason to think that it is the Eastermost land on this whole Coast; and for the same reason I have called the Island which lays off it, East Island. It is but of a small circuit, high and round, and appears white and barren. The Cape is of a moderate height with white cliffs, and lies in the latitude of 37 degrees 42 minutes 30 seconds South, and Longitude 181 degrees 00 minutes West from the Meridian of Greenwich. After we had rounded the East Cape we saw, as we run along shore, a great number of Villages and a great deal of Cultivated land; and in general the country appear’d with more fertility than what we had seen before; it was low near the Sea, but hilly inland. At 8, being 8 leagues to the Westward of Cape East, and 3 or 4 miles from the shore, shortned sail and brought too for the night, having at this Time a fresh Gale at South-South-East and squally weather; but it soon fell moderate, and at 2 a.m. made Sail again to the South-West as the land now Trended. At 8 saw land which made like an Island bearing West. At the same time the South-Westermost part of the Main bore South-West. At 9, five Canoes came off to us, in one of which were upwards of 40 Men all Arm’d with Pikes, etc.; from this and other Circumstances it fully appear’d that they came with no friendly intentions; and I at this Time being very buisey, and had no inclination to stay upon deck to watch their Motions, I order’d a Grape shot to be fir’d a little wide of them. This made them pull off a little, and then they got together either to consult what to do or to look about them. Upon this I order’d a round shott to be fir’d over their heads, which frightend them to that degree that I believe they did not think themselves safe until they got ashore. This occasion’d our calling the Point of land off which this hapned, Cape Runaway. latitude 37 degrees 32 minutes South, longitude 181 degrees 50 minutes West, and 17 or 18 Leagues to the Westward of East Cape. 4 Leagues to the Westward of East Cape is a bay which I have named Hicks’s bay, because Lieutenant Hicks was the first who discover’d it.

[November 1769.]

Wednesday, 1st November. P.M., as we stood along shore (having little wind, and Variable), we saw a great deal of Cultivated land laid out in regular inclosures, a sure sign that the Country is both fertile and well inhabited. Some Canoes came off from the shore, but would not come near the Ship. At 8 brought to 3 Miles from the Shore, the land seen yesterday bearing West, and which we now saw was an Island, bore South-West,* distant 8 leagues. I have named it White Island,† because as such it always appear’d to us. At 5 a.m. made Sail along shore to the South-West, having little wind at East-South-East and Cloudy weather. At 8 saw between 40 and 50 Canoes in shore. Several of them came off to the Ship, and being about us some time they ventur’d alongside and sold us some Lobsters, Muscels, and 2 Conger Eales. After these were gone some others came off from another place with Muscels only, and but few of these they thought proper to part with, thinking they had a right to everything we handed them into their Canoes without making any return. At last the People in one Canoe took away some linnen that was towing over the side, which they would not return for all that we could say to them. Upon this I fir’d a Musket Ball thro’ the Canoe, and after that another musquet load with Small Shott, neither of which they minded, only pulled off a little, and then shook their paddles at us, at which I fir’d a third Musquet; and the ball, striking the Water pretty near them, they immediately apply’d their Paddles to another use; but after they thought themselves out of reach they got altogether, and Shook their Paddles again at us. I then gave the Ship a Yaw, and fir’d a 4 Pounder. This sent them quite off, and we keept on our course along shore, having a light breeze at East-South-East. At noon we were in the latitude of 37 degrees 55 minutes, White Island bearing North 29 degrees West, distant 8 Leagues.

(* This should evidently be North-West.)

(† White Island is an active volcano. It was evidently quiescent at the time of the Endeavour passing.)

Thursday, 2nd. Gentle breezes from North-West round Northerly to East-South-East and fair weather. At 2 p.m. saw a pretty high Island bearing West from us, and at 5 saw more Islands and Rocks to the Westward of it. Hauld our wind in order to go without them, but, finding that we could not weather them before dark, bore up, and run between them and the Main. At 7 was close under the first Island, from whence a large double Canoe full of People came off to us. This was the first double Canoe we had seen in this Country. They staid about the Ship until it was dark, then left us; but not before they had thrown a few stones. They told us the name of the Island, which was Mowtohora.* It is but of a small Circuit, but high, and lies 6 Miles from the Main. Under the South side is Anchorage in 14 fathoms. South-West by South from this Island on the Main land, seemingly at no great distance from the Sea, is a high round Mountain, which I have named Mount Edgcombe. It stands in the middle of a large Plain, which make it the more Conspicuous. latitude 37 degrees 59 minutes South, Longitude 183 degrees 07 minutes West. In standing to the Westward we Shoalded our Water from 17 to 10 fathoms, and knowing that we were not far from some Small Islands and Rocks that we had seen before dark, after Passing of which I intended to have brought too for the night, but I now thought it more prudent to tack, and spend the Night under the Island of Mowtohora, where I knew there was no danger. And it was well we did, for in the morning, after we had made Sail to the Westward, we discovered Rocks ahead of us Level with and under the Water.† They lay 1 1/2 Leagues from the Island Mowtohora, and about 9 Miles from the Main, and North-North-East from Mount Edgecumbe. We passed between these Rocks and the Main, having from 7 to 10 fathoms. The double Canoe which we saw last night follow’d us to-day under Sail, and keept abreast of the Ship near an hour talking to Tupia, but at last they began to pelt us with stones. But upon firing one Musquet they dropt aStern and left us. At 1/2 past 10 Passed between a low flat Island and the Main, the distance from one to the other being 4 Miles; depth of Water 10, 12, and 15 fathoms. At Noon the flat Island‡ bore from North-East to East 1/2 North, distance 5 or 6 Miles; latitude in per Observation 37 degrees 39 minutes South, Longitude 183 degrees 30 minutes West. The Main land between this and the Island of Mowtohara, which is 10 Leagues, is of a moderate height, and all a level, flat Country, pretty clear of wood and full of Plantations and Villiages. These Villiages are built upon Eminences Near the Sea, and are Fortified on the land side with a Bank and a Ditch, and Pallisaded all round. Besides this, some of them appear’d to have out-works. We have before now observed, on several parts of the Coast, small Villiages inclosed with Pallisades and works of this kind built on Eminences and Ridges of hills, but Tupia had all along told us that they were Mories, or places of worship; but I rather think they are places of retreat or strong hold where they defend themselves against the Attack of an Enemy, as some of them seem’d not ill design’d for that Purpose.**

(* Motuhora, called also Whale Island.)

(† Rurima Rocks.)

(‡ Motunau.)

(** In the contests with the Maories in after years, these Pahs, or forts, proved to be no despicable defences.)

[In Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand.]

Friday, 3rd. P.M. Fresh Gales at North-East by East and hazey weather. At 2 pass’d a small high Island lying 4 Miles from a high round head on the Main* from this head the land Trends North-West as far as we could see, and appeared to be very rugged and hilly. The weather being very hazey, and the Wind blowing fresh on shore, we hauled off close upon a wind for the weathermost Island in sight, which bore from us North-North-East, distant 6 or 7 Leagues. Under this Island we spent the Night, having a fresh gale at North-East and North-East by East, and hazey weather with rain; this Island I have called the Mayor. At 7 a.m. it bore South 47 degrees East, distant 6 Leagues, and a Cluster of small Islands and Rocks bore North 1/2 East, distant one League. At the time had a Gentle breeze at East-North-East and clear weather. The Cluster of Islands and Rocks just mentioned we named the Court of Aldermen; they lay in the Compass of about half a League every way, and 5 Leagues from the Main, between which and them lay other Islands. The most of them are barren rocks, and of these there is a very great Variety, some of them are of as small a Compass as the Monument in London, and Spire up to a much greater height; they lay in the latitude of 36 degrees 57 minutes, and some of them are inhabited. At Noon they bore South 60 degrees East, distant 3 or 4 Leagues, and a Rock like a Castle lying not far from the Main, bore North 40 degrees West, one League. latitude observed 36 degrees 58 minutes South; Course and distance since Yesterday noon is North-North-West 1/2 West, about 20 Leagues. In this Situation had 28 fathoms water, and a great many small Islands and Rocks on every side of us. The Main land appears here with a hilly, rugged, and barren surface, no Plantations to be seen, nor no other signs of its being well inhabited.

(* The island was Moliti; the high round head was Maunganui, which marks the entrance to Tauranga harbour, a good port, where now stands a small town of the same name.)

Saturday, 4th. The first and middle parts, little wind at East-North-East and Clear weather; the Latter had a fresh breeze at North-North-West and hazey with rain. At 1 p.m. 3 Canoes came off from the Main to the Ship, and after Parading about a little while they darted 2 Pikes at us. The first was at one of our Men as he was going to give them a rope, thinking they were coming on board; but the 2nd they throw’d into the Ship; the firing of one musquet sent them away. Each of these Canoes were made out of one large Tree, and were without any sort of Ornament, and the people in them were mostly quite naked. At 2 p.m. saw a large op’ning or inlet in the land, which we bore up for with an intent to come to an Anchor. At this time had 41 fathoms, which gradually decreased to 9 fathoms, at which time we were 1 1/2 Mile from a high Tower’d Rock lying near the South point of the inlet; the rock and the Northermost of the Court of Aldermen being in one bearing South 61 degrees East. At 1/2 past 7 Anchor’d in 7 Fathoms a little within the South Entrance of the Bay or inlet. We were accompanied in here by several Canoes, who stay’d about the Ship until dark; and before they went away they were so generous as to tell us that they would come and attack us in the morning; but some of them paid us a Visit in the night, thinking, no doubt, but what they should find all hands asleep, but as soon as they found their Mistake they went off. My reasons for putting in here were the hopes of discovering a good Harbour, and the desire I had of being in some convenient place to observe the Transit of Mercury, which happens on the 9th Instant, and will be wholy Visible here if the day is clear. If we be so fortunate as to obtain this observation, the Longitude of this place and Country will thereby be very accurately determined. Between 5 and 6 o’Clock in the morning several Canoes came off to us from all parts of the Bay; in them were about 130 or 140 People. To all appearances their first design was to attack us, being all Completely Arm’d in their way; however, this they never attempted, but after Parading about the Ship near 3 Hours, sometimes trading with us, and at other times Tricking of us, they dispersed; but not before we had fir’d a few Musquets and one great gun, not with any design to hurt any of them, but to shew them what sort of Weapons we had, and that we could revenge any insult they offer’d to us. It was observable that they paid but little regard to the Musquets that were fir’d, notwithstanding one ball was fir’d thro’ one of their Canoes, but what Effect the great gun had I know not, for this was not fir’d until they were going away.

[At Mercury Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

At 10, the weather Clearing up a little, I went with 2 Boats to sound the Bay and to look for a more convenient Anchoring place, the Master being in one Boat, and I in the other. We pull’d first over the North Shore, where some Canoes came out to meet us, but as we came near them they retir’d to the Shore and invited us to follow them, but seeing they were all Arm’d I did not think fit to Except of their Invitation; but after Trading with them out of the Boat for a few Minutes we left them and went towards the head of the Bay. I observed on a high Point a fortified Village, but I could only see a part of the works, and as I intend to see the whole, shall say no more about it at this time. After having fix’d upon an Anchoring place not far from where the Ship lay I return’d on board.

Sunday, 5th. Winds at North-North-West, Hazey weather with rain in the night. At 4 p.m. weigh’d and run in nearer the South shore and Anchor’d in 4 1/2 fathoms, a soft sandy bottom, the South point of the Bay bearing East, distant 1 Mile, and a River (into which the boats can go at low Water) South-South-East, distant 1 1/2 Miles.* In the morning the Natives came off again to the Ship, but their behaviour was very different to what it was Yesterday morning, and the little traffick we had with them was carried on very fair and friendly. Two came on board the Ship — to each I gave a Piece of English Cloth and some Spike Nails. After the Natives were gone I went with the Pinnace and Long boat into the River to haul the Sean, and sent the Master to sound the Bay and drudge for fish in the Yawl. We hauled the Sean in several places in the River, but caught only a few Mullet, with which we returned on board about Noon.

(* The bight in which the Endeavour anchored is now known as Cook Bay.)

Monday, 6th. Moderate breezes at North-North-West, and hazey weather with rain in the night. P.M. I went to another part of the Bay to haul the Sean, but meet with as little Success as before; and the Master did not get above 1/2 a Bucket full of Shells with the Drudge. The Natives brought to the Ship, and sold to our People, small Cockles, Clams, and Mussels, enough for all hands. These are found in great plenty upon the Sand Banks of the River. In the morning I sent the Long boat to Trawl in the Bay, and one Officer with the Marines and a party of men to Cut wood and haul the Sean, but neither the Sean nor the Trawl meet with any success; but the Natives in some measure made up for this by bringing several Baskets of dry’d or ready dress’d fish; altho’ it was none of the best I order’d it all to be bought up in order to encourage them to Trade.

Tuesday, 7th. The first part moderate and fair; the remainder a fresh breeze, northerly, with dirty, hazey, raining Weather. P.M. got on board a Long boat Load of Water, and Caught a dish of fish in the Sean. Found here a great Quantity of Sellery, which is boild every day for the Ship’s Company as usual.

Wednesday, 8th. P.M. fresh breeze at North-North-West and hazey, rainy weather; the remainder a Gentle breeze at West-South-West and Clear Weather. A.M. heeld and Scrubb’d both sides of the Ship and Sent a Party of Men ashore to Cutt wood and fill Water. The Natives brought off to the Ship, and Sold us for Small pieces of Cloth, as much fish as served all hands; they were of the Mackrell kind, and as good as ever was Eat. At Noon I observ’d the Sun’s Meridian Zenith distance, by the Astronomical Quadrant, which gave the latitude 36 degrees 47 minutes 43 seconds South; this was in the River before mentioned, that lies within the South Entrance of the Bay.

Thursday, 9th. Variable light breezes and Clear weather. As soon as it was daylight the Natives began to bring off Mackrell, and more than we well know what to do with; notwithstanding I order’d all they brought to be purchased in order to encourage them in this kind of Traffick. At 8, Mr. Green and I went on shore with our Instruments to observe the Transit of Mercury, which came on at 7 hours 20 minutes 58 seconds Apparent time, and was observed by Mr. Green only.* I, at this time, was taking the Sun’s Altitude in order to Ascertain the time. The Egress was observed as follows:—

By Mr. Green: Internal Contact at 12 hours 8 minutes 58 seconds Afternoon. External Contact at 12 hours 9 minutes 55 seconds Afternoon.

By myself: Internal Contact at 12 hours 8 minutes 45 seconds Afternoon. External Contact at 12 hours 9 minutes 43 seconds Afternoon.

(* Mr. Green satirically remarks in his Log, “Unfortunately for the seamen, their look-out was on the wrong side of the sun.” This probably refers to Mr. Hicks, who was also observing. It rather seems, however, as if Cook, on this occasion, was caught napping by an earlier appearance of the planet than was expected.)

Latitude observed at noon 36 degrees 48 minutes 28 seconds, the mean of this and Yesterday’s observation gives 36 degrees 48 minutes 5 1/2 seconds South; the latitude of the Place of Observation, and the Variation of the Compass was at this time found to be 11 degrees 9 minutes East. While we were making these observations 5 Canoes came alongside the Ship, 2 Large and 3 Small ones, in one were 47 People, but in the other not so many. They were wholy strangers to us, and to all appearance they came with a Hostile intention, being compleatly Arm’d with Pikes, Darts, Stones, etc.; however, they made no attempt, and this was very probable owing to their being inform’d by some other Canoes (who at this time were alongside selling fish) what sort of people they had to Deal with. When they first came alongside they begun to sell our people some of their Arms, and one Man offer’d to Sale a Haahow, that is a Square Piece of Cloth such as they wear. Lieutenant Gore, who at this time was Commanding Officer, sent into the Canoe a piece of Cloth which the Man had agreed to Take in Exchange for his, but as soon as he had got Mr. Gore’s Cloth in his Possession he would not part with his own, but put off the Canoe from alongside, and then shook their Paddles at the People in the Ship. Upon this, Mr. Gore fir’d a Musquet at them, and, from what I can learn, kill’d the Man who took the Cloth; after this they soon went away. I have here inserted the account of this Affair just as I had it from Mr. Gore, but I must own it did not meet with my approbation, because I thought the Punishment a little too severe for the Crime, and we had now been long Enough acquainted with these People to know how to Chastise Trifling faults like this without taking away their Lives.

Friday, 10th. P.M., Gentle breezes and Variable; the remainder, a Strong breeze at East-North-East, and hazey weather. A.M., I went with 2 Boats, accompanied by Mr. Banks and the other Gentlemen into the River which Emptys itself into the head of the Bay, in order to Examine it; none of the Natives came off to the Ship this morning, which we think is owing to bad weather.

[Pahs in Mercury Bay, New Zealand.]

Saturday, 11th. Fresh Gales at East-North-East, and Cloudy, hazey weather with rain. Between 7 and 8 o’Clock p.m. I returnd on board from out the River, having been about 4 or 5 Miles up it, and could have gone much farther had the weather been favourable. I landed on the East side and went upon the Hills, from whence I saw, or at least I thought I saw, the head of the River. It here branched into several Channels, and form’d a Number of very low flat Islands, all cover’d with a sort of Mangrove Trees, and several places of the Shores of both sides the River were Cover’d with the same sort of wood. The sand banks were well stored with Cockles and Clams, and in many places were Rock Oysters. Here is likewise pretty plenty of Wild Fowl, such as Shags, Ducks, Curlews, and a Black bird, about as big as a Crow, with a long, sharp bill of a Colour between Red and Yellow; we also saw fish in the River, but of what sort I know not. The Country especially on the East side is barren, and for the most part destitute of wood, or any other signs of Fertility; but the face of the country on the other side looked much better, and is in many places cover’d with wood. We meet with some of the Natives and saw several more, and Smokes a long way inland, but saw not the least signs of Cultivation, either here or in any other part about the Bay, so that the inhabitants must live wholy on shell and other fish, and Fern roots, which they Eat by the way of Bread. In the Entrance of this river, and for 2 or 3 Miles up, it is very safe and Commodious Anchoring in 3, 4, and 5 fathoms, and Convenient places for laying a Ship aShore, where the Tide rises and falls about 7 feet at full and Change. I could not see whether or no any considerable fresh Water Stream came out of the Country into this river, but there are a number of small Rivulets which come from the Adjacent hills. [Pahs in Mercury Bay, New Zealand.] A little within the Entrance of the River on the East side is a high point or peninsula juting out into the River on which are the Remains of one of their Fortified towns. The Situation is such that the best Engineer in Europe could not have Chose a better for a Small Number of men to defend themselves against a greater; it is strong by Nature and made more so by Art. It is only Accessible on the land Side, and there have been cut a Ditch and a Bank raised on the inside. From the Top of the Bank to the Bottom of the Ditch was about 22 feet, and depth of the Ditch on the land side 14 feet; its breadth was in proportion to its depth, and the whole seem’d to have been done with great Judgment. There had been a row of Pickets on the Top of the Bank, and another on the outside of the Ditch; these last had been set deep in the ground and Sloping with their upper ends hanging over the Ditch. The whole had been burnt down, so that it is probable that this place had been taken and destroy’d by an Enemy. The people on this side of the Bay seem now to have no houses or fix’d habitations, but Sleep in the open Air, under Trees and in small Temporary shades; but to all appearance they are better off on the other side, but there we have not set foot. In the morning, being dirty rainy weather, I did not Expect any of the Natives off with fish, but thinking that they might have some ashore I sent a Boat with some Trade, who return’d about noon loaded with Oysters, which they got in the River which is abreast of the Ship, but saw no fish among the Natives.

Sunday, 12th. P.M. had Strong Gales at North-East, and hazey, rainy weather; A.M. a fresh breeze at North-West, and Clear weather. In the morning got on board a Turn of Water, and afterwards sent the Long boat into the River for Oysters to take to sea with us; and I went with the Pinnace and Yawl, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, over to the North side of the Bay in order to take a View of the Country and the Fortified Village which stands there. We landed about a mile from it, and were meet by the inhabitants in our way thither, who, with a great deal of good nature and friendship, conducted us into the place and shew’d us everything that was there.

This village is built upon a high Promontory or point on the North side and near the head of the Bay. It is in some places quite inaccessible to man, and in others very difficult, except on that side which faced the narrow ridge of the hill on which it stands. Here it is defended by a double ditch, a bank and 2 rows of Picketing, the inner row upon the Bank; but not so near the Crown but what there was good room for men to Walk and handle their Arms between the Picketing and the inner Ditch. The outer Picketing was between the 2 Ditches, and laid sloping with their upper ends hanging over the inner Ditch. The Depth of this Ditch from the bottom to the Crown of the bank was 24 feet. Close within the inner Plcketing was erected by strong Posts a stage 30 feet high and 40 in length and 6 feet broad. The use of this stage was to stand upon to throw Darts at the Assailants, and a number of Darts lay upon it for that purpose. At right angles to this Stage and a few paces from it was another of the same Construction and bigness; this stood likewise within the Picketing, and was intended for the same use as the other — viz., to stand upon to throw stones and darts upon the Enemy as they advanc’d up the side of the Hill where lay the Main way into the place. It likewise might be intended to defend some little outworks and hutts that lay at the Skirts and on this side of the Hill. These outworks were not intended as advanced Posts, but for such of the Inhabitants to live in as had not room in the Main works, but had taken Shelter under it. Besides the works on the land side, above described, the whole Villiage was Pallisaded round with a line of pretty strong Picketing run round the Edge of the hill. The ground within having not been level at first, but laid Sloping, they had divided it into little squares and Leveled each of these. These squares lay in the form of an Amphitheatre, and were each of them Pallisaded round, and had communication one with another by narrow lanes and little gateways, which could easily be stoped up, so that if an Enemy had forced the outer Picketing he had several others to incounter before the place could be easily reduced, supposing them to defend everyone of the places one after another. The main way leading into this fortification was up a very steep part of the Hill and thro’ a narrow passage about 12 feet long and under one of the Stages. I saw no door nor gate, but it might very soon have been barricaded up. Upon the whole I looked upon it to be very strong and well choose Post, and where a small number of resolute men might defend themselves a long time against a vast superior force, Arm’d in the manner as these People are. These seem’d to be prepared against a Siege, having laid up in store an immense quantity of Fern roots and a good many dry’d fish; but we did not see that they had any fresh Water nearer than a brook which runs close under the foot of a hill, from which I suppose they can at times get water, tho’ besiged, and keep it in gouards until they use it. Under the foot of the point on which the Village stands are 2 Rocks, the one just broke off from the Main and other detatched a little from it. They are both very small, and more fit for Birds to inhabit than men; yet there are houses and places of defence on each of them, and about a Mile to Eastward of these is another of these small Fortified rocks, which communicates with the Main by a Narrow pathway, where there is a small Villiage of the Natives. Many works of this kind we have seen upon small Islands and Rocks and Ridges of hills on all parts of the Coast, besides a great number of Fortified towns, to all appearances Vastly superior to this I have described. From this it should seem that the People must have long and frequent Warrs, and must have been long accustomed to it, otherwise they never would have invented such strong holds as these, the Erecting of which must cost them immense labour, considering the Tools they have to work with, which are only made of Wood and Stone. It is a little strange that with such a Warlike People, as these undoubtedly are, no Omissive weapons are found among them, such as bows and Arrows, Slings, etc., things in themselves so easily invented, and are common in every other part of the world. The Arms they use are long spears or Lances, a Staff about 5 feet long. Some of these are pointed at one end like a Serjeant’s Halberd, others are round and Sharp; the other ends are broad, something like the blade of an Oar. They have another sort about 4 1/2 feet long; these are shaped at one End like an Axe, and the other is made with a Sharp point. They have short Truncheons about a foot long, which they call Pattoo Pattoas; some made of wood, some of bone, and others of Stone. Those made of wood are Variously shaped, but those made of bone and Stone are of one shape, which is with a round handle, a broadish blade, which is thickest in the Middle and taper’d to an Edge all round. The use of these are to knock Men’s brains out, and to kill them outright after they are wounded; and they are certainly well contrived things for this purpose. Besides these Weapons they Throw stones and Darts; the Darts are 10 or 12 feet long, are made of hard wood, and are barbed at one end. They handle all their Arms with great Agility, particularly their long Pikes or Lances, against which we have no weapon that is an equal match except a Loaded Musquet.

Monday, 13th. P.M., Gentle Breezes at North-West and Clear weather. After taking a Slight View of the Country and Loaded both boats with Sellery, which we found in Great plenty near the Sea beach, we return’d on board about 5 o’Clock. The Long boat at the same time return’d out of the River Loaded as deep as she could swim with Oysters. And now I intended to put to Sea in the morning if wind and weather will permit. In the night had the wind at South-East, with rainy, dirty, hazey weather, which continued all day, so that I could not think of Sailing, but thought myself very happy in being in a good Port. Samuel Jones, Seaman, having been confin’d since Saturday last for refusing to come upon deck when all hands were called, and afterwards refused to Comply with the orders of the officers on deck, he was this morning punished with 12 lashes and remited back to confinement.

Tuesday, 14th. Fresh Gales, Easterly, and rainy, Dirty weather.

Wednesday, 15th. In the evening I went in the Pinnace and landed upon one of the Islands that lies off of the South Head of the Bay, with a view to see if I could discover any sunken rocks or other Dangers lying before the Entrance of the Bay, as there was a pretty large swell at this Time. The Island we landed upon was very small, yet there were upon it a Village, the inhabitants of which received us very friendly. This little Village was laid out in small Oblong squares, and each pailisaded round. The Island afforded no fresh Water, and was only accessible on one side: from this I concluded that it was not choose for any Conveniency it could afford them, but for its Natural Strength.

[Sail from Mercury Bay, New Zealand.]

At 7 A.M. weigh’d, with a light breeze at West, and clear weather, and made Sail out of the Bay, steering North-East, for the Northermost of a Number of Islands lying off the North point of the Bay. These Islands are of Various extents, and lye Scattered to the North-West in a parallel direction with the Main as far as we could see. I was at first afraid to go within them, thinking that there was no safe Passage, but I afterwards thought that we might; and I would have attempted it, but the wind, coming to the North-West, prevented it, so that we were obliged to stand out to Sea. At Noon was in the latitude of 36 degrees 4 minutes South. The Northermost Island, above mentioned, bore North, distant half a League; the Court of Aldermen, South-East by South, distant 6 Leagues; and the Bay Sail’d from, which I have named Mercury Bay, on account of the observation being made there, South-West by West, distant 6 Miles.

Mercury Bay* lies in the latitude of 36 degrees 47 minutes South, and the Longitude of 184 degrees 4 minutes West, from the Meridian of Greenwich. It lies in South-West between 2 and 3 Leagues. There are several Islands lying both to the Southward and Northward of it, and a Small high Island or Rock in the Middle of the Entrance. Within this Island the depth of water doth no were Exceed 9 or 8 fathoms; the best Anchorage is in a sandy Bay which lies just within the South head in 5 and 4 fathoms, bringing a high Tower Rock, which lies without the head, in one with the head, or just shut in behind it. Here it is very Convenient Wooding and Watering, and in the River are an immense quantity of Oysters and other small Shell fish; and this is the only thing it is remarkable for, and hath occasioned my giving it the Name of Oyster River. But the Snugest and Safest place for a Ship to lay in that wants to stay there any time is in the River at the head of the Bay, and where there is every conveniency the place can afford. To sail up and into it keep the South shore all the way on board. As we did not learn that the Natives had any name for this River, I have called it the River of Mangroves,† because of the great quantity of these Trees that are found in it. The Country on the South-East side of this River and Bay is very barren, producing little else but Fern, and such other plants as delight in a Poor Soil. The land on the North-West side is pretty well cover’d with wood, the Soil more fertile, and would no doubt produce the Necessarys of Life, was it Cultivated. However, this much must be said against it, that it is not near so Rich nor fertile as the lands we have seen to the Southward; and the same may be said of its inhabitants, who, although pretty numerous, are poor to the highest degree when Compar’d to others we have seen. They have no Plantations, but live only on Fern roots and fish; their Canoes are mean, and without ornament, and so are their Houses, or Hutts, and in general everything they have about them. This may be owing to the frequent wars in which they are Certainly ingaged; strong proofs of this we have seen, for the people who resided near the place where we wooded, and who Slept every night in the Open Air, placed themselves in such a manner when they laid down to sleep as plainly shew’d that it was necessary for them to be always upon their Guard. They do not own Subjection to Teeratie, the Earadehi,‡ but say that he would kill them was he to come Among them; they confirm the Custom of Eating their Enemies, so that this is a thing no longer to be doubted. I have before observed that many of the People about this bay had no fix’d habitations, and we thought so then, but have since learnt that they have strong holds — or Hippas, as they call them — which they retire to in time of danger.

(* At the head of Mercury Bay is a small settlement called Whitianga.)

(† Still so called.)

(‡ Cook did not realize that the New Zealanders were divided into independent tribes.)

We found, thrown upon the Shore in several places in this Bay, a quantity of Iron Sand, which is brought down out of the Country by almost every little fresh-water brook. This proves that there must be of that Ore not far inland. Neither of the Inhabitants of this Place, nor any other where we have been, know the use of Iron or set the least Value upon it, preferring the most Trifling thing we could give them to a Nail, or any sort of Iron Tools. Before we left this bay we cut out upon one of the Trees near the Watering Place the Ship’s Name, date, etc., and, after displaying the English Colours, I took formal possession of the place in the Name of His Majesty.

[Off Cape Colville, North Island, New Zealand.]

Thursday, 16th. Fresh breezes between the North-West and South-West, and fair weather. At 1 P.M., having got within the Group of Islands which lies of the North head of Mercury Bay, hauld our wind to the Northward, and Kept plying to windward all the day between these Islands and some others laying to the Northward of them, with a View to get under the Main land, the Extream North-West point of which we could see, at Noon, bore West by North, distant 6 or 8 Leagues; Latitude in Per Observation 36 degrees 33 minutes South.

Note, in speaking of Mercury Bay, I had forgot to mention that the Mangrove Trees found there produce a resinous substance very much like Rosin. Something of this kind, I am told, is found in both the East and West Indies. We found it, at first, in small Lumps upon the Sea Beach, but afterwards found it sticking to the Mangrove Trees, and by that means found out from whence it came.

Friday, 17th. The fore and Middle parts had fresh Gales between the South-West and West by South, and Squally. Kept plying to windward in order to get under the land. At 6 A.M. fetched close under the lee of the Northernmost Island in sight, then Tackd and Stood to the Southward until 11, when we tack’d and Stood to the Northward. At this time the North head of Mercury Bay, or Point Mercury, bore South-East by East, distant 3 Leagues, being at this time between 2 and 3 Leagues from the Main land, and abreast of a place where there appear’d to be a Harbour;* but the heavy squalls which we had from the Land would not permit us to take a nearer View of it, but soon brought us under our Close reeft Topsails. At Noon Point Mercury bore South-East, distant 4 Leagues, and the weathermost point of the Main land in sight bore North 60 degrees West, distant 5 Leagues. Over the North-West side of Mercury Bay is a pretty high round hill, rising sloping from the Shore of the Bay. This hill is very conspicuous from where we now are.

(* Probably Waikawau Bay)

Saturday, 18th. First part strong Gales at South-West and South-South-West, with heavy squalls: in the morning had Gentle breezes at South and South-East, towards noon had Whifling light Airs all round the Compass. Kept plying to windward under close Reeft Topsails until daylight, at which time we had got close under the Main, and the wind coming at South-East we made sail and steer’d North-West by West, as the land lays, keeping close in shore. At 6 we passed a small Bay* wherein there appear’d to be Anchorage, and pretty good Shelter from the Sea Winds, at the Entrance of which lies a Rock pretty high above water. 4 Miles farther to the West-North-West is a very Conspicuous promontory or point of land which we got abreast of about 7 o’Clock; it lies in the latitude of 36 degrees 26 minutes South and North 48 degrees West, 9 Leagues from Point Mercury. From this point the Land trends West 1/2 South near one League, then South-South-East as far as we could see. Besides the Islands laying without us we could see land round by the South-West as far as North-West, but whether this was the Main or Islands was not possible for us at this Time to determine; the fear of loosing the Main land determin’d me to follow its direction. With this View we hauld round the point† and Steer’d to the Southward, but meeting with Whifling light Airs all round the Compass, we made but little progress untill noon, when we found ourselves by Observation in the latitude of 36 degrees 29 minutes South; a small Island‡ which lays North-West 4 Miles from the Promontory above-mentioned bore North by East, distant 6 1/2 Miles, being at this time about 2 Miles from the Shore. While we lay under the land 2 large Canoes came off to us; in one of them were 62 people; they staid about us some time, then began to throw stones into the Ship, upon which I fir’d a Musquet ball thro’ one of the Canoes. After this they retir’d ashore.

(* Charles Cove.)

(† Cape Colville.)

(‡ Channel Island.)

Sunday, 19th. At 1 p.m. a breeze sprung up at East, which afterwards came to North-East, and with it we steer’d along shore South by East and South-South-East, having from 25 to 18 fathoms Water. At 1/2 past 7, having run 7 or 8 Leagues since Noon, we Anchor’d in 23 fathoms, not choosing to run any farther in the Dark, having the land on both sides of us forming the Entrance of a Streight, Bay or River, lying in South by East, for on that point of the Compass we could see no land. At daylight A.M., the wind being still favourable, we weighed and run under an Easy sail up the inlet, keeping nearest the East side. Soon after we had got under Sail 3 large Canoes came off to the Ship, and several of the people came on board upon the very first invitation; this was owing to their having heard of our being upon the Coast and the manner we had treated the Natives. I made each of those that came on board a small present, and after about an Hour’s stay they went away well Satisfied. After having run 5 Leagues from the place where we Anchor’d last night our Depth of Water gradually decreased to 6 fathoms, and into less I did not choose to go, and as the wind blew right up the inlet and tide of flood, we came to an Anchor nearly in the middle of the Channell, which is here about 11 Miles over, and after this sent 2 Boats to sound, the one on one side and the other on the other side.

[At Frith of Thames, North Island, New Zealand.]

Monday, 20th. Moderate breezes at South-South-East and fair weather. At 2 p.m. the boats return’d from sounding, not having found above 3 feet more water than were we now lay; upon this I resolved to go no farther with the Ship but to examine the head of the Bay in the Boat, for as it appeard to run a good way inland, I thought this a good opportunity to see a little of the interior part of the Country and its produce. Accordingly at daylight in the morning I set out with the Pinnace and Long boat accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Tupia. We found the inlet end in a River, about 9 miles above the Ship, into which we Enter’d with the first of the flood, and before we had gone 3 Miles up it found the Water quite fresh. We saw a number of Natives and landed at one of their Villages, the inhabitants of which received us with open Arms. We made but a Short stay with them but proceeded up the river until near Noon, when finding the face of the country to continue pretty much the same, and no alteration in the Course or stream of the River or the least probability of seeing the end of it, we landed on the West side in order to take a View of the lofty Trees which Adorn its banks, being at this time 12 or 14 Miles within the Entrance, and here the Tide of Flood runs as strong as it does in the River Thames below bridge.

Tuesday, 21st. After Landing as above-mention’d, we had not gone a hundred yards into the woods before we found a Tree that girted 19 feet 8 inches, 6 feet above the ground, and having a Quadrant with me, I found its length from the root to the first branch to be 89 feet; it was as Streight as an Arrow and Taper’d but very little in proportion to its length, so that I judged that there was 356 Solid feet of timber in this Tree, clear of the branches. We saw many others of the same sort, several of which were Taller than the one we measured, and all of them very stout; there were likewise many other sorts of very Stout Timber Trees, all of them wholy unknown to any of us. We brought away a few specimens, and at 3 o’Clock we embarqued in order to return (but not before we had named this river the Thames,* on account of its bearing some resemblance to that River in England) on board with the very first of the Ebb. In our return down the river, the inhabitants of the Village where we landed in going, seeing that we return’d by another Channell, put off in their Canoes and met us and Trafficked with us in the most friendly manner immaginable, until they had disposed of the few Trifles they had. The tide of Ebb just carried us out of the narrow part of the River into the Sea reach, as I may call it, where meeting with the flood and a Strong breeze at North-North-West obliged us to come to a Grapnel, and we did not reach the Ship until 7 o’Clock in the A.M. Intending to get under Sail at high water the Long boat was sent to take up the Kedge Anchor, but it blow’d so strong that she could not reach the Buoy, and the gale increasing soon obliged us to vear away more Cable and Strike Top Gallant Yards.

(* The flourishing town of Thames now stands at the eastern entrance of the river: population nearly 5000. Gold is found in the vicinity.)

Wednesday, 22nd. Winds at North-North-West. The A.M. fresh Gales and hazey with rain; the remainder, moderate and Clear. At 3 p.m. the Tide of Ebb making, we took up our Anchors and got under Sail and ply’d down the River until 8 o’Clock, when we again came to an Anchor in 7 fathoms, muddy bottom. At 3 a.m. weigh’d with the first of the Ebb and keept plying until the flood obliged us to anchor again. After this I went in the Pinnace over to the Western Shore, but found there neither inhabitants or anything else worthy of Note. At the time I left the Ship a good many of the Natives were alongside and on board Trafficking with our people for such Trifles as they had, and seem’d to behave as well as people could do, but one of them took the 1/2 hour glass out of the Bittacle, and was caught in the very fact, and for which Mr. Hicks, who was Commanding Officer, brought him to the Gangway and gave him a Dozen lashes with a Catt of nine Tails. The rest of the people seem’d not displeased at it when they came to know what it was for, and some old man beat the fellow after he had got into his Canoe; however, soon after this they all went away.

Thursday, 23rd. P.M. Gentle breezes at North-North-West and fair weather. Between 3 and 4 o’Clock got under Sail with the first of the Ebb and ply’d to windward until 9 when we anchor’d in 16 fathoms over upon the East shore. In the night had light Airs and Calm; at 3 A.M. weighed but had little or no wind until near noon, when a light breeze sprung up at North-North-West. At this time we were close under the West shore in 7 fathoms Water; latitude 36 degrees 51 minutes South.

[Description of Frith of Thames, New Zealand.]

Friday, 24th. P.M., Fresh Gales and dark, Cloudy, squally weather, with Thunder, Lightning, and rain. Winds from the North-West to the South-West, and this last carried us by 7 o’Clock without the North-West point of the River, but the weather being bad and having land on all sides of us, and a Dark night coming on, I thought it most adviseable to Tack and stretch in under ye Point where we Anchor’d in 19 fathoms. At 5 a.m. weighed and made Sail to the North-West under our Courses and double Reef’d Topsails, the wind being at South-West by West and West-South-West, a strong Gale and Squally blowing right off the land, which would not permit us to come near it, so that from the time of our getting under Sail until’ Noon (during which time we ran 12 Leagues) we had but a slight and distant View of the Coast and was not able to distinguish wether the points we saw were parts of the Main or Islands laying before it, for we never once lost sight of the Main Land.* At noon our latitude by observation was 36 degrees 15 minutes 20 seconds South, being at this time not above 2 Miles from a Point of Land on the Main and 3 1/2 Leagues from a very high Island† which bore North-East by East of us; in this Situation had 26 fathoms Water. The farthest point we could see on the Main bore from us North-West, but we could see several small Islands laying to the Northward of that direction. The point of land we are now abreast off, I take to be the North-West Extremity of the River Thames, for I shall comprehend under that Name the Deep Bay we have been in for this week past, the North-East point of which is the Promontory we past on Saturday morning last, and which I have named Cape Colvill in honour of the Right hon’ble the Lord Colvill;‡ latitude 36 degrees 26 minutes South; Longitude 184 degrees 27 minutes West. It rises directly from the Sea to a Considerable height, but what makes it most remarkable is a high Rock standing close to the pitch of the point, and from some points of view may be distinguished at a very great distance. From the South-West point of this Cape the river Extends itself in a direct line South by East, and is no where less than 3 Leagues broad until’ you are 14 Leagues above the Cape, there it is at once Contracted to a Narrow stream. From this place it still continues the same South by East Course thro’ a low flat Country or broad Valley that lies Parrallel with the Sea Coast, the End of which we could not see. The land on the East side of the Broadest part of this river is Tollerable high and hilly, that on the West side is rather low, but the whole is cover’d with woods and Verdure and looks to be pretty fertile, but we saw but a few small places that were Cultivated. About the Entrance of the narrow part of the River the land is mostly Cover’d with Mangroves and other Shrubs, but farther in are immense woods of as stout lofty timber as is to be found perhaps in any other part of the world. In many places the woods grow close upon the very banks of the River, but where it does not the land is Marshey such as we find about the Thames in England. We saw poles stuck up in many places in the River to set nets for Catching of fish; from this we immagin’d that there must be plenty of fish, but of what sort we know not for we saw none. The Greatest Depth of Water we found was 26 fathoms and decreaseth pretty gradually as you run up to 1 1/2 and 1 fathom. In the mouth of the fresh-water Stream or narrow part is 3 and 4 fathoms, but before this are sand banks and large flatts; Yet, I believe, a Ship of a Moderate draught of Water may go a long way up this River with a flowing Tide, for I reckon that the Tides rise upon a perpendicular near 10 feet, and is high water at the full and Change of the Moon about 9 o’Clock. Six Leagues within Cape Colvill, under the Eastern Shore, are several small Islands, these Islands together with the Main seem’d to form some good Harbours.** Opposite to these Islands under the Western Shore lies some other Islands, and it appear’d very probable that these form’d some good Harbours likewise.†† But even supposing there were no Harbours about this River, it is good anchoring in every part of it where the depth of Water is Sufficient, being defended from the Sea by a Chain of Large and Small Islands which I have named Barrier Isles, lying aCross the Mouth of it extending themselves North-West and South-East 10 Leagues. The South end of these Islands lies North-East 4 1/2 Leagues from the North-West point of the River, which I have named point Rodney; it lies West-North-West 9 leagues from Cape Colvill, Latitude 36 degrees 15 minutes; Longitude 184 degrees 58 minutes West. The Natives residing about this River do not appear to be very numerous considering the great Extent of Country; at least not many came off to the Ship at one Time, and as we were but little ashore ourselves we could not so well judge of their numbers. They are a Strong, well made, active People as any we have seen yet, and all of them Paint their Bodys with Red Oker and Oil from Head to foot, a thing that we have not seen before. Their Canoes are large, well built and Ornamented with Carved work in general as well as most we have seen.

(* The Endeavour was now in Hauraki Gulf and had passed the harbour where Auckland now stands, which is hidden behind a number of islands.)

(† Little Barrier Island, now (1892) about to be made a reserve to protect native fauna.)

(‡ Cook had served under Rear Admiral Lord Colville in Newfoundland.)

(** Coromandel Harbour.)

(†† Auckland Harbour is one of them.)

Saturday, 25th. P.M., had fresh Gales at South-West, and Squally weather. We kept standing along Shore to the North-West, having the Main land on the one side and Islands on the other; our Soundings were from 26 to 12 fathoms. At 1/2 past 7 p.m. we Anchor’d in a Bay in 14 fathoms, sandy bottom. We had no sooner come to an Anchor than we caught between 90 and 100 Bream (a fish so called), this occasioned my giving this place the Name of Bream Bay.* The 2 points which forms this Bay lie North and South 5 Leagues from each other. The Bay is every where pretty broad and between 3 and 4 Leagues deep; at the bottom of it their appears to be a fresh water River.† The North head of the Bay, called Bream head, is high land and remarkable on account of several peaked rocks ranged in order upon the top of it; it lies in the latitude 35 degrees 46 minutes South and North 41 degrees West, distant 17 1/2 Leagues from Cape Colvill. This Bay may likewise be known by some Small Islands lying before it called the Hen and Chickens, one of which is pretty high and terminates at Top in 2 peaks. The land between Point Rodney and Bream Head, which is 10 Leagues, is low and wooded in Turfs, and between the Sea and the firm land are white sand banks. We saw no inhabitants but saw fires in the Night, a proof that the Country is not uninhabited. At daylight A.M. we left the Bay and directed our Course along shore to the northward, having a Gentle breeze at South by West and Clear weather. A little after sunrise found the Variation to be 12 degrees 42 minutes Easterly. At Noon, our latitude by observation was 36 degrees 36 minutes South; Bream head bore South distant 10 Miles; some small Islands (Poor Knights) at North-East by North distant 3 Leagues, and the Northermost land in sight bore North-North-West, being at this Time 2 miles from the Shore, and in this Situation had 26 fathoms; the land here about is rather low and pretty well cover’d with wood and seems not ill inhabited.

(* Whangarei Bay.)

(† Whangarei River. The district is very fertile. Coal mines are in the vicinity, and coal is exported.)

[Off Cape Brett, North Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 26th. P.M., Gentle breezes between the East-North-East and North, kept ranging along shore to the Northward. At the distance of 4 or 5 Miles off saw several Villages and some Cultivated lands; towards evening several Canoes came off to us, and some of the Natives ventur’d on board; to 2, who appear’d to be Chiefs, I gave presents. After these were gone out of the Ship, the others became so Troublesome that in order to get rid of them we were at the expence of 2 or 3 Musquet Balls, and one 4 pound Shott, but as no harm was intended them, none they received, unless they hapned to over heat themselves in pulling on shore. In the Night had variable light Airs, but towards morning had a light breeze at South, and afterward at South-East; with this we proceeded slowly to the Northward. At 6 a.m. several Canoes came off from the place where they landed last night, and between this and noon many more came from other parts. Had at one time a good many of the people on board, and about 170 alongside; their behaviour was Tolerable friendly, but we could not prevail upon them to Traffic with us. At noon, the Mainland Extending from South by East to North-West by West; a remarkable point of land bore West, distant 4 or 5 miles. latitude Observed 35 degrees 11 minutes South.

Monday, 27th. P.M., Gentle breezes Easterly, and Clear weather. At 3 passed the point of land afore-mentioned, which I have named Cape Brett in honour of Sir Piercy.* The land of this Cape is considerable higher than any part of the Adjacent Coast. At the very point of the Cape is a high round Hillock, and North-East by North, near one Mile from this is a small high Island or Rock with a hole pierced thro’ it like the Arch of a Bridge, and this was one reason why I gave the Cape the above name, because Piercy seem’d very proper for that of the Island. This Cape, or at least some part of it, is called by the Natives Motugogogo; latitude 35 degrees 10 minutes 30 seconds South, Longitude 185 degrees 25 minutes West. On the West side of Cape Brett is a large and pretty deep Bay† lying in South-West by West, in which there appear’d to be several small Islands. The point that forms the North-West entrance I have named Point Pocock; it lies West 1/4 North, 3 or 4 Leagues from Cape Brett. On the South-West side of this Bay we saw several Villages situated both on Islands and on the Main land, from whence came off to us several large Canoes full of People, but, like those that had been alongside before, would not Enter into a friendly Traffick with us, but would Cheat whenever they had an opportunity. The people in these Canoes made a very good appearance, being all stout well-made men, having their Hair — which was black — comb’d up and tied upon the Crown of their heads, and there stuck with white feathers; in each of the Canoes were 2 or 3 Chiefs, and the Habits of these were rather superior to any we had yet seen. The Cloth they wore was of the best sort, and cover’d on the outside with Dog Skins put on in such a manner as to look Agreeable enough to the Eye. Few of these people were Tattow’d or marked in the face, like those we have seen farther to the South, but several had their Backsides Tattow’d much in the same manner as the inhabitants of the Islands within the Tropics. In the Course of this day, that is this afternoon and Yesterday forenoon, we reckoned that we had not less than 400 or 500 of the Natives alongside and on board the ship, and in that time did not range above 6 or 8 Leagues of the Sea Coast, a strong proof that this part of the Country must be well inhabited. In the Evening, the Wind came to the Westward of North, and we Tack’d and stood off North-East until 11 o’Clock, when the wind coming more favourable we stood again to the Westward. At 8 a.m we were within a Mile of Groups of Islands lying close under the Mainland and North-West by West 1/2 West, distance 22 Miles from Cape Brett. Here we lay for near 2 Hours, having little or no wind. During this time several Canoes came off to the Ship, and 2 or 3 of them sold us some fish — Cavallys as they are called — which occasioned my giving the Islands the same name. After this some others began to Pelt us with Stones, and would not desist at the firing of 2 Musquet Balls thro’ one of their Boats; at last I was obliged to pepper 2 or 3 fellows with small Shott, after which they retir’d, and the wind coming at North-West we stood off to Sea. At Noon, Cavally Islands bore South-West by South, distant 4 Miles; Cape Brett South-East, distant 7 Leagues, and the Westermost land in sight, making like Islands, bore West by North; latitude in per Observation 34 degrees 55 minutes South.

(* Rear Admiral Sir Piercey Brett was one of the Lords of the Admiralty when the Endeavour sailed.)

(† The Bay of Islands.)

Tuesday, 28th. A Fresh breeze from the Westward all this day, which being right in our teeth, we kept beating to windward with all the sail we could Crowd, but instead of Gaining we lost ground. A.M., being close in with the land to the Westward of the Bay, which lies on this side of Cape Brett, we saw at some distance inland 2 pretty large Villages Pallisaded in the same manner as others we have seen. At noon, Cape Brett South-East by East 1/2 East, distant 6 Leagues; latitude observed 35 degrees 0 minutes South.

[At Bay of Islands, North Island, New Zealand.]

Wednesday, 29th. Fresh Gales at North-West and West-North-West, kept plying to Windward until 7 A.M., and finding that we lost ground every board we made, I thought I could not do better than to bear up for the Bay, which lies to the Westward of Cape Brett, it being at this Time not above 2 Leagues to Leeward of us, for by putting in there we should gain some knowledge of it, on the Contrary, by Keeping the Sea with a Contrary wind, we were sure of meeting with nothing new. These reasons induced me to bear away for the Bay,* and at 11 o’Clock we Anchor’d under the South-West side of one of the many Islands† that line the South-East side of it, in 4 1/2 fathoms; but as we fell into this shoald water all at once, we Anchor’d sooner than was intended, and sent the Master with 2 Boats to sound, who found that we had got upon a Bank that spitted off from the North-West end of the Island, and that on the outside of it was 8 and 10 fathoms Water.

(* The Bay of Islands.)

(† Motu Arohia.)

Thursday, 30th. P.M., had the winds Westerly, with some very heavy Showers of Rain. We had no sooner come to an Anchor than between 300 and 400 of the Natives Assembled in their Canoes about the Ship; some few were admitted on board, and to one of the Chiefs I gave a piece of Broad Cloth and distributed a few Nails, etc., among some others of them. Many of these People had been off to the Ship when we were at Sea, and seem’d to be very sencible of the use of Fire Arms, and in the Trade we had with them they behaved Tolerable well, but continued so not long, before some of them wanted to take away the Buoy,* and would not desist at the firing of several Musquets until one of them was hurt by small Shott, after which they withdrew a small distance from the Ship, and this was thought a good opportunity to try what Effect a Great Gun would have, as they paid so little respect to a Musquet, and accordingly one was fir’d over their Heads. This, I believe, would have sent them quite off, if it had not been for Tupia, who soon prevail’d on them to return to the Ship, when their behaviour was such as gave us no room to suspect that they meant to give us any farther Trouble.

(* The buoy on the anchor.)

After the Ship was moved into Deeper Water I went with the Pinnace and Yawl, mann’d and Arm’d, and landed upon the Island, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. We had scarce landed before all the Canoes left the Ship and landed at different parts of the Island, and before we could well look about us we were surrounded by 2 or 300 People, and, notwithstanding that they were all Arm’d, they came upon us in such a confused, straggling manner that we hardly suspected that they meant us any harm; but in this we were very soon undeceived, for upon our Endeavouring to draw a line on the sand between us and them they set up the War dance, and immediately some of them attempted to seize the 2 Boats. Being disappointed in this, they next attempted to break in upon us, upon which I fir’d a Musquet loaded with small Shott at one of the Forwardest of them, and Mr. Banks and 2 of the Men fir’d immediately after. This made them retire back a little, but in less than a minute one of the Chiefs rallied them again. Dr. Solander, seeing this, gave him a peppering with small Shott, which sent him off and made them retire a Second time. They attempted to rally several times after, and only seem’d to want some one of resolution to head them; but they were at last intirely dispers’d by the Ship firing a few shott over their Heads and a Musquet now and then from us. In this Skirmish only one or 2 of them was Hurt with small Shott, for I avoided killing any one of them as much as Possible, and for that reason withheld our people from firing. We had observed that some had hid themselves in a Cave in one of the Rocks, and sometime after the whole was over we went Towards them. The Chief who I have mentioned to have been on board the Ship hapned to be one of these; he, his wife, and another came out to meet us, but the rest made off. Those 3 people came and sat down by us, and we gave them of such things as we had about us. After this we went to another part of the Island, where some of the inhabitants came to us, and were as meek as lambs. Having taken a View of the Bay from the Island and Loaded both Boats with Sellery, which we found here in great plenty, we return’d on board, and at 4 A.M. hove up the Anchor in order to put to Sea, with a light breeze at East, but it soon falling Calm, obliged us to come too again, and about 8 or 9 o’Clock, seeing no probability of our getting to Sea, I sent the Master to Sound the Harbour. But before this I order’d Matthew Cox, Henry Stevens, and Emanl Parreyra to be punished with a dozen lashes each for leaving their duty when ashore last night, and digging up Potatoes out of one of the Plantations.* The first of the 3 I remitted back to Confinement because he insisted that there was no harm in what he had done. All this Forenoon had abundance of the Natives about the Ship and some few on board. We Trafficked with them for a few Trifles, in which they dealt very fair and friendly.

(* Cook’s care to deal fairly with natives is evinced by this punishment.)

[December 1769.]

Friday, 1st December. Winds at North-North-West a Gentle breeze. At 3 p.m., the Boats having return’d from sounding, I went with them over to the South side of the Harbour, and landed upon the Main, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. We met with nothing new or remarkable. The place where we landed was in a small sandy Cove, where there are 2 small Streams of Fresh Water and Plenty of Wood for fuel. Here were likewise several little Plantations planted with Potatoes and Yams. The Soil and Natural produce of the Country was much the same as what we have hitherto met with. The people we saw behaved to us with great marks of friendship. In the evening we had Some very heavy showers of rain, and this brought us on board sooner than we intended. A.M., the wind being still contrary, I sent some people ashore upon the Island to cut Grass for our Sheep, in the doing of which the inhabitants gave them no sort of disturbance, and in the same friendly manner did those behave that were alongside the Ship. Punished Matthew Cox with 6 Lashes, and then dismiss’d him.

Saturday, 2nd. Winds at North-West and North. P.M. a Gentle breeze; the remainder Strong Gales and hazey, with much rain towards Noon. At 8 a.m. hoisted out the Long boat, and sent her ashore for water, and the Pinnace to haul the Sean; but they had not got well ashore before it began to blow and rain very hard. This occasioned them to return on board with one Turn of water and but a very few fish.

Sunday, 3rd. P.M., Strong Gales at North, with rain; the remainder Gentle breezes from the Westward. A.M., sent 2 Boats to sound the Harbour and one to haul the Sean, the latter of which met with very little Success.

Monday, 4th. Gentle breezes at North-West, West-North-West, and West; very fair weather. P.M., Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and myself landed upon one of the Islands* on the North side of the one the Ship lays under. This Island is about 3 Miles in Circuit, and hath upon it 40 or 50 Acres of Land cultivated and planted with roots; here are likewise several small streams of Excellent water. This Island, as well as most others in this Bay, seem to be well inhabited. At 4 a.m. sent the Long boat to the above Island for water and some hands to cut Grass, and at 9, I went with the Pinnace and Yawl over upon the Main, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. In our way we passed by a point of land on which stood a Hippa or Fortified Village, the inhabitants of which waved us to come ashore, and accordingly we landed, which we had no sooner done than the People came about us with Quantitys of various sorts of fish, which we purchased of them for meer Trifles. After this they shew’d us the Village, which was a neat Compact place, and its situation well Choose. There were 2 or 3 more near unto this, but these we did not go to. We afterwards went a little way into the Country, and had some of the Natives along with us; we met with a good deal of Cultivated land, planted mostly with sweet potatoes. The face of the Country appear’d Green and pleasant, and the soil seem’d to be pretty rich and proper for Cultivation. The land is every where about this Bay of a moderate height, but full of small Hills and Vallies, and not much incumbered with wood. We met with about 1/2 a dozen Cloth plants, being the same as the inhabitants of the Islands lying within the Tropics make their finest Cloth on. This plant must be very scarce among them, as the Cloth made from it is only worn in small pieces by way of Ornaments at their ears, and even this we have seen but very seldom. Their knowing the use of this sort of Cloth doth in some measure account for the extraordinary fondness they have shew’d for it above every other thing we had to give them. Even a sheet of white paper is of more value than so much English Cloth of any sort whatever; but, as we have been at few places where I have not given away more or less of the latter, it’s more than probable that they will soon learn to set a value upon it, and likewise upon Iron, a thing not one of them knows the use of or sets the least value upon; but was European commodities in ever such Esteem among them, they have no one thing of Equal value to give in return, at least that we have seen.

(* Probably Motu-Rua.)

Tuesday, 5th. P.M., had the winds at South-West and West-South-West, a fresh breeze. At 3 o’Clock we return’d on board, and after dinner Visited another part of the Bay, but met with nothing new. By the evening all our Empty Casks were fill’d with water, and had at the same time got on board a large quantity of Sellery, which is found here in great Plenty. This I still caused to be boild every morning with Oatmeal and Portable Soup for the Ship’s Company’s breakfast. At 4 a.m. weigh’d with a light breeze at South-East, but had Variable light Airs and sometimes Calm until near Noon, when a Gentle breeze sprung up at North. At this time we had not got out of the Bay; our latitude by Observation was 35 degrees 9 minutes South. This Bay I have before observed, lies on the West side of Cape Brett: I have named it the Bay of Islands,* on account of the Great Number which line its shores, and these help to form Several safe and Commodious Harbours, wherein is room and Depth of Water sufficient for any number of Shipping. The one we lay in is on the South-West side of South-Westermost Island, that lies on the South-East side of the Bay. I have made no accurate Survey of this Bay; the time it would have requir’d to have done this discouraged me from attempting it; besides, I thought it quite Sufficient to be able to Affirm with Certainty that it affords a good Anchorage and every kind of refreshment for Shipping, but as this was not the Season for roots, we got only fish. Some few we Caught ourselves with hook and line and in the Sean, but by far the greatest part we purchased of the Natives, and these of Various sorts, such as Sharks, Stingrays, Breams, Mullet, Mackerel, and several other sorts. Their way of Catching them is the same as ours, viz., with Hook and line and Seans; of the last they have some prodidgious large made all of a Strong Kind of Grass. The Mackerel are in every respect the same as those we have in England, only some are larger than any I ever saw in any other Part of the World; although this is the Season for this fish, we have never been able to Catch one with hook and line. The inhabitants of this Bay are far more numerous than at any other place we have yet been in, and seem to live in friendship one with another, although it doth not at all appear that they are united under one head.† They inhabited both the Islands and the Main, and have a Number of Hippas, or Strong Holds, and these are all built in such places as nature hath in a great part fortified, and what she hath left undone the people themselves have finished. It is high water in this Bay at full and change of the Moon about 8 o’clock, and the tide at these times rises and falls upon a perpendicular 6 or 8 feet. It appears, from the few Observations I have been able to make of the Tides on the Sea-Coast, that the flood comes from the Southward, and I have lately had reasons to think that there is a current which comes from the Westward and sets along shore to the South-East or South-South-East, as the Land lays.

(* The principal settlement in the Bay of Islands is Russell. A little higher up the Waikare River, at Opua, coal obtained from mines in the vicinity is shipped. At Russell, then called Kororarika, the first settlement of missionaries was formed in 1814 by Samuel Marsden. Here also the Government of the Island was first established in 1840, but was soon removed to Auckland.)

(† This district was found to be very populous when the missionaries came.)

[Sail from Bay of Islands, New Zealand.]

Wednesday, 6th. P.M., had a Gentle breeze at North-North-West, with which we kept turning out of the Bay, but gain’d little or nothing; in the evening it fell little wind; at 10 o’Clock it was Calm. At this time the tide or Current seting the Ship near one of the Islands, where we were very near being ashore; but, by the help of our Boats and a light Air from the Southward, we got clear. About an hour after, when we thought ourselves out of all danger, the Ship struck upon a Sunken rock* and went immediately clear without receiving any perceptible damage. Just before the man in the Chains had 17 fathoms Water, and immediately after she struck 5 fathoms, but very soon Deepned to 20. This rock lies half-a-mile West-North-West from the Northermost or outermost Island that lies on the South-East side of the Bay. Had light Airs from the Land and sometimes Calm until 9 o’Clock a.m.; at this time we had got out of the Bay, and a breeze springing up at North-North-West, we stood out to Sea. At noon Cape Brett bore South-South-East 1/2 South, distant 10 miles. latitude observed, 34 degrees 59 minutes South.

(* Called Whale Rock, in Endeavour’s chart.)

Thursday, 7th. P.M., a fresh breeze from the Westward and Clear weather. At 3 o’Clock took several Observations of the Sun and Moon; the mean result of them gives 185 degrees 36 minutes West Longitude from the Meridian of Greenwich. What winds we have had this 24 hours hath been against us, so that at Noon we had advanced but very little to the Westward.

Friday, 8th. Forepart of P.M. had a Gentle breeze at North-North-West, with which we stood in shore and fetched close under the Cavalle Islands. They are a Group of Small Islands lying close under the Main land, and 7 Leagues North 60 West from Cape Brett, and 3 1/2 Leagues from Point Rodney. From these Islands the Main land trends West by North. We were here Visited by several Canoes, and the People in them seem’d desirous of Trafficking with us, but at this time a breeze of wind sprung up at South, they could not keep up with the Ship, and I would not wait for them. The wind did not continue long at South before it veer’d to South-West and West, a light breeze. Found the Variation in the Evening to be 12 degrees 42 minutes East, and in the Morning 13 degrees East. Keept standing to the West-North-West and North-West until 10 A.M., at which time we tacked and stood in for the Shore, being about 5 Leagues off, and in this situation had 118 fathoms Water. At Noon Cape Brett bore South-East, distant 13 Leagues, and the Westermost land in sight bore West by South, being at this time about 4 Leagues from Land. latitude in per Observation, 34 degrees 42 minutes South.

Saturday, 9th. P.M., had a Gentle Breeze at West, which in the Evening came to South and continued so all night; this by daylight brought us pretty well in with the land, 7 Leagues to the Westward of the Cavalle Isles, and where lies a deep Bay running in South-West by West and West-South-West, the bottom of which we could but just see, and there the land appear’d to be low and level, the 2 points which form the Entrance lie West-North-West and East-South-East 5 Miles from each other. This Bay I have named Doubtless Bay;* the wind not permitting us to look into this Bay we steer’d for the Westermost land we had in sight, which bore from us West-North-West, distant 3 Leagues, but before we got the length of it it fell calm, and continued so until 10 o’Clock, when a breeze sprung up at West-North-West, and with it we stood off North. While we lay becalm’d, several of the Natives came off to the Ship in 5 Canoes, but were fearful of venturing alongside. After these were gone, 6 more came off; these last came boldly alongside, and sold us fish of different sorts sufficient to give all hands a little.

(* There is a small settlement called Mangonui in Doubtless Bay.)

At noon, the Cavalle Islands bore South-East by East, distant 8 Leagues, and the Entrance of Doubtless Bay South by West distant 3 Leagues, and the North-West Extremity of the Land in sight, which we judge to be the Main, bore North-West by West. Our latitude by observation was 34 degrees 44 minutes South.

[Off Rangaunu Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 10th. Had the winds from the Western board all this day, a Gentle breeze and clear weather. In the evening found the Variation to be 12 degrees 41 minutes East per Azimuth and 12 degrees 40 minutes by the Amplitude; in the morning we stood Close in with the Land, 7 Leagues to the westward of Doubtless Bay. Here the shore forms another large open Bay; the Bottom of this and Doubtless Bay cannot be far from each other, being to all appearance only seperated by a low neck of land from which juts out a Peninsula or head land, which I have named Knockle Point. West by South 6 Leagues from this point and about the Middle of the Bay is a high Mountain or Hill standing upon a desart shore, on which account we called it Mount Camel; latitude 34 degrees 51 minutes; Longitude 186 degrees 50 minutes. In this Bay we had 24 and 25 fathoms Water, the bottom good for Anchorage, but their seems to be nothing that can induce Shipping to put into it for no Country upon Earth can look more barren than the land about this bay doth. It is in general low, except the Mountain just Mentioned, and the Soil to all appearance nothing but white sand thrown up in low irregular hills, lying in Narrow ridges parrallel with the shore; this occasioned me to name it Sandy Bay.* The first ridge behind the Sea beach is partly cover’d with Shrubs, Plants, etc., but the second ridge hath hardly any green thing upon it, which induced me to think that it lies open to the Western Sea.† As barren as this land appears it is not without inhabitants. We saw a Village on this Side of Mount Camel and another on the Eastern side of the Bay, besides 5 Canoes that were pulling off to the Ship, but did not come up with us. At 9 a.m. we tacked and stood to the Northward at Noon. Latitude in Per observation 34 degrees 38 minutes. The Cavalle Isles bore South-East by East, distant 13 Leagues; the Northern Extremity of the land in sight making like an Island bore North-West 1/4 North, distant 9 Leagues, and Mount Camel bore South-West by South, distant 6 Leagues. Tacked and stood in Shore.

(* Rangaunu Bay.)

(† This is the fact.)

Monday, 11th. Gentle breezes at North. M.d and pleasant weather. Keept plying all the day, but got very little to Windward; at Noon was in the latitude of 34 degrees 32 minutes South, the Northermost inland set yesterday at noon bore North-West by West, distant 6 or 7 Leagues.

Tuesday, 12th. Moderate breezes of Wind between the North-West and North and Smooth Water, yet we gain’d very little in plying to Windward; at Noon Mount Camel bore South by West 1/4, distant 4 or 5 Leagues. latitude observed 34 degrees 34 minutes South.

Wednesday, 13th. Fore part of P.M., Moderate breezes at North by West and fair weather; stood in shore until 5 O’Clock, at which time we tack’d and stood to the North-East being 2 Leagues to the Northward of Mount Camel and 1 1/2 Mile from shore, and this situation had 22 fathoms water. At 10 it began to blow and rain, which brought us under double Reeft Top sails; at 12 Tack’d and Stood to the Westward until 7 A.M. when we Tack’d and stood again to North-East, being at this time about a Mile to windward of the place where we tack’d last night. Soon after we Tack’d it came on to blow very hard at North-North-West with heavy squalls attended with rain, this brought us under our Courses and Split the Main Top sail in such a manner that it was necessary to unbend it and bring another to the Yard. At 10 it fell more moderate and we set the Top sails double reef’d. At Noon had strong Gales and hazey weather, Tack’d and stood to the Westward. No land in sight for the first time since we have been upon the Coast.

Thursday, 14th. Strong Gales at West and West-South-West with Squalls at times attended with Rain. At 1/2 past 3 P.M. Tack’d and stood to the Northward. A small Island lying off Knockle point, bore South 1/2 West, distant half a League. In the evening brought the Ship under her Courses, having first Split the Fore and Mizen Top sails; at Midnight wore and Stood to the Southward until 5 a.m., then Tack’d and stood to the North-West. At this time saw the land bearing South, distant 8 or 9 Leagues; by this we found we had fell very much to Leeward since Yesterday morning. Set the Top sails close Reeft and the people to dry and repair the Damaged Sails. At Noon a strong Gale and clear weather, Latitude observ’d 34 degrees 6 minutes South. Saw land bearing South-West being the same North-Westermost land we have seen before, and which I take to be the Northern Extremity of this Country, as we have now a large swell rowling in from the Westward which could not well be, was we covered by any land on that point of the Compass.*

(* The Endeavour was now to the northward of the north point of New Zealand.)

[Off North Cape, New Zealand.]

Friday, 15th. Fresh Gales at South-West, and for the most part clear weather with a large Swell from the Westward. At 8 P.M. Tack’d and Stood to the South-East until 8 a.m., and then Tack’d and stood to the Westward with as much sail as the Ship could bear. At Noon we were in the latitude of 34 degrees 10 minutes South, and Longitude 183 degrees 45 minutes West, and by Estimation about 15 Leagues from the Land notwithstanding we used our utmost Endeavours to keep in with it.

Saturday, 16th. Fresh breezes between the South by West and South-West. Clear weather with a Swell from the Westward. At 6 A.M. saw the land from the Mast Head bearing South-South-West. Got Top Gallant Yards up and set the Sail, unbent the Foresail to repair and brought another to the Yard. At Noon, latitude observ’d 33 degrees 43 minutes South; Course made since Yesterday Noon North 60 degrees West; distance 56 Miles. The Land in sight bearing South by West, distant 14 Leagues.

Sunday, 17th. A Gentle breeze between the South-West by West and West with Clear weather. In standing in Shore sounded several times and had no ground with 90 fathoms of line. At 8 a.m. Tack’d in 108 fathoms 3 or 4 miles from the Shore, being the same point of Land as we had to the North-West of us before we were blown off. At Noon it bore South-West, distant about 3 Miles. Mount Camel bore South by East, distant 11 Leagues, and the Westermost land in sight bore South 75 degrees West; latitude observ’d 34 degrees 20 minutes South. The people at work repairing the Sails, the most of them having been Split in the late blowing weather.

Monday, 18th. Moderate breezes at West and West-North-West and Clear weather. At 4 p.m. Tack’d and stood in shore, in doing of which we meet with a Strong rippling, and the Ship fell fast to leeward, occasioned, as we thought, by a Current setting to the Eastward. At 8 Tack’d and stood off North until 8 a.m., when we Tack’d and stood in, being about 10 Leagues from the Land. At Noon the Point of Land we were near to yesterday at noon bore South-South-West, distant 5 Leagues. latitude observed 34 degrees 8 minutes South.

Tuesday, 19th. The wind still continues at West. P.M., a moderate breeze and Clear weather. At 7 Tack’d in 35 fathoms; the point of land before mentioned bore North-West by North, distant 4 or 5 Miles, having not gained one inch to windward this last 24 hours, which is a great proof that there must be a Current setting to the Eastward.* The Point of Land above mentioned I have called North Cape, judging it to be the Northermost Extremity of this Country. It lies in the latitude of 34 degrees 22 minutes South and Longitude 186 degrees 55 minutes West from Greenwich,† and North 63 degrees West 31 Leagues from Cape Brett; it forms the North Point of Sandy Bay, and is a peninsula juting out North-East about 2 Miles, and Terminates in a Bluff head which is flatt at Top. The Isthmus which joins this head to the Mainland is very low, on which account the land off the Cape from several situations makes like an Island. It appears still more remarkable when to the Southward of it by the appearance of a high round Island at the South-East Point of the Cape; but this is likewise a deception, being a round hill join’d to the Cape by a low, narrow neck of Land; on the South-East side of the Cape there appears to be anchorage, and where ships must be covered from South-East and North-West winds. We saw a Hippa or Village upon the Cape and some few inhabitants. In the night had some Squalls attended with rain, which obliged us to take another Reef in our Topsails. At 8 a.m. Tack’d and stood in Shore, and being moderate loosed a Reef out of each Topsail and set the small sails. At noon we were in the latitude of 34 degrees 2 minutes South, and being hazey over the land we did not see it.

(* This strong easterly current is now well known.)

(† This position is very correct.)

Wednesday, 20th. P.M., Fresh breezes at West by North, and Clear weather. At 6 Tack’d and stood off, North Cape bore South, distant 3 or 4 Miles. At 4 a.m. Tack’d and stood in, Wind at West-North-West a fresh breeze, but at 9 it increased to a Strong Gale with heavy squalls attended with Thunder and Rain, which brought us under our Courses. At 11 it Cleared up and the Wind came to West-South-West; we set the Topsails, double Reef’d and Tack’d and stood to the North-West. At Noon, a Stiff Gale and Clear weather; latitude observed 34 degrees 14 minutes South. North Cape South-South-West, distant 3 Leagues.

Thursday, 21st. Fresh breezes at South-West and clear weather with a heavy swell first from the West, then from the South-West. At 8 a.m. loosed the 2nd Reef out of the Topsails; at noon clear weather, no land in sight. The North Cape bore South 25 degrees East, distant 24 Leagues. latitude observed 33 degrees 17 minutes South.

Friday, 22nd. A moderate Gale at South by West and South-South-West and Cloudy weather. At 8 a.m. got up Top Gallant Yards and set the sails. At Noon latitude observ’d 33 degrees 2 minutes South. Course and distant since Yesterday at Noon is North 69 1/2 West, 37 Miles. The North Cape bore South 39 degrees East, distant 38 Leagues.

Saturday, 23rd. Gentle breezes between the South by West and South-West, and Clear settled weather, with a swell from the South-West. Course and distance sailed since Yesterday at Noon is South 60 degrees East, 30 Miles. latitude observed 33 degrees 17 minutes South. North Cape South 36 minutes East, distant 27 Leagues.

Sunday, 24th. Light Airs next to a Calm all this 24 Hours. At 7 p.m. saw the land from the Mast head bearing South 1/2 East; at 11 a.m. saw it again bearing South-South-East, distant 8 Leagues. At Noon latitude observed 33 degrees 48 minutes South.

Monday, 25th. A Gentle breeze at South-East, the weather a little hazey. P.M., stood to the South-West. At 4 the land above mentioned bore South-East by South, distant 4 Leagues. It proves to be a small Island, which we take to be the 3 Kings discover’d by Tasman; there are several Smaller Islands or Rocks lying off the South-West end and one at the North-East end. It lies in the latitude of 34 degrees 10 minutes South, and Longitude 187 degrees 45 minutes West and West 14 degrees North, 14 or 15 Leagues from the North Cape. At Midnight Tack’d and stood to the North-East until 6 a.m., then Tack’d and stood to the Southward. At Noon the Island of the 3 Kings bore East 8 degrees North, distant 5 or 6 Leagues. latitude observed 34 degrees 12 minutes South, Longitude in 188 degrees 5 minutes West; variation per Azimuth taken this morning 11 degrees 25 minutes East.

Tuesday, 26th. Moderate breezes, Easterly and hazey weather; standing to the Southward close upon a wind. At Noon was in the latitude of 35 degrees 10 minutes South and Longitude 188 degrees 20 minutes West. The island of the 3 Kings North 26 degrees West, distant 22 Leagues. In this situation had no land in sight, and yet by observation we are in the Latitude of the Bay of Islands, and by my reckoning but 30 Leagues to the Westward of the North Cape, from whence it appears that the Northern part of this land must be very narrow, otherwise we must have seen some part of the West side of it.

Wednesday, 27th. Winds at East. P.M., a fresh Gale, with which we stood to the Southward until 12 at Night, then Tack’d and Stood to the Northward. At 4 a.m. the wind began to freshen, and increased in such a manner that at 9 we were obliged to bring the Ship too under her Mainsail, it blowing at this time excessive hard with heavy Squalls attended with rain, and at the same time thick hazey weather. Course made good since Yesterday at Noon South-South-West 1/2 West, distance 11 Miles. latitude in 35 degrees 19 minutes South, Longitude in 188 degrees 29 minutes West. The Island of the 3 Kings, North 27 degrees East, distant 77 Miles.

[Off North End of New Zealand.]

Thursday, 28th. The Gale continued without the least intermission until 2 a.m., when the wind fell a little and began to veer to the Southward and to the South-West where it fixed at 4, and we made Sail and steer’d East in for the Land under the Foresail and Mainsail, but was soon obliged to take in the latter as it began to blow very hard and increased in such a manner that by 8 o’Clock it was a meer Hurricane attended with rain and the Sea run prodidgious high. At this time we wore the Ship, hauld up the Topsail, and brought her too with her head to the North-West under a Reefed Mainsail, but this was scarcely done before the Main Tack gave way and we were glad to take in the Mainsail and lay too under the Mizen staysail and Ballanced Mizen, after which we reefd the Foresail and furl’d both it and the Mainsail. At Noon the Gale was a little abated, but had still heavy squalls attended with rain. Our Course made good to-day is North, a little Easterly, 29 miles; latitude in per Account 34 degrees 50 minutes South; Longitude in 188 degrees 27 minutes West; the 3 Kings North 41 East; distant 52 Miles.

Friday, 29th. Winds at South-West and South-West by West. A very hard Gale with Squalls but mostly fair weather. At 7 p.m. wore and lay on the other Tack. At 6 a.m. loosed the Reef out of the Foresail and Set it and the Reefd Mainsail. At 11 unbent both Foresail and Mainsail to repair, and bent others and made Sail under them. At Noon latitude observed 34 degrees 45 minutes South. Course and distance saild since yesterday East by North 29 miles.

Saturday, 30th. Winds at South-West. P.M., hard Gales with some Squalls attended with rain. A.M., more moderate and fair. At 8 p.m. wore and stood to the North-West until 5 a.m., then wore and stood to the South-East and being pretty moderate we set the Topsails close Reef’d, but the South-West Sea runs so high that the Ship goes Bodily to leeward. At 6 saw the land bearing North-East distant about 6 Leagues which we judge to be the same as Tasman calls Cape Maria Van Dieman; at Noon it bore North-North-East 1/2 East and we could see the land extend to the East and Southward as far as South-East by East. Our latitude by observation 34 degrees 50 minutes South.

Sunday, 31st. Fresh gales at South-West and South-West by South accompanied by a large Sea from the same Quarter. At 1 p.m. Tack’d and Stood to the North-West until 8, then stood to the South-East. At this time the Island of the 3 Kings bore North-West by West, distant 11 Leagues, and Cape Maria Van Diemen North by East. At Midnight wore and Stood to the North-West until 4 a.m., then wore and Stood to the South-East; at Noon our latitude by observation was 34 degrees 42 minutes South. The land of Cape Maria Van Diemen bore North-East by North distant about 5 Leagues.

1770.

[January 1770.]

Monday, January 1st. P.M., fresh breezes at South-West by South and Squally, the remainder moderate breezes at South-West by South and South-West clear weather. At 7 p.m. Tack’d and stood to the Westward. At this time Mount Camel bore North 83 degrees East and the Northermost land or Cape Maria Van Diemen North by West, being distant from the Nearest Shore 3 Leagues; in this situation had 40 fathoms Water.

NOTE. Mount Camel doth not appear to lay little more than a Mile from the Sea on this Side* and about the same distance on the other, so that the land here cannot be above 2 or 3 Miles broad from Sea to Sea, which is what I computed when we were in Sandy Bay on the other side of the Coast. At 6 a.m. Tack’d and Stood to the Eastward, the Island of the 3 Kings North-West by North. At Noon Tack’d again and stood to the Westward, being in the latitude of 34 degrees 37 minutes South; the Island of the 3 Kings bore North-West by North, distant 10 or 11 Leagues; and Cape Maria Van Diemen North 31 East, distant 4 1/2 Leagues; in this situation had 54 fathoms. I cannot help thinking but what it will appear a little strange that at this season of the Year we should be 3 Weeks in getting 10 Leagues to the Westward and 5 Weeks in getting 50 Leagues, for so long it is since we pass’d Cape Brett; but it will hardly be credited that in the midst of Summer and in the latitude of 35 degrees South such a Gale of wind as we have had could have hapned which for its Strength and Continuance was such as I hardly was ever in before. Fortunately at this time we were a good distance from land, otherwise it would have proved fatal to us.†

(* It is, in fact, about six miles, but the coast in front is so low that the mistake in estimation is very natural.)

(† The north point of New Zealand is celebrated for bad weather.)

Tuesday, 2nd. Fresh breezes at South-South-West and West accompanied with a rowling Sea from the South-West. At 5 p.m. the wind Veering to the Westward we Tack’d and Stood to the Southward. At this time the North Cape bore East 3/4 North and was just open of a point that lies 3 Leagues West by South from it, being now well assured that it is the Northermost Extremity of this Country and is the East point of a Peninsula which Stretches out North-West and North-West by North 17 or 18 Leagues, and as I have before observed is for the most part low and narrow except its Extremity where the land is Tollerable high and Extends 4 or 5 Leagues every way. Cape Maria Van Diemen is the West point of the Peninsula and lies in the latitude of 34 degrees 30 minutes South; Longitude 187 degrees 18 minutes West from Greenwich.* From this Cape the Land Trends away South-East by South and South-East to and beyond Mount Camel, and is everywhere a barren shore affording no better prospect than what ariseth from white sand Banks. At 1/2 past 7 p.m. the Island of the 3 Kings bore North-West by North and Cape Maria Van Diemen North-East by East, distant 4 Leagues. At 5 a.m. Cape Maria Van Diemen bore North-North-East 1/2 East and Mount Camel East. At Noon was in the latitude of 35 degrees 17 minutes and Cape Maria Van Diemen by judgment bore North distant 16 Leagues; having no land in sight, not daring to go near it as the wind blow’d fresh right on shore and a high rowling Sea from the Same Quarter, and knowing that there was no Harbour that we could put into in case we were Caught upon a lee shore.

(* This is extraordinarily accurate, seeing that the ship was never close to the Cape, and the observations were all taken in bad weather. The latitude is exact, and the longitude is only three miles in error. The persistence with which Cook clung to this point until he could resume his exploration and examination of the coast is very characteristic of the man. He would not willingly miss a mile of it, nor did he.)

Wednesday, 3rd. Winds at West-South-West and South-West; a fresh breeze and Squally, the remainder moderate with frequent Squalls attended with rain. In the evening shortned Sail and at Midnight Tack’d and made a Trip to the North-West until 2 a.m., then wore and stood to the Southward. At daylight made Sail and Edged away in order to make the Land; at 10 saw it bearing North-East and appeared to be high land; at Noon it extended from North to East-North-East distant, by Estimation, 8 or 10 Leagues, and Cape Maria Van Diemen bore North 2 degrees 30 minutes West, distant 33 Leagues. Our latitude by observation was 36 degrees 2 minutes South. A high rowling swell from the South-West.

[Off Kaipara Harbour, North Island, New Zealand.]

Thursday, 4th. Winds at South-West and South-West by South; mostly a fresh Gale accompanied with a rowling sea from the same Quarter. Being desirous of taking as near a View of the coast as we could with safety we keept Edging in for it until 7 o’Clock p.m., being at this time 6 Leagues from the Land. We then hauld our wind to South-East and keept on that Course close upon the wind all night, sounding several times but had no ground with 100 and 110 fathoms. At 8 o’Clock a.m. was about 5 Leagues from the Land and a place which lies in the latitude of 36 degrees 25 minutes that had the Appearance of a Bay or inlet bore East.* In order to see more of this place we kept on our Course until 11 o’Clock when we were not above 3 Leagues from it, and then found that it was neither a Bay nor inlet, but low land bounded on each side by higher lands which caused the deception. At this time we Tack’d and stood to the North-West. At Noon we were between 3 and 4 Leagues from the Land and in the latitude of 36 degrees 31 minutes and Longitude 185 degrees 50 minutes West. Cape Maria Van Diemen bore North 25 West, distant 44 1/2 Leagues. From this I form my judgment of the direction of this Coast, which is nearly South-South-East 3/4 East and North-North-West 3/4 West, and must be nearly a Strait Shore. In about the latitude 35 degrees 45 minutes is some high land adjoining to the Sea; to the Southward of that the land is of a moderate heigth, and wears a most desolate and inhospitable aspect. Nothing is to be seen but long sand Hills, with hardly any Green thing upon them, and the great Sea which the prevailing Westerly winds impell upon the Shore must render this a very Dangerous Coast. This I am so fully sencible of, that was we once clear of it I am determined not to come so near Again, if I can possible avoid it, unless we have a very favourable wind indeed.†

(* This was Kaipara Harbour, although, on a closer inspection, Cook thought he had been deceived. It is the largest harbour on this part of the coast. The town of Helensville stands on one of its arms.)

(† The mingled audacity and caution of Cook’s navigation off this coast must awake the admiration of every seaman.)

Friday, 5th. Fresh gales at South-West with frequent Squalls attended with rain. The South-West swell still keeping up we stood to the North-West all this day with a prest Sail in order to get an Offing. At Noon True Course made good North 38 West, distance 102 Miles. latitude in per Observation 35 degrees 10 minutes South. Cape Maria Van Diemen bore North 10 degrees East; distant 41 Miles.

Saturday, 6th. First part a fresh breeze at South-West by South; in the night had it at South. A.M., light Airs from the Southward next to a Calm, and Clear weather. Course made good to-day is North 76 West; distance 8 Miles; latitude per Observation 35 degrees 8 minutes South.

Sunday, 7th. Variable light Airs and Sometimes Calm with Clear pleasant weather. At daylight saw the land which we took to be Cape Maria Van Diemen bearing North-North-East, distant 8 or 9 Leagues. At Noon latitude in per Observation 35 degrees 0 minutes South. Cape Maria Van Diemen bore North, distant 11 Leagues.

Monday, 8th. Gentle breezes at North-East and pleasant weather. At 6 p.m. saw the land bearing East, and sometime after saw a Turtle upon the Water. At Noon the land Extending from North to East, distant 5 or 6 Leagues, being the high land before mentioned and which it intersected in 2 places each having the appearance of a Bay or inlet, but I believe it is only low land.* Course and distance made good since Yesterday at Noon is South 33 East, 53 miles. latitude per Observation 35 degrees 45 minutes South. Cape Maria Van Diemen North 25 West, distant 30 Leagues.

(* These were Hokianga and False Hokianga.)

Tuesday, 9th. Gentle breezes between the North-East and North-West, Cloudy weather sailing along shore within sight of Land at Noon. Course and distance Sailed South 37 East, 69 Miles. latitude in per Observation 36 degrees 39 minutes South; the place we were abreast of the 4th Instant, which we at first took for a Bay or Inlet* bore North-East by North, distant 5 1/2 Leagues, and Cape Maria Van Diemen bore North 29 West, distant 47 Leagues.

(* Kaipara.)

[Off Kawhia Harbour, North Island, New Zealand.]

Wednesday, 10th. Winds at North-North-East and North, the first part a Gentle breeze, the remainder a fresh breeze and Cloudy with rain towards Noon. Continued a South-East Course until’ 8 o’Clock p.m. at which time we had run 7 Leagues since Noon, and were between 3 and 4 Leagues from the Land which appear’d to be low and Sandy such as I have before Discribed, and we then steer’d South-East by East in a Parrallel direction with the Coast, our Depth of Water from 48 to 34 fathoms; a black sandy bottom; at daylight found ourselves between 2 and 3 Leagues from the land which was of a Moderate height and Cloathed with Wood and Verdure. At 7 o’Clock steer’d South by East and afterwards South by West, the land laying in that direction; at 9 was abreast of a Point of Land which rises sloping from the Sea to a Considerable height; it lies in the latitude of 37 degrees 43 minutes South; I named it Woodyhead. South-West 1/2 West 11 Miles from this Head is a very small Island which we named Gannet Island, on account of the Great Number of these Birds we saw upon it. At Noon a high Craggy point bore East-North-East, distance 1 1/2 Leagues; this point I have named Albetross Point; it lies in the latitude of 38 degrees 4 minutes South, and Longitude 184 degrees 42 minutes West, and from Woodyhead South 17 minutes West 7 Leagues. On the North side of it the shore forms a Bay wherein there appears to be anchorage and Shelter for Shipping against Southerly Winds;* our Course and distance saild since Yesterday at Noon is South 37 East, distance 69 Miles. Cape Maria Van Diemen bore North 30 West, distant 82 Leagues.

(* Kawhia Harbour. There is a settlement here.)

Thursday, 11th. At 1/2 past Noon the wind Shifted at Once from North-North-East to South-South-West with which we stood to the Westward until 4 p.m., then Tack’d and stood on Shore until’ 7, when we again stood to the Westward having but little wind. At this Time Albetross Point bore North-East, distant near 2 Leagues, and the Southermost land in sight bore South-South-West 1/2 West being a very high Mountain and made very much like the Peak of Teneriff; in this Situation had 30 fathoms Water; had little wind all night; at 4 a.m. Tacked and stood in Shore, but it soon after fell Calm and being in 42 fathoms Water; the People caught about 10 or 12 Bream. At 11 a light breeze sprung up from the Westward and we made Sail to the Southward. At Noon was by Observation in the latitude of 38 degrees 4 minutes South; Albetross Point bore due East, distant 5 or 6 Leagues.

Friday, 12th. Gentle breezes from between the North-West and North-North-East; Fore and Middle part Clear Weather; the Latter part dark and Cloudy; steering along shore South by West and South-South-West at the distance of 4 Leagues off. At 7 p.m. saw the top of the Peaked Mountain to the Southward above the Clouds bearing from us South; at the same time the Southermost land we had in Sight bore South by West. Took several Azimuths both in the Evening and the Morning which gave the Variation 14 degrees 15 minutes Easterly. At Noon had the winds very Variable with dark cloudy weather attended with excessive heavy Showers of rain; at this time we were about 3 Leagues from the Shore which lies under the Peaked Mountain before mentioned. This Peak we did not see, it being hid in the Clouds, but judged it to bear about South-South-East, and some very remarkable peaked Islands, lying under the Shore, bore East-South-East, distant 3 or 4 Leagues.

Saturday, 13th. Winds Variable. P.M., Cloudy weather. At 7 o’Clock sounded and had 42 fathoms water, being distant from the Shore between 2 and 3 Leagues and the Peaked Mountain as near as I could judge bore East. After it was Dark saw a fire upon the Shore, a sure sign that the Country is inhabited. In the night had some Thunder, Lightning, and Rain; at 5 a.m. saw for a few Minutes the Top of the Peaked Mountain above the Clouds bearing North-East. It is of a prodidgious height and its Top is cover’d with Everlasting Snow; it lies in the latitude of 39 degrees 16 minutes South, and in the Longitude of 185 degrees 15 minutes West. I have named it Mount Egmont in honour of the Earl of Egmont.* This mountain seems to have a pretty large base and to rise with a Gradual Ascent to the Peak, and what makes it more Conspicuous is its being situated near the Sea and in the Midst of a flat Country which afforded a very good Aspect, being Cloathed with Woods and Verdure. The shore under the foot of this Mountain forms a large Cape which I have named Cape Egmont; it lies South-South-West 1/2 West, 27 Leagues from Albetross Point. On the North-East side of the Cape lay 2 Small Islands near to a very remarkable Point of the Main that riseth to a good height in the very form of a Sugar Loaf. To the Southward of the Cape the Land tends away South-East by East and East-South-East, and seems to be every where a bold shore. At Noon had variable light Airs and Clear weather. latitude observ’d 39 degrees 32 minutes South. Cape Egmont bore about North-East, and we were about 4 Leagues from the Shore in that direction; in this situation had 40 fathoms Water.

(* The Earl of Egmont was First Lord of the Admiralty from 1763 to 1766. Mount Egmont is a magnificent conical mountain, surrounded on three sides by the sea, from which it rises to a height of 8300 feet.)

[In North Part of Cook’s Strait.]

Sunday, 14th. P.M., had a Gentle Breeze at West. In the evening came to North-West by West and Continued so all night and blow’d a fresh breeze; we steer’d along shore East-South-East and South-East by East, keeping between 2 and 3 Leagues off. At 1/2 past 7 p.m. Saw for a few Minutes Mount Egmont which bore from us North 17 West, distant 10 Leagues. At 5 a.m. Steer’d South-East by South the land inclining more Southerly, but half an hour after we saw land bearing South-West by South which we hauld up for.* At this time the weather was squally attended with showers of rain. At noon had a Steady fresh breeze at West by North and Cloudy weather; the South-West Extremity of the Land in sight bore South 63 degrees West and some high land, which makes like an Island lying under the Main, bore South-South-East, distant 5 Leagues. The bottom of the Bay† we are now in, and which bears from us South we cannot see, altho’ it is very Clear in that Quarter. Our Latitude by Observation is 40 degrees 27 minutes South, Longitude 184 degrees 39 minutes West.**

(* The north end of the South Island, New Zealand.)

(† This was the Northern part of Cook’s Strait, but it was thought at the time to be a bay.)

(** The western side of the North Island, which Cook took such trouble to follow, is 400 miles long, and is a most dangerous coast to explore, on account of the winds being mostly on shore. This prevented him from getting very close; and he missed the entrances to several harbours, such as the Manukau, the Waikato River, Whaingaroa, and others. No canoes were seen, as the coast is not favourable for such craft.)

Monday, 15th. Fore and Middle parts, fresh breezes between the West and North-West and fair weather. At 8 p.m. we were within 2 Leagues of the Land, we discover’d in the morning, having run 10 Leagues since Noon; the land seen then bearing South 63 degrees West bore now North 59 degrees West, distant 7 or 8 Leagues and makes like an Island. Between this land or Island and Cape Egmont is a very broad and Deep Bay or inlet the South-West side of which we are now upon, and here the Land is of a Considerable height, distinguished by Hills and Valleys, and the Shore seems to form several Bays, into one of which I intend to go with the Ship in order to Careen her (she being very foul) and to repair some few defects, recruit our Stock of Wood, Water, etc. With this View we Keept plying on and off all Night, having from 80 to 63 fathoms Water; at daylight stood in for an inlet which runs in South-West.* At 8 a.m. we were got within the Entrance which may be known by a Reef of Rocks stretching off from the North-West point, and some rocky Islands lying off the South-East point. At 9 o’clock being little wind and Variable we were carried by the Tide or Current within 2 Cables length of the North-West Shore where we had 54 fathoms, but with the help of our Boats we got Clear, at this time we saw rise up twice near the Ship a Sea Lyon, the Head of which was Exactly like the head of the Male one described by Lord Anson. We likewise saw a Canoe with some of the Natives cross the Bay, and a Village situated upon a point of an Island, which lies 7 or 8 miles with the Entrance. At Noon we were the length of this Island, and being little wind had the Boats ahead Towing.

(* Queen Charlotte’s Sound, in the north-east part of the Middle Island.)

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