Britannia, by William Camden

Princes of Wales.

Big A AS for the ancient Princes of Wales of British Extraction, I refer the Reader to the Annals of Wales already publish’d: but for the later Princes of the Royal Line of England, it seems pertinent to our design, that we add here a short account of them.

Edward the first (to whom, during his minority, his father Henry the third had granted the Principality of Wales) having (when Lhewelyn ap Grufydh the last Prince of the British blood was slain) cut as it were the sinews of the Government or Sovereignty of that Nation, united the same to the Kingdom of England in the 12th year of his reign: and the whole Province swore fealty and allegiance to his son Edward of Caernarvon, whom he constituted Prince of Wales. But Edward the second confer’d not the title of Prince of Wales on his son Edward, but only the honour of Earl of Chester and Flint; as far as I can yet learn out of the Records of the Kingdom. Edward the third first solemnly invested his son Edward, sirnam’d the Black, with this title; who, in the very height of all his military glory, dy’d an untimely death. After that, he confer’d the same on his son Richard of Bourdeaux, heir to the crown; who, being depriv’d of his Kingdom by King Henry the fourth, dy’d miserably, leaving no issue. The same Henry the fourth confer’d the Principality of Wales on his eldest son, who was that renowned Prince Henry the fifth. His son Henry the sixth, whose father dy’d whilst he was an infant, confer’d that honour (which he never receiv’d himself) on his young son Edward; who being taken in the battel of Tewkesbury, had his brains barbarously dash’d out by the York-Party. Not long after, King Edward the fourth being settled on the throne, created his young son Edward (afterwards Edward the fifth) Prince of Wales. And soon after, his Uncle Richard, having dispatch’d him out of the way, substituted in his place his own son Edward, who had been created Earl of Salisbury before, by Edward the fourth, but he dy’d soon after (which I have but lately discover’d.) Afterwards Henry the seventh constituted, first, his son Arthur, Prince of Wales; and after his decease, Henry, famous afterwards under the title of Henry the eighth. haeredibus Angliae On all these the Principality of Wales was confer’d by solemn Investiture, and a Patent deliver’d them in these words, Tenendus sibi & hæredibus Regibus Angliæ, &c. For in those times, the Kings would not deprive themselves of so fair an opportunity of obliging their eldest sons, but thought it prudence to engage them with so great an honour, when it seem’d most convenient.

Mary, Elizabeth, and Edward, the children of Henry the eighth, although they receiv’d not the Investiture and Patent, were yet successively stil’d Princesses, and Prince of Wales. 26 Hen.8. For at that time, Wales was by Act of Parliament so united and incorporated with England, that they enjoy’d the same Laws and Privileges. ⌈But since that time, Henry, and after him, Charles, the sons of King James the first; and Charles eldest son of King Charles the first; were all successively created Princes of Wales, by Patent. As was also his Royal Highness, George Augustus, who is the only son of our present Sovereign King George; and (which is a Blessing that this Nation hath not known for some ages) hath several Children living, in his Father’s Reign; to the great happiness of these Kingdoms, and the inexpressible joy of every faithful and loyal Subject.⌉

But now let us return out of Wales into England, and proceed to the Country of the Brigantes.

An INDEX of the Curiosities represented in the following Table.

Kran Kaer-hyn Derowen rhyn Dol Gelheu

Fig. 1. 2. THE carv’d pillar or monument call’d Maen y Chwyvan in Flintshire.
3. 4. The Pillars describ’d in the Hall at Kaer-phyli Castle in Glamorganshire.
5. The Alabaster Statue, found near Porth Shini Krân in Monmouthshire.
6. Maen y Morynnion at Gaer near Brecknock.
7. The chequer’d Pavement discover’d Anno 1692. at Kaer Lheion in Monmouthshire.
8. A hollow Brick out of a Roman Hypocaust at Kaer-hŷn in Caernarvonshire.
9. The Phiala or Bowl describ’d at Kaer Lheion in Monmouthshire.
10. One of the leaden Boxes mention’d at Lhan Boydy in Caermardhinshire.
11. 12. The same open’d.
13. A brass-axe found at Moel yr Henhlys in the Parish of Deròwen in Montgomeryshire.
14. Part of one of the brass Daggers (if we may so call them) found at Karreg Dhiwin in Meirionydhshire: with the nails that fasten’d it to the handle.
15. The point of such a Dagger, found at the same place.
16. 17. The Roman Fibula, describ’d at Kaer Lheion in Monmouthshire.
18. A brass Amulet dug out of a Well somewhere in Denbighshire. The other side differ’d not from that which is engraven.
19. A cake of Copper describ’d at Kaer Rhŷn in Caernarvonshire.
20. A gold Medal of Julius Constantius, found at Trevarthin in Anglesey.
21. A British gold coin (such as they used before the Roman Conquest) found at Penbryn-Parish in Cardiganshire.
22. 23. 24. Other British coins of gold, kept in the Ashmolean Repository at Oxford.
25. 26. The Coins describ’d at Kaer-Phyli Castle in Glamorganshire.
27. 28. 29. Mock Plants out of a Cole-pit near Neath in Glamorganshire. See a description of them in Flintshire.
On the left hand of the Table.
a. An Adder-bead or Glain Neidr of green glass, found at Aber-Fraw in Anglesey.
b. Another of earth, enamell’d with blue; found near Dôl Gèlheu in Meirionydhshire.
c. A third of glass, undulated with white, red, and blue: found near Maes y Pandy in the same County.
d. Represents one end of the same. Of these Adder-beads, which are suppos’d to have been Druid-Amulets, some account is given at Kerig y Drudion, in Denbighshire.

Various items

More rare Plants growing in Wales.

Acetosa Cambro-britannica montana. Park. rotundifolia repens Eboracensis, foliis in medio deliquium patientibus Moris. hist. Mountain round-leaved Sorrel of Wales. On moist high rocks, and by rivulets about Snowdon in Caernarvonshire almost every where; as also by rivulets among the broken rocks of Cader-idris above a certain lake call’d Llin y cau.

Argemone lutea Cambro-britannica Park. Papaver luteum perenne, laciniato folio Cambro-britannicum. Yellow wild bastard Poppy. About a mile from a small village called Abler, and in the midway from Denbigh to Guidar; also near a wooden bridge over the river Dee, near to a village called Bala; also going up the hill that leads to Bangor near to Anglesey, Park. p.270. But more certainly to be found on Clogwyn y Garnedh, yscolion duon, Dygyvylche, as you ascend the Glyder from Lhanberies, and several other places about Snowdon, most commonly by rivulets, or on moist rocks: also beyond Pontvawr very near the bridge, among the stones. Mr. Llwyd.

Alsine myosotis lanuginosa Alpina grandiflora, seu Auricula muris villosa flore amplo membranaceo. An Caryophyllus holosteus Alpinus angustifolius C. B. prod? Hairy mountain Mouse-ear Chickweed with a large flower. On the rock called Clogwyn y Garnedh, the highest of all Wales, near Lhanberys in Caernarvonshire plentifully.Cicuturiae divisura Rutae murariae maidenhair minutissime Grib Goch bhrech

Adiantum nigrum pinnulis Cicuturiæ divisurâ. An Ad. album tenuifolium Rutæ murariæ accedens J. B. Fine-leaved white Mayden-hair divided like bastard Hemlock. On Snowdon-hill.

Bistorta minima Alpina, foliis imis subrotundis & minutissimè serratis D. Lhwyd. Alpina pumila varia Park. pumila foliis variis rotundis & longis Moris. The least mountain Bistort, with round and long leaves. In the steep pastures of the high rock called Grîb Gôch above the lake or pool called Phynon bhrêch near Llanberys. Whether this be specifically different from the Westmorland Bistorta minor, I leave to others, upon comparing the plants, to determine.

Bugula cærulea Alpina Park. Consolida media cærulea Alpina. C. B. Mountain Bugle or Sicklewort. Found on Carnedh Lhewellin in Caernarvonshire by Dr. Johnson.caerulea Chamaemorus Chamaemorus

Caryophyllata montana purpurea Ger. emac. montana seu palustris purpurea Park. aquatica nutante flore C. B. aquatica flore rubro striato J. B. Purple Mountain-Avens or Water-Avens. On Snowdon and other mountains.

Cirsium Britannicum Clusii repens J. B. aliud Anglicum Park. singulari capitulo magno vel incanum alterum C. B. The great English soft or gentle Thistle, or melancholy Thistle. As you ascend the Glyder from Lhanberys, and in many other mountainous pastures about Snowdon.

Cirsium montanum humile Cynoglossi folio polyanthemum. An Carduus mollis Helenii folio Park? On Clogwyn y Garnedh, and most other high rocks in Caernarvonshire about Snowdon.

Cirsium montanum polyanthemum. Salicis folio angusto denticulato. By a rivulet on Gallt yr Ogo near Capel Kirig, and in other places with the precedent, of which perhaps it may be only a variety.

Chamæmorus Cambro-britannica sive Lancastrense Vaccinium nubis Park. The Welsh Knoutberry: said to be found in Wales by Dr. Lobel. We met not with it there. It grows abundantly on Berwyn mountain, not far from Lhan Rhai-adar ym moxnant in Denbighshire, where it is well known by the name of Moyar Berwyn, mora montis Berwini.

Cochlearia minor rotundifolia nostras & Parkinsoni. Small round-leaved Scurvy-grass. The lower leaves from the root are round: Those on the stalks angular. On the coast of Caernarvonshire, and likewise of Anglesey, about Beaumaris.

Cotyledon hirsuta P. B. Saniculæ Alpinæ aliquatenus affinis J. B. forte. Hairy Kidney-wort. By the rills and on the moist rocks of many mountains in Wales, as Snowdon, Cader-idris, Carnedh-Lhewelyn, &c. abundantly.Saniculae Alpinae rubrae Maranthae

Filix Alpina Pedicularis rubræ foliis subtus villosis D. Lhwyd, pumila, Lonchitidis Maranthæ species Cambro-britannica, An Lonchitis aspera Ilvensis Lugd? ejusd. apud Plukenetum in Phytograph. Stone-Fern with red-rattle leaves, hairy underneath. On the moist rocks called Clogwyn y Garnedh, near the top of the mountain Gwydhva the highest in all Wales. It is a rare plant even at Snowdon.

Filicula petræa florida perelegans seu Adiantum album floridum. An Adianthum Alpinum crispum Schwenckfeldii J. B.? Small flowering Stone-fern. On Clogwyn y Garnedh, and most other high rocks.

Filix montana ramosa minor argutè denticulato D. Lhwyd. Alpina Myrrhidis facie Cambro-britannica D. Plunkenet. Phytograph. Small-branched Mountain-Fern, with finely indented leaves. On the top of the mountain Glyder, where it over-hangs the lake or pool called Lhyn Ogwan.petraea argute Chamaesilix foemina Stoechadibus

Filix marina Anglica Park. Chamæfilix marina Anglica J. B. Filicula petræa fœmina seu Chamæfilix marina Anglica Ger. emac. Filix petræa ex insulis Stœchadibus C. B. Dwarf Sea-fern. On the rocks about Prestholm Island near Beaumaris, and at Lhandwyn in the Isle of Anglesey.

Filix saxatilis Tragi J. B. Park. Adiantum Greek seu furcatum Thal. Filix corniculata C. B. On the top of Carnedh-Lhewelyn near Lhan Lhechyd in Caernarvonshire. Horned or forked white Maiden-hair.

Gnaphalium maritimum C. B. maritimum multis J. B. marinum Ger. marinum sive Cotonaria Park. Sea Cudweed or Cottonweed. On the sand near Abermeney-ferry in the Isle of Anglesey plentifully, where the common people call it Calamus aromaticus, from its sweet scent.

Gramen sparteum montanum spica foliacea graminea P. B. Grass upon grass. On the tops of the highest mountains, Snowdon, Cader-idris, &c. among the stones and moss, where no other Plant grows.

Hipposelinum Ger. emac. Hippos. seu Smyrnium vulgare Park. Macerone, quibusdam Smyrnium, semine magno nigro J. B. Hipposelinum Theophrasti sive Smyrnium Dioscoridis C. B. Alexanders. On the rocks about Prestholm Island near Beaumaris plentifully.caeruico

Hyacinthus stellatus Fuchsii Ger. stellatus vulgaris sive bifolius Fuchsii Park. parad. stellatus bifolius & trifolius vernus dumetorum flore cæruleo & albo J. B. stellaris bifolius Germanicus C. B. Small vernal Star-Hyacinth. On the coasts of North-Wales among the bushes, and in the adjacent Islands, Bardsey, &c. plentifully.

Juncus acutus maritimus Anglicus Park. English Sea-hard-Rush. On the southern Sea-coast of Wales.

Juncus acutus capitulis Sorghi C. B. maritimus capitulis Sorghi Park. pungens, seu acutus capitulis Sorghi J. B. Pricking large Sea-Rush, with heads like Indian millet. On the sandy hills on the Western shore of North-Wales, Merionethshire about Harlech.

Juniperus Alpina J. B. Clus. Park. Alpina minor Ger. emac. minor montana folio latiore, fructúque longiore C. B. Mountain Dwarf Juniper. On Snowdon-hill. The Country-people call it Savine, and use the decoction of it to destroy the bots in horses.

Lamium montanum Melissa folio C. B. Melissa Fuchsii Ger. Melissophyllon Fuchsii Park. Melissa adulterina quorundam, amplis foliis, & floribus non grati odoris J. B. Baulm-leaved Archangel, Bastard-Baulm. In the woods about Haverford-West in Pembrokeshire.

Leucoium maritimum sinuato folio C. B. maritimum Camerarii J. B. marinum maximum Park. ut & majus ejusdem. marinum purpureum Lobelii Ger. emac. Great Sea-stock-Gillyflower, with a sinuated leaf. On the sandy shores about Abermeney ferry in the Isle of Anglesey, and at Aberdaren in Caernarvonshire.

Lychnis Alpina minima. Caryophylleus flos 9 Clusio, Caryophyllus pumilio Alpinus Ger. emac. Lychnis Alpina pumila folio gramineo, seu Muscus Alpinus Lychnidis flore C. B. Muscus Alpinus flore insigni dilutè rubente J. B. Ocymoides muscosus Alpinus Park. The least Mountain-Campion or Mosse-Campion. On the steep and higher rocks of Snowdon-hill in Caernarvonshire almost every-where.

Lychnis sylvestris viscosa rubra angustifolia C. B. Park. Odontidi sive Flori cuculi affinis Lychnis sylv. 1. Clusii in Pannon. 4 in Hist. J. B. Muscipula angustifolia Ger. emac. Narrow-leaved red Catchfly. On the sides of Craig Wreidhin hill in Montgomeryshire.

Alsines myosotis facie Lychnis Alpina flore amplo niveo repens D. Lloyd. Mountain-Campion with a large white flower, resembling Mouse-Ear Chickweed. By the water-courses on the sides of Snowdon-hill plentifully.

Lonchitis aspera C. B. aspera major Ger. aspera major Matthiolo Park. altera cum folio denticulato, sive Lonchitis altera Matthioli J. B. Rough Spleenwort with indented leaves. It springs out of the rifts and chinks of the rocks, in the high Mountains of Snowdon. v. g. Clogwin y Garnedh, y Grîb Gôch Trygvylchau. Grib Goch Dodonaei Anchusae

Lithospermum majus Dodonæi, flore purpureo, semine Anchusæ J. B. majus Ger. vulgare majus Park. minus repens latifolium C. B. the lesser creeping Gromwel. On the top of a bushy hill on the North-side of Denbigh-town.

Malva arborea marina nostras Park. English Sea-Tree-Mallow. On the rocks of Caldey Island in South-Wales plentifully.

Muscus clavatus sive Lycopodium Ger. Park. Club-moss or Wolves-claw. On the Mountains every where.

Muscus terrestris foliis retro reflexis J. B. Lycopodium elatius Abieti-forme Julo singulari apode D. Lhwyd. Club-moss with reflected leaves, and single heads, without foot-stalks. It grows together with Cypress-moss on the Mountains of Caernarvonshire; but more rarely. We found it plentifully on the Mountain call’d Rhiwr Glyder above the Lake Lhyn y cwn, and elsewhere on the said Mountain.

Muscus clavatus foliis Cupressi Ger. emac. C. B. Cypress-Moss or Heath-Cypress. On Snowdon, Cader-idris, and most other of the high Mountains among the grass.

Muscus erectus Abieti-formis, terrestris rectus J. B. Selago tertia Thal. Upright Fir-moss. On Snowdon, Cader-idris, and other high Mountains.

Muscus terrestris repens, clavis singularibus foliosis erectis. Creeping Club-moss with erect heads. On moist and watery places about springs; and in meadows about Capel Ceirig.

Muscus terrestris erectus minor polyspermos. Seeding Mountain-moss. In moist places and about springs on Snowdon and other Mountains.

Muscus Trichomanoides purpureus, Alpinis rivulis innascens. Purple Mountain-water-moss resembling black maiden-hair. In the mountainous rivulets.petraeus

Muscus croceus saxigena holosericum referens, seu Byssus petræus. An muscus saxatilis serico similis Commelini in Cat. plant. Holland? Saffron-colour’d silken stone-moss. Under high rocks where they are prominent.

Orchis pusilla alba odorata radice palmata. White-handed musk Orchies. On the sides of Snowdon by the way leading from Lhanberis to Caernarvon.

Orobus sylvaticus nostras. English wild Wood-Vetch or bitter Vetch. Below Brecknock-hills in the way to Cardiff: and in Merionethshire not far from Bala.

Plantago angustifolia montana. An Alpina angustifolia J. B. Narrow-leav’d Mountain-Plantain. On the rocks of Trigvylchau above the Lake Lhyn Bochlyn, near the Church of St. Peris.

Polypodium Cambro-britannicum pinnulis ad margines laciniatis. Laciniated Polypody of Wales. On a rock in a wood near Denys Powys Castle, not far from Caerdyff in Glamorganshire.

Ranunculus globosus Ger. Park. parad. The Globe-flower or Locker-goulons. In the mountainous meadows, and on the sides of the Mountains plentifully.

Rhodia radix omnium Autorum. Rosewort. On the rocks of the high Mountains of Snowdon and Cader-idris, &c. plentifully.

Sedum Alpinum Ericoides cæruleum C. B. J. B. Mountain Heath-like Sengreen with large purple flowers. On the steep and higher rocks of Snowdon almost every where.caeruleum Crib

Sedum Alpinum trifido folio C. B. Small Mountain-Sengreen with jagged leaves. On Snowdon and other high mountains, chiefly by the rivulets sides.

Sedum serratum flosculis compactis non maculatis. Indented Mountain-Sengreen with unspotted flowers growing close together. On the highest Mountains, it springs out of the chinks and commissures of the rocks; as in Clogwyn y Garnedh, Crîb y Distilh, Clogwyn du ymhen y Glyder, near Lhanberys.

Thalictrum montanum minus foliis latioribus. The lesser Meadow-rue with broader leaves. On the steep sides of the Mountain call’d Cader-idris by Dolgchle in Merionethshire, out of the clefts or chinks of the rocks.

Thalictrum minimum montanum, atro-rubens, foliis splendentibus. The least mountainous Meadow-rue, with shining leaves and dark red flowers. On the moist rocks, and by the rivulets in the Mountains of Caernarvonshire, Mr. Lhwyd. There are two varieties of this, the one with broader, the other with narrower leaves.Paronychiae petraeum

Thlaspi sive Lunaria vasculo sublongo intorto. Lunar Violet with a wreathen cod. On the Mountains of North-Wales, observ’d by Mr. Lhwyd. Who also found another Plant there on the high rocks call’d Hysvae, hanging over the valley Nant Phrancon in Caernarvonshire, which he intitled Paronychiæ similis sed major perennis Alpina repens, of which, having not seen it in the seed, he was in some doubt whether it might not be the same with the precedent.

Thlaspi Vaccaria incano folio perenne. Perennial Mithridate-mustard. In the mountainous part of North-Wales.

Nasturtium petræum Johnsoni Merc. Bot. part. alt. Dr. Johnson’s Rock-cress. On the high Mountains of Caernarvonshire and Merionethshire, as Moelyn rudh near Phestiniog, Clogwyn du y yr Ardhus and Clogwyn y Garnedh near Lhanberys.Crib vrech Armeriae proliferae

Bulbosa Alpina juncifolia pericarpio unico erecto in summo cauliculo dodrantali. A certain Rush-leav’d bulbous Plant, having one Seed-vessel on the top of an erect stalk about nine inches high. On the high rocks of Snowdon, viz. Trigvylchau y Clogwyn du ymhen y Gluder, Clogwyn yr Ardhu Crîb y Distilh, &c. Mr. Lhwyd. It hath three or four more narrow and short leaves upon the stalk.

Subularia lacustris seu Calamistrum herba aquatico-Alpina, s. Aizoides Fusiforme Alpinorum lacuum D. Lhwyd. A Spindle-leav’d Water-Sengreen-like Plant, growing in the bottom of a small Lake near the top of Snowdon-hill, call’d Phynon vrêch, &c.

Graminifolia plantula Alpina capitulis Armeriæ proliferæ, D. Lhwyd. A Mountain grass-leav’d Plant with heads like the Cluster-pink. In the pastures at the foot of a certain high rock call’d Clogwyn du ymhen y Glyder in Caernarvonshire.caeruleo profunde

Gladiolus lacustris Dortmanni Clus cur. post. Glad. lacustris Clusii, sive Leucoium palustre flore cæruleo Bauhini Park. Water Gladiole. In most of the Lakes in North-Wales.

Graminifolia lacustris prolifera, seu plantulis quasi novis hinc inde cauliculis accrescentibus. A Grass-leav’d childing Water-plant, having young Plants springing from the stalks.

Veronica spicata latifolia C. B. Ger. major latifolia, foliis splendentibus & non splendentibus J. B. spicata latifolia major Park. Great broad-leav’d spiked Speedwell or Fluellin. On the sides of a Mountain call’d Craig-Wreidhin in Montgomeryshire.

Auricula muris pulchro flore, folio tenuissimo J. B. Small fine-leav’d Mountain-Chickweed with a fair flower. On most of the high and steep rocks about Snowdon.

Trichomanes ramosum J. B. aliud, foliis mucronatis profundè incisis Sibbald. Prod. Scot. Branched English black Maiden-hair. On the high rocks about Snowdon plentifully.


Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:52