Captain Cook’s Journal

Chapter 4

Tahiti to New Zealand.

Remarkable Occurrences at Sea.

[July 1769.]

FRIDAY, July 14th. Gentle breezes at North-East and Clear weather. I have before made mention of our departure from Royal Bay on the preceeding forenoon, and likewise that I had determined to run down to Huaheine and Ulietea [Raiatea] before we stood to the Southward; but having discovered, from the Hills of George’s Island, an Island laying to the Northward, we first stood that way to take a nearer View of it. This Island is called Tethuroa. [Tetiaroa] It lies North 1/2 West, distant 8 Leagues from Point Venus, and is a small, low, uninhabited Island, frequented by the people of George’s Island for fish, with which it is said to abound. At 6 A.M. the Westermost part of York Island bore South-East 1/2 South and the body of George’s Island East 1/2 South. Punished the 2 Marines who attempted to desert from us at George’s Island with 2 Dozen lashes each, and then released them from Confinement. At Noon the body of York Island [Eimeo, or Murea] bore East by South 1/2 South, Royal Bay South 70 degrees 45 minutes East, distant 61 Miles; and an Island which we took to be Saunder’s Island, discovered by Captain Wallace (called by the Natives Topoamanan [Tubuai Manu]), bore South-South-West latitude observed, 17 degrees 9 minutes South. Saw land bearing North-West 1/2 West, which Tupia calls the Island of Huaheine.

Saturday, 15th. Light airs and Variable between the North and West-South-West. Clear weather. At 6 p.m. York Island bore South-East, and Huaheine West-North-West, and at 7 a.m. it bore West. latitude observed at Noon 16 degrees 50 minutes South. Royal Bay South 37 degrees 30 minutes East, distant 22 Leagues.

[At Huaheine.]

Sunday, 16th. Winds at South and South-South-East. A Gentle Breeze, with some few showers of rain. At 6 p.m. the Island of Huaheine West 1/2 South, distant 7 or 8 leagues. At 8 a.m., being close in with the North-West part of the Island, sounded, but had no ground with 80 fathoms. Some of the Natives came off to the Ship, but they were very shy of coming near until they discover’d Tupia; but after that they came on board without hesitation. Among those who came on board was the King of the Island, whose name is Oree. He had not been long on board before he and I exchanged Names, and we afterwards address’d each other accordingly.* At noon the North end of the Island bore South by East 1/2 East, distant 72 Leagues. latitude observed, 16 degrees 40 minutes South. Three other Islands in sight, namely, Ulietea, Otaha, and Bolabola,† so called by the Natives.

(* The Tahitians called Cook Tootee, which was their idea of the sound of his name, with a vowel termination, none of their words ending in a consonant.)

(† Tahaa and Borabora.)

Monday, 17th. Winds Southerly, fine pleasant weather. At 3 p.m. anchored in a small Harbour on the West side of the Island called by the Natives Owarhe, in 18 fathoms water, clear ground, and secure from all winds. Soon after, I went on shore, accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Dr. Monkhouse, Tupia, the King of the Island, and some others of the Natives, who had been on board since the morning. The Moment we landed Tupia stripped himself as low as his waist, and desir’d Mr. Monkhouse to do the same. He then sat down before a great number of the Natives that were collected together in a large Shed or House, the rest of us, by his own desire, standing behind; he then begun a long speach or prayer, which lasted near a Quarter of an Hour, and in the Course of this Speech presented to the People two Handkerchiefs, a black silk Neckcloth, some beads, and two very small bunches of Feathers. These things he had before provided for that purpose. At the same time two Chiefs spoke on the other side in answer to Tupia, as I suppose, in behalf of the People, and presented us with some young Plantains plants, and 2 small bunches of Feathers. These were by Tupia order’d to be carried on board the Ship. After the Peace was thus concluded and ratified, every one was at liberty to go where he pleased, and the first thing Tupia did was to go and pay his Oblations at one of the Mories. This seem’d to be a common ceremony with this people, and I suppose always perform’d upon landing on each other’s Territories in a peaceable manner. It further appear’d that the things which Tupia gave away was for the God of this People, as they gave us a Hog and some Cocoanuts for our God, and thus they have certainly drawn us in to commit sacriledge, for the Hog hath already received sentence of Death, and is to be dissected to-morrow. A.M. I set about Surveying the Island, and Dr. Monkhouse, with some hands, went ashore to Trade with the Natives, while the Long boat was employ’d compleating our Water.

Tuesday, 18th. Gentle breezes at South and South-South-West. Clear weather. The Trading party had no Success to-day. The Natives pretend that they have not had time to collect their provisions from the Differant parts of the Island, but that on the Morrow we should have some; and as I had not seen so much of the Island as I desir’d, I resolved to stay one day longer to see if anything was to be got.

Wednesday, 19th. P.M. Variable light Airs and clear weather. The Trading party had better success to-day than Yesterday. A.M. a Gentle breeze at South-East. As it was known to the Natives that we intended to sail to-day, Oree, the Chief, and several more, came on board to take their leave of us. To the Chief was given a small plate on which was Stamp’d the following inscription — viz., “His Britannick Majesty’s Ship, Endeavour, Lieutenant Cook, Commander, 16th July, 1769, Huaheine.” This was accompanied with some Medals, or Counters, of the English Coins, struck 1761, together with some other Presents. All these, but more particularly the Plate, the Chief promised never to part with. This we thought would prove as lasting a Testimony of our having first discover’d this Island as any we could leave behind. After this was done they were dismissed, and we began to prepare to leave the place. But as that falls out on the following day, I shall conclude this with a Discription of the Island, which is situated in the latitude of 16 degrees 43 minutes South, and Longitude 150 degrees 52 minutes West from Greenwich and North 58 degrees West, distance, 31 leagues, from King George’s Island, or Otaheite. It is about 7 Leagues in compass, and of a Hilly and uneven surface. It hath a safe and commodious Harbour, which lies on the West side, under the Northermost high land and within the North end of the Reef which lays along that side of the Island. Into this Harbour are 2 inlets, or openings in the Reef, about 1 1/2 Miles from each other. The Southermost is the Broadest, on the South side of which is a very small sandy Island. This Harbour is called by the Natives Ohwarhe. The produce of this Island is in all respects the same as King George’s Island, and the Manner and Customs of the inhabitants much the same, only that they are not addicted to Stealing; and with respect to colour they are rather fairer than the natives of George’s Island, and the whole more Uniformly of one Colour.

[At Raiatea.]

Thursday, 20th. Moderate breezes at East and East-North-East. Fair weather. At 1/2 past 2 p.m. weighed and made Sail for the Island of Ulietea, which lies South-West by West, Distance 7 or 8 leagues from Huaheine. At 1/2 past 6 we were within 3 Leagues of it, then shortened sail and stood off and on all night, and at daylight made Sail in shore, and soon after discover’d an opening in the Reef that lies along this side of the Island, within which, Tupia said, was a good Harbour. Upon this I hoisted out the Pinnace, and sent the Master in to Examine it, who soon made the Signal for the Ship to follow. Accordingly we stood in and Anchor’d in 22 fathoms, soft ground. Soon after we Anchor’d some of the Natives came on board the Ship with very little invitation.

Friday, 21st. Winds variable, and dark, cloudy weather, with frequent Showers of rain. At 1 p.m. I landed in Company with Mr. Banks and the other gentlemen. The first thing done was the performing of Tupia’s ceremony in all respects as at Huaheine. I then hoisted an English jack, and took possession of the Island and those adjacent in the name of His Britannick Majesty, calling them by the same names as the natives do. A.M. sent the Master in the Long boat to examine the coast of the South part of the Island, and one of the Mates in the Yawl to sound the Harbour where the Ship lay, while I was employ’d in the Pinnace surveying the Northern part of the Island, and Mr. Monkhouse went ashore to trade with the Natives for such refreshments as were to be got.

Saturday, 22nd. P.M. the wind Variable with Showers of rain. A.M. strong Gales at South and hazey with rain, and which continued the most part of

Sunday, 23rd, in so much that I did not think it safe to break the Ship loose and put to sea as I intended.

Monday, 24th. Winds variable from South-South-East to North-East. At 8 a.m. got under sail and plyed to the Northward within the Reef, in order to go out at the Northern Channell, it being the broadest; but being little wind and meeting with Shoals we had not before discovered, we turned down but slowly.

Tuesday, 25th. First part, little wind at North-East; in the night calm, A.M. a fresh breeze at West-North-West, fair weather. At 3 p.m. Anchor’d in 22 fathoms Muddy bottom, the North Channell open bearing North-East 1/2 East, at 5 a.m. a breeze sprung up at North-West, weighed and put to Sea, and hauled to the Northward in order to take a View of the Island and Ataha and Bolabola; but before I proceed farther, I shall describe the Harbour we have been in.* This Harbour, taken in its greatest Extent, is capable of holding any number of Shipping in perfect security, as it extends almost the whole length of this side of the Island, and is defended from the Sea by a reef of Coral rocks; the Southermost opening† in this reef or Channell into the Harbour, which is not more than a Cable’s length wide, is off the Eastermost point of the Island, and may be known by a small woody Island, which lies a little to the South-East of it. Between 3 and 4 miles North-West from this Island lies 2 other small Islands, and in the same direction as the reef, of which they are a part. Between these 2 Islands is another Channell‡ into the Harbour that is a full Quarter of a Mile broad; still further to the North-West are some other small Islands, where, I am informed, is another small inlet, but this I did not see; but, as to the other 2, we enter’d the Harbour by the one and came out by the other.

(* It has no particular name, but extends the whole of the eastern side of Raiatea.)

(† Teava Moa Pass.)

(‡ Iriru Pass.)

The principal refreshments we have got here consists in Plantains, Cocoa nuts, some Yams and a few Hogs and fowls. This side of the Island is neither Populous nor Rich in Produce, if compared to George’s Island, or even Huaheine; however, here is no want of refreshments for a ship who may put in here and stay but a short time; and wood and water may be got everywhere, tho’ the latter is not very convenient to come at.

[Off Bolabola.]

Wednesday, 26th. Winds at West by North and West by South, but very Variable towards the Latter part. At 4 p.m. the North End of Ulietea South 75 degrees West, distance 2 leagues, and the south end of Otaha North 77 degrees West. About a League to the Northward of the South end of Otaha, on the East side of the Island, a mile or more from the Shore, lies 2 Small Islands. Between these Islands Tupia says there is a Channell into a very good harbour which lies within the Reef and it had all the appearance of such. Keept plying to Windward all night without getting any ground. At Noon the Peak on Bolabola West by South. latitude observed 16 degrees 26 minutes South.

Thursday, 27th. Variable light Airs of wind in the South-West Quarter, and fair weather. Seeing that there is a broad Channell between Otaha and Bolabola, I intend to go through that way and not run to the Northward of all; but as the wind is right an end, and very Variable withall, we get little or no ground. Between 5 and 6 o’Clock p.m., as we were standing to the Northward, we discover’d a small low Island lying North by West or North-North-West distant 4 or 5 Leagues from Bolabola. This Island is called Tubai. Tupia says it produces nothing but a few Cocoa Nuts, that there are only 3 families live upon it, but that the people from these Islands resort thither to Catch fish. At Noon the peak of Bolabola bore North 25 degrees West, and the north end of Otaha North 80 degrees West, distant 3 Leagues. latitude observed 16 degrees 38 minutes South.

Friday, 28th. Little wind and Variable between the South-West and North-West. At 6 a.m., being near the Entrance of the Harbour which lies on the East side of Otaha before mentioned,* and finding that it might be examin’d without loosing time, I sent away the Master in the Long boat, with orders to sound the Harbour, and if the wind did not shift in our favour to land upon the Island and to Traffick with the Natives for such refreshments as were to be got. Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander went along with him.

(* Hamene Bay.)

Saturday, 29th. Little wind and Variable. Kept plying on and off this day, waiting for the return of the Long boat. At 1/2 past 5 not seeing anything of her, fir’d a Gun for her to return, and as soon as it was dark hoisted a light. At 1/2 past 8 heard the report of a musquet, which we answered with a Gun; and soon after the Boat came on board with 3 small Hogs, a few Fowls, and a large Quantity of Plantains, and some Yams. They found the Natives very Sociable and ready to part with anything they had, and the Harbour safe and Commodious, with a good Anchorage in 25, 20, and 16 fathoms clear ground. As soon as the Boat was hoisted in we made Sail to the Northward, and at 8 o’Clock a.m. were close under the Peak of Bolabola, but as we could not weather the Island, we Tack’d and stood off until near Noon, then Tack’d again and stood to the South-West. At Noon the Peak of Bolabola bore South 75 degrees West; we were then distant from the Shore under it 2 or 3 miles, and from the Peak about 5 miles. latitude observed 16 degrees 29 minutes South.

Sunday, 30th. Wind in the South-East Quarter. At first a Gentle breeze, but afterwards freshned upon us. P.M. made several Trips before we could weather the South end of Bolabola, which at last we accomplished between 7 and 8 o’Clock, and stood off South-South-West until 12 at night, then Tack’d and stood in until 4 a.m., then stood off again; but meeting with a large swell from the Southward, against which the Ship made little or no way, at 8 we tack’d and stood in Shore again. At this time we discovered an Island which bore from us North 63 degrees West, distant about 8 Leagues: at the same time the Peak of Bolabola bore North 1/2 East, distance 3 or 4 Leagues. This Island Tupia calls Maurua, and according to his account it is but small, and surrounded by a Reef of Rocks, and hath no Harbour fit for Shipping. It is inhabited, and its produce is the same as the other Islands we have touched at. It riseth in a high round hill in the middle of the Island, which may be seen 10 Leagues. At noon the South end of Otaha bore North 80 degrees East, distance 4 Leagues. latitude observed 16 degrees 39 minutes South.

Monday, 31st. Fresh Gales in the South-East Quarter, and close, cloudy weather. Plying to windward all this day, on the South-West side of Otaha, without gaining little or anything. In the middle watch was obliged to double reef our Topsails, but in the morning it fell moderate, and we crowded all the sail we could. At Noon the South end of Otaha bore East, distance 2 Leagues. latitude observed 16 degrees 40 minutes South. Tupia told us there was a very good Harbour within the Reef which lies on this side of Otaha; but this Harbour I shall discribe in another place.

[August 1769. At Raiatea.]

Tuesday, August 1st. A fresh Gale at South-East the most part of this day. Keept plying to windward all the afternoon and night, and in the morning found ourselves nearly the length of the South end of Ulietea, and to windward of some Harbours that lay on the West side of this Island. Into one of them I intended to go with the Ship, in order to stop a Leak in the Powder room, which could not be easily done at Sea, and to take in more Ballast, as I found her too light to carry sail upon a wind. At Noon plying off one of the Harbour’s mouth, the wind being right out.

Wednesday, 2nd. Moderate breezes at South-East and East, with some Showers of Rain. At 3 p.m. anchor’d in the Entrance of the Channell leading into the Harbour* in 14 fathoms water; found a tide setting pretty strong out, which was the reason that we could not work in; carried out the Kedge Anchor in order to warp into the Harbour, but after this was done we could not Trip the Bower Anchor with all the purchass we could make, and was therefore obliged to lay still all night, but in the morning we did it with Ease, and warped the Ship into a proper birth, and moor’d in 28 fathoms, a sandy bottom. A great many of the Natives came off to us both last night and this morning, and brought with them Hogs, Fowls, Plaintains, etc., which they parted with at a very easy rate.

(* Rautoanui.)

Thursday, 3rd. Winds from East-South-East to North-East; very Hot weather this afternoon. I went ashore to look for a place to get stones for Ballast, and a watering place, both of which I found very convenient; and in the morning sent an Officer a Shore to Superintend the getting off the Ballast and Water, and I went in the Pinnace to the Northward to survey that part of the Island, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, while the Carpenters were employ’d on board stopping the Leaks of the Powder room and Foresail room.

Friday, 4th. First and Latter parts, moderate breezes, at East-North-East; in the night, Calm, Hot, and sultry. In our rout to the Northward this afternoon we were entertained at one place with Musick and Dancing. The Musick consisted of 3 Drums, and the Dancing was mostly perform’d by 2 Young Women and one Man, and this seem’d to be their profession. The dress of the women was such as we had not seen before; it was neat, decent, and well chose, and in many respects not much unlike a European dress; only their Arms, Necks, and Shoulders were bare, and their headdress was the Tomow stuck with Flowers. They made very little use of their feet and Legs in Dancing, but one part or another of their bodies were in continual motion and in various postures, as standing, setting, and upon their Hands and knees, making strange Contorsions. Their Arms, hands, and Fingers they moved with great Agility and in a very Extraordinary manner, and altho’ they were very exact in observing the same motion in all their movements, yet neither their Musick or Dancing were at all Calculated to please a European. There were likewise some men, who acted a kind of a Farce; but this was so short that we could gather nothing from it, only that it shew’d that these People have a Notion of Dramatick performances, and some of our Gentlemen saw them act a Farce the next day, wherein was 4 Acts, and it seem’d to them to represent a War between the Bolabola men and those of Ulietea, wherein the former triumph’d over the latter; but what might help them to draw this Conclusion was the knowing that such a thing has not long ago hapned between these 2 People, and that the Bolabola men at present possess most of the Lands on this Island. This is their grand Dramatick Heiva, and I believe is occasionally performed in all the Islands. Upon my return to the Ship in the evening I found that they had got on board 20 Tuns of Ballast, and this I thought would be sufficient. In the morning we sent all our water Casks on shore, and got them all off full by Noon. This morning I received a present from Opoony, the Eare dehi of Bolabola, who at this time was upon this Island. It consisted of 3 Hogs, some pieces of Cloth, Plantains, Cocoa Nuts, etc. These were sent by his Servants, and I was told that he would come the next day himself.

Saturday, 5th. This evening we bought as much Fish as the whole Ship’s Company could destroy while good. In the morning I sent the Master to the North End of the Island with the Long boat to Traffick with the Natives for Provisions, as they did not bring it to the Ship, as they had hitherto done; and myself, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, went in the Pinnace to the Southern part of the Island, partly on the same account and partly to Examine that part of the Island. In our rout we passed thro’ 2 Harbours equally as good as the one in which the Ship lays, but the Country about them is poorer and but thinly inhabited, and we got no one thing worth bringing home with us, but the Master succeeded something better.

Sunday, 6th. Variable light Airs and fair weather. A.M. I sent the Master again to the Northward to procure refreshments, who return’d not unsuccessfull. Opoony, the Chief, sent some of his people this morning to me to get something in return for the present he sent the other day; he not choosing, as I suppose, to trust himself on board, or perhaps he thought the persons he sent (who were 3 very pretty young Girls) would succeed better than he should do. Be this as it may, they went away very well satisfied with what they got, altho’ I believe that they were disappointed in some things.

Monday, 7th. Variable light Airs. P.M. some Showers of rain. Being desirous to see King Opoony, we made a party this afternoon and I went ashore for that purpose, carrying along with us a small present. Upon our landing he did not receive us setting, as all the other Chiefs had hitherto done, or in any manner of Form; this we attributed to his Stupidity, for such he appeared to be. However, he gave me a Hog in return for the present I made him, and this was paying us full as great a Complement. Before we took our leave we let him know that we should go to Otaha in the morning in our Boats, and would be glad to have him along with us, and he accordingly promised to accompany us thither. Accordingly, very early in the morning, I set out with both Pinnace and Long boat for Otaha, and some of the Gentlemen along with me; and in our way called upon Opoony, who was in his Canoe ready to set out. As soon as we landed on Otaha I made him a present of a Axe; this I thought would induce him to incourage his Subjects to bring us such Provisions as we wanted, but I believe we had already got all they intended us, for after staying with him until Noon we were obliged to go away without geting any one thing.

Tuesday, 8th. After leaving Opoony we proceeded towards the North point of the Island, and in our way pick’d up half a Dozen Hogs, as many Fowls, and some Plantains and Yams; and I had an opportunity to view and draw a Sketch of the Harbour which lies on this Side of the Island, and which was the only thing that induced me to make this Excursion. After it was dark we met with the Longboat, which I had in the morning dispatch’d to another part of the Island; and we now made the best of our way to the Ship and got on board about 10 at night. The Carpenter having finished stopping the Leaks about the Powder Room and Sailroom I now intend to sail as soon as ever the wind will permit us to get out of the Harbour.

Wednesday, 9th. P.M. had a light breeze of wind at North; in the night had much rain. A.M. little wind and Variable, with some Showers of rain. At 11 a.m. a breeze of wind sprung up at East, which carried us out of the Harbour, and as soon as the Boats were hoisted in made Sail to the Southward. Since we have been about these Islands we have expended but little of our Sea Provisions, and have at this last place been very plentifully supply’d with Hogs, Fowls, Plantains, and Yams, which will be of very great use to us in case we should not discover any lands in our rout to the Southward, the way I now intend to Steer.

[Description of Society Islands.]

Description of the Islands, Ulietea, Otaha and Bolabola.

So called by the Natives, and it was not thought adviseable to give them any other Names; but these three, with Huaheine, Tuibai, and Maurua, as they lay contigious to one another, I have named Society Isles.

They are situated between the latitude of 16 degrees 10 minutes and 16 degrees 55 minutes South and between the Longitude 151 degrees 00 minutes and 151 degrees 42 minutes West from the Meridian of Greenwich. Ulietea and Otaha lay close to each other, and are both inclosed within a Reef of Coral Rocks; and altho’ the distance between the one and the other is near 2 Miles, yet there is no Passage for Shipping. By means of this reef are form’d several excellent Harbours. The entrance into them are but narrow, but when a Ship is once in nothing can hurt her. Those on the East side have been already described. On the West side of Ulietea, which is the largest Island of the 2, are 3, the Northermost of which, called Oraotanue,* we lay in, the Channell leading in is a 1/4 of a Mile wide and lies between 2 low sandy Islands, which are the Northermost small Islands on this side. You have good Anchorage between or just within the 2 Islands in 28 fathoms soft ground. This harbour, tho’ but small, yet it is preferable to any on the Island, on account of the easy getting of fresh Water, and being seated in the most fertile part of the Island. The other 2 harbours lay to the Southward of this, and not far from the South end of the Island. In both of them are good Anchorage in 10, 12, and 14 fathoms water: they are readily known by 3 small woody Islands that lay at their entrance, the Southermost Harbour lies within and to the Southward of the Southermost Island, and the other lies between the Northermost. There are more Harbours at the South End of this Island, as I am inform’d, but these were not examind by us.

(* Rautoanui.)

Otaha affords 2 very good Harbours, one on the East and the other on the West side; that on the East side called Ohamane* hath been already mentioned, the other is called Oharurua† and lies about the middle of the South-West side of the Island. It is pretty large, and affords good Anchorage in 20 and 25 fathoms, and there is no want of fresh Water. The breach in the Reef which forms a Channell into this harbour is 1/4 of a mile broad, steep too, on both sides, and the same may be said of all the others, and in general there is no danger but what is Visible.

(* Hamene.)

(† Hurepiti.)

The Island of Bolabola lies North-West by West from Otaha, distant 4 Leagues, it is incompassed by a reef of Rocks and several small Islands, and the Circuit of the whole appear’d to be about 8 Leagues. On the South-West side of the Islands (as I am inform’d) is an opening in the Reef which admits of a Channell into a very good Harbour. This Island is very remarkable on account of a high Craggy hill upon it, which Terminates at Top in 2 Peaks, one higher than the other; this hill is so perpendicular that it appears to be quite inaccessible. The land on Ulietea and Otaha is of a very hilly, broken, and uneven surface, except what borders upon the Sea Coast, and high withall, yet the Hills look green and pleasant and are in many places cloathed with woods.

The Produce of these Islands, and manners and Customs of the Natives are much the same as at King George’s Island, only as the Bread fruit Tree is here in not such plenty, the natives to supply that deficiency plant and Cultivate a greater Quantity of Plantains and Yams of several sorts, and these they have in the greatest Perfection.

The inhabitants are rather of a fairer Colour than the Generality of the Natives of George’s Island, but more especially the Women, who are much fairer and handsomer, and the Men are not so much Addicted to thieving, and are more Open and free in their behaviour.

The only differance we could see in their Religion was in the Houses of their Gods, which were very different to those we saw on George’s Island. Those here were made about the Size and shape of a Coffin open at one End; they are laid upon a Number of small Wooden Arches, which are fram’d and fastned together like the Roof of a House, and these are generally supported about 3 or 4 feet above the ground by Posts. Over the box is a small roof or shade made of Palm thatch; in this Box are deposited the Oblations of the Gods, such as Pieces of Cloth, Human bone, etc., and these places they hold sacred, and some are placed in their Mories, and some not. They have a Custom of preserving the Sculls and under Jaw bones of the Dead, but wether of their Friends or Enemies I cannot pretend to say. Several of the Sculls, we observed, were broke, and its very probable that the owners of them had been kill’d in battle, as some of their Weapons are well Calculated for breaking of Heads; and from what we could learn it is a Custom with them to cut out the Lower jaw of their Enemies, but I believe not before they are kill’d, and these they keep as Trophies, and are sometimes hung up in their Houses.

The Chief or King of Bolabola hath of late Years Usurped the Sovereignty of the other two, and the Bolabola men at this time possess great part of the Lands on Ulietea and Otaha that they have taken from the Natives. The Lands adjoining to the Harbours of Oraotanue belong’d to Tupia, the Person we have on board, who is a Native of Ulietea. These people are very ingenious in building their Proes or Canoes, and seem to take as much Care of them, having large Shades or Houses to put them in, built for the purpose, and in these houses they likewise build and repair them, and in this they shew a great deal of ingenuity far more than one could expect. They are built full Bellied, and after the very same Model as those Six we saw on George’s Island, which I have already described, and some of them are full as large; it is more than probable that these 6 Proes were built at some of these Islands. In these Proes, or Pahies as they call them, from all the accounts we can learn, these people sail in those Seas from Island to Island for several hundred Leagues, the Sun serving them for a Compass by day, and the Moon and Stars by night. When this comes to be proved, we shall be no longer at a loss to know how the Islands lying in those Seas came to be peopled; for if the inhabitants of Ulietea have been at Islands laying 2 or 300 Leagues to the Westward of them, it cannot be doubted but that the inhabitants of those Western Islands may have been at others as far to Westward of them, and so we may trace them from Island to Island quite to the East Indies.

Tupia tells us that during the months of November, December, and January Westerly winds, with rain, prevail; and as the inhabitants of the Islands know very well how to make the proper use of the winds, there will no difficulty arise in Trading or Sailing from Island to Island, even tho’ they lie in an East and West direction.*

(* This paragraph is from the Admiralty copy of Cook’s Journal. This fact is now well known. The islands here described, the Society Islands of Cook, and now known as the Leeward Group of the Society Islands, were generally under the dominion of Tahiti. At the time of Cook’s visit, the chief of Bolabola was supreme over most of the group, and their tie to Tahiti was but slight. They are all very beautiful and fertile. Within the last decade they have formally been recognised as belonging to France.)

[Sail from Society Islands.]

Remarkable Occurrences in the South Seas.

Thursday, August 10th. P.M., Light Airs and Calm, remainder fresh breezes and Cloudy. At 6 p.m. the South end of Ulietea South-East 1/2 East, distant 4 Leagues; but I take my departure from the Harbour, saild from in latitude 16 degrees 46 minutes South, and Longitude 151 degrees 27 minutes West. At 7 a.m. found the Variation to be 5 degrees 50 minutes East. Wind Easterly; course South 16 degrees West; distance 50 miles; latitude observed 17 degrees 34 minutes South, longitude 151 degrees 41 minutes West.

Friday, 11th. Fresh breezes and Clear weather. Wind East; course South 4 degrees West; distance 85 miles; latitude 18 degrees 59 minutes South, longitude 151 degrees 45 minutes West.

Saturday, 12th. Gentle breezes and fair weather. Wind East, East by North; course South 3/4 East; distance 77 miles; latitude 20 degrees 15 minutes South, longitude 151 degrees 36 minutes West.

Sunday, 13th. Moderate breezes and Clear weather. Variation 5 degrees 40 minutes East. Wind East by North; course South 16 degrees East; distance 96 miles; latitude 21 degrees 47 minutes South, longitude 151 degrees 9 minutes West.

Monday, 14th. Fresh breezes and fair weather. At 2 p.m. saw land bearing South-East, which Tupia calls the Island of Ohetiroa.* At 6 was within 2 or 3 Leagues of it, the Extreams bearing from South by East to South-East; shortned sail and stood off and on all night; at 6 a.m. made Sail and stood in for the Land and run to Leeward of the Island, keeping close in shore all the time, saw several of the Natives as we run along shore, but in no great numbers. At 9 hoisted out the Pinnace and sent Lieutenant Gore, Mr. Banks, and Tupia to Endeavour to land upon the Island, and to speak with the Natives, and to try if they could learn from them what lands lay to the Southward of us, and likewise to see if there was Anchorage in a Bay which appear’d to our View, not that I intended to Anchor or make any stay here. Wind North-North-East; latitude 22 degrees 26 minutes South, longitude 150 degrees 55 minutes West; at noon, Ohetiroa East 2 leagues.

(* Rurutu, one of the Tubuai or Austral Group. They are now under French protectorate.)

Tuesday, 15th. Fresh breezes and fair weather. At 2 p.m. the Pinnace return’d on board without landing, not but what it was practicable, but they did not think it Altogether safe with only one Boat, as it would have been attended with some danger on account of the Surf and Rocks upon the Shore. The Natives were Arm’d, and Shewd no Signs either of fear or Friendship. Some of them came off to the Boat in a Canoe, and had some Nails and Beads given them; but with these they were not Satisfied, thinking they had a right to everything in the Boat, and at last grew so Troublesome that in order to get clear of them our People were obliged to fire some Musquets, but with no intent to hurt any of them; however, it so hapned that one Man was Slightly wounded in the head. The firing had the desired effect, and they thought fit to retire. After this, as the Boat lay near the Shore, some of them waded off to her, and brought with them some Trifles which they parted with for small Nails, etc. They seem’d desirous that our people should land, but this was looked upon as a Piece of Policy in them to get the whole Boat’s Crew in their power; however, this was not attempted, as I had given orders to run no Risk. The Bay they went into, which lies on the West side of the Island, had in it 25 fathoms Water, but the bottom was very foul and Rocky. We had now made the Circuit of the Island (which did not appear to the best advantage), and found that there was neither a Harbour or safe Anchorage about it, and therefore I thought the Landing upon it would be attended with no advantage either to ourselves or any future navigators; and from the Hostile and thievish disposition of the Natives it appear’d that we could have no friendly intercourse with them until they had felt the Smart of our fire Arms, a thing that would have been very unjustifiable in me at this Time; we therefore hoisted in the Boat, and made Sail to the Southward.

[Of the Austral Group.]

This Island is situated in the latitude of 22 degrees 27 minutes South, and in the Longitude of 150 degrees 47 minutes West from the Meridian of Greenwich.* It is 13 miles in Circuit, and tolerably high; it appears to be neither Populous nor fertile; its produce seem’d to be nearly the same as the other Islands we have touched at, and likewise the Stature, Colour, Habit, and Arms of the Natives, only that some of them wore Pieces of Cloth like broad belts, different both in Shape and Colour to anything of the kind we had seen before, and their Arms, and in general everything they had about them, much neater made, and shew’d great proofs of an ingenious fancy. Tupia says that their are several Islands laying at different directions from this — that is, from the South to the West and North-West — and that 3 days’ sail to the North-East is an Island called Manua, that is Bird Island, and that it lies 4 days’ sail from Ulietea, which is one day less than from Ulietea to Ohetiroa.† From this account I shall be able to find the Situation of Manua pretty well. Since we have left Ulietea Tupia hath been very desirous for us to steer to the Westward, and tells us if we will go that way we shall be with plenty of Islands: the most of them he himself hath been at, and from the discription he gives of two of them they must be those discover’d by Capt. Wallace, and by him called Boscawen and Keppel’s Islands, and those do not lay less than 400 Leagues to the Westward of Ulietea. He says that they are 10 or 12 days in going thither, and 30 or more in coming Back, and that their Pahies — that is their large Proes — sails much faster than this Ship. All this I believe to be true, and therefore they may with Ease sail 40 Leagues a day or more.

(* latitude is correct. Longitude 151 degrees 20 minutes West.)

(† Tupia was right except with respect to Manua, as there is no island answering his description.)

The farthest Island to the Southward that Tupia hath been at, or knows anything of, lies but 2 days’ Sail from Ohetiroa, and is called Moutou,* but he says that his father once told him that there was Islands to the Southward of it; but we Cannot find that he either knows or ever heard of a Continent or large Track of Land. I have no reason to doubt Tupia’s information of these Islands, for when we left Ulietea and steer’d to the Southward he told us that if we would keep a little more to the East (which the wind would not permit us to do) we should see Manua, but as we then steer’d we should see Ohetiroa, which hapned accordingly. If we meet with the Islands to the Southward he speaks off, it’s well, but if not, I shall spend no more time searching for them, being now fully resolv’d to stand directly to the Southward in search of a Continent. Wind Northerly; course South 1/2 East; distance 94 miles; latitude 24 degrees 1 minute South, longitude 150 degrees 37 minutes West; at noon, Ohetiroa North 1/2 West, 31 leagues; variation 6 degrees 7 minutes East.

(* Tubuai.)

NOTE. As we advanced to the Southward into Cold weather, and a troubled Sea, the Hogs we got at Ulietea began to die apace. They cannot endure the least cold, nor will they hardly eat anything but vegetables, so that they are not at all to be depended upon at Sea. The fowls also have a complaint general among them which affects their heads, so that they continue holding it down betwixt their Legs until they die; this at least was the fate of most of ours. This is necessary to be known to those who come such Voyages as these, least they place too much dependance on the live stock they get at the Islands.

Wednesday, 16th. Fresh breezes and Cloudy the first part; in the night, Squally, with rain; remainder, moderate and fair weather. At 8 am, saw the Appearances of high land to the Eastward; bore up towards it, but at 10 we discover’d it to be only Clouds, at which we hauld our wind to the Southward. At Noon found the Ship by Observation 21 Miles to the Northward of the Log, which may in some measure be owing to a South-West swell we have had all the last 24 hours. Wind North by West, West, West by South; course South 15 degrees East; distance 62 miles; latitude 25 degrees 00 minutes South, longitude 150 degrees 19 minutes West.

Thursday, 17th. A Gentle breeze with some flying showers of rain. Had a large Swell from the South-West all this day, much larger than yesterday, and this must be the reason why the observ’d latitude differ’d from the Log again to day 16 miles. Wind West by South to South-West by South; course South-South-East; distance 76 miles; latitude 26 degrees 10 minutes South, longitude 149 degrees 46 minutes West.

Friday, 18th. The first part Calm; remainder light breezes and Clear. Variation per Amplitude in the evening 8 degrees 8 minutes East; in the Morning 7 degrees 56 minutes East. Carpenters employed repairing the Boats. The South-West swell still Continues, but not so much as Yesterday, and the observed latitude and Log agrees. Wind Calm, North; course South 18 degrees East; distance 38 miles; latitude 26 degrees 48 minutes South, longitude 149 degrees 42 minutes West.

Saturday, 19th. Little wind with much rain in the night, the South-West swell still Continues, from which I conclude that there is no land near us in that Quarter. Wind North-West; course South-East by South; distance 62 miles; latitude 27 degrees 40 minutes South; longitude 149 degrees 6 minutes West.

Sunday, 20th. Little wind all this day. Saw a large Albetross. Wind North-West; course South-East by South; distance 57 miles; latitude 28 degrees 24 minutes South, longitude 148 degrees 25 minutes West.

Monday, 21st. Fresh Gales and Hazey weather. Saw 2 Pintado Birds, the first I have seen this Voyage; they are larger than a Pidgeon and checquer’d black and white over their backs and wings, with white Bellies, Black heads, and the end of their Tails black.* Wind North-North-West; course South by East; distance 80 miles; latitude 29 degrees 44 minutes South, longitude 148 degrees 22 minutes West.

(* Cape pigeons, Daption Capensis.)

[Society Islands to New Zealand.]

Tuesday, 22nd. First part Strong Gales with much rain, Thunder, and Lightning; remainder moderate and fair weather. About Noon saw some rock weed, an Albetross, and some Smaller Sea Birds. Wind North by West, South-West by West; course South 14 degrees East; distance 81 miles; latitude 31 degrees 3 minutes South, longitude 148 degrees 00 minutes West.

Wednesday, 23rd. Little wind for the most part, and pretty clear weather. In the night had some Showers of rain. Saw a Grampus, and several Pintado Birds. Wind South-West to West-South-West; course South-South-East; distance 68 miles; latitude 31 degrees 6 minutes South; longitude 147 degrees 29 minutes West.

Thursday, 24th. The first part light Airs and Calm; Middle, moderate breezes and Cloudy; latter part very squally with rain. A.M. Variation per Azimuth 7 degrees 18 minutes East. At Noon took in the Topsails and got down Topgallant yards. Saw a Water Spout in the North-West; it was about the breadth of a Rainbow, of a dark Colour, the Upper end of the Cloud from whence it came was about 8 degrees above the Horizon. Wind Variable; course South-South-East; distance 41 miles; latitude 32 degrees 44 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 10 minutes West.

Friday, 25th. The first and middle part Strong Gales and Squally with rain, remainder moderate and Cloudy. P.M. Unbent the Maintopsail being Split and bent another; in the night lay too under the Foresail, and in the morning made sail under the Courses and Topsails with one reef only. Had a large Sea from the Southward, saw several Albetrosses, Pintado Birds, and Sheer Waters; some of the Albetrosses were small, such as we usually saw off Cape Horn; all these kinds of birds are generally seen at a great distance from land. Wind, Southerly; course North-West; distance 26 miles; latitude 32 degrees 26 minutes South; longitude 147 degrees 32 minutes West.

Saturday, 26th. Moderate and cloudy weather, a Swell from the South-West. By observation of the Sun and Moon made this morning, the Longitude of the Ship at Noon is 147 degrees 18 minutes 40 seconds, which differs but 11 minutes from that given by the Log. Wind South-West; course South 6 degrees East; South distance 13 miles; latitude 32 degrees 39 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 30 minutes West.

Sunday, 27th. First part little wind and Cloudy; latter part, fresh Gales and Clear weather. Variation per Azimuth 6 degrees 40 minutes East. Saw several Albetrosses, Pintado Birds and Sheer Waters. Wind West, North-North-West; course South 5 degrees East; distance 55 miles; latitude 33 degrees 34 minutes, longitude 147 degrees 25 minutes.

Monday, 28th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy, with rain on the Latter part. At 10 departed this Life Jno. Rearden,* Boatswain’s Mate; his Death was occasioned by the Boatswain out of mere good Nature giving him part of a Bottle of Rum last night, which it is supposed he drank all at once. He was found to be very much in Liquor last night, but as this was no more than what was common with him when he could get any, no farther notice was taken of him than to put him to Bed, where this morning about 8 o’clock he was found Speechless and past recovery. Wind Northerly; course South; distance 110 miles; latitude 35 degrees 34 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 25 minutes West.

(* John Reading.)

Tuesday, 29th. Fore and Middle parts fresh Gales and Dark, Hazey weather with some rain. At 5 a.m. saw a Comet in the North. Wind North-West to South-West; course South 1/4 East; distance 96 miles; latitude 37 degrees 0 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 21 minutes West.

Wednesday, 30th. Fresh breeze and fair weather. At 1 a.m. saw the Comet a little above the Horizon in the East. It pass’d the Meridian about 1/2 past 4; the Tail of the Comet Subtended an Angle of 42 degrees. At 8 a.m. Variation per Azimuth 7 degrees 9 minutes East. Bent another suit of Sails. Saw a piece of Rock weed, Some Pintado birds and Sheer Waters and a Green bird something smaller than a Dove, but it was not near enough to distinguish whether it was a Sea or Land bird; it was only seen by one Person, and he probably was Mistaken in the Colour. A Swell from the South-West, Wind Westerly; course South 3/4 East; distance 81 miles; latitude 38 degrees 20 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 6 minutes West.

Thursday, 31st. The first part a fresh breeze and cloudy. At 6 p.m. hauld the wind to the South-West and close reefd the Topsails. At 1 a.m. being very squally with rain, took in the Topsails and brought too under the Mainsail. At 6 made Sail under the Courses. Saw some seaweed, sounded, but had no ground at 65 fathoms of Line. Some Albetrosses, Sheer Waters, and a great many Pintado Birds about the Ship with some hundreds of Birds that were smaller than Pidgeons, their backs were grey, their Bellies white, and the ends of their Tails black, and have a blackish line along the upper parts of the wings from the Tip of one to the other. We saw birds very like those near Faulklands Islands on the Coast of Patagonia, only they had not the black streak along the wings; they fly low like sheer waters or mother Carys birds, and are perhaps of the same Tribe, for Distinction sake I shall call them Doves.* Wind Westerly; course South 4 degrees 15 minutes East; distance 68 miles; latitude 39 degrees 28 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 0 minutes West.

(* Probably petrels of the genus Prion.)

[September 1769.]

Friday, September 1st. Very strong Gales and heavy Squalls with rain; at 6 p.m. brought too under the Main Sail. At 6 a.m. set the Foresail, a Great Sea from the Westward. The same sort of Birds about the Ship as Yesterday, but not in such great Numbers. Wind, Westerly; Course, South 29 degrees East; distance 50 miles; latitude 40 degrees 12 minutes South, longitude 146 degrees 29 minutes West.

Saturday, 2nd. Very strong Gales, with heavy squalls of Wind, hail, and rain. At 4 p.m., being in the latitude of 40 degrees 22 minutes South, and having not the least Visible signs of land, we wore, and brought too under the Foresail, and reef’d the Mainsail, and handed it. I did intend to have stood to the Southward if the winds had been Moderate, so long as they continued Westerly, notwithstanding we had no prospect of meeting with land, Rather than stand back to the Northward, on the same Track as we came, but as the weather was so very Tempestious I laid aside this design, and thought it more adviseable to stand to the Northward into better weather, least we should receive such Damage in our Sails and Rigging as might hinder the further Prosecutions of the Voyage.* Some Albetrosses, Pintado birds, and Doves about the Ship, and a Bird larger than a Duck, his plumage of a Dark Brown, with a Yellow beak. We saw of these Birds in our Passage to the Northward, after doubling Cape Horn. At Noon the weather was more moderate; set the Reefd Mainsail. A great Sea from the West-South-West. Wind West; Course North 54 degrees 30 minutes East; distance 46 miles; latitude 39 degrees 45 minutes South, longitude 145 degrees 39 minutes West.

(* This long excursion to the south is a fine instance of Cook’s thoroughness and determination in exploration. The belief in a southern continent was strong amongst most geographers; but it rested on nothing more than the false idea that dry lands in the two hemispheres should balance one another. Cook himself did not share the general belief; and few others in his position would have struggled for 1500 miles out of his direct course into bad weather, simply to disprove an idea, when so much unexplored ocean lay before him to the westward, with a fair wind and fine weather.)

Sunday, 3rd. The fore and Middle parts fresh gales, with hard Squalls; Latter more moderate. At 5 a.m. loos’d the Reef out of the Mainsail, and set the Topsail double reef’d, and before noon had all the Reefs out. Wind Westerly; course North; distance 50 miles; latitude 38 degrees 54 minutes South, longitude 145 degrees 39 minutes West.

Monday, 4th. First and latter parts, little wind and Cloudy; in the night Calm. Very few Birds about the Ship. Wind Westerly; course North by East; distance 26 miles; latitude 38 degrees 29 minutes South, longitude 145 degrees 32 minutes West.

Tuesday, 5th. Fresh breezes and Cloudy weather. At 2 p.m. saw a piece of rock Weed. Variation, per Azimuth 7 degrees 0 minutes East. Wind West to North-West; course North 32 West; distance 44 miles; latitude 37 degrees 52 minutes South, longitude 146 degrees 2 minutes West.

Wednesday, 6th. Fresh Gales and Squally, with rain. At Noon saw a Bird which was all white, except the Tip of each Wing; it was nearly as big as an Albetross. We saw 2 of these Birds in latitude 19 degrees before we Arrived at George’s Island. Wind Westerly; course South 87 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 70 miles; latitude 37 degrees 49 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 30 West.

Thursday, 7th. Fresh Gales and hard squalls, with rain. At 3 p.m. saw something upon the Water, which must either have been a Billet of Wood or a Seal. At Noon a hard gale and Squally, which obliged us to take in the Topsails. Wind Westerly; course South 80 degrees West; distance 15 miles; latitude 37 degrees 52 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 49 minutes West.

Friday, 8th. P.M. very strong gales and Squally. A.M. more moderate; set the Topsails. At Noon the Observed latitude was 13 Miles to the North of the Log. This I take to be owing to the great Sea we have had constantly of Late from the South-West. Wind Westerly; course North 1/4 East; distance 76 miles; latitude 36 degrees 36 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 40 minutes West.

Saturday, 9th. Moderate breezes and dark, cloudy weather, sometimes Hazey, with Drizling Rain. Wind South-East; course North 77 degrees West; distance 76 miles; latitude 36 degrees 19 minutes South, longitude 149 degrees 12 minutes West.

Sunday, 10th. Fresh breezes and cloudy. At 9 a.m. we thought the Colour of the Sea was paler than Usual, which occasioned us to sound, but had no ground with 100 fathoms. Wind South-West, West-South-West; course North 52 degrees West; distance 97 miles; latitude 35 degrees 19 minutes South, longitude 150 degrees 46 minutes West.

Monday, 11th. Fresh breezes, and for the most part thick, hazey weather, with rain. Wind South-West; course North 43 degrees West; distance 87 miles; latitude 34 degrees 15 minutes South, longitude 152 degrees 00 minutes West.

Tuesday, 12th. Fresh breezes and cloudy; a swell from the South-South-West. Some Albetrosses and Pintado Birds about the Ship. Wind Westerly; course North 30 degrees West; distance 73 miles; latitude 33 degrees 12 minutes South, longitude 152 degrees 44 minutes West.

Wednesday, 13th. Gentle breezes, with some flying Showers. At 6 p.m. Variation per Azimuth, 8 degrees 8 minutes East. Note, while we was between the latitude of 37 and 40 degrees we had constantly blowing Tempestious weather, but since we have been to the Northward of 37 degrees, the weather hath been very moderate. Wind South-West and West-South-West; course North-North-West; distance 74 miles; latitude 32 degrees 3 minutes South, longitude 153 degrees 16 minutes West.

Thursday, 14th. Gentle breezes, and sometimes Calm. A Swell from the South-South-West. Wind Variable; course South 86 degrees West; distance 33 miles; latitude 32 degrees 5 minutes South, longitude 153 degrees 54 minutes West.

Friday, 15th. First part, moderate and Cloudy, remainder Strong Gales and Squally. Several Albetrosses, Pintado Birds, and Sheer Waters about the Ship; some of the Albetrosses were all White. Wind North-East to South-East; course South 77 West; distance 139 miles; latitude 32 degrees 36 minutes South, longitude 156 degrees 34 minutes West.

Saturday, 16th. First part very strong Gales and Squally; remainder more moderate, with a large Swell from the Southward. Wind South-South-East, South, West-South-West; course North 60 degrees West; distance 100 miles; latitude 31 degrees 45 minutes South, longitude 158 degrees 16 minutes West.

Sunday, 17th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy. Wind South-West; course North 25 West; distance 100 miles; latitude 31 degrees 14 minutes South, longitude 159 degrees 6 minutes West.

Monday, 18th. Moderate Gales and Cloudy, with a Swell from the Southward. Wind Westerly; course North by West 1/2 West; distance 78 miles; latitude 29 degrees 00 minutes South, longitude 159 degrees 32 minutes West.

Tuesday, 19th. Variable; light Airs and Calm. Variation per Amplitude at sunset, 8 degrees 36 minutes East; per Azimuth in the morning, 8 degrees 29 minutes East; mean, 8 degrees 32 1/2 minutes East. A large hollow swell from the Southward. Wind Variable; course East; distance 6 miles; latitude 29 degrees 00 minutes South, longitude 159 degrees 25 minutes West.

Wednesday, 20th. Light Airs and Calm. Wind Variable; course South-West by South; distance 20 miles; latitude 29 degrees 20 minutes South, longitude 159 degrees 47 minutes West.

Thursday, 21st. Most part Gentle breezes and clear weather. Wind South Easterly; course South 50 degrees West; distance 62 miles; latitude 30 degrees 00 minutes South, longitude 160 degrees 42 minutes West.

Friday, 22nd. Fresh breezes and Cloudy. The Southerly swell still Continues, from which I conjecture that there is no land near in that Direction. Wind South-East; course South 34 West; distance 81 miles; latitude 31 degrees 7 minutes South, longitude 161 degrees 35 minutes West.

Saturday, 23rd. Gentle breezes and Cloudy weather. Wind South-East; course South-West by South; distance 62 miles; latitude 31 degrees 59 minutes South, longitude 162 degrees 44 minutes West.

Sunday, 24th. Moderate breezes and Cloudy. At Noon saw some sea-Weed. The Southerly swell is now quite gone down. Wind South-East to North-East; course South 35 West; distance 97 miles; latitude 33 degrees 18 minutes South, longitude 162 degrees 51 minutes West.

Monday, 25th. Ditto weather. At 1 p.m. passed by a Piece of Wood, about 3 feet long and 7 or 8 Inches thick. Variation at 6 p.m. per Azimuth, 10 degrees 48 minutes East. A.M., got up all the Boatswain’s Stores, to take an account of them. Wind North-East; course South 43 1/2 West; distance 103 miles; latitude 34 degrees 30 minutes South, longitude 165 degrees 10 minutes West.

Tuesday, 26th. Fresh breezes and fair weather. Wind North-North-East; course South-West; distance 136 miles; latitude 36 degrees 9 minutes South, longitude 167 degrees 14 minutes West.

Wednesday, 27th. Very strong Gales and hazey, with rain the First and Middle part; Latter, moderate and clear weather. In the evening took in the Topsails and Mainsail, and lay too with her head to the Westward under the Foresail. During the night, at 4 a.m., made Sail. Saw several Pieces of Sea Weed at different times this 24 Hours. Wind North by East, Westerly; course South 28 West; distance 95 miles; latitude 37 degrees 33 minutes South, longitude 168 degrees 10 minutes West.

Thursday, 28th. First and Middle parts, fresh gales and Cloudy; Latter part, very strong Gales and Squally. At 4 p.m. saw a Seal aSleep upon the Water, and some Weed. A.M. saw several bunches of Sea Weed and a few Albetrosses and Sheer Waters. Wind Westerly; course South 21 degrees West; distance 92 miles; latitude 38 degrees 59 minutes South, longitude 169 degrees 5 minutes West.

Friday, 29th. The first part strong Gales and Squally; remainder a fresh breeze and settled weather. At 1 p.m. was obliged to take in the Topsails, but set them again at 4. At 11 a.m. saw a Bird something like a Snipe, only it had a short bill; it had the appearance of a land bird. Several Albetrosses, Pintado birds, and Sheer Waters about the Ship, and a Number of Doves; of these we have seen more or less ever since the 31st of last Month, the day we first saw them. Wind South-West; course North 59 degrees West; distance 60 miles; latitude 38 degrees 30 minutes South, longitude 170 degrees 14 minutes West.

Saturday, 30th. Moderate breezes and Settled weather. Saw a dark brown bird as big as a Raven; it is a Sea Fowl, and are seen in great Numbers about the Faulkland Islands, as I am told. We likewise saw several pieces of Sea Weed. Wind South Easterly; course North 87 1/2 West; distance 90 miles; latitude 38 degrees 26 minutes South, longitude 172 degrees 20 minutes West.

[October 1769.]

Sunday, October 1st. Little Wind in the day time and Calm in the Night. At 8 a.m. sounded: no ground with 120 fathoms of line. Saw an immence number of Birds, the most of them were Doves; saw likewise a Seal aSleep upon the Water, which we at first took for a Crooked billet. These creatures, as they lay upon the Water, hold their fins up in a very odd manner, and very different to any I have seen before; we generally reckon that seals never go out of Soundings or far from Land, but the few we have seen in this Sea is certainly an exception to that rule. However, one would think that we were not far from some land, from the Pieces of Rock weed we see daily floating upon the Water. To-day we took up a small Piece of Stick, but to all appearance it had been a long time at Sea. The observ’d latitude is considerable to the Northward of that given by the Log, in so much that I think there must be some Current seting from the Southward. Wind South to West by North; course North 16 degrees West; distance 43 miles; latitude 37 degrees 45 minutes South, longitude 172 degrees 36 minutes West.

Monday, 2nd. Little wind. At 3 p.m. hoisted out a Boat to try the Current, but found none. Saw several Grampusses. A.M. had a Boat in the Water, and Mr. Banks shott an Albetross which measured 10 feet 8 Inches from the tip of Wing to the other. He likewise shott 2 birds that were very much like Ducks, excepting their head and Bill; their plumage were dark brown. We first saw some of these birds in the latitude of 40 degrees South, after our first coming into those Seas. Wind West-South-West, South-West; course North-North-West; distance 35 miles; latitude 37 degrees 10 minutes South, longitude 172 degrees 54 minutes West.

Tuesday, 3rd. Little wind and sometimes Calm. A.M. Variation per Azimuth 13 degrees 22 minutes East. Saw some fish like a Skip Jack, and a small sort that appeared very Transparent. Took up a very small piece of wood with Barnacles upon it, a proof that it hath been some time at Sea. Some very large Albetrosses about the Ship and other birds. The observed latitude is 10 Miles to the Northward of that given by the Log, and it was the same Yesterday, which I think is a Proof that there must be a Current setting to the Northward, notwithstanding we did not find any when we try’d it. Wind Southerly; course North 60 degrees West; distance 28 miles; latitude 36 degrees 56 minutes South, longitude 173 degrees 27 minutes West.

Wednesday, 4th. Gentle breezes and Cloudy weather. P.M. Variation per Azimuth 12 degrees 48 minutes East; sounded twice, but found no ground, with 120 fathoms of line. Saw some rock weed, but not in such plenty as of late. Wind South-East; course South 52 1/2 West; distance 86 miles; latitude 37 degrees 43 minutes South, longitude 175 degrees 00 minutes West.

Thursday, 5th. Light, gentle breezes and Clear weather. P.M. saw one of the same sort of Birds as we saw last Saturday. These birds are of a dark brown or Chocolate Colour, with some white feathers under their wings, and are as big as Ravens. Mr. Gore says that they are in great plenty at Port Egmont in Faulklands Islands, and for that reason calls them Port Egmont Hens. Saw a great many Porpoisses, large and Small; the small ones had white bellies and Noses. A.M. saw 2 Port Egmont Hens, a Seal, some sea Weed, and a Piece of wood with Barnacles upon it. Wind South-East to East-North-East; course South 49 1/2 West; distance 63 miles; latitude 38 degrees 23 minutes South, longitude 176 degrees 3 minutes West.

Friday, 6th. Little wind, and fine pleasant weather. Saw some Seals, sea weed, and Port Egmont Hens. P.M. Variation per Azimuth 12 degrees 50 minutes East. Per Amplitude 12 degrees 40 minutes. A.M. per Azimuth 14 degrees 2 minutes East; the difference is 1 degree 3 minutes, and the Ship has only gone 9 Leagues in the Time. The Colour of the water appears to be paler than common, and hath been so for some days past; this makes us sound frequently, but can find no ground with 180 fathoms of Line. Wind East-North-East; course South-West; distance 62 miles; latitude 39 degrees 11 minutes South, longitude 177 degrees 2 minutes West.

[Make New Zealand.]

Saturday, 7th. Gentle breezes and settled weather. At 2 p.m. saw land* from the Masthead bearing West by North, which we stood directly for, and could but just see it of the Deck at sunset. Variation per Azimuth and Amplitude 15 degrees 4 1/2 minutes East; by observation of the Sun and Moon made this afternoon the Longitude of the Ship is 180 degrees 55 minutes West, by the mean of these and Subsequent observations the Error of the Ship’s account in Longitude from George’s Island is 3 degrees 16 minutes; that is, so much to the Westward of the Longitude resulting from the Log, which is what is inserted in the Columns. At Midnight brought too and sounded, but had no ground with 170 fathoms. At daylight made sail in for the Land, at Noon it bore from South-West to North-West by North, distant 8 Leagues. latitude observed 38 degrees 57 minutes South; Wind North-East, South-East, Variable; course South 70 degrees West; distance 41 miles; latitude 38 degrees 57 minutes observed South; longitude 177 degrees 54 minutes West.

(* The North island of New Zealand.)

Sunday, 8th. Gentle breezes and clear weather. At 5 p.m., seeing the opening of a Bay that appear’d to run pretty far inland, hauld our wind and stood in for it; but as soon as night came on we keept plying on and off until day light, when we found ourselves to leeward of the Bay, the wind being at North. By Noon we fetch’d in with the South-West point, but not being able to weather it we tacked and stood off. We saw in the Bay several Canoes, People upon the Shore, and some houses in the Country. The land on the Sea Coast is high, with Steep Cliffs; and back inland are very high Mountains. The face of the Country is of a hilly surface, and appears to be cloathed with wood and Verdure. Wind between the East-North-East and North.

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