The French Revolution, by Thomas Carlyle

Chapter 7

The Whiff of Grapeshot.

In fact, what can be more natural, one may say inevitable, as a Post–Sansculottic transitionary state, than even this? Confused wreck of a Republic of the Poverties, which ended in Reign of Terror, is arranging itself into such composure as it can. Evangel of Jean–Jacques, and most other Evangels, becoming incredible, what is there for it but return to the old Evangel of Mammon? Contrat–Social is true or untrue, Brotherhood is Brotherhood or Death; but money always will buy money’s worth: in the wreck of human dubitations, this remains indubitable, that Pleasure is pleasant. Aristocracy of Feudal Parchment has passed away with a mighty rushing; and now, by a natural course, we arrive at Aristocracy of the Moneybag. It is the course through which all European Societies are at this hour travelling. Apparently a still baser sort of Aristocracy? An infinitely baser; the basest yet known!

In which however there is this advantage, that, like Anarchy itself, it cannot continue. Hast thou considered how Thought is stronger than Artillery-parks, and (were it fifty years after death and martyrdom, or were it two thousand years) writes and unwrites Acts of Parliament, removes mountains; models the World like soft clay? Also how the beginning of all Thought, worth the name, is Love; and the wise head never yet was, without first the generous heart? The Heavens cease not their bounty: they send us generous hearts into every generation. And now what generous heart can pretend to itself, or be hoodwinked into believing, that Loyalty to the Moneybag is a noble Loyalty? Mammon, cries the generous heart out of all ages and countries, is the basest of known Gods, even of known Devils. In him what glory is there, that ye should worship him? No glory discernable; not even terror: at best, detestability, ill-matched with despicability! — Generous hearts, discerning, on this hand, widespread Wretchedness, dark without and within, moistening its ounce-and-half of bread with tears; and on that hand, mere Balls in fleshcoloured drawers, and inane or foul glitter of such sort, — cannot but ejaculate, cannot but announce: Too much, O divine Mammon; somewhat too much! — The voice of these, once announcing itself, carries fiat and pereat in it, for all things here below.

Meanwhile, we will hate Anarchy as Death, which it is; and the things worse than Anarchy shall be hated more! Surely Peace alone is fruitful. Anarchy is destruction: a burning up, say, of Shams and Insupportabilities; but which leaves Vacancy behind. Know this also, that out of a world of Unwise nothing but an Unwisdom can be made. Arrange it, Constitution-build it, sift it through Ballot–Boxes as thou wilt, it is and remains an Unwisdom, — the new prey of new quacks and unclean things, the latter end of it slightly better than the beginning. Who can bring a wise thing out of men unwise? Not one. And so Vacancy and general Abolition having come for this France, what can Anarchy do more? Let there be Order, were it under the Soldier’s Sword; let there be Peace, that the bounty of the Heavens be not spilt; that what of Wisdom they do send us bring fruit in its season! — It remains to be seen how the quellers of Sansculottism were themselves quelled, and sacred right of Insurrection was blown away by gunpowder: wherewith this singular eventful History called French Revolution ends.

The Convention, driven such a course by wild wind, wild tide, and steerage and non-steerage, these three years, has become weary of its own existence, sees all men weary of it; and wishes heartily to finish. To the last, it has to strive with contradictions: it is now getting fast ready with a Constitution, yet knows no peace. Sieyes, we say, is making the Constitution once more; has as good as made it. Warned by experience, the great Architect alters much, admits much. Distinction of Active and Passive Citizen, that is, Money-qualification for Electors: nay Two Chambers, ‘Council of Ancients,’ as well as ‘Council of Five Hundred;’ to that conclusion have we come! In a like spirit, eschewing that fatal self-denying ordinance of your Old Constituents, we enact not only that actual Convention Members are re-eligible, but that Two-thirds of them must be re-elected. The Active Citizen Electors shall for this time have free choice of only One-third of their National Assembly. Such enactment, of Two-thirds to be re-elected, we append to our Constitution; we submit our Constitution to the Townships of France, and say, Accept both, or reject both. Unsavoury as this appendix may be, the Townships, by overwhelming majority, accept and ratify. With Directory of Five; with Two good Chambers, double-majority of them nominated by ourselves, one hopes this Constitution may prove final. March it will; for the legs of it, the re-elected Two-thirds, are already there, able to march. Sieyes looks at his Paper Fabric with just pride.

But now see how the contumacious Sections, Lepelletier foremost, kick against the pricks! Is it not manifest infraction of one’s Elective Franchise, Rights of Man, and Sovereignty of the People, this appendix of re-electing your Two-thirds? Greedy tyrants who would perpetuate yourselves! — For the truth is, victory over Saint–Antoine, and long right of Insurrection, has spoiled these men. Nay spoiled all men. Consider too how each man was free to hope what he liked; and now there is to be no hope, there is to be fruition, fruition of this.

In men spoiled by long right of Insurrection, what confused ferments will rise, tongues once begun wagging! Journalists declaim, your Lacretelles, Laharpes; Orators spout. There is Royalism traceable in it, and Jacobinism. On the West Frontier, in deep secrecy, Pichegru, durst he trust his Army, is treating with Conde: in these Sections, there spout wolves in sheep’s clothing, masked Emigrants and Royalists! (Napoleon, Las Cases, Choix des Rapports, xvii. 398–411.) All men, as we say, had hoped, each that the Election would do something for his own side: and now there is no Election, or only the third of one. Black is united with white against this clause of the Two-thirds; all the Unruly of France, who see their trade thereby near ending.

Section Lepelletier, after Addresses enough, finds that such clause is a manifest infraction; that it, Lepelletier, for one, will simply not conform thereto; and invites all other free Sections to join it, ‘in central Committee,’ in resistance to oppression. (Deux Amis, xiii. 375–406.) The Sections join it, nearly all; strong with their Forty Thousand fighting men. The Convention therefore may look to itself! Lepelletier, on this 12th day of Vendemiaire, 4th of October 1795, is sitting in open contravention, in its Convent of Filles Saint–Thomas, Rue Vivienne, with guns primed. The Convention has some Five Thousand regular troops at hand; Generals in abundance; and a Fifteen Hundred of miscellaneous persecuted Ultra–Jacobins, whom in this crisis it has hastily got together and armed, under the title Patriots of Eighty-nine. Strong in Law, it sends its General Menou to disarm Lepelletier.

General Menou marches accordingly, with due summons and demonstration; with no result. General Menou, about eight in the evening, finds that he is standing ranked in the Rue Vivienne, emitting vain summonses; with primed guns pointed out of every window at him; and that he cannot disarm Lepelletier. He has to return, with whole skin, but without success; and be thrown into arrest as ‘a traitor.’ Whereupon the whole Forty Thousand join this Lepelletier which cannot be vanquished: to what hand shall a quaking Convention now turn? Our poor Convention, after such voyaging, just entering harbour, so to speak, has struck on the bar; — and labours there frightfully, with breakers roaring round it, Forty thousand of them, like to wash it, and its Sieyes Cargo and the whole future of France, into the deep! Yet one last time, it struggles, ready to perish.

Some call for Barras to be made Commandant; he conquered in Thermidor. Some, what is more to the purpose, bethink them of the Citizen Buonaparte, unemployed Artillery Officer, who took Toulon. A man of head, a man of action: Barras is named Commandant’s-Cloak; this young Artillery Officer is named Commandant. He was in the Gallery at the moment, and heard it; he withdrew, some half hour, to consider with himself: after a half hour of grim compressed considering, to be or not to be, he answers Yea.

And now, a man of head being at the centre of it, the whole matter gets vital. Swift, to Camp of Sablons; to secure the Artillery, there are not twenty men guarding it! A swift Adjutant, Murat is the name of him, gallops; gets thither some minutes within time, for Lepelletier was also on march that way: the Cannon are ours. And now beset this post, and beset that; rapid and firm: at Wicket of the Louvre, in Cul de Sac Dauphin, in Rue Saint–Honore, from Pont Neuf all along the north Quays, southward to Pont ci-devant Royal, — rank round the Sanctuary of the Tuileries, a ring of steel discipline; let every gunner have his match burning, and all men stand to their arms!

Thus there is Permanent-session through night; and thus at sunrise of the morrow, there is seen sacred Insurrection once again: vessel of State labouring on the bar; and tumultuous sea all round her, beating generale, arming and sounding, — not ringing tocsin, for we have left no tocsin but our own in the Pavilion of Unity. It is an imminence of shipwreck, for the whole world to gaze at. Frightfully she labours, that poor ship, within cable-length of port; huge peril for her. However, she has a man at the helm. Insurgent messages, received, and not received; messenger admitted blindfolded; counsel and counter-counsel: the poor ship labours! — Vendemiaire 13th, year 4: curious enough, of all days, it is the Fifth day of October, anniversary of that Menad-march, six years ago; by sacred right of Insurrection we are got thus far.

Lepelletier has seized the Church of Saint–Roch; has seized the Pont Neuf, our piquet there retreating without fire. Stray shots fall from Lepelletier; rattle down on the very Tuileries staircase. On the other hand, women advance dishevelled, shrieking, Peace; Lepelletier behind them waving its hat in sign that we shall fraternise. Steady! The Artillery Officer is steady as bronze; can be quick as lightning. He sends eight hundred muskets with ball-cartridges to the Convention itself; honourable Members shall act with these in case of extremity: whereat they look grave enough. Four of the afternoon is struck. (Moniteur, Seance du 5 Octobre 1795.) Lepelletier, making nothing by messengers, by fraternity or hat-waving, bursts out, along the Southern Quai Voltaire, along streets, and passages, treble-quick, in huge veritable onslaught! Whereupon, thou bronze Artillery Officer —? “Fire!” say the bronze lips. Roar and again roar, continual, volcano-like, goes his great gun, in the Cul de Sac Dauphin against the Church of Saint–Roch; go his great guns on the Pont Royal; go all his great guns; — blow to air some two hundred men, mainly about the Church of Saint–Roch! Lepelletier cannot stand such horse-play; no Sectioner can stand it; the Forty-thousand yield on all sides, scour towards covert. ‘Some hundred or so of them gathered both Theatre de la Republique; but,’ says he, ‘a few shells dislodged them. It was all finished at six.’

The Ship is over the bar, then; free she bounds shoreward, — amid shouting and vivats! Citoyen Buonaparte is ‘named General of the Interior, by acclamation;’ quelled Sections have to disarm in such humour as they may; sacred right of Insurrection is gone for ever! The Sieyes Constitution can disembark itself, and begin marching. The miraculous Convention Ship has got to land; — and is there, shall we figuratively say, changed, as Epic Ships are wont, into a kind of Sea Nymph, never to sail more; to roam the waste Azure, a Miracle in History!

‘It is false,’ says Napoleon, ‘that we fired first with blank charge; it had been a waste of life to do that.’ Most false: the firing was with sharp and sharpest shot: to all men it was plain that here was no sport; the rabbets and plinths of Saint–Roch Church show splintered by it, to this hour. — Singular: in old Broglie’s time, six years ago, this Whiff of Grapeshot was promised; but it could not be given then, could not have profited then. Now, however, the time is come for it, and the man; and behold, you have it; and the thing we specifically call French Revolution is blown into space by it, and become a thing that was! —

Homer’s Epos, it is remarked, is like a Bas-relief sculpture: it does not conclude, but merely ceases. Such, indeed, is the Epos of Universal History itself. Directorates, Consulates, Emperorships, Restorations, Citizen–Kingships succeed this Business in due series, in due genesis one out of the other. Nevertheless the First-parent of all these may be said to have gone to air in the way we see. A Baboeuf Insurrection, next year, will die in the birth; stifled by the Soldiery. A Senate, if tinged with Royalism, can be purged by the Soldiery; and an Eighteenth of Fructidor transacted by the mere shew of bayonets. (Moniteur, du 5 Septembre 1797.) Nay Soldiers’ bayonets can be used a posteriori on a Senate, and make it leap out of window, — still bloodless; and produce an Eighteenth of Brumaire. (9th November 1799, Choix des Rapports, xvii. 1–96.) Such changes must happen: but they are managed by intriguings, caballings, and then by orderly word of command; almost like mere changes of Ministry. Not in general by sacred right of Insurrection, but by milder methods growing ever milder, shall the Events of French history be henceforth brought to pass.

It is admitted that this Directorate, which owned, at its starting, these three things, an ‘old table, a sheet of paper, and an ink-bottle,’ and no visible money or arrangement whatever, (Bailleul, Examen critique des Considerations de Madame de Stael, ii. 275.) did wonders: that France, since the Reign of Terror hushed itself, has been a new France, awakened like a giant out of torpor; and has gone on, in the Internal Life of it, with continual progress. As for the External form and forms of Life, — what can we say except that out of the Eater there comes Strength; out of the Unwise there comes not Wisdom! Shams are burnt up; nay, what as yet is the peculiarity of France, the very Cant of them is burnt up. The new Realities are not yet come: ah no, only Phantasms, Paper models, tentative Prefigurements of such! In France there are now Four Million Landed Properties; that black portent of an Agrarian Law is as it were realised! What is still stranger, we understand all Frenchmen have ‘the right of duel;’ the Hackney-coachman with the Peer, if insult be given: such is the law of Public Opinion. Equality at least in death! The Form of Government is by Citizen King, frequently shot at, not yet shot.

On the whole, therefore, has it not been fulfilled what was prophesied, ex-postfacto indeed, by the Archquack Cagliostro, or another? He, as he looked in rapt vision and amazement into these things, thus spake: (Diamond Necklace, p. 35.) ‘Ha! What is this? Angels, Uriel, Anachiel, and the other Five; Pentagon of Rejuvenescence; Power that destroyed Original Sin; Earth, Heaven, and thou Outer Limbo, which men name Hell! Does the EMPIRE Of IMPOSTURE waver? Burst there, in starry sheen updarting, Light-rays from out its dark foundations; as it rocks and heaves, not in travail-throes, but in death-throes? Yea, Light-rays, piercing, clear, that salute the Heavens, — lo, they kindle it; their starry clearness becomes as red Hellfire!

‘IMPOSTURE is burnt up: one Red-sea of Fire, wild-billowing enwraps the World; with its fire-tongue, licks at the very Stars. Thrones are hurled into it, and Dubois mitres, and Prebendal Stalls that drop fatness, and — ha! what see I? — all the Gigs of Creation; all, all! Wo is me! Never since Pharaoh’s Chariots, in the Red-sea of water, was there wreck of Wheel-vehicles like this in the Sea of Fire. Desolate, as ashes, as gases, shall they wander in the wind. Higher, higher yet flames the Fire–Sea; crackling with new dislocated timber; hissing with leather and prunella. The metal Images are molten; the marble Images become mortar-lime; the stone Mountains sulkily explode. RESPECTABILITY, with all her collected Gigs inflamed for funeral pyre, wailing, leaves the earth: not to return save under new Avatar. Imposture, how it burns, through generations: how it is burnt up; for a time. The World is black ashes; which, ah, when will they grow green? The Images all run into amorphous Corinthian brass; all Dwellings of men destroyed; the very mountains peeled and riven, the valleys black and dead: it is an empty World! Wo to them that shall be born then! — A King, a Queen (ah me!) were hurled in; did rustle once; flew aloft, crackling, like paper-scroll. Iscariot Egalite was hurled in; thou grim De Launay, with thy grim Bastille; whole kindreds and peoples; five millions of mutually destroying Men. For it is the End of the Dominion of IMPOSTURE (which is Darkness and opaque Firedamp); and the burning up, with unquenchable fire, of all the Gigs that are in the Earth.’ This Prophecy, we say, has it not been fulfilled, is it not fulfilling?

And so here, O Reader, has the time come for us two to part. Toilsome was our journeying together; not without offence; but it is done. To me thou wert as a beloved shade, the disembodied or not yet embodied spirit of a Brother. To thee I was but as a Voice. Yet was our relation a kind of sacred one; doubt not that! Whatsoever once sacred things become hollow jargons, yet while the Voice of Man speaks with Man, hast thou not there the living fountain out of which all sacrednesses sprang, and will yet spring? Man, by the nature of him, is definable as ‘an incarnated Word.’ Ill stands it with me if I have spoken falsely: thine also it was to hear truly. Farewell.


ABBAYE, massacres, Jourgniac, Sicard, and Maton’s account of.

ACCEPTATION, grande, by Louis XVI.

AGOUST, Captain d’, seizes two Parlementeers.

AIGUILLON, d’, at Quiberon, account of, in favour, at death of Louis XV.


ALTAR of Fatherland in Champ-de-Mars, scene at, christening at.

AMIRAL, assassin, guillotined.

ANGLAS, Boissy d’, President, First of Prairial.

ANGOULEME, Duchesse d’, parts from her father.

ANGREMONT, Collenot d’, guillotined.

ANTOINETTE, Marie, splendour of, applauded, compromised by Diamond Necklace, griefs of, weeps, unpopular, at Dinner of Guards, courage of, Fifth October, at Versailles, shows herself to people, and Louis at Tuileries, and the Lorrainer, and Mirabeau, previous to flight, flight from Tuileries, captured, and Barnave, Coblentz intrigues, and Lamotte’s Memoires, during Twentieth June, during Tenth August, as captive, and Princess de Lamballe, in Temple Prison, parting scene with King, to the Conciergerie, trial of, guillotined.

ARGONNE Forest, occupied by Dumouriez, Brunswick at.

ARISTOCRATS, officers in French army, number in Paris, seized, condition in 1794.

ARLES, state of.

ARMS, smiths making, search for, at Charleville, manufacture, in 1794, scarcity in 1792, Danton’s search for.

ARMY, French, after Bastille, officered by aristocrats, to be disbanded, demands arrears, general mutiny of, outbreak of, Nanci military executions, Royalists leave, state of, in want, recruited, Revolutionary, fourteen armies on foot.

ARRAS, guillotine at.

ARRESTS in August 1792.

ARSENAL, attempted destruction of.

ARTOIS, M. d’, ways of, unpopularity of, memorial by, flies, at Coblentz, refusal to return.

ASSEMBLIES, Primary and Secondary.

ASSEMBLY, National, Third Estate becomes, to be extruded, stands grouped in the rain, occupies Tennis–Court, scene there, joined by clergy, doings on King’s speech, ratified by King, cannon pointed at, regrets Necker, after Bastille.

ASSEMBLY, Constituent, National, becomes, pedantic, Irregular Verbs, what it can do, Night of Pentecost, Left and Right side, raises money, on the Veto, Fifth October, women, in Paris Riding–Hall, on deficit, assignats, on clergy, and riot, prepares for Louis’s visit, on Federation, Anacharsis Clootz, eldest of men, on Franklin’s death, on state of army, thanks Bouille, on Nanci affair, on Emigrants, on death of Mirabeau, on escape of King, after capture of King, completes Constitution, dissolves itself, what it has done.

ASSEMBLY, Legislative, First French Parliament, book of law, dispute with King, Baiser de Lamourette, High Court, decrees vetoed, scenes in, reprimands King’s ministers, declares war, declares France in danger, reinstates Petion, nonplused, Lafayette, King and Swiss, August Tenth, becoming defunct, September massacres, dissolved.

ASSIGNATS, origin of, false Royalist, forgers of, coach-fare in.

AUBRIOT, Sieur, after King’s capture.

AUBRY, Colonel, at Jales.

AUCH, M. Martin d’, in Versailles Court.

AUSTRIA quarrels with France.

AUSTRIAN Committee, at Tuileries.

AUSTRIAN Army, invades France, defeated at Jemappes, Dumouriez escapes to, repulsed, Watigny.

AVIGNON, Union of, described, state of, riot in church at, occupied by Jourdan, massacre at.

BACHAUMONT, his thirty volumes.

BAILLE, involuntary epigram of.

BAILLY, Astronomer, account of, President of National Assembly, Mayor of Paris, receives Louis in Paris, and Paris Parlement, on Petition for Deposition, decline of, in prison, at Queen’s trial, guillotined cruelly.

BAKERS’, French in tail at.

BARBAROUX and Marat, Marseilles Deputy, and the Rolands, on Map of France, demand of, to Marseilles, meets Marseillese, in National Convention, against Robespierre, cannot be heard, the Girondins declining, arrested, and Charlotte Corday, retreats to Bourdeaux, farewell of, shoots himself.

BARDY, Abbe, massacred.

BARENTIN, Keeper of Seals.

BARNAVE, at Grenoble, member of Assembly, one of a trio, Jacobin, duel with Cazales, escorts the King from Varennes, conciliates Queen, becomes Constitutional, retires to Grenoble, treason, in prison, guillotined.

BARRAS, Paul–Francois, in National Convention, commands in Thermidor, appoints Napoleon in Vendemiaire.

BARRERE, Editor, at King’s trial, peace-maker, levy in mass, plot, banished.


BASTILLE, Linguet’s Book on, meaning of, shots fired at, summoned by insurgents, besieged, capitulates, treatment of captured, Queret–Demery, demolished, key sent to Washington, Heroes.

BAZIRE, of Mountain, imprisoned.

BEARN, riot at.

BEAUHARNAIS in Champ-de-Mars, Josephine, imprisoned, and Napoleon, at La Cabarus’s.

BEAUMARCHAIS, Caron, his lawsuit, his ‘Mariage de Figaro,’ commissions arms from Holland, his distress.

BEAUMONT, Archbishop, notice of.

BEAUREPAIRE, Governor of Verdun, shoots himself.

BENTHAM, Jeremy, naturalised.

BERLINE, towards Varennes.

BERTHIER, Intendant, fled, arrested and massacred.

BERTHIER, Commandant, at Versailles.

BESENVAL, Baron, Commandant of Paris, on French Finance, in riot of Rue St. Antoine, on corruption of Guards, at Champ-de-Mars, apparition to, decamps, and Louis XVI.

BETHUNE, riot at.

BEURNONVILLE, with Dumouriez, imprisoned.

BILLAUD-VARENNES, Jacobin, cruel, at massacres, September 1792, in Salut Committee, and Robespierre’s Etre Supreme, accuses Robespierre, accused, banished.

BLANC, Le, landlord at Varennes, escape of family.

BLOOD, baths of.

BONCHAMPS, in La Vendee War.

BONNEMERE, Aubin, at Siege of Bastille.

BOUILLE, at Metz, account of, character of, troops mutinous, and Salm regiment, intrepidity of, marches on Nanci, quells Nanci mutineers, at Mirabeau’s funeral, expects fugitive King, would liberate King, emigrates.

BOUILLE, Junior, asleep at Varennes, flies to father.

BOURDEAUX, priests hanged at, for Girondism.

BOYER, duellist.

BREST, sailors revolt, state of, in 1791, Federes in Paris, in 1793.

BRETEUIL, Home–Secretary.

BRETON Club, germ of Jacobins.

BRETONS, deputations of, Girondins.

BREZE, Marquis de, his mode of ushering, and National Assembly, extraordinary etiquette.

BRIENNE, Lomenie, anti-protestant, in Notables, incapacity of, failure of, arrests Paris Parlement, secret scheme, scheme discovered, arrests two Parlementeers, bewildered, desperate shifts by, wishes for Necker, dismissed, and provided for, his effigy burnt.

BRISSAC, Duke de, commands Constitutional Guard, disbanded.

BRISSOT, edits ‘Moniteur,’ friend of Blacks, in First Parliament, plans in 1792, active in Assembly, in Jacobins, at Roland’s, pelted in Assembly, arrested, trial of, guillotined.

BRITTANY, disturbances in.

BROGLIE, Marshal, against Plenary Court, in command, in office, dismissed.

BRUNSWICK, Duke, marches on France, advances, Proclamation, at Verdun, at Argonne, retreats.

BUFFON, Mme. de, and Duke d’Orleans, at d’Orleans execution.

BUTTAFUOCO, Napoleon’s letter to.

BUZOT, in National Convention, arrested, retreats to Bourdeaux, end of.

CABANIS, Physician to Mirabeau.

CABARUS, Mlle., and Tallien, imprisoned.

CAEN, Girondins at.

CALENDAR, Romme’s new, comparative ground-scheme of.

CALONNE, M. de, Financier, character of, suavity and genius of, his difficulties, dismissed, marriage and after-course.

CALVADOS, for Girondism.

CAMUS, Archivist, in National Convention, with Dumouriez, imprisoned.

CANNON, Siamese, wooden, fever, Goethe on.

CARMAGNOLE, costume, what, dances in Convention.

CARNOT, Hippolyte, notice of, plan for Toulon, discovery in Robespierre’s pocket.

CARPENTRAS, against Avignon.

CARRA, on plots for King’s flight, in National Convention.

CARRIER, a Revolutionist, in National Assembly, Nantes noyades, guillotined.

CARTAUX, General, fights Girondins, at Toulon.

CASTRIES, Duke de, duel with Lameth.

CATHELINEAU, of La Vendee.

CAVAIGNAC, Convention Representative.

CAZALES, Royalist, in Constituent Assembly.

CAZOTTE, author of ‘Diable Amoureux,’ seized, saved for a time by his daughter.

CERCLE, Social, of Fauchet.

CERUTTI, his funeral oration on Mirabeau.

CEVENNES, revolt of.

CHABOT, of Mountain, against Kings, imprisoned.

CHABRAY, Louison, at Versailles, October Fifth.

CHALIER, Jacobin, Lyons, executed, body raised.

CHAMBON, Dr., Mayor of Paris, retires.

CHAMFORT, Cynic, arrested, suicide.

CHAMP-DE-MARS, Federation, preparations for, accelerated by patriots, anecdotes of, Federation-scene at, funeral-service, Nanci, riot, Patriot petition, 1791, new Federation, 1792.

CHAMPS Elysees, Menads at, festivities in.

CHANTILLY Palace, a prison.

CHAPT-RASTIGNAC, Abbe de, massacred.

CHARENTON, Marseillese at.

CHARLES I., Trial of, sold in Paris.


CHARTRES, grain-riot at.

CHATEAUBRIANDS in French Revolution.

CHATELET, Achille de, advises Republic.

CHATILLON-SUR-SEVRE, insurrection at.

CHAUMETTE, notice of, signs petition, in governing committee, at King’s trial, demands constitution, arrest and death of.

CHAUVELIN, Marquis de, in London, dismissed.

CHENAYE, Baudin de la, massacred.

CHENIER, Poet, and Mlle. Theroigne.

CHEPY, at La Force in September.

CHOISEUL, Duke, why dismissed.

CHOISEUL, Colonel Duke, assists Louis’s flight, too late at Varennes.

CHOISI, General, at Avignon.

CHURCH, spiritual guidance, of Rome, decay of.

CITIZENS, French, demeanour of.

CLAIRFAIT, Commander of Austrians.

CLAVIERE, edits ‘Moniteur,’ account of, Finance Minister, arrested, suicide of.

CLERGY, French, in States–General, conciliators of orders, joins Third Estate, lands, national, power of, &c.

CLERMONT, flight of King through, Prussians near.

CLERY, on Louis’s last scene.

CLOOTZ, Anacharsis, Baron de, account of, disparagement of, in National Convention, universal republic of, on nullity of religion, purged from the Jacobins, guillotined.

CLOVIS, in the Champ-de-Mars.

CLUB, Electoral, at Paris, becomes Provisional Municipality, permanent.

CLUGNY, M., as Finance Minister.

COBLENTZ, Emigrants at.

COBOURG and Dumouriez.

COCKADES, green, tricolor, black, national, trampled, white.

COFFINHAL, Judge, delivers Henriot.

COIGNY, Duke de, a sinecurist.

COMMISSIONERS, Convention, like Kings.

COMMITTEE of Defence, Central, of Watchfulness, of Public Salvation, Circular of, of the Constitution, Revolutionary.

COMMUNE, Council–General of the, Sovereign of France, enlisting.

CONDE, Prince de, attends Louis XV., departure of.

CONDE, Town, surrender of.

CONDORCET, Marquis, edits ‘Moniteur,’ Girondist, prepares Address, on Robespierre, death of.

CONSTITUTION, French, completed, will not march, burst in pieces, new, of 1793.

CONVENTION, National, in what case to be summoned, demanded by some, determined on, Deputies elected, constituted, motions in, work to be done, hated, politeness, effervescence of, on September Massacres, guard for, try the King, debate on trial, invite to revolt, condemn Louis, armed Girondins in, power of, removes to Tuileries, besieged, June 2nd, 1793, extinction of Girondins, Jacobins and, on forfeited property, Carmagnole, Goddess of Reason, Representatives, at Feast of Etre Supreme, end of Robespierre, retrospect of, Feraud, Germinal, Prairial, termination, its successor.

CORDAY, Charlotte, account of, in Paris, assissinates Marat, examined, executed.

CORDELIERS, Club, Hebert in.

COURT, Chevalier de.

COUTHON, of Mountain, in Legislative, in National Convention, at Lyons, in Salut Committee, his question in Jacobins, decree of, arrest and execution.

COVENANT, Scotch, French.

CRUSSOL, Marquise de, executed.

CUISSA, massacre of, at La Force.

CUSSY, Girondin, retreats to Bourdeaux.

CUSTINE, General, takes Mentz, retreats, censured, guillotined, his son guillotined.

CUSTOMS and morals.

DAMAS, Colonel Comte de, at Clermont, at Varennes.

DAMPIERRE, General, killed.

DAMPMARTIN, Captain, at riot in Rue St. Antoine, on condition of army, on state of France, at Avignon, on Marseillese.

DANDOINS, Captain, Flight to Varennes.

DANTON, notice of, President of Cordeliers, and Marat, served with writs, in Cordeliers Club, elected Councillor, Mirabeau of Sansculottes, in Jacobins, for Deposition, of Committee, August Tenth, Minister of Justice, after September massacre, after Jemappes, and Robespierre, in Netherlands, at King’s trial, on war, rebukes Marat, peace-maker, and Dumouriez, in Salut Committee, breaks with Girondins, his law of Forty sous, and Revolutionary Government, and Paris Municipality, retires to Arcis, and Robespierre, arrested, tried, and guillotined.

DAVID, Painter, in National Convention, works by, hemlock with Robespierre.

DEMOCRACY, on Bunker Hill, spread of, in France.

DEPARTMENTS, France divided into.

DESEZE, Pleader for Louis.

DESHUTTES massacred, Fifth October.

DESILLES, Captain, in Nanci.

DESLONS, Captain, at Varennes, would liberate the King.

DESMOULINS, Camille, notice of, in arms at Cafe de Foy, on Insurrection of Women, in Cordeliers Club, and Brissot, in National Convention, on Sansculottism, on plots, suspect, for a committee of mercy, ridicules law of the suspect, his Journal, trial of, guillotined, widow guillotined.

DIDEROT, prisoner in Vincennes.

DINNERS, defined.

DOPPET, General, at Lyons.

DROUET, Jean B., notice of, discovers Royalty in flight, raises Varennes, blocks the bridge, defends his prize, rewarded, to be in Convention, captured by Austrians.

DUBARRY, Dame, and Louis XV., flight of, imprisoned.

DUBOIS Crance bombards and captures Lyons.

DUCHATEL votes, wrapped in blankets, at Caen.

DUCOS, Girondin.

DUGOMMIER, General, at Toulon.

DUHAMEL, killed by Marseillese.

DUMONT, on Mirabeau.

DUMOURIEZ, notice by, account of him, in Brittany, at Nantes, in La Vendee, sent for to Paris, Foreign Minister, dismissed, to Army, disobeys Luckner, Commander-in-Chief, his army, Council of War, seizes Argonne Forest, Grand Pre, and mutineers, and Marat in Paris, to Netherlands, at Jemappes, in Paris, discontented, retreats, beaten, will join the enemy, arrests his arresters, escapes to Austrians.

DUPONT, Deputy, Atheist.

DUPORT, Adrien, in Paris Parlement, in Constituent Assembly, one of a trio, law-reformer.

DUPORTAIL, in office.

DUROSOY, Royalist, guillotined.

DUSAULX, M., on taking of Bastille, notice of.

DUTERTRE, in office.

EDGEWORTH, Abbe, attends Louis, at execution of Louis.

EGLANTINE, Fabre d’, in National Convention, assists in New Calendar, imprisoned.

ELIE, Capt., at Siege of Bastille, after victory.

ELIZABETH, Princess, flight to Varennes, August 10th, in Temple Prison, guillotined.

ENGLAND declares war on France, captures Toulon.

ENRAGED Club, the.

EQUALITY, reign of.

ESCUYER, Patriot l’, at Avignon.

ESPREMENIL, Duval d’, notice of, patriot, speaker in Paris Parlement, with crucifix, discovers Brienne’s plot, arrest and speech of, turncoat, in Constituent Assembly, beaten by populace, guillotined, widow guillotined.

ESTAING, Count d’, notice of, National Colonel, Royalist, at Queen’s Trial.

ESTATE, Fourth, of Editors.

ETOILE, beginning of Federation at.

FAMINE, in France, in 1788–1792, Louis and Assembly try to relieve, in 1792, and remedy, remedy by maximum, &c.

FAUCHET, Abbe, at siege of Bastille, his Te–Deums, his harangue on Franklin, his Cercle Social, in First Parliament, motion by, doffs his insignia, King’s death, lamentation, will demit, trial of.

FAUSSIGNY, sword in hand.

FAVRAS, Chevalier, execution of.

FEDERATION, spread of, of Champ-de-Mars, deputies to, human species at, ceremonies of, a new, 1792.

FERAUD, in National Convention, massacred there.

FERSEN, Count, gets Berline built, acts coachman in King’s flight.

FEUILLANS, Club, denounce Jacobins, decline, extinguished, Battalion, Justices and Patriotism.

FINANCES, serious state of, how to be improved.

FLANDERS, how Louis XV. conquers.

FLANDRE, regiment de, at Versailles.

FLESSELLES, Paris Provost, shot.

FLEURIOT, Mayor, guillotined.

FLEURY, Joly de, Controller of Finance.


FORSTER (FOSTER), and French soldier, account of.

FOUCHE, at Lyons.

FOULON, bad repute of, sobriquet, funeral of, alive, judged, massacred.

FOURNIER, and Orleans Prisoners.

FOY, Cafe de, revolutionary.

FRANCE, abject, under Louis XV., Kings of, early history of, decay of Kingship in, on accession of Louis XVI., and Philosophy, famine in, 1775, state of, prior Revolution, aids America, in 1788, inflammable, July 1789, gibbets, general overturn, how to reform, riotousness of, Mirabeau and, after King’s flight, petitions against Royalty, warfare of towns in, European league against, terror of, in Spring 1792, decree of war, France in danger, general enlisting, rage of, Autumn 1792, Marat’s Circular, September, Sansculottic, declaration of war, Mountain and Girondins divide, communes of, coalition against, levy in mass.

FRANKLIN, Ambassador to France, his death lamented, bust in Jacobins.

FRENCH Anglomania, character of the, literature, in 1784, Parlements, nature of, Mirabeau, type of the, mob, character of.

FRERON, notice of, renegade, Gilt Youth of.

FRETEAU, at Royal Session, arrested, liberated.

FREYS, the Jew brokers, imprisoned.

GALLOIS, to La Vendee.

GAMAIN, Sieur, informer.

GARAT, Minister of Justice.

GENLIS, Mme., account of, and D’Orleans, to Switzerland.

GENSONNE, Girondist, to La Vendee, arrested, trial of.


GEORGET, at taking of Bastille.

GERARD, Farmer, Rennes deputy.

GERLE, Dom, at Theot’s.

GERMINAL Twelfth, First of April 1795.

GIRONDINS, origin of term, in National Convention, against Robespierre, on King’s trial, and Jacobins, formula of, favourers of, schemes of, to be seized? break with Danton, armed against Mountain, accuse Marat, departments, commission of twelve, commission broken, arrested, dispersed, war by, retreat of eleven, trial and death of.

GOBEL, Archbishop to be, renounces religion, arrested, guillotined.

GOETHE, at Argonne, in Prussian retreat, at Mentz.

GOGUELAT, Engineer, assists Louis’s flight, intrigues.

GONDRAN, captain of Guard.

GORSAS, Journalist, pleads for Swiss, in National Convention, his house broken into, guillotined.

GOUJON, Member of Convention, in riot of Prairial, suicide of.

GOUPIL, on extreme left.

GOUVION, Major–General, at Paris, flight to Varennes, death of.

GOVERNMENT, Maurepas’s, bad state of French, French revolutionary, Danton on.

GRAVE, Chev. de, War Minister, loses head.

GREGOIRE, Cure, notice of, in National Convention, detained in Convention, and destruction of religion.

GUADET, Girondin, cross-questions Ministers, arrested, guillotined.

GUARDS, Swiss, and French, at Reveillon riot, French refuse to fire, come to Palais–Royal, fire on Royal–Allemand, to Bastille, name changed, National origin of, number of, Body at Versailles, October Fifth, fight, fly in Chateau, Body, and French, at Versailles, National, at Nanci, French, last appearance of, National, how commanded, 1791, Constitutional, dismissed, Filles–St.-Thomas, routed, Swiss, at Tuileries, ordered to cease, destroyed, eulogy of, Departmental, for National Convention.

GUILLAUME, Clerk, pursues King.

GUILLOTIN, Doctor, summoned by Paris Parlement, invents the guillotine, deputed to King.

GUILLOTINE invented, described, in action, to be improved, number of sufferers by.

HASSENFRATZ, in War-office.

HEBERT, Editor of ‘Pere Duchene,’ signs petition, arrested, at Queen’s trial, quickens Revolutionary Tribunal, arrested, and guillotined, widow guillotined.

HENAULT, President, on Surnames.

HENRIOT, General of National Guard, and the Convention, to deliver Robespierre, seized, rescued, end of.

HERBOIS, Collot d’, notice of, in National Convention, at Lyons massacre, in Salut Committee, attempt to assassinate, bullied at Jacobins, President, night of Thermidor, accused, banished.

HERITIER, Jerome l’, shot at Versailles.

HOCHE, Sergeant Lazare, General against Prussia, pacifies La Vendee,


HOTEL des Invalides, plundered.

HOTEL de Ville, after Bastille taken, harangues at.

HOUCHARD, General, unsuccessful.

HOWE, Lord, defeats French.

HUGUENIN, Patriot, tocsin in heart, 20th June 1792.

HULIN, half-pay, at siege of Bastille.

INISDAL’S, Count d’, plot.

INSURRECTION, most sacred of duties, of Women, of August Tenth, difficult, of Paris, against Girondins, sacred right of, last Sansculottic, of Baboeuf.

ISNARD, Max, notice of, in First Parliament, on Ministers, to demolish Paris.

JACOB, Jean Claude, father of men.

JACOBINS, Society, beginning of, Hall, described, and members, Journal &c., of, daughters of, at Nanci, suppressed, Club increases, and Mirabeau, prospers, ‘Lords of the Articles,’ extinguishes Feuillans, Hall enlarged, described, and Marseillese, and Lavergne, message to Dumouriez, missionaries in Army, on King’s trial, on accusation of Robespierre, against Girondins, National Convention and, Popular Tribunals of, purges members, to become dominant, locked out by Legendre, begs back its keys, decline of, mobbed, suspended, hunted down.

JALES, Camp of, Royalists at, destroyed.

JAUCOURT, Chevalier, and Liberty.

JAY, Dame le.

JONES, Paul, equipped for America, at Paris, account of, burial of.

JOUNNEAU, Deputy, in danger in September.

JOURDAN, General, repels Austria.

JOURDAN, Coupe-tete, at Versailles, leader of Brigands, supreme in Avignon, massacre by, flight of, guillotined.

JULIEN, Sieur Jean, guillotined.

KAUNITZ, Prince, denounces Jacobins.


KLOPSTOCK, naturalised.

KNOX, John, and the Virgin.

KORFF, Baroness de, in flight to Varennes.

LAFARGE, President of Jacobins, Madame Lavergne and.

LAFAYETTE, bust of, erected, against Calonne, demands by, in Notables, Cromwell–Grandison, Bastille time, Vice–President of National Assembly, General of National Guard, resigns and reaccepts, Scipio–Americanus, thanked, rewarded, French Guards and, to Versailles, Fifth October, at Versailles, swears the Guards, Feuillant, on abolition of Titles, at Champ-de-Mars Federation, at De Castries’ riot, character of, in Day of Poniards, difficult position of, at King’s going to St. Cloud, resigns and reaccepts, at flight from Tuileries, after escape of King, moves for amnesty, resigns, decline of, doubtful against Jacobins, journey to Paris, to be accused, flies to Holland.

LAFLOTTE, poison-plot, informer.

LAIS, Sieur, Jacobin, with Louis Philippe.

LALLY, death of.

LAMARCHE, guillotined.

LAMARCK’S, illness of Mirabeau at.

LAMBALLE, Princess de, to England, intrigues for Royalists, at La Force, massacred.

LAMETH, in Constituent Assembly, one of a trio, brothers, notice of, Jacobins, Charles, Duke de Castries, brothers become constitutional, Theodore, in First Parliament.

LAMOIGNON, Keeper of Seals, dismissed, effigy burned, and death of.

LAMOTTE, Countess de, and Diamond Necklace, in the Salpetriere, ‘Memoirs’ burned, in London, M. de, in prison.

LAMOURETTE, Abbe, kiss of, guillotined.

LANJUINAIS, Girondin, clothes torn, arrested, recalled.

LAPORTE, Intendant, guillotined.

LARIVIERE, Justice, imprisoned.

LA ROCHEJACQUELIN, in La Vendee, death of.

LASOURCE, accuses Danton, president, and Marat, arrested, condemned.


LAUNAY, Marquis de, Governor of Bastille, besieged, unassisted, to blow up Bastille, massacred.

LAVERGNE, surrenders Longwi.

LAVOISIER, Chemist, guillotined.

LAW, Martial, in Paris, Book of the.

LAWYERS, their influence on the Revolution, number of, in Tiers Etat, in Parliament First.

LAZARE, Maison de St., plundered.

LEBAS at Strasburg, arrested,

LEBON, Priest, in National Convention, at Arras, guillotined.

LECHAPELIER, Deputy, and Insurrection of Women.

LECOINTRE, National Major, will not fight, active, in First Parliament.

LEFEVRE, Abbe, distributes powder.

LEGENDRE, in danger, at Tuileries riot, in National Convention, against Girondins, for Danton, locks out Jacobins, in First of Prairial.

LENFANT, Abbe, on Protestant claims, massacred.

LEPELLETIER, Section for Convention, revolt of, in Vendemiaire.

LETTRES-DE-CACHET, and Parlement of Paris.

LEVASSEUR, in National Convention, Convention Representative.

LIANCOURT, Duke de, Liberal, not a revolt, but a revolution.

LIES, Philosophism on, to be extinguished, how.

LIGNE, Prince de, death of.

LILLE, Colonel Rouget de, Marseillese Hymn.

LILLE, besieged.

LINGUET, his ‘Bastille Unveiled,’ returns.

LOISEROLLES, General, guillotined for his son.

LONGWI, surrender of, fugitives at Paris.

LORDS of the Articles, Jacobins as.

LORRAINE Federes and the Queen, state of, in 1790.

LOUIS XIV., l’etat c’est moi, booted in Parlement, pursues Louvois.

LOUIS XV., origin of his surname, last illness of, dismisses Dame Dubarry, Choiseul, wounded, has small-pox, his mode of conquest, impoverishes France, his daughters, on death, on ministerial capacity, death and burial of.

LOUIS XVI., at his accession, good measures of, temper and pursuits of, difficulties of, commences governing, and Notables, holds Royal Session, receives States–General Deputies, in States–General procession, speech to States–General, National Assembly, unwise policy of, dismisses Necker, apprised of the Revolution, conciliatory, visits Assembly, Bastille, visits Paris, deserted, will fly, languid, at Dinner of Guards, deposition of, proposed, October Fifth, women deputies, to fly or not? grants the acceptance, Paris propositions to, in the Chateau tumult, appears to mob, will go to Paris, his wisest course, procession to Paris, review of his position, lodged at Tuileries, Restorer of French Liberty, no hunting, locksmith, schemes, visits Assembly, Federation, Hereditary Representative, will fly, and D’Inisdal’s plot, Mirabeau, useless, indecision of, ill of catarrh, prepares for St. Cloud, hindered by populace, effect, should he escape, prepares for flight, his circular, flies, letter to Assembly, manner of flight, loiters by the way, detected by Drouet, captured at Varennes, indecision there, return to Paris, reception there, to be deposed? reinstated, reception of Legislative, position of, proposes war, with tears, vetoes, dissolves Roland Ministry, in riot of, June 20, and Petion, at Federation, with cuirass, declared forfeited, last levee of, Tenth August, quits Tuileries for Assembly, in Assembly, sent to Temple prison, in Temple, to be tried, and the Locksmith Gamain, at the bar, his will, condemned, parting scene, and execution of, his son.

LOUIS-PHILIPPE, King of the French, Jacobin door-keeper, at Valmy, bravery at Jemappes, and sister, with Dumouriez to Austrians, to Switzerland.


LOUVET, his ‘Chevalier de Faublas,’ his ‘Sentinelles,’ and Robespierre, in National Convention, Girondin accuses Robespierre, arrested, retreats to Bourdeaux, escape of, recalled.

LUCKNER, Supreme General, and Dumouriez, guillotined.

LUNEVILLE, Inspector Malseigne at.

LUX, Adam, guillotined.

LYONS, Federation at, disorders in, Chalier, Jacobin, executed at, capture of magazine, massacres at.

MAILHE, Deputy, on trial of Louis.

MAILLARD, Usher, at siege of Bastille, Insurrection of Women, drum, Champs Elysees, entering Versailles, addresses National Assembly there, signs Decheance petition, in September Massacres.

MAILLE, Camp–Marshal, at Tuileries, massacred at La Force.

MAILLY, Marshal, one of Four Generals.

MALESHERBES, M. de, in King’s Council, defends Louis.

MALSEIGNE, Army Inspector, at Nanci, imprisoned, liberated.

MANDAT, Commander of Guards, August, 1792.

MANUEL, Jacobin, slow-sure, in August Tenth, in Governing Committee, haranguing at La Force, in National Convention, motions in, vote at King’s trial, in prison, guillotined.

MARAT, Jean Paul, horseleech to D’Artois, notice of, against violence, at siege of Bastille, summoned by Constituent, not to be gagged, astir, how to regenerate France, police and, on abolition of titles, would gibbet Mirabeau, bust in Jacobins, concealed in cellars, in seat of honour, signs circular, elected to Convention, and Dumouriez, oaths by, in Convention, on sufferings of People, and Girondins, arrested, returns in triumph, fall of Girondins.

MARECHAL, Atheist, Calendar by.

MARECHALE, the Lady, on nobility.

MARSEILLES, Brigands at, on Decheance, the bar of iron, for Girondism.

MARSEILLESE, March and Hymn of, at Charenton, at Paris, Filles–St.-Thomas and, barracks.

MASSACRE, Avignon, September, number slain in, compared to Bartholomew.

MATON, Advocate, his ‘Resurrection.’

MAUPEOU, under Louis XV., and Dame Dubarry.

MAUREPAS, Prime Minister, character of, government of, death of.

MAURY, Abbe, character of, in Constituent Assembly, seized emigrating, dogmatic, efforts fruitless, made Cardinal.

MEMMAY, M., of Quincey, explosion of rustics.

MENOU, General, arrest of.

MENTZ, occupied by French, siege of, surrender of.

MERCIER, on Paris revolting, Editor, the September Massacre, in National Convention, King’s trial.

MERLIN of Thionville in Mountain, irascible, at Mentz.

MERLIN of Douai, Law of Suspect.

METZ, Bouille at, troops mutinous at.

MEUDON tannery.

MIOMANDRE de Ste. Marie, Bodyguard, October Fifth, left for dead, revives, rewarded.

MIRABEAU, Marquis, on the state of France in 1775, and his son, his death.

MIRABEAU, Count, his pamphlets, the Notables, Lettres-de-Cachet against, expelled by the Provence Noblesse, cloth-shop, is Deputy for Aix, king of Frenchmen, family of, wanderings of, his future course, groaned at, in Assembly, his newspaper suppressed, silences Usher de Breze, at Bastille ruins, on Robespierre, fame of, on French deficit, populace, on veto, Mounier, October Fifth, insight of, defends veto, courage, revenue of, saleable? and Danton, on Constitution, at Jacobins, his courtship, on state of Army, Marat would gibbet, his power in France, on D’Orleans, on duelling, interview with Queen, speech on emigrants, the ‘trente voix,’ in Council, his plans for France, probable career of, last appearance in Assembly, anxiety of populace for, last sayings of, death and funeral of, burial-place of, character of, last of Mirabeaus, bust in Jacobins, bust demolished.

MIRABEAU the younger, nicknamed Tonneau, in Constituent Assembly, breaks his sword.

MIRANDA, General, attempts Holland.

MIROMENIL, Keeper of Seals.

MOLEVILLE, Bertrand de, Historian, minister, his plan, frivolous policy of, and D’Orleans, Jesuitic, concealed.

MOMORO, Bookseller, agrarian, arrested, guillotined, his Wife, ‘Goddess of Reason.’

MONGE, Mathematician, in office, assists in new Calendar.

MONSABERT, G. de, President of Paris Parlement, arrested.

MONTELIMART, covenant sworn at.

MONTESQUIOU, General, takes Savoy.

MONTGAILLARD, on captive Queen, on September Massacres.

MONTMARTRE, trenches at.

MONTMORIN, War–Secretary.

MOORE, Doctor, at attack of Tuileries, at La Force.

MORANDE, De, newspaper by, will return, in prison.

MORELLET, Philosophe.

MOUCHETON, M. de, of King’s Bodyguard.

MOUDON, Abbe, confessor to Louis XV.

MOUNIER, at Grenoble, proposes Tennis–Court oath, October Fifth, President of Constituent Assembly, deputed to King, dilemma of.

MOUNTAIN, members of the, re-elected in National Convention, Gironde and, favourers of the, vulnerable points of, prevails, Danton, Duperret, after Gironde dispersed, in labour.

MULLER, General, expedition to Spain.

MURAT, in Vendemiaire revolt.

NANCI, revolt at, description of town, deputation imprisoned, deputation of mutineers, state of mutineers in, Bouille’s fight, Paris thereupon, military executions at, Assembly Commissioners.

NANTES, after King’s flight, massacres at.

NAPOLEON Bonaparte (Buonaparte) studying mathematics, pamphlet by, democratic, in Corsica, August Tenth, under General Cartaux, at Toulon, Josephine and, at La Cabarus’s, Vendemiaire.

NARBONNE, Louis de, assists flight of King’s Aunts, to be War–Minister, demands by, secreted, escapes.

NAVY, Louis XV. on French.

NECKER, and finance, account of, dismissed, refuses Brienne, recalled, difficulty as to States–General, reconvokes Notables, opinion of himself, popular, dismissed, recalled, returns in glory, his plans, becoming unpopular, departs, with difficulty.

NECKLACE, Diamond.

NERWINDEN, battle of.

NIEVRE-CHOL, Mayor of Lyons.

NOBLES, state of the, under Louis XV., new, join Third Estate.

NOTABLES, Calonne’s convocation of, assembled 22nd February 1787, members of, effects of dismissal of, reconvoked, 6th November 1788, dismissed again.

NOYADES, Nantes.

OCTOBER Fifth, 1789

OGE, condemned.

ORLEANS, High Court at, prisoners massacred at Versailles.

ORLEANS, a Duke d’, in Louis XV.‘s sick-room.

ORLEANS, Philippe (Egalite), Duc d’, Duke de Chartres (till 1785), waits on Dauphin, Father, with Louis XV., not Admiral, wealth, debauchery, Palais–Royal buildings, in Notables (Duke d’Orleans now), looks of, Bed-of-Justice, 1787, arrested, liberated, in States–General Procession, joins Third Estate, his party, in Constituent Assembly, Fifth October and, shunned in England, Mirabeau, cash deficiency, use of, in Revolution, accused by Royalists, at Court, insulted, in National Convention, decline of, in Convention, vote on King’s trial, at King’s execution, arrested, imprisoned, condemned, and executed.

ORMESSON, d’, Controller of Finance.

PACHE, Swiss, account of, Minister of War, Mayor, dismissed, reinstated, imprisoned.

PAN, Mallet du, solicits for Louis.

PANIS, Advocate, in Governing Committee, and Beaumarchais, confidant of Danton.

PANTHEON, first occupant of.

PARENS, Curate, renounces religion.

PARIS, origin of city, police in 1750, ship Ville-de-Paris, riot at Palais-de-Justice, beautified, in 1788, election, 1789, troops called to, military preparations in, July Fourteenth, cry for arms, search for arms, Bailly, mayor of, trade-strikes in, Lafayette patrols, October Fifth, propositions to Louis, Louis in, Journals, bill-stickers, undermined, after Champ-de-Mars Federation, on Nanci affair, on death of Mirabeau, on flight to Varennes, on King’s return, Directory suspends Petion, enlisting, 1792, on forfeiture of King, Sections, rising of, August Tenth, prepares for insurrection, Municipality supplanted, statues destroyed, King and Queen to prison, September, 1792, names printed on house-door, in insurrection, Girondins, May 1793, Municipality in red caps, brotherly supper, Sections to be abolished.

PARIS, Guardsman, assassinates Lepelletier.

PARIS, friend of Danton.

PARLEMENT, patriotic, against Taxation, remonstrates, at Versailles, arrested, origin of, nature of, corrupt, at Troyes, yields, Royal Session in, how to be tamed, oath and declaration of, firmness of, scene in, and dismissal of, reinstated, unpopular, summons Dr. Guillotin, abolished.

PARLEMENTS, Provincial, adhere to Paris, rebellious, exiled, grand deputations of, reinstated, abolished.

PELTIER, Royalist Pamphleteer, ‘Pere Duchene,’ Editor of.

PEREYRA (Peyreyra), Walloon, account of, imprisoned.

PETION, account of, Dutch-built, and D’Espremenil, to be mayor, Varennes, meets King, and Royalty, at close of Assembly, in London, Mayor of Paris, in Twentieth June, suspended, reinstated, welcomes Marseillese, August Tenth, in Tuileries, rebukes Septemberers, in National Convention, declines mayorship, against Mountain, retreat to Bourdeaux, end of.

PETION, National–Pique, christening of.

PETITION of famishing French, at Fatherland’s altar, of the Eight Thousand.

PETITIONS, on capture of King, for deposition, &c.

PHELIPPEAUX, purged out of the Jacobins.

PHILOSOPHISM, influence of, on Revolution, what it has done with Church, with Religion.

PICHEGRU, General, account of, in Germinal.

PILNITZ, Convention at.

PIN, Latour du, War–Minister, dismissed.

PITT, against France, and Girondins, inflexible.

PLOTS, of King’s flight, various, of Aristocrats, October Fifth, Royalist, of Favras and others, cartels, Twelve bullies from Switzerland, D’Inisdal, will-o’-wisp, Mirabeau and Queen, poniards, Mallet du Pan, Narbonne’s, traces of, in Armoire-de-Fer, against Girondins, Desmoulins on, prison.

POLIGNAC, Duke de, a sinecurist, dismissed, at Bale, younger, in Ham.

POMPIGNAN, President of National Assembly.

POPE PIUS VI., excommunicates Talleyrand, his effigy burned.

PRAIRIAL First to Third, May 20–22, 1795.

PRECY, siege of, Lyons.

PRIESTHOOD, disrobing of, costumes in Carmagnole.

PRIESTLEY, Dr., riot against, naturalised, elected to National Convention.

PRIESTS, dissident, marry in France, Anti-national, hanged, many killed near the Abbaye, number slain in September Massacre, to rescue Louis, drowned at Nantes.

PRISONS, Paris, in Bastille time, full, August 1792, number of, in France, state of, in Terror, thinned after Terror.

PRISON, Abbaye, refractory Members sent to, Temple, Louis sent to, Abbaye, Priests killed near, massacres at La Force, Chatelet, and Conciergerie.

PROCESSION, of States–General Deputies, of Necker and D’Orleans busts, of Louis to Paris, again, after Varennes, of Louis to trial, at Constitution of 1793.

PROVENCE Noblesse, expel Mirabeau.

PRUDHOMME, Editor, on assassins, on Cavaignac.

PRUSSIA, Fritz of, against France, army of, ravages France, King of, and French Princes.

PUISAYE, Girondin General, at Quiberon.

QUERET-DEMERY, in Bastille.

QUIBERON, debarkation at.

RABAUT, St. Etienne, French Reformer, in National Convention, in Commission of Twelve, arrested, between two walls, guillotined.

RAYNAL, Abbe, Philosophe, his letter to Constituent Assembly.

REBECQUI, of Marseilles, in National Convention, against Robespierre, retires, drowns himself.

REDING, Swiss, massacred.

RELIGION, Christian, and French Revolution, abolished, Clootz on, a new.

REMY, Cornet, at Clermont.

RENAULT, Cecile, to assassinate Robespierre, guillotined.

RENE, King, bequeathed Avignon to Pope.

RENNES, riot in.

RENWICK, last of Cameronians.

REPAIRE, Tardivet du, Bodyguard, Fifth October, rewarded.


REPUBLIC, French, first mention of, first year of, established, universal, Clootz’s, Girondin, one and indivisible, its triumphs.

RESSON, Sieur, reports Lafayette to Jacobins.

REVEILLON, house destroyed.

REVOLT, Paris, in, of Gardes Francaises, becomes Revolution, military, what, of Lepelletier section.

REVOLUTION, French, causes of the, Lord Chesterfield on the, not a revolt, meaning of the term, whence it grew, general commencement of, prosperous characters in, Philosophes and, state of army in, progress of, duelling in, Republic decided on, European powers and, Royalist opinion of, cardinal movements in, Danton and the, changes produced by the, effect of King’s death on, Girondin idea of, suspicion in, Terror and, and Christian religion, Revolutionary Committees, Government doings in, Robespierre essential to, end of.

RHEIMS, in September massacre.

RICHELIEU, at death of Louis XV., death of.

RIOT, Paris, in May 1750, Cornlaw (in 1775), at Palais de Justice (1787), triumph, of Rue St. Antoine, of July Fourteenth (1789), and Bastille, at Strasburg, Paris, on the veto, Versailles Chateau, October Fifth (1789), uses of, to National Assembly, Paris, on Nanci affair, at De Castries’ Hotel, on flight of King’s Aunts, at Vincennes, on King’s proposed journey to St. Cloud, in Champ-de-Mars, with sharp shot, Paris, Twentieth June, 1792, August Tenth, 1792, Grain, Paris, at Theatre de la Nation, selling sugar, of Thermidor, 1794, of Germinal, 1795, of Prairial, final, of Vendemiaire.

RIOUFFE, Girondin, to Bourdeaux, in prison, on death of Girondins, on Mme. Roland.

ROBESPIERRE, Maximilien, account of, derided in Constituent Assembly, Jacobin, incorruptible, on tip of left, elected public accuser, after King’s flight, at close of Assembly, at Arras, position of, plans in 1792, chief priest of Jacobins, invisible on August Tenth, reappears, on September Massacre, in National Convention, accused by Girondins, accused by Louvet, acquitted, King’s trial, Condorcet on, at Queen’s trial, in Salut Committee, and Paris Municipality, embraces Danton, Desmoulins and, and Danton, Danton on, at trial, his three scoundrels, supreme, to be assassinated, at Feast of Etre Supreme, apocalyptic, Theot, on Couthon’s plot-decree, reserved, his schemes, fails in Convention, applauded at Jacobins, accused, rescued, at Townhall, declared out of law, half-killed, guillotined, essential to Revolution.

ROBESPIERRE, Augustin, decreed accused, guillotined.

ROCHAMBEAU, one of Four Generals, retires.

ROCHE-AYMON, Grand Almoner of Louis XV.

ROCHEFOUCAULT, Duke de la, Liberal, President of Directory, killed.

ROEDERER, Syndic, Feuillant, ‘Chronicle of Fifty Days,’ on Federes Ammunition, dilemma at Tuileries, August 10th.

ROHAN, Cardinal, Diamond Necklace.

ROLAND, Madame, notice of, at Lyons, narrative by, in Paris, after King’s flight, and Barbaroux, public dinners and business, character of, misgivings of, accused, Girondin declining, arrested, condemned and guillotined.

ROLAND, M., notice of, in Paris, Minister, letter, and dismissal of, recalled, decline of, on September Massacres, and Pache, doings of, resigns, flies, suicide of.

ROMME, in National Convention, in Caen prison, his new Calendar, in riot of Prairial, 1795, suicide.

ROMOEUF, pursues King.

RONSIN, General of Revolutionary Army, arrested and guillotined.

ROSIERE, Thuriot de la, summons Bastille, in First Parliament, in National Convention, President at Robespierre’s fall.

ROSSIGNOL, in September Massacre, in La Vendee.

ROUSSEAU, Jean–Jacques, Contrat Social of, Gospel according to, burial-place of, statue decreed to.

ROUX, M., ‘Histoire Parlementaire.’

ROYALTY, signs of demolished, abolition of.

RUAMPS, Deputy, against Couthon.

RUHL, notice of, in riot of Prairial, suicide.

SABATIER de Cabre, at Royal Session, arrested, liberated.

ST. ANTOINE to Versailles, Warhorse supper, Nanci affair, at Vincennes, at Jacobins, and Marseillese, August Tenth.

ST. CLOUD, Louis prohibited from.

ST. DENIS, Mayor of, hanged.

ST. FARGEAU, Lepelletier, in National Convention, at King’s trial, assassinated, burial of.

ST. HURUGE, Marquis, bull-voice, imprisoned, at Versailles, and Pope’s effigy, at Jacobins, on King’s trial.

ST. JUST in National Convention, on King’s trial, in Salut Committee, at Strasburg, repels Prussians, on Revolution, in Committee-room, Thermidor, his report, arrested.

ST. LOUIS Church, States–General procession from.

ST. MEARD, Jourgniac de, in prison, his ‘Agony’ at La Force.

ST. MERY, Moreau de, prostrated.

SALLES, Deputy, guillotined.

SANSCULOTTISM, apparition of, effects of, growth of, at work, origin of term, and Royalty, above theft, a fact, French Nation and, Revolutionary Tribunal and, how it lives, consummated, fall of, last rising of, death of.

SANTERRE, Brewer, notice of, at siege of Bastille, at Tuileries, June Twentieth, meets Marseillese, Commander of Guards, how to relieve famine, at King’s trial, at King’s execution, fails in La Vendee, St. Antoine disarmed.

SAPPER, Fraternal.

SAUSSE, M., Procureur of Varennes, scene at his house, flies from Prussians.

SAVONNIERES, M., de, Bodyguard, October Fifth, loses temper.

SAVOY, occupied by French.

SECHELLES, Herault de, in National Convention, leads Convention out, arrested and guillotined.

SECTIONS, of Paris, denounce Girondins, Committee of.

SEIGNEURS, French, compelled to fly.

SERGENT, Agate, Engraver, in Committee, nicknamed ‘Agate,’ signs circular.

SERVAN, War–Minister, proposals of.

SEVRES, Potteries, Lamotte’s ‘Memoires’ burnt at.

SICARD, Abbe, imprisoned, in danger near the Abbaye, account of massacre there.

SIDE, Right and Left, of Constituent Assembly, Right and Left, tip of Left, popular, Right after King’s flight, Right quits Assembly, Right and Left in First Parliament.

SIEYES, Abbe, account of, Constitution-builder, in Champ-de-Mars, in National Convention, of Constitution Committee, 1790, vote at King’s trial, making fresh Constitution.

SILLERY, Marquis.

SIMON, Cordwainer, Dauphin committed to, guillotined.

SIMONEAU, Mayor of Etampes, death of, festival for.

SOMBREUIL, Governor of Hotel des Invalides, examined, seized, saved by his daughter, guillotined, his son shot.

SPAIN, at war with France, invaded by France.

STAAL, Dame de, on liberty.

STAEL, Mme. de, at States–General procession, intrigue for Narbonne, secretes Narbonne.

STANHOPE and Price, their club and Paris.

STATES-GENERAL, first suggested, meeting announced, how constituted, orders in, Representatives to, Parlements against, Deputies to, in Paris, number of Deputies, place of Assembly, procession of, installed, union of orders.

STRASBURG, riot at, in 1789.

SUFFREN, Admiral, notice of.

SULLEAU, Royalist, editor, massacred.

SUSPECT, Law of the, Chaumette jeered on.

SWEDEN, King of, to assist Marie Antoinette, shot by Ankarstrom.

SWISS Guards at Brest, prisoners at La Force.

TALLEYRAND-PERIGORD, Bishop, notice of, at fatherland’s altar, his blessing, excommunicated, in London, to America.

TALLIEN, notice of, editor of ‘Ami des Citoyens,’ in Committee of Townhall, August 1792, in National Convention, at Bourdeaux, and Madame Cabarus, recalled, suspect, accuses Robespierre, Thermidorian.

TALMA, actor, his soiree.

TANNERY of human skins, improvements in.

TARGET, Advocate, declines King’s defence.

TASSIN, M., and black cockade.

TENNIS-COURT, National Assembly in, Club of, and procession to, master of, rewarded.

TERROR, consummation of, reign of, designated, number guillotined in.

THEATINS Church, granted to Dissidents.

THEOT, Prophetess, on Robespierre.

THERMIDOR, Ninth and Tenth, July 27 and 28, 1794.

THEROIGNE, Mlle., notice of, in Insurrection of Women, at Versailles (October Fifth), in Austrian prison, in Jacobin tribune, armed for insurrection (August Tenth), keeps her carriage, fustigated, insane.

THIONVILLE besieged, siege raised.

THOURET, Law-reformer, dissolves Assembly, guillotined.

THOUVENOT and Dumouriez.

TINVILLE, Fouquier, revolutionist, Jacobin, Attorney–General in Tribunal Revolutionnaire, at Queen’s trial, at trial of Girondins, at trial of Mme. Roland, at trial of Danton, and Salut Public, his prison-plots, his batches, the prisons under, mock doom of, at trial of Robespierre, accused, guillotined.

TOLLENDAL, Lally, pleads for father, in States–General, popular, crowned.

TORNE, Bishop.

TOULON, Girondin, occupied by English, besieged, surrenders.

TOULONGEON, Marquis, notice of, on Barnave triumvirate, describes Jacobins Hall.

TOURNAY, Louis, at siege of Bastille.

TOURZELLE, Dame de, escape of.

TRONCHET, Advocate, defends King.

TUILERIES, Louis XVI. lodged at, a tile-field, Twentieth June at, tickets of entry, ‘Coblentz,’ Marseillese chase Filles–Saint-Thomas to, August Tenth, King quits, attacked, captured, occupied by National Convention.

TURGOT, Controller of France, on Corn-law, dismissed, death of.

TYRANTS, French people rise against.

UNITED STATES, declaration of Liberty, embassy to Louis XVI., aided by France, of Congress in.

USHANT, battle off.

VALADI, Marquis, Gardes Francaises and, guillotined.

VALAZE, Girondin, on trial of Louis, plots at his house, trial of, kills himself.

VALENCIENNES, besieged, surrendered.

VARENNE, Maton de la, his experiences in September.

VARIGNY, Bodyguard, massacred.

VARLET, ‘Apostle of Liberty,’ arrested.

VENDEE, La, Commissioners to, state of, in 1792, insurrection in, war, after King’s death, on fire, pacificated.

VENDEMIAIRE, Thirteenth, October 4, 1795.

VERDUN, to be besieged, surrendered.

VERGENNES, M. de, Prime Minister, death of.

VERGNIAUD, notice of, August Tenth, orations of, President at King’s condemnation, in fall of Girondins, trial of, at last supper of Girondins.

VERMOND, Abbe de.

VERSAILLES, death of Louis XV. at, in Bastille time, National Assembly at, troops to, march of women on, of French Guards on, insurrection scene at, the Chateau forced, prisoners massacred at.


VILATE, Juryman, guillotined, book by.

VILLARET-JOYEUSE, Admiral, defeated by Howe.

VILLEQUIER, Duke de, emigrates.

VINCENNES, riot at, saved by Lafayette.

VINCENT, of War–Office, arrested, guillotined.

VOLTAIRE, at Paris, described, burial-place of.

WAR, civil, becomes general.

WASHINGTON, key of Bastille sent to, formula for Lafayette.

WATIGNY, Battle of.

WEBER, in Insurrection of Women, Queen leaving Vienna.

WESTERMANN, August Tenth, purged out of the Jacobins, tried and guillotined.

WIMPFEN, Girondin General.

YORK, Duke of, besieges Valenciennes and Dunkirk.

YOUNG, Arthur, at French Revolution.

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Last updated Wednesday, July 29, 2015 at 20:09