Britannia, by William Camden


Big T THE fourth division of that Country which (as is generally believ’d) the Cornavii inhabited, was known in the Saxons time by the name of ⌈ Saxon scrobbesbyrigscyre,⌉ Saxon scirypscyre, ⌈ Saxon scrobbscire⌉ and Saxon shrobbe-scyre, which ⌈later writers call Salopschire, Scropscire, and Schropshire,⌉ we Shropshire, and the Latins Comitatus Salopiensis. It much exceeds the rest in compass, and is not inferior to any in fruitfulness, or pleasure. It is bounded on the East by Staffordshire, on the West by Montgomeryshire and Denbyshire, on the South by Worcestershire, Herefordshire, and Radnorshire, and on the North by Cheshire. It is environ’d on every side with towns and castles, ⌈insomuch that a late Author says, it may seem on the west to be divided from Wales with a wall of continu’d Castles; and Speed tells us, that beside several towns strongly walled, thirty-two Castles have been built in it;⌉ being a frontier County, or (as Siculus Flaccus words it) Ager arcifinius; and of great use * * In checking the excursions of their Welsh neighbours. From whence, the borders of it towards Wales were call’d by a Saxon Name, the Marches,The Marches. being the limits between the English and Welsh.Marchiae Walliae In this Country, certain Noblemen were intitled Barones Marchiæ, † Lords Marchers.† See the Catalogue, in Radnorshire.Lords Marchers, who exercis’d within their respective liberties a sort of ¦ ¦ What this is, see Cheshire.Palatine jurisdiction, and held Courts of Justice to determine Controversies among neighbours, and prescrib’d for several privileges and immunities; one of which was, that the King’s Writs should not run here in some Causes. But, whatever controversies arose concerning the right of the several Baronies, or their extent, were only determinable in the King’s Courts of Justice. We find these stil’d formerly Marchiones de Marchia Walliæ, Marquisses of the Marches.Marquisses of the Marches of Wales, as appears by the red book in the Exchequer; where we read, that at the Coronation of Queen Eleanor, Consort to Henry the third, these Marquisses, or Lords Marchers of Wales, viz. John Fitz-Alane, Ralph de Mortimer, John de Monmouth, and Walter de Clifford, in behalf of the Marches, did claim in their right, to provide silver spears, and bring them to support the The Canopy.square Canopy of purple silk at the Coronation of the Kings and Queens of England: but peaceful times and Royal Authority did by degrees abolish the private rights of these Lords; ⌈and this,Vide Kent. particularly, belongs now, amongst other immunities and privileges, to the Inhabitants of the Cinque-port-Towns.⌉

Shrop Shire map, left Shrop Shire map, right

Shrop Shire

I would not be understood (therefore I give this caution) that all the County belong’d to the Cornavii, but so much only as lies on this side the Severn. That on the other side, belong’d to the Ordovices, a People of great extent; some part of whose Country (as also some small parcels on this side Severn, which belong’d to the Lords Marchers) were laid to this Shire, * * So said, ann. 1607.
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not long since, by Act of Parliament. The Division of the Shire into these two parts is the more proper and convenient, because the river Severn runs through it from West to South-east. The part beyond the Severn, is bounded on the South by the river Temd, in Welsh Tifidiauc, which, at some distance, is joyn’d by the river Colun, call’d in Welsh Colunwy, but for shortness Clune. The river Clune. This rises higher up in the Country, not far from a well-frequented little town, call’d Bishops-castle,Bishops-castle. because it belong’d to the Bishops of Hereford, whose Diocese takes in a great part of this Shire. ⌈At some distance from hence, is Chirbury, near the Severn; where one of the ancient Castles before-mention’d, seems to have been.AEthelfled For Æthelfled, Lady of the Mercians, is ¦ ¦ Chr. Sax.said to have built one at Saxon Cyricbyrig. Now, as to the affinity between the old and new names, if we add the Norman [h] after C, the change is very easy and natural; and as for the condition of the place, nothing can answer more exactly; for where should she more probably build it, than here, when her main design was to secure her kingdom against the Incursions of the Welsh? This place gives the title of Baron, to a Family of the Herberts; Sir Edward Herbert, a person of great learning, being advanc’d to the dignity of a Baron of this Realm, 5 Car. 1, by the title of Lord Herbert of Chirbury.⌉

The river Colun gives name to Colun or Clune-castle,Clune-castle. which was built by the Fitz-Alans (descended from one Alan the son of Flaold a Norman, and afterwards Earls of Arundel,) at such time as they were Lords Marchers here, and annoy’d the Welsh with frequent Inroads: But where it meets the river Temd, among several dangerous fords ariseth a hill ⌈(accessible but at one place, and very famous in ancient times)⌉ call’d Caer Caradock;Caer Caradock. because, about the year of our Lord 53, CaratacusKing Caratacus. a renown’d British King, fortify’d it with a bulwark of stone, and defended it gallantly against OstoriusTacitus. and the Roman Legions; till they, making a breach with no great difficulty in so slight a workHumfrey Lhuyd. (the ruins of which are yet to be seen,) forc’d the Britains, who had no arms, to betake themselves to the Mountains. The King himself escap’d by flight, but his wife, daughter, and brothers, were taken prisoners; yet was not his Escape a Security to him (men in adversity being no where secure;) for afterwards he was deliver’d up to Ostorius by Queen Cartismandua (with whom he had trusted himself,) and was carry’d to Rome; where, notwithstanding he had engag’d the Romans in so tedious and toilsom a war, he procur’d his own and his family’s Pardon, of Claudius Cæsar; and that by no base or precarious sollicitations, but by a noble and majestick freedom of address. caesar historiae nostrae For the taking of this hill, and Caratacus, a Triumph was decreed to Ostorius; nor did the captive King seem a less prize to the Senate, than the two Royal Prisoners, Syphax, whom P. Scipio, and Perses, whom L. Paulus, presented to the Romans. And notwithstanding * * Historiæ nostræ Sarcinator.our sorry Historian has omitted the account both of this battel, and of this gallant Britain, yet is not his memory, nor the story, extinct among the Country-people. They tell us, that a King was beaten upon this hill; and in the Welsh-book call’d Triades, among the three renowned British Heroes, Caradauc† With a strong arm.Urichfras is the chief; who to me seems, undoubtedly to have been this very Caratacus. ⌈And as the Action was great and eminent, ¦ ¦ Aubrey’s Monumenta Britan. the remains of it to this day, are very considerable. Near Lanterden, about the meeting of the rivers Teme and Clun, are two barrows, in which have been found burnt bones and an urn. And a little way east of Teme, at Brandon,Brandon. is a single square work with four ports, very commodiously situated, as having near it the river to serve them with water; a thing, which the Romans were always careful to secure, if possible. And these are the Remains of the Romans.

As for the Britains; here is a Camp of theirs also about half a mile from Brandon, at a place call’d Coxoll near Brampton-Bryan-Castle; which is now cover’d with great oaks. From hence they seem to have been beaten: and about three miles to the north, is the foremention’d large Camp, Caer-Caradock. The trenches are very deep, and yet the soil is a hard rock. The Rampires are wall’d, but the wall is now cover’d with earth; which if one remove a little, the stones appear. * * Dugd. Visitation of Shropshire.It is now vulgarly call’d the Gair, situate on the east-point of a very steep hill; and has no access, as we have observ’d, but one way, and that is from a plain on the west-part. It is three times as long, as it is broad; having its entrance to the west, fenced with a high treble rampire. There is also a narrow passage out of it towards the east, upon the very pitch of the hill. The north-side of it is fortify’d with a deep and double trench; but on the south-side it hath but a single trench; because the steepness of that side of the hill, is of it self a good defence. On the south-point of a high hill (a mile north of Clun) call’d Tongley,Tongley. is a large fortification; somewhat larger than Caer-Caradock; it is made circular, and defended with three deep trenches drawn round it. And a mile from Bishops-castle, towards Montgomery, is a place call’d the Bishops-mote,Bishops-mote. where is a very steep and high hill, like the Keep of a Castle at the west-end; and towards the east, near an acre of ground is surrounded with an entrenchment. These are the marks which we have left, of this memorable Engagement.⌉

Next, is Ludlow,Ludlow. in Welsh Dinan, and Lystwysoc, that is, the Prince’s Palace; it is seated on a hill, at the joyning of the Temd with the river Corve; a town of greater elegance than antiquity. Roger de Montgomery first built here a beautiful and strong Castle, hanging over the river Corve; and then enclos’d it with walls, about a mile in compass. This, when his son Robert was proscrib’d, King Henry the first took into his own hands, and defended it against King Stephen, who laid close siege to it; and Henry, son of the King of Scots, being lifted up from his Horse by an Iron-hook,Iron hooks. had been drawn within the walls, if King Stephen Matt. Paris.himself had not assisted him, and with singular courage deliver’d him from that imminent danger. Afterwards, King Henry the second gave this castle, with the vale below it along the Corve (commonly call’d Corves-dale,) to Fulk de Dinan: next, it came to the Lacies of Ireland, and by a daughter to Jeffrey de JenevileJenevile. a Poictovin, or (as some say) of the House of Lorrain; from whose posterity it descended by a daughter to the Mortimers, and from them, hereditarily, to the Crown. Afterwards, the Inhabitants erected a fair Church in this place, upon the highest ground in the heart of the town, the only one they have; and from this time, we may date its reputation, and eminence beyond any of its neighbours. Tho’ King Stephen, Simon de Mountford, and Henry the sixth, did much damnify it in the several Civil wars; yet it always recover’d: more especially, ever since King Henry the eighth establish’d the Council of the MarchesThe Council of the Marches. (not unlike the French Parliaments,) the Lord President whereof generally * * Keeps, C.kept his Courts here, which seldom † † Want, C.wanted business; either owing to the great extent of the Jurisdiction, or to the litigious temper of the Welsh people. The Council ¦ ¦ Consists, C.consisted of a Lord President, as many Counsellors as the King * * Pleases, C.pleased, a Secretary, an Attorney, a Solicitor, and the four Justices of the Counties of Wales: ⌈But that Council, together with the said Courts, being a great grievance to the Subject, were dissolv’d and taken away by Parliament, in the first yearCap. xxvii. of King William and Queen Mary.

Not far from the foremention’d river Corve, stands Rushbury,Rushbury. to which place Dr. Gale removes, from Worcester, the Bramonium or Bravonium, or, as the Simlerian Edition has it, the Bravinium, of Antoninus; induced thereunto, partly because Brwynen in British signifies a bulrush, which suits the present name; and partly by reason of the distance from Magnis on one hand, and the direct road, through this town, to Uriconium on the other; whereas he observes, that Worcester is forty miles out of the way.⌉

Below Ludlow, upon the river Temd, we see Burford,Burford. which, from the posterity of Theodorick Say, descended to Robert de Mortimer, and from his heirs to Jeffrey de Cornubia, or Cornwaile,Cornwaile. of the lineage of Richard Earl of Cornwall, and King of the Alemans; whose heirs, even to † † So said, ann. 1607.our time have born the honourable title of Barons; but not such as might sit in Parliament. BurfordInq.40 E.2. is held of the King, to find five men towards the army of Wales, and by the service of a Barony, as appears by the Inquisition. But observe by the way, that those who held an entire Barony, were formerly reputed Barons; and some Sages of the Common Law will have BaronBaron and Barony, conjugates. and Barony, to have been Conjugates, like Earl and Earldom, Duke and Dukedom, King and Kingdom.

Here, Temd leaves Shropshire; and near its banks, to the north, are hills of an easy ascent, call’d Clee-hill,Clee-hill, famous for producing the best * * Barley, C. by mistake.Pitcoal, and not without veins of Iron; ⌈on which are the remains of an ancient Camp.⌉ At the bottom of this, in a little village call’d Cleybury,Cleybury. Hugh de Mortimer built a castle, which immediately King Henry the second so entirely demolish’d, as a Nursery of Rebellion, that scarce any remains of it are visible at this day. Kinlet,Kinlet. a seat of the Blunts,Blunt signifies yellow hair, in the Norman tongue. a name very famous in these parts, and deriv’d from their golden locks. This is a very ancient, honourable, and numerous Family. Then we see Brugmorfe, commonly call’d Bridgnorth,Bridgemorfe. on the right hand bank of the Severn; so call’d of Burgh, and Morfe ⌈once⌉ a Forest, adjoyning to it, ⌈(but now a Waste, with scarce a Tree upon it;)⌉ being before call’d Burgh only. ⌈Leland says, it was call’d in all old Records, Bridge: and the more ancient name is that given it by the Saxon Annals, Saxon bricge; from which, by some of our later Historians it is term’d Brugge and Bruggenorth; the addition of north being made, upon the building of some bridge over the Severn, south of this. The Castle which was built by the Danes Anno 896, call’d in Saxon Saxon cwatbricge, seems to be the very same; tho’ * * Camden, Somner.some learned persons are inclin’d to place it at Cambridge in Glocestershire. For first, It is said expressly to be upon the Severn, whereas Cambridge is two miles distant; and besides, this Castle was probably built to guard the passage over the Severn. 2. The Canterbury-copy reads it expressly Saxon bricge, as the Chronicles call it Bridgenorth; which is at this day commonly nam’d Brigge. And 3. As to the former part of the word, there is a town about a mile distant call’d Quatford, and another at two miles distance call’d Quat; so that one may reasonably imagine Saxon cwatbricge should not be far off.⌉ It † † Is, C.was enclos’d and fortify’d with walls, a ditch, a large castle, and the river Severn, which, with a very steep fall, flows in among the rocks; ⌈but the walls and castle are now quite ruinated.⌉ It stands secure upon a rock, through which the ways that lead into the upper part of the town, were cut. It was first built by Edelfleda,Domina Merciorum. Lady of the Mercians, and wall’d round by Robert de ¦ ¦ Belism, C.Belesm, Earl of Shrewsbury; who, relying upon the strength of the place, revolted from Henry the first, as did afterwards Roger de Mortimer from Henry the second, but both without success; for they were forced to surrender, and so their Rebellions were suppress’d. At the siege of this castle (as our Chronicles tell us) King Henry the second had like to have lost his life by an arrow, which being shot at him, was intercepted by a truly gallant man, and lover of his Prince, Hubert de Saint-Clere, who sav’d the King’s life by the loss of his own. At this place also, Ralph de Pichford had behav’d himself so valiantly, that King Henry the first gave him little Brug near it, to hold by the service of finding dry wood for the great chamber of the castle of Brug, against the coming of his Soveraign Lord the King. ⌈Northward from hence, is Evelyn;Evelyn. from which place, the family of that name came into Surrey, some ages since, along with the Onslows and Hattons; where these three seated themselves near one another, and have remain’d a long time.⌉ WilleleyWilley, or Willeley. is not far from Bridgnorth, formerly the seat of Warner of Willeley, from whose posterity by the Harleys and Peshall it came to the famous family of the Lacons,Lacon. who were much enrich’d by marriage with the heir of Passelew, and * * Lately, C.afterwards improv’d by the possessions of Sir J. Blunt of Kinlet, Kt.

Other castles and townsCastles. lie scatter’d hereabouts, as New-castle, Hopton-castle, Shipton, and Corvesham upon the river Corve (the gift of King Henry the secondLib. Inq. to Walter de Clifford,) Brancroft, and Holgot commonly call’d Howgate, which formerly belong’d to the Mandutes, then to Robert Burnel Bishop of Bath, and afterward to the Lovels.

Higher up, stands Wenlock,Wenlock. now famous for lime-stone, but formerly, in Richard the second’s time, for a copper-mine; and most remarkable in the Saxon times, for a very ancient Nunnery,William Malmesb. where Milburga a devout Virgin, liv’d, and was bury’d: It was repair’d, and fill’d with Monks, by Earl Roger de Montgomery. ⌈Upon the edge of Staffordshire, is the WellSt. Kenelm’s well. of St. Kenelm, to whom the Kingdom of Mercia fell at seven years of age. But Quendred his sister, practising with the young King’s guardians, made him away.

Near Wenlock,Philos. Trans. n.334. at Broseley,Brosely. there hath been lately discover’d a Burning well,Burning-well. which, being lighted, burns like the spirit of wine, or brandy, and much exceeds the heat of other fire, and boils any thing that is set over it, much sooner. If you put upon it green boughs, or any thing else that will burn, it presently consumes them to ashes. But yet the water, of it self, is extreme cold; and assoon as ever the fire is put out, it feels as cold, as if no fire had been there. Not far from hence, is⌉ Acton Burnell,Acton Burnell. a castle of the Burnels, and afterwards of the Lovels, which was honour’d with an Assembly of Parliament in Edward the first’s reign. ⌈The House of Commons sat in a barn then belonging to the Abbot of the Monastery of St. Peter and St. Paul, which is still standing.⌉ This family of the BurnelsBarons Burnell. was very honourable and ancient, and much enrich’d by the Bishop before-mention’d; but it was extinct in Edward the second’s reign, when Mawd the heiress marry’d John Lovel for her first husband, and John Haudlow for her second, whose son Nicholas took the name of Burnel; from whom the Ratcliffs Earls of Sussex, and others, derive their pedigree. Scarce a mile from hence, is Langley,Langley. situated low, and in a woody park, the seat of the Leas, one of the ancient and honourable families in these parts; ⌈which is now extinct.⌉ Next is Condover,Condover. formerly a manour of the Lovels, and * * Lately, C.afterwards of Thomas Owen, one of the Justices of the Common Pleas, and a great lover of learning; † † Who being dead, hath left, C.who dying, left behind him a son, Sir Roger Owen, an excellent scholar, and worthy of so excellent a father. It appears by the Records, that this is holden of the King in chief, To find two foot-soldiers for one day towards the army of Wales, in time of war. A remark, which I think proper to make once for all, That the Gentry of these parts held their estates of the King of England by tenure, to aid him with soldiers for defence of the Marches, whenever a war broke out between the English and Welsh. Near this, is a little village call’d Pitchford,Pitchford. which formerly gave name to the ancient family of the Pitchfords; but is now the possession of * * R. Oteley, C.the Otelies. Our Ancestors gave it the name of Pitchford, from a spring of pitchy water; for in those days, they knew no distinction between pitch and bitumen. And here is a well in a poor man’s yard,A bituminous well. upon which there floats a sort of liquid bitumen, although it be every day scumm’d off; after the same manner as it doth on the lake Asphaltites in Judæa, and on a standing pool about Samosata, and on aJudaea Judaea spring by Agrigentum in Sicily: but the inhabitants make no other use of it, than as pitch. Whether it be a preservative against the Falling-sickness, or be good for drawing and healing of wounds (as that in Judæa is,) I know no one yet that has made the experiment. ⌈Here,Phil. Trans. n.228. and in the adjacent places, there lies over most of the Coal-pits or Mines, a Stratum or Layer of blackish rock; of which, by grinding and boiling, they make pitch and tar, and from which also a kind of Oil is distill’d.⌉ More eastward stands Pouderbache-castle, now ruinated: it was formerly call’d Purle-bache,Purle-bache. and was the seat of Ralph Butler, younger son of Ralph Butler of Wem; from whom came the Butlers of Woodhall, in the County of Hertford. Below this, Huckstow forest fetches a great compass among the mountains; where at Stiperston’s hill,Stiperston’s hill. are great heaps of stone, like little rising rocks, very near one another: the Welsh call them Carneddau tewion; but I dare not so much as conjecture that these, among others, were the stones which Giraldus Cambrensis describes in this manner; Harald the last, on foot, with a company of foot, lightly arm’d, and stock’d with such provisions as the country afforded, march’d round the whole Country of Wales, and through and through it; insomuch that he scarce left any alive behind him: in memory of which total defeat, you find in Wales many hillocks of stones, after the ancient manner, in the places where he obtain’d his victories; and they bear this Inscription:

At this place Harald was Conqueror.

More to the north, Caurse-castleCaurse. is situated, the Barony of Peter Corbet, from whom it came to the Barons of Stafford, ⌈and since to the Lord Weymouth;⌉ and near it Routon,Routon. which is very ancient, situated upon the western borders of the Shire, not far from the Severn, and formerly belonging to the Corbets, but now to the ancient family of the Listers. Some time before, John L’Estrange of Knocking enjoy’d it; till, out of spite to him, Leolin Prince of Wales ras’d it to the ground, as we read in the Life of Fulk Fitz-Warin. We find it flourishing by the same name in the time of the Romans, being call’d RutuniumRutunium. by Antoninus: nor can it be a mistake, since both the name, and the distance from the famous Uriconium, do exactly concur. Near this, is Abberbury-castle;Abberbury and Watlesbury. and Watlesbury, which from the Corbets came to the Leightons, Knights, an honourable family. It seems to have taken its name from that Consular-way, and the King’s high-road, call’d Watlingstreet, which goes by this place into the furthest parts of Wales, as Ranulphus Cestrensis says. It runs through two small towns, that ⌈(like several others elsewhere)⌉ are call’d from it Strettons; between which, in a valley, some ruins are to be seen of an ancient castle call’d Brocards-castle,Brocards-castle. surrounded with green meadows, which were formerly fish-ponds. But these castles, with others, too many to be reckon’d up here (owing their decay to length of time and an uninterrupted peace, and not to the desolations of war,) are, generally, † † So said, ann. 1607.ready to drop to the ground.

Now, passing over the river Severn, we come to the second Division; which lies * * Cis-Sabrina.on this side the Severn, and (as we said) belong’d to the Cornavii. This likewise is divided into two parts by the river Tern, which flows from north to south, and has its name from a large pool in Staffordshire (such as we call Tearnes,) where it begins. In the hithermost or eastern part of these Divisions, near the place where Tern and Severn joyn, stood Uriconium;Uriconium. for so Antoninus calls it, but Ptolemy Viroconium, and Ninnius Caer Vruach; the Saxons call’d it Saxon wreken-ceaster, and we Wreckceter and Wroxceter.Wroxceter. It was the Metropolis of the Cornavii, and built probably by the Romans, when they fortify’d the bank of the Severn; which is here fordable, and not any where lower toward the mouth. But this being shatter’d by the Saxon wars, * * Vide infra.was quite destroy’d in those of the Danes, ⌈probably by Burning; the way where fire has gone, being still discernible by the blackness and rankness of the soil.⌉ It is now a very little village, and meanly inhabited; but they frequently plow-up ancient coins, which bear witness of its antiquity. ⌈Some of these are of gold, though but rarely found; some of stone, red, green, blue, &c. and others of silver, which are very commonly met with; and the rest of brass, copper, and mix’d metals. They are call’d by the inhabitants Dynders, and are so worn and decay’d, that there is not one in ten found, the Inscription whereof is perfectly legible, or the Image distinguishable. Amongst all these (as I have the account from a person who has been an eye-witness) there is not one but what is Roman; from whence they that contend for the antiquity of Shrewsbury, which rose out of the ruins of this, do infer, that the destruction of this city was before the coming over of the Saxons, or at latest, in their wars with the Britains; for if it had continu’d till the Danish times, there would certainly have been some of the Saxon Coins mix’d amongst those of the Romans. And the Saxon name Saxon wrekenceaster (from whence the present Wroxeter flows) perhaps may imply, that it was, when they came, Saxon wraeced, that is, wrack’d and destroy’d; unless we may say, that this name is moulded out of the old Uriconium.

But whenever it was demolish’d, it hath certainly been a place of great Note and Antiquity: Upon searching into their places of burial, there have been teeth taken out of the jaw-bones of men near three inches long, and three inches about; and thigh-bones have been lately found by the inhabitants of a full yard in length. Their way of burying the dead bodies here (when they did not burn the corps, and put the ashes in urns) has been observ’d to be this. First, they made a deep wide grave, in the bottom whereof they fix’d a bed of very red clay, and upon that laid the body. With the same sort of clay they cover’d it; fencing the clay with a sort of thin slats against the earth or mould, which otherwise would have been apt to break through it to the dead body. Lastly, they fill’d the grave, and cover’d it with great stones, sometimes five or six upon a grave, which are now sunk into the earth. Some part of the bones thus inter’d, which have happen’d to lie dry in the dust or clay, remain pretty sound to this day. As to the Urns; several have been found whole in the memory of man, when they have had occasion to dig three or four foot deep in their sandy land. For as the dead corps here bury’d, are in red clay; so are their urns lodg’d in a red sand. A few years since,Phil. Trans. n.306. in a place where a piece of land was observ’d to be more barren than the rest, they found, in digging, a square room, wall’d about, with four ranks of small brick pillars to support a double floor made of mortar; which is suppos’d to have been a Sudatory or Sweating-house for the Roman Soldiers.⌉

Here is nothing to be seen of the ancient City, but a few remains of broken walls, call’d by the people, The old Works of Wroxceter, ⌈near the midst of it, about twenty foot high and one hundred long,⌉ built of hewn stone laid in * * Septemplici Britannicorum rows without, and arch’d within, after the fashion of the Britains. That, in the place where these are, there was formerly a castle, is probable from the uneavenness of the ground, the heaps of earth, and, here and there, the rubbish of walls. The plot where this city stood, is no small spot of ground, ⌈but about three miles in circumference; the walls built upon a foundation for the most part made of pebble-stones, about three yards thick, and a vast trench round, which in some places appears exceeding deep to this day.⌉ This plot is a blacker earth than the rest, and yields the largest crops of the best barley. Below this city, ⌈as hath been suppos’d,⌉ went the Roman military high-way call’d Watling-street, either thro’ a ford, or over a bridge, directly to the StrattonsStratton. before-mention’d, that is, Towns seated by the Street; the foundation of which bridge was † † So said, ann. 1607.lately discover’d a little above, in setting a Wear (for so they call a fishing-dam) in the river: but now there is no track of the Way. ⌈And it is true, that there is still discernible in the bottom of the Severn, at low-water, the foundation of a stone-work; which is probably the remains of a bridge; but yet it is observ’d, with great certainty, that the road went through the midst of the city, and so through the ford now call’d Wroxeter-ford; as is plainly to be discover’d by the old Strait-way, pointing exactly upon it, on each side of the river.⌉ This ancient name of Viroconium is more manifest in a neighbouring mountain ⌈about a mile off,⌉ call’d Wreken-hill,Wrekenhill. and by some Gilberts-hill, which gradually falls into a pleasant level, and yields an entertaining prospect of the plains about it, ⌈being, as Leland saith, the highest ground of all that Country.⌉ This hill runs out into a great length, and is thick cloath’d with trees: and under it, where the Severn rowls along, at Buldewas, commonly call’d Bildas,Bildas. was formerly a noted Monastery, the burying-place of the Burnels, a famous family, and Patrons of it. Above it is a Lodge, call’d Watling-street, from its situation upon the publick Street or military highway; and hard by, are the remains of Dalaley-castle,Dalaley. which, upon the Attainder of Richard Earl of Arundel, King Richard the second by Act of Parliament annex’d to the Principality of Chester, which he had erected. Not far from the foot of this hill, in a deep valley, and upon that Roman military high-way, is Okenyate,Okenyate. a small Village, noted for the plenty of pit-coal that it affords; which, by its low situation, and that distance which Antoninus says Us-oconaUs-ocona. is from Uriconium and Pennocrucium, must undoubtedly be the same with Us-ocona, ⌈† † Burt. Itin.written also, according to several Copies, Usoccona, and Uxaccona.⌉ Nor does the name make against this conjecture; for the word Ys, which in Welsh signifies Low, seems to be added to express its low situation. On the other side, under this hill, appears Charleton-castle,Charleton. anciently belonging to the Charletons Lords of Powis: and more eastward, towards Staffordshire, is Tong-castle, call’d formerly Toang,Tong. and repair’d * * So said, ann. 1607.not long since by the Vernons; as likewise was the College within the town, of which the Penbriges (as I have read) were the first Founders. The inhabitants boast of nothing more, than a great Bell, famous in those parts for its bigness. Hard by, stands Albrighton,Albrighton. which, in the reign of Edward the first, was the seat of Ralph de Pichford,Pichford. but now of the Talbots, who are descended from the Earls of Shrewsbury.

Beyond the river Tern, and upon the bank of it, lies Draiton;Draiton. where, during the Civil wars1459. between the houses of Lancaster and York, was a battel fought, very fatal to the Gentry of Cheshire; for though it is hard to say which side had the better, yet they being divided, and adhering to both parties, were cut off in great numbers. ⌈This is suppos’d by someUsher. Prim. p.35. to be the Cair Darithou, which Ninnius mentions among the 28 Cities of Britain; and which Henry of Huntingdon calls Draiton.⌉ Lower down, and pretty near the Tern, lies Hodnet,Hodnet. formerly inhabited by Gentlemen of that name; from whom, by the Ludlows, it came by inheritance to the Vernons.Inq. 10 Ed.2. It was formerly held of the Honour of Montgomery, by the service of being Steward of that Honour. The Tern, after that, passing by some small villages, is joyn’d by a rivulet call’d Rodan; and after it has run a few miles further, near Uriconium which we have spoken of before, it falls into the Severn. Not far from the head of this river Rodan, stands Wem,Wem. where † † Are, C.were the marks of * * intended castle, ⌈of which nothing is now to be seen, but the bank it stood on.⌉ It was the Barony of William Pantulph about the beginning of the Norman times, from whose posterity it came at length to the Butlers; and from them, by the Ferrers of Ouseley and the Barons of Greystock, to the Barons Dacre of Gillesland. ⌈The title of this Barony was given by King James the second to Sir George Jefferies, Lord Chancellor of England; to whom the Manour and Royalty did also belong.⌉ A little distant from this, upon a woody hill, or rather rock (which was anciently call’d Radcliff) stood a castle, upon a very high ground, call’d from the reddish stone, Red-castle,Red-castle. and by the Normans, Castle Rous; heretofore the seat of the Audleys (by the bounty of Mawd the Stranger or Le-strange;) but now there is nothing to be seen, but decay’d walls. Scarce a mile from hence, is a spot of ground where a small City once stood, the very ruins of which are almost gone; but the Roman Coins found there, with such bricks as they us’d in building, are evidences of its Antiquity, and Founders. The people of the neighbourhood call it Bery, from Burgh; and affirm it to have been very famous in King Arthur’s days.

After that, upon the same river, appears Morton-Corbet,Morton-Corbet castle. a castle of the Corbets; where, † † So said, ann. 1607.within the memory of man, Robert Corbet, to gratify his curiosity in Architecture, began a noble building, much more large and splendid than the former; but death, countermanding his designs, took him off, and so his project was left unfinish’d. ⌈In the late Civil Wars, being made a Garrison, it was almost ruin’d.⌉ The family of these CorbetsCorbet prænomen.praenomen is ancient, and of great eminence, in this Shire; and held large Possessions by fealty, of Roger de Montgomery Earl thereof, about the coming in of the Normans; viz. Roger Fitz-Corbet held Huelebec, Hundeslit, Actun, Fernleg, &c. Robert Fitz-Corbet held lands in Ulestanston, Rotlinghop, Branten, Udecot. More to the south, lies Arcoll,Arcoll. the seat of the Newports Knights; ⌈of whom, Sir Richard Newport was, in the reign of King Charles the first, created a Baron of this Realm, by the title of Lord Newport of High-Ercall; whose son Francis was created by King Charles the second Viscount Newport of Bradford, and, by King William and Queen Mary, further advanc’d to the dignity of Earl of Bradford.⌉ In the neighbourhood of Arcol, is Hagmond-Abbey,Hagmond-Abbey. which was well endow’d, if not founded, by the Fitz-Alanes. Not much lower, is pleasantly situated upon the Severn, the Metropolis of this County (risen out of the ruins of old Uriconium,) which we now call, in a smoother way, ShrewsburyShrewsbury. and Shrowsbury; but our Ancestors call’d it Saxon scrobbes-byrig, because the hill it stands on was well wooded. From whence also the Greeks nam’d their Bessa; and the Britains call’d this city Penguerne, that is, a brow of Alders; where likewise was a noble Palace of the same name: but how it comes to be call’d in Welsh Ymwithig, and by the Normans Scropesbery, Sloppesbury, and Salop, and in Latin Salopia, I know not; unless they be deriv’d from the old word Scrobbes-berig, differently wrested. Yet some Criticks in the Welsh tongue, imagine that it was call’d Ymwithig (as much as Placentia,) from the Welsh Mwithau; and that their Bards gave it that name, because the Princes of Wales delighted most in this place. It is seated on a hill, the earth of which is of a reddish colour. The Severn is here passable by two fair bridges, and embracing it almost round, makes it a Peninsula, as Leland, our Poet and Antiquary, describes it:

Edita Pinguerni late fastigia splendent,
Urbs sita lunato veluti mediamnis in orbe,
Colle tumet modico, duplici quoque ponte superbit,
Accipiens patria sibi lingua nomen ab alnis

Far off its lofty walls proud Shrewsb’ry shows,
Which stately Severn’s crystal arms enclose.
Here two fair bridges awe the subject stream,
And Alder-trees bestow’d the ancient name.

Nor is it only strong by nature, but well fortify’d by art; for Roger de Montgomery, who had it given him by the Conqueror, built a Castle in the north part of the Town, upon a rising † † So thought, ann. 1607.rock ⌈(tho’ now the bank appears outwardly to be nothing but a soft mould, for the most part sandy;)⌉ after he had pull’d down about fifty houses for that end; whose son Robert, when he revolt’d from Henry the first, enclos’d it with walls on that side where the Severn does not defend it; which were never assaulted, that I know of, but in the Barons wars against King John. ⌈Now it is wall’d quite round, though not very strongly; and where the river doth not fence it (i.e. on the neck of the peninsula) is the Castle.⌉ When the Normans first settled here, it was a well-built and well frequented City; for it appears by Domesday-book, that it was tax’d at 7 l. 16 s. to the King, yearly. There were reckon’d two hundred and fifty two Citizens; twelve of whom were bound to keep guard when the Kings of England came hither, and as many to attend him in hunting; which I believe was first occasion’d by one Edrick Sueona, a Mercian Duke, but a profligate villain; who not long before, ⌈about the year 1006⌉ had way-lay’d Prince Alfhelm, and slain him as he was hunting. At which time (as appears by the same book) there was a custom in this city, That howsoever a woman marry’d, if a widow, she should pay to the King twenty shillings; but if a virgin, ten shillings, howsoever she took a husband; ⌈of which Custom, there are not now the least remains.⌉ But to return; the said Earl Roger not only fortify’d it, but improv’d it much in Buildings both publick and private; and founded a beautiful Monastery dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, and endow’d it with large Possessions, as also with the Church of St. Gregory; according to the following tenor (so a private history of this Monastery expresses it) That as the Prebendaries thereof should die, the Prebends should go to the Monks. From which arose no small contest, upon the Prebendaries sons suing the Monks, to succeed their fathers in those Prebends; for at that time Prebendaries and Priests in England were not oblig’d to Celibacy, and it was grown into a Custom for Prebends inheritable.Ecclesiastical Benefices to descend hereditarily to the next of blood. But this controversy was settled in Henry the first’s reign, That heirs should not inherit Ecclesiastical Benefices: about which time, laws were also enacted, obliging Clergy-men to Celibacy. ⌈The very marks of the Church of St. Gregory aforesaid, are quite gone; unless it was mistaken for St. Giles’s, yet standing in the same Parish, tho’ ruinous, and which, some affirm, was the ancient Parish-Church; the Churchyard thereof being their common place of Burial.⌉ Afterwards, other Churches were built here; and, to pass by the Convents of Dominican, Franciscan, and Augustine Friers, founded by the Charltons, Jenevills, and Staffords; here were two Collegiate Churches erected; St. Chad’s, with a Dean and ten Prebendaries; and St. Mary’s, with a Dean and nine minor Prebendaries. ⌈Besides which, there are two other Parish-Churches within the Walls, St. Alkman’s and St. Julian’s.⌉ At this day, it is a fine City, well inhabited, and of good conmerce; and, by the industry of the Citizens, and their Cloath-manufacture, and their trade with the Welsh, is very rich; for hither the Welsh-commodities are brought, as to the common Mart of both Nations. Its inhabitants are partly English, partly Welsh: they use both Languages; and this, among other things, must be mention’d in their praise, that they † † Have erected, C.erected one of the largest Schools in England for the education of youth; for which, Thomas Aston, the first Schoolmaster, a person of great worth and integrity, provided by his own industry a competent Salary. ⌈The present School (a fair stately stone building, erected and endow’d by Queen Elizabeth) hath one Master and three Under-masters; with a very good Library. The Buildings and Library are not inferior to many Colleges in the Universities: besides which, there are very good houses for the School-masters belonging to it. About four or five miles distant, at a place call’d Grinshill, there is another School-house built of the same white stone; whither the Masters and Scholars may repair, in case any contagious distemper, or other cause, should render it unsafe for them to stay in the town.⌉ When Henry Percy the younger rebell’d against Henry the fourth, and was about to storm this City (tho’ the King had made the walls exceeding strong;) by a turn of Fortune, he was prevented, and his measures broken in a trice. For the King himself was suddenly at his heels with an army;The battel of Shrewsbury. whom the rash youth engaging, after a long and sharp dispute despair’d of success, and wilfully sought his own death. The place, from this battel, is yet call’d Battlefield,Battlefield. where the King afterwards built a Chapel, and settled two Priests to pray for the souls of the slain. Shrewsbury is 20 degr. and 37 min. distant from the Azores, and 52 degr. and 53 min. from the Æquator.AEquator Equator fever

I know not whether it is worth my while, and not foreign to my purpose, to tell you, that out of this city came the Sweating-sickness,Sweating-sickness. in the year 1551, which spread it self throughout the whole Kingdom, and was particularly fatal to middle-aged persons. They who had it, either dy’d or recover’d in the space of twenty-four hours. But there was a speedy remedy found out, That they who were taken ill in the day-time, should immediately go to bed in their cloaths, and they who sicken’d in the night should lie out their four and twenty hours in bed, but were not to sleep at all. The most eminent Physicians are puzzled about the cause of this distemper: there are some, who ascribe it to the chalky grounds in England, which yet are very rare. They tell you,H. Fracastorius. That in some certain moist constitutions, the subtle but corrupt steams that evaporate from that sort of soil, which are very piercing and contagious, either infect the animal spirits, or the thin frothy Serum of the blood: But, be the cause what it will, it is most certain there is some analogy between it and the subtle parts of the blood, which occasions, in so small a space as twenty-four hours, the expiration either of the Patient or the Disease. But let others enquire into these matters; for my part, I have observ’d it thrice, † † So said, ann. the last age, rife, throughout the kingdom of England, and I doubt not but it had been so before, tho’ we do not find it recorded. I observe it first in the year 1485, wherein Henry the seventh began his reign, some time after a great conjunction of the superior Planets in Scorpio; secondly, less violent (but accompany’d with the Plague) in the 33d year after, namely 1518, after a great opposition of the same Planets in Scorpio and Taurus, at which time it was likewise rife in the Low-Countries and Germany; and lastly, 33 years after that, in the year 1551, while another conjunction of the same Planets in Scorpio shew’d its malignant influences. But enough has been said of this; which will seem trifling to those who have no relish of experimental learning.

Near this city, the river Severn has a great many windings, but especially at Rossal, where it fetches such a compass, that it almost returns into it self; ⌈and well nigh encloses a large plot of ground of several miles in compass, call’d, for that reason, The Isle.⌉ Hereabouts, are those old-fashion’d boats, call’d in Latin Rates, i.e. Flotes,Flotes. made of rough timber planks, joyn’d together with light ribs of wood, which convey carriages with the stream. The use and name of them was brought by the English from the Rhine in Germany, where they have the same name of Flotes; ⌈but they are seldom seen here, of late. The fishermen in these parts use a small thing call’d a Coracle,Coracle. in which one man being seated, will row himself with incredible swiftness with one hand, whilst with the other he manages his net, angle, or other fishing-tackle. It is of a form almost oval, made of split Sally-twigs interwoven (round at the bottom,) and on that part which is next the water, it is cover’d with a horse-hide. It is about five foot in length, and three in breadth; and is so light, that, coming off the water, they take them upon their backs, and carry them home.⌉

Near the river, stands Shrawerden,Shrawerden. a castle formerly of the Earls of Arundel, which afterwards belong’d to the most honourable Thomas Bromley, sometime Lord Chancellour of England: and Knocking,Knocking. built by the Lords L’Estrange, from whom it came by inheritance to the Stanleys Earls of Derby.

And not far from hence, is Nesse,Nesse. over which there hangs a craggy rock, with a noted cave; this place, together with Cheswerden, King Henry the second gave to John L’Estrange,Barons L’Estrange
20 Ed.4.
from whom are descended the most noble families, the L’Estranges of Knocking, Avindelegh, Ellesmer, Blakmere, Lutheham, and Hunstanton in Norfolk. But from those of Knocking (by the death of the last of them without issue-male) the inheritance descended by Joan, a sole daughter, and wife of George Stanley, to the Earls of Derby. At a greater distance from the river, towards the western bounds of this County, lies OswestreOswestre. or Oswaldstre, in Welsh Croix Oswalde; a little town enclos’d with a wall and a ditch, and fortify’d with a small castle. It is a place of good traffick, for Welsh-CottonsWelsh-Cottons. especially, which are of a very fine, thin, or (if you will) of a * * Levidensas, si placet, voces.slight texture; of which great quantities are weekly vended here. It derives its name from Oswald King of the Northumbrians (but, more anciently, it was call’d Maserfield;)Maserfield. which Oswald was by Penda the Pagan Prince of the Mercians (after he had slain him in a hot engagement) torn limb from limb with the utmost barbarity; and that gave occasion to those verses of a Christian Poet of some antiquity:

Cujus & abscissum caput, abscissosque lacertos,642.
Oswald slain.

Et tribus affixos palis pendere cruentus
Penda jubet; per quod reliquis exempla relinquat
Terroris manifesta sui, regemque beatum
Esse probet miserum: sed causam fallit utramque.
Ultor enim fratris minime timet Oswius illum,
Imo timere facit, nec Rex miser, imo beatus
Est, qui fonte boni fruitur semel, & sine fine

Whose head all black with gore and mangled hands,
Were fix’d on stakes at Penda’s curst commands,
To stand a sad example to the rest,
And prove him wretched who is ever blest.
Vain hopes were both! for Oswy’s happier care,
Stop’d the proud Victor, and renew’d the war.
Nor him mankind will ever wretched own,
Who wears a peaceful and eternal crown.

It seemsSee in Northumberland. to have been first built upon a Religious account; for the Christians of that age look’d upon it as holy: and Bede has told us, that some miracles were wrought in the place where Oswald was kill’d. It was built by Madoc the brother of Mereduc (according to Carodocus Lancabernensis;) and the Fitz-Alanes, Normans, who were afterwards Lords of it and Earls of Arundel, enclos’d it with a wall. ⌈Here († † Itin. MS.saith Leland) is St. Oswald’s Church, a very fair building leaded, with a tower-steeple: but it stands without the new gate; so that no Church is within the town. It was sometime a Monastery call’d the White-minster, and was afterwards turn’d to a Parish-Church.⌉ It is observable, that the EclipsesEclipses in Aries. of the Sun in Aries have been very fatal to this place; for in the years 1542, and 1567, when the Sun was eclipsed in that Sign, it suffer’d very much by fire; and after the latter Eclipse of the two, the fire spread so far, that about two hundred houses, in the Town and Suburbs, were consum’d. Below this, * * Ad the north-west, is a hill entrench’d with a triple ditch, call’d Hen-dinas,Hen-dinas. that is, the ancient Palace. ⌈¦ ¦ Aubrey’s Monumenta Britan. MS.It is every way rising, the form whereof is an oblong square, encompass’d with 3 great works, one higher than another. The space within, is about seven acres.⌉ The inhabitants thereabouts think it was once a City; but others judge it to have been the Camp, either of Penda, or Oswald, ⌈and the Tradition is, that this place was the last Retreat of the Britains.⌉ Scarce three miles off, stands Whittington,Whittington. not long since a castle of the Fitz-Warrens, who derive their pedigree from Warren de Metz, a Lorainer: he took to wife the heiress of William Peverel, who is said to have built it, and had issue by her, Fulk, the father of the renown’d Fulk Fitz-Warren,The life of Fulk written in French. whose various Fortune in War, was matter of great admiration among our Ancestors. In Henry the third’s reign, there was a Commission to Fulk Fitz-Warren, to fortify the castle of Whittington sufficiently, as appears by the Close-rolls in the fifth year of that King’s reign. The Barony of these Fitz-WarrensBarons Fitz-Warren. expir’d in a female; having † † So said, ann. the last age pass’d from the Hancfords, to the Bourchiers, * * Now Earls, C.Earls of Bath. Below this castle, Wrenoc the son of Meuric, held certain lands by the service of being Latimer between the English and Welsh, that is, Interpreter. This I remark from an old Inquisition, for the better understanding of the name Latimer;The signification of Latimer. which few know, tho’ it is a name very famous in this kingdom. Upon the North-bounds of this Shire, stands first, Shenton,Shenton. a seat of the Needhams, a famous family, ⌈of which, was Sir Robert Needham Knight, who had considerable Commands during the war in Ireland, under Queen Elizabeth. He was afterwards Vice-President of the Council in the Marches of Wales, and created by King Charles the first, Viscount Kilmorey: To him succeeded Thomas his son, who built a noble House in this place, and was succeeded by Robert Viscount Kilmorey his son.⌉ Next, White-church,White-church. or the white Monastery, famous for several monuments of the Talbots, but more particularly for that of our English Achilles John Talbot, the first Earl of Shrewsbury of this family, whose Epitaph I here insert; not that it comes up to the character of such a Hero, but only for a Specimen, to shew how the stile of every age varies, in framing their monumental Inscriptions.

Orate Pro Anima PræNobilis Domini, Domini Ioannis Talbott Qvondam Comitis Salopiæ, Domini Talbott, Domini Fvrnivall, Domini Verdon, Domini Strange De Blackmere, Et Mareschalli Franciæ, Qvi Obiit In Bello Apvd Bvrdews Vii. Ivlii Mccccliii.

That is,

Pray for the soul of the right honourable Lord, Lord John Talbott, sometime Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord Talbott, Lord Furnivall, Lord Verdon, Lord Strange of Blackmere, and Marshal of France, who dy’d in battel, at Burdews, VII. of July, MCCCCLIII.

These Talbots many years ago came, by marriage, to the Inheritance of the Barons L’EstrangeBarons L’Estrange of Blackmere. of Blackmere, in this place. For they were Lords Marchers in this County; and their seat is seen in this neighbourhood, and call’d Blackmere, from a Lake of blackish water, but † † So said, ann. almost quite ruin’d. This family was much ennobled, and their Estate encreas’d, by marriage with a daughter and coheir of John Giffard of Brimsfield, of an honourable and ancient Family in Glocestershire, whose wife Mawd was the only daughter of Walter Clifford the third.

More to the east, lies Ellesmer,Ellesmer. a small tract of rich and fertile ground, which1205. (according to the Chester-Chronicle,) King John settled, together with the castle, upon Lewellin Prince of North-Wales, when he made the match between him and his natural daughter. Then, it came to the L’Estranges; and † † Now hath, C.after that had its Baron Thomas Egerton, who for his singular wisdom and integrity, was by Queen Elizabeth made Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, and afterwards by King James ⌈the first⌉ advanced to the highest dignity of the Long-robe, by being made Lord Chancellor, and created ⌈first⌉ Baron of Ellesmer;Baron of Ellesmer. ⌈and then, Viscount Brackley; whose posterity do still enjoy those titles, with the additional one of Earl of Bridgwater.⌉

To say somewhat briefly of the Earls of Shrewsbury:Earls of Shrewsbury. Roger de Belesm or Montgomery, was created by William the Conqueror, first Earl of Shrewsbury; who also had the greatest part of this tract bestow’d on him. His eldest son Hugh was his immediate successor, but was afterwards slain in Wales, leaving no issue behind him. Next, was Robert, another of his sons, a man barbarously cruel both towards his own sons, and his hostages, whose eyes he pull’d out, and then gelded them, with his own hands. But at last, being attainted of High Treason, he was punish’d by King Henry the first with perpetual imprisonment, where his sufferings were a just judgment upon him for his inhuman Cruelties.

** Malm. Hist. Novel. f.99.The revenues of the Earldom were transfer’d to Queen Adelizia, for her dower. Many ages after, King Henry the sixth, in the twentieth year of his reign, confer’d this honour upon John Lord Talbot, who by nature, as well as his own choice, † † Seems, C.seem’d to have been destin’d for military achievements.

And in the 24th year of his reign, he encreas’d his honours, by adding to his title of Earl of Shrewsbury and Weisford, that of Earl of Waterford, and the Barony of Dongarvan, and the Lieutenancy of Ireland. He was afterwards slain in a battel at Chastillon in Aquitain, with his younger son John, Viscount L’isle, after he had carry’d his Trophies of Victory over a great part of France, for four and twenty years together. His son John succeeded him (whose mother was the daughter and coheir of Thomas Nevil Lord Furnivall;) but he, espousing the interest of the house of Lancaster, lost his life in the battel of Northampton. To him was born John the third Earl of Shrewsbury, and Gilbert, from whom the Talbots of Grafton are descended. Next, succeeded George, and after him Francis his son, the father of George Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury, a person of untainted honour, and great experience in the weighty affairs of State; whose son Gilbert * * At this day supports, C.supported the character of his Ancestors, with great splendor and virtue. ⌈Gilbert dying without issue-male, was succeeded in this honour by Edward his brother; but he also dy’d without issue surviving: and the chief branch of this noble family being thus extinct, George Talbot of Grafton in Worcestershire, lineal heir to Sir Gilbert Talbot, second son to the famous John, succeeded; who dying also without issue, his nephew John Talbot succeeded to the title of Earl; who dying, left Francis his eldest son, Earl of Shrewsbury; father of Charles the late possessor of this title, who, in the sixth year of William and Mary, was created Marquiss of Alton and Duke of Shrewsbury. But he dying without issue, the title of Duke became extinct; and that of Earl descended to George, the son of Thomas Talbot of Longford in this County; which Thomas was younger brother to Charles, the late Duke.⌉

There are in this Shire about 170 Parishes.

More rare Plants growing wild in Shropshire.

Gramen juncoides lanatum alterum Park. Juncus Alpinus capitulo lanuginoso, sive Schœnolaguros C. B. Hares-tail-rush. On Ellesmeer meers in great abundance. This is the same with the Gramen junceum montanum subcæruleâ spicâ Cambrobritannicum of Parkinson, who makes two Plants of one: it is also the Gramen plumosum elegans Phyt. Brit.Schoenolaguros subcaerulea spica

Persicaria siliquosa Ger. Codded Arsmart, or Touch-me-not. On the banks of the river Kemlett at Marington in the Parish of Cherbury: also at Guerndee in the Parish of Cherstock, half a mile from the foresaid river, among great Alder-trees in the high-way. Ger. p.446.

Rosmarinum sylvestre minus nostras improprie dictum cum Cistiledon dicti potius species sit. Quidam ad Ericas referunt. At Birch in the moors of Ellesmeer plentifully. It grows in all the Countries near, viz. Cheshire, Lancashire, &c. in mosses and boggy places.

Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:52