Britannia, by William Camden


Big O ON the West of Nottinghamshire, lies the County of Derby, in Saxon Saxon Deorbi-scyre, and commonly Derbyshire; bounded on the south by Leicestershire, on the west by Staffordshire, and on the north by Yorkshire. It is in shape like a triangle, but not equilateral. For at the south point, it is hardly 6 miles broad; but widens so by degrees on both sides, that towards the north it is about 30 miles in breadth. It is divided into two parts, by the river Derwent running thro’ the middle; which rising in the northern border of it, flows with its black waters (colour’d by the soil it runs thro’) southward, to the Trent: For the Trent crosses the south point which I just now mention’d. The east and south parts are well cultivated, and pretty fruitful; and have many Parks. The west part beyond the Derwent, call’d The Peake,The Peak. is all rocky, rough, and mountainous, and consequently barren; yet rich in lead, iron, and coal, and convenient enough for feeding of sheep.

Darby Shire map, left Darby Shire map, right

Darby Shire

The first thing remarkable in the South-corner, is Greiseley-castle,Greiseley-Castle. a meer ruin; which, with the little Monastery of St. George there, was built by the Greisleys,The family of the Greisleys. formerly Lords of it, who derived their pedigree from William son of Nigell sirnam’d de Greiseley, and have flourish’d from the Norman Conquest * * So said, ann. our times, in great honour; which they long since exceedingly encreas’d, by marrying the daughter and heir of the ancient family of Gasteneys. Upon the river Dove, which, till it runs into the Trent, is the bound between this County and Staffordshire, there is nothing to be seen but Country-villages; and Ashburne,Ashburn. a Market-town, where the family of the † † Now extinct.Cockains did long flourish; and Norbury,Norbury. where that noble and very ancient family the Fitz-Herberts have also long dwelt; of which, was Anthony Fitz-Herbert, so highly honour’d among us, for his great knowledge in the Common-Law. Not far from this place, is Shirley,Shirley. the ancient estate of the famous family of the Shirleys,The family of the Shirleys. who are descended from one Fulcher; and, besides the antiquity of their family, have been much honour’d and enrich’d by marriages with the heirs of the Breoses, Bassets of Brailesford, Stantons, Lovetts, &c. Here are many places round, which have given both names and seats to families of good note; Longford, Bradburne, and Kniveton, from whence † † Are, C.were the Knivetons of Marcaston and Bradley, of which Family * * Ann. S. Lous Kniveton, to whose study and diligence I am much indebted: Also Keidelston, where the Cursons dwell, as likewise at Croxton. Radburne,Radburne. where Sir John Chandos Knight, Lord of this place, laid the foundation of a stately house; from whom by a daughter the Estate came by Inheritance to the Poles, who live here at this day. But I leave these particulars to a certain Gentleman, who * * So said, ann. 1607.designs a compleat Description of this County.

Upon the Trent, where it receives the Dove, stands Repandunum (so our Historians call it) but the Saxons Saxon hrepandun ⌈and Saxon hreopandun,⌉ and we at this day Repton;Repton. which, from a large Town, is now dwindled into a small village. For heretofore it was very famous, for the burial of Æthelbald, the excellent King of AEthelbald the Mercians (who lost his life by the treachery of his own subjects,) and of the other Mercian Kings; and also for the misfortune of Burthred ⌈or BurhredKing Burthred. the last King of the Mercians, who after a reign of twenty years (supported by fawning and bribery) was here dethron’d by the Danes, or rather was freed from the splendid Miseries of a Crown; whose Example may shew us how weak and slippery those high places are that have no other support, but money. ⌈Here Matilda, wife to Ralph Earl of Chester, founded a Priory of Canons-Regular of the Order of St. Austin, in the year 1172. And since the Dissolution of Monasteries, Sir John Port of Etwall in this County, by his last Will, order’d a Free-school to be erected, appointing certain lands in the Counties of Derby and Lancaster, for the maintenance of this, and an Hospital at Etwall: both which are still in a prosperous condition.⌉

Next, not far from the Trent, stands Melborn;Melborn. a Castle of the Kings, but * * So said, ann. decaying apace; where John Duke of Bourbon, being taken prisoner in the battle of Agincourt, was kept nineteen years, in custody of Nicholas Montgomery the younger. Scarce five miles from hence, to the North, lies the course of the river Derwent, which (as I already observ’d) rising out of Peak-hills in the North-border of this County, flows for about thirty miles (sometimes among great Stones, sometimes through green meadows) almost in a streight line to the South. Yet in all this long course, it sees nothing entertaining, besides Chattesworth,Chattesworth. a large, elegant and admirable Structure; which was begun by Sir William Candish or Cavendish Kt. descended from the noble and ancient family de Gernon in Suffolk, and † † Lately finish’d, C.finish’d at great expence by his wife Elizabeth, a Lady of great renown; who was also Countess of Shrewsbury. ⌈But this was pull’d down, and a new one far more stately and elegant erected, by William late Duke of Devonshire; remarkable (besides the magnificence of the Fabrick) for a beautiful Chapel and Hall, adorn’d with choice and curious Paintings by the hand of the famous Vario; and for Statues and Water-works, of most rare and exquisite Contrivance, which make the Gardens extremely Entertaining.⌉

Where the Derwent turns its course to the east, it passes by Little-Chester,Little-Chester. i.e. a little city, where old Roman Coins are often dug-up. ⌈It has now not above twenty houses in it, and none of them ancient. But it’s Antiquity is sufficiently attested (as we have said) by the many pieces of Roman Coyn, found both in digging of Cellars, and plowing. Some of them are of brass, some of silver, and some few of gold; bearing the Inscription and Image of several of the Roman Emperors. In a clear day, the foundation of a bridge may be seen, crossing the river to Darley-hill, which over-looks the Town.⌉ Upon the same river stands Derby,Derby. in Saxon Saxon Northworthig, and in Danish (as that ancient writer Ethelwerd tells us) Deoraby, the chief Town of the Shire; deriving its name ⌈perhaps⌉ from the Derwent upon which it stands, and giving it to the County; ⌈or rather it may have been so called from its being a shelter for Deer, which is imply’d in the Saxon name Saxon Deoraby. And what farther confirms this, is, that it was formerly a Park, and in the Arms of the Town to this day is a buck couchant in a park. Which, joyn’d to the Lodge-lane, (still the name of a passage into the Nuns-green) as they seem to put the original past doubt, so do they shew the ancient condition of the place. When this Town was built, does not appear; but its privileges and ancient Charters argue it to be of good antiquity. It is exempted from paying toll in London, or any other place, except in Winchester, and some few other Towns; and is a Staple-town for Wool, a very ancient manufacture of this Kingdom. There was formerly in it a Chapel dedicated to St. James, near which, in digging some cellars and foundations of houses, bones of a great size have been found. fossils And on the north-side of St. James’s lane, within the compass of ground where the Chapel stood, a large Stone was made bare; and this being gently remov’d, there appear’d a stone-coffin, with a very prodigious corps in it; but this, upon the first motion of the stone, turn’d into dust. The Coffin was so cut as to have a round place made for the head; wide about the shoulders, and so narrower down to the feet. On the south-east corner of the Town, there formerly stood a Castle; though there have been no remains of it within the memory of man. But that there was one heretofore, appears from the name of the hill, call’d Cow-Castle-hill;Cow-Castle-hill. and from the street leading west to St. Peter’s Church, which in ancient Deeds bears the name of Castle-gate.⌉ The Town is neat, and pretty large, and well peopled; on the east-part, the river Derwent runs very pleasantly with a full and brisk stream under a fair stone bridge; upon which stands a neat Chapel, built by our pious Ancestors, ⌈but now neglected. It was dedicated to St. Mary; and, in the reign of K. Charles the second, was a little repaired, and made a Meeting-house for some time; but it is since new-built, and converted into a Dye-house.⌉ The South-part of the Town is cross’d by a little clear river which they call Mertenbroke.Mertenbroke, riv. It has five Churches; the greatest of which, dedicated to All-Saints, has a Steeple particularly famous for height and workmanship. In this, the Countess of Shrewsbury, whom we just now mention’d, distrusting the care and affection of her heirs, built her self a Tomb, and an Hospital hard by for the maintenance of twelve poor people, eight men and four women. ⌈In the same Church of All-Saints, is also a noble Monument for the Earl of Devonshire, and the Countess, his Lady. And a third, for Richard Crashaw of London, who dy’d the 20th of June An. 1631. He was originally a poor boy, a Nailer’s son, and went to London in a suit of Leather; but having by his own Industry got a considerable Estate, he left at his death (besides many charitable Acts in his life) above four thousand Pounds to the maintenance of Lectures, relief of the Poor, &c.⌉ This place is memorable for being a * * Latibulum.Retreat to the plundering Danes, till Ethelfleda, the victorious Lady of the Mercians, took it by surprize, and put them to the sword. In Edward the Confessor’s time (as it is in Domesday) there were one hundred forty three Burgesses in it; which number was so much lessen’d, that in William the Conqueror’s reign there were only one hundred remaining. These at the feast of S. Martin paid 12 trabes of corn to the King. This seems to mean Thraves of Corn. Its present reputation is from the Assizes for the County which are held here, and from the excellent AleThe Beer call’d Curmi in Dioscorides, is in English Ale, from a Danish word Oel. brew’d in it; a word, deriv’d from the Danish Oel, and not from Alica, as Ruellius would have it. The Britains express’d it by the old word Kwrw, for which Curmi is falsly read in Dioscorides, where he says that the Britanni and the Hiberi (perhaps he means Hiberni) drank Curmi, a liquor made of Barley, instead of Wine. For this is our Barley-wine, which Julian the Apostate ingeniously calls, in an Epigram of his, Greek text, Greek text, The offspring of Corn, and wine without wine. This is the ancient and peculiar Liquor of the English, and Britains; and very wholesom it is, notwithstanding that Henry of Auraunches the Norman, Poet-laureat to King Henry the third, plays upon it in these Verses;

Nescio quod Stygiæ monstrum conforme paludi,
Cervisiam plerique vocant: nil spissius illa
Dum bibitur, nil clarius est dum mingitur, unde
Constat quod multas fæces in ventre relinquit

Of this strange Drink so like the Stygian lake;
Men call it Ale, I know not what to make.
They drink it thick, and piss it wondrous thin;
What store of dregs must needs remain within!

However, one of the most learned men in France,Turnebus, of Wine. does not question but they who drink this Liquor, if they avoid excess, will live longer than if they drank wine; and that this is the cause, why some among us that drink ale, live to the age of an hundred years. Yet Asclepiades in Plutarch (speaking of some Britains who liv’d to the age of one hundred and twenty years) ascribes it to the coldness of the Climate, which preserves the natural heat of our bodies.

The wealth of this Town depends in great measure upon * * Propolia.a retail-trade; which is, to buy corn, and sell it again to the high-land countries; for the Town consists chiefly of this sort of Merchants.

Not far from hence, the course of the river Derwent lies through the place where Ralph de MontjoyThe Barons Montjoy. had lands in Edward the first’s reign; and then it runs by Elwaston,Elwaston. the birth-place of Walter Blunt, who was rais’d by Edward the fourth to the dignity of Baron of Montjoy: whose posterity equall’d the glory of their descent, by the glory of their learning; and above the rest, Charles† Now Earl, C.Earl of Devonshire, Baron of Montjoy, Lord-deputy of Ireland, and Knight of the Garter, ¦ ¦ Is, C.was so eminent for virtue and learning, that in those respects he * * Hath, C.had no superior, and but few equals. Below this place, the Derwent runs into the Trent, which soon after receives Erewash, the boundary hereabouts between this and Nottinghamshire. Upon it, stands Riseley,Riseley. that † † So said, ann. 1607. belongs to the Willoughbys; of which Family (as I have heard), was Sir Hugh Willoughby Knight, who in discovering the frozen Sea near Wardhous1553. in Scandia, was starv’d to death, with his whole company. Near it, also, stands Sandiacre,Sandiacre. or, as others would have it, Sainct Diacre, the seat of the noble family of the Greys of Sandiacre,Grey of Sandiacre. whose estate came to Edward Hilary in right of his wife (his son taking the name of Grey;) one of whose daughters and heirs, some few years after, was marry’d to Sir John Leak Knight, and the other to John Welsh.

On the East-side; there stand in order, to the north, Codenor,Codenor-Castle. heretofore Coutenoure, a Castle which belong’d to the Barons Grey (stil’d Lords Grey of Codenor,) whose estate * * So said, ann. the last age came by marriage to the Zouches; for John de la Zouch,Barons Grey of Codnor. second son of William Lord de la Zouch of Haringworth, marry’d Elizabeth, heir to Henry Grey, the last Lord of Codenor. Next, Winfeld,Winfield. a noble manour, where Ralph Lord Cromwel, in the reign of Henry the sixth, built a house, very stately, considering that age. Then Alffreton,Alffreton. which is thought to have been built by King Alfred, and nam’d from him. It has likewise had its Lords, sirnam’d from it De Alfreton; of whom, the second, Robert the son of Ranulph, built the little Monastery de Bello Capite, commonly Beauchief, in the remotest corner of this County. But a few years after, for default of heirs-male, the estate pass’d with two daughters to the family of the Cadurci, or Chaworth, and to the Lathams in the County of Lancaster. Their ArmsThe Arms of the Barons of Alfreton. were two Cheverons, Or, in a Shield Azure. Which very Coat the Musards, Barons of StaveleyStaveley. in this County, did likewise bear, but with different colours; who, in the reign of Edward the first, were extinct in N. Musard; and his eldest sister was marry’d to T. de Freschevill, whose posterity flourish here † † So said, ann. this day; ⌈of which Family, John Frescheville, in consideration of his eminent Services to King Charles the first, was in the 16th year of King Charles the second, created Lord Frescheville of Stavely.⌉ Higher up, on the very edge of the County eastward, and upon a rough ground, stands Hardwick,Hardwick. which has given name to a famous family in this County; from whom * * Is, C.was descended Elizabeth Countess of Shrewsbury, who here † † Hath now laid, C.laid the foundation of two stately Houses, almost joining one to the other, which make a very beautiful Show at a great distance, by reason of their high situation. The title of this Barony was enjoy’d by Baron Cavendish, or Candish.William Cavendish her second son, who was advanc’d1605. by King James ⌈the first,⌉ to the honour of Baron Cavendish of Hardwick; ⌈and after that, by the same Prince, to the dignity of Earl of Devonshire; and whose descendants have been since further honour’d with theSee Devonshire. additional titles of Marquiss of Hartington and Duke of Devonshire.⌉

More inward, we see ChesterfieldChesterfield. in Scarsdale, that is, in a Dale enclos’d with rocks: (For rocks or crags were call’d Scarrs by the Saxons; ⌈and are so called to this day in the northern parts of Great Britain.⌉ Both the ruins of the walls, and this new name, prove it to be of great Antiquity: but the old name of it is quite lost; and it is only mention’d in Authors, on account of a Battle between Henry the third and the Barons; in which Robert de Ferrariis the last Earl of Derby of that family was taken, and degraded by Act of Parliament: after which, he liv’d privately, and his Posterity only enjoy’d the title of Barons. ⌈This place hath given the title of Earl, to Philip Lord Stanhope of Shelford, who was created Aug. 4. 4 Car. 1, and was succeeded in that honour by Philip Lord Stanhope, his grandchild, by Henry his eldest son. Scarsdale also, the Division wherein Chesterfield stands, hath afforded the title of Earl to Francis Leak Lord Deincourt of Sutton, created Novem. 11. 1645; and after that to Nicholas his son, and Robert his grandson: Who dying without issue-male, the title came to Nicholas (as son of Richard Leak, second son to Nicholas Leak Earl of Scarsdale, and younger brother to the last Robert) who is the present Earl.⌉

Next Chesterfield, to the west, lies Walton,Walton. which by Inheritance descended from the Bretons, by Loudham, to the Foliambs, a Family of great name in those parts. To the east, lies Sutton,Sutton. where the ⌈forementioned⌉ family of the Leaks have long flourished, ⌈first⌉ with the degree of Knighthood, ⌈and since, as hath been said, with the more honourable titles of Lord Deincourt of Sutton, and Earl of Scarsdale.⌉

At some small distance from hence, stands Bolsover,Bolsover. an old Castle seated upon a rising ground, which formerly belong’d to the Hastings Lords of Abergavenny, by exchange with King Henry the third; who being unwilling that the County of Chester to which it belong’d, should be parcell’d out among distaffs, gave other lands, here and there, in lieu thereof, to the sisters of John Scot, the last Earl.

The west part, on the other side the Derwent, which is nothing but hills and mountains (for which reason perhaps, it was heretofore call’d Saxon peaclond in Saxon,The Peak. and Peake at this day, for that word with us signifies eminence) is sever’d from Staffordshire by the Dove, a very swift and clear river; of which in its proper place. This part, though rough and craggy in some places, has also grassy hills and vales, which feed abundance of Cattle, and great flocks of Sheep, very securely. For now there is no danger of WolvesWolves. in these places, though infested by them heretofore; for the hunting and taking of which, some persons held lands here at Wormhill,Wormhill. from whence those persons were call’d Wolvehunt;Inq. 2 Ed. 2. as is manifest from the Records of the Tower.chemist Brodaeus It produces so much Lead,Lead. that the Chymists (who condemn the Planets to the Mines, as if they were guilty of some great crime) tell us,Brodæus. ridiculously as well as falsly, that Saturn whom they make to preside over Lead, is very gracious to us, because he allows us this Metal; but that he is displeas’d with the French, as having deny’d it them. However, I am of opinion, that Pliny spoke of this tract, in that passage of his; In Britain, in the very upper crust of the ground, Lead is dug-up in such plenty, that a Law is made on purpose to stint them to a set quantity. Out of these Mountains, † Lapides plumbarii.Lead-stones (so the Miners call them) are daily dug-up in great abundance, which they melt down with large wood fires, upon those hills expos’d to the West-wind (about Creach, and Workesworth so called from the Lead-works,) at certain times when that wind begins to blow, which they find by experience to be the most constant and lasting of all winds: and then, digging Chanels for it to run into, they work it into Sowes. And not only Lead, but Stibium also, call’d AntimonyAntimony. in the shops, is found here in distinct veins; which was us’d formerly in Greece by the women to colour their eye-brows, and upon that account, the Poet Ion calls it Greek text. Mill-stonesMill-stones. also and Grind-stonesGrind-stones. are dug here; and sometimes there is found in these Mines a kind of white Fluor,Fluores. that is in all respects like CrystalCrystal. (for those Stones which are found in Mines, like Jewels, are call’d Fluores by the * * Metallici.workers in Metals.) Besides Workesworth, there is nothing that deserves mentioning, but Haddon, upon the river Wye, for a long time the seat of the Vernons,Vernon. not only an ancient but a very famous family in those parts; insomuch, that Sir George Vernon, Knight, who lived ¦ ¦ In our time, the last age save one, by his magnificence and hospitality gained the name of King of the Peak among the vulgar. By his daughters and heirs, this noble Estate was transferr’d to John Mannours of the Family of the Earls of Rutland, and to Thomas Stanley descended from the Earls of Derby. ⌈In the grounds belonging to Haddon-house,Haddon-house. (a stately building with noble Gardens, and a seat of the Dukes of Rutland,) was dug-up this Altar, cut in a rough sort of Stone, such as the House it self is built of:


This (with one or two more, which were broken and very imperfect, and without any direction where they were found,) were copy’d out by * * Mr. Stonehouse, Minister of Darfield in Yorkshire.a learned Person now dead, whose large Collection of Antiquities, being purchas’d by Mr. Thoresby of Leeds, are now part of that large and valuable Treasure, which remains in the possession of his son. Among the rest, was a piece of a bone, and a tooth, of a wonderful proportion; dug-up near Bradwall, about seven miles from Haddon.fossils The tooth (though about a quarter of it is broken off,) is thirteen inches and a half in compass, weighing three pound, ten ounces, and three quarters. With these, were likewise found many other bones, which were broken and dispers’d; with the Skull, which held seven pecks of Corn, as several persons of good credit affirm’d. Upon the sight of the tooth, a † † Dr. Johnson.learned person took it to be the Dens molaris of an Elephant, and writ a Discourse upon it; but the late Author of the Natural History of Lancashire and Cheshire (speaking of these Bones,) takes them, and others of the same kind, to be only Sports of Nature, in sparr and other indurated Bodies, which, he reckons, were all fluid at first, and capable of any Impression.⌉

Near this, lies Bakewell,Bakewell. upon the same little river, which makes it self a passage among these hills into the Derwent. This was call’d by the Saxons Saxon baddecanwell ⌈and Saxon Badecanwylla;⌉ and Marianus tells us, that Edward the Elder * * Burgum constituisse.built a Fort there. Whether it took this name from the Baths there, which the old English call’d Bade and Baden (as the Germans likewise did, from whence are the names of Baden in Germany, and Buda in Hungary;) I cannot tell. This is certain, that at the rise of the river Wye, not far from hence, there are nine Springs of hot water, call’d at present Buxton-well;Buxton-well. which being found by experience to be very good for the stomach, the nerves, and the whole body, the most honourable George Earl of Shrewsbury * * Hath lately adorn’d, C.adorn’d them with buildings; upon which they † † Begin, C.began to be frequented by great numbers of the Nobility and Gentry.caesar About that time, the unfortunate and heroick Princess Mary Queen of Scots took her farewell of Buxton in this distich; being Cæsar’s Verses upon Feltria, apply’d to Buxton:

Buxtona quæ calidæ celebrabere nomine lymphæ,
Forte mihi posthac non adeunda, vale

Buxton, whose fame thy Baths shall ever tell,
Whom I, perhaps, shan't see again, farewell.

But this is foreign to my business. That these Baths were anciently known, the Cart-road or Roman Causey call’d Bathgate,Bathgate. which continues seven miles from hence to the little village, Burgh,Burgh. does plainly testify: ⌈and much more plainly, the Roman Wall, cemented with red Roman Plaister, close by St. Ann’s Well; where are the ruins of the ancient Bath.⌉ Near this Burgh, stands an old Castle upon the top of a hill, formerly belonging to the Peverells, call’d the Castle in the Peake, and in Latin De alto Pecco; which 46 Edw. 3.K. Edward the third gave with this Manour and Honour to John Duke of Lancaster his son, upon his surrender of the Earldom of Richmond to him. ⌈Not far from whence, is Mamsor,Mamsor. a Hill on which a Fortification is seen, and a Spring within it.⌉ Below the said Castle, is a Den or Cave under-ground, which (saving your presence) is called the Devil’s Arse,Devil’s Arse in the Peake. very wide and gaping, and having many apartments in it; wherein Gervasius Tilburiensis, whether out of ignorance or a lying humour, tells us that a Shepherd saw a spacious Country, with many rivulets, and vast pools of standing water. Yet from such stories, is this Hole reckon’d among the Prodigies of England. The same sort of Fables are likewise told of another Cave in this neighbourhood, call’d Elden-hole,Elden-hole. which is wonderful for nothing but bigness, steepness, and depth; ⌈(it hath been plumb’d to the depth of eight hundred fathoms, and no bottom found.)⌉ But, that Winds have their vent here, is a mistake in those who have writ so; nor are those Verses of Necham concerning the Miracles of England, applicable to either Cave:

Est specus Æoliis ventis obnoxia semper,
Impetus è gemino maximus ore venit.
Cogitur injectum velamen adire supernas
Partes, descensum impedit aura potens

Vex’d with perpetual storms, a Cave there lies
Where from two holes the struggling blasts arise.
Throw in a Cloath, you’ll see it strait ascend,
For all’s bore upward by the conqu’ring wind.

⌈Near Buxton also, by a hill call’d Coytmosse,Coytmosse. is a very wonderful Cave, nam’d Pooles-hole.Pooles-hole. It’s entrance is very strait and low; but ten yards inwards, you have room to toss a spear; being of a considerable height, and not unlike the roof of some large Cathedral. In most parts of the Cave, there are little dropping waters, which, having a petrifying virtue, make many curious shapes, and fanciful works, upon the sides. At a little distance from hence, is a small clear brook, memorable for being made up both of hot and cold water, so joyn’d in the same stream, that you may at once put the finger and thumb of the same hand, one into hot water, and the other into cold. In those parts also, near a Village call’d Byrch-over,Byrch-over. is a large rock; and upon it, are two tottering Stones: one of these is four yards in height and twelve yards about, and yet it rests upon a point, so equally pois’d, that one may move it with a finger. Which we the rather mention here, because Mainamber in Cornwall, a stone which was much like this, is now thrown down.⌉

But the things ⌈most⌉ remarkable in this high and rough Country, a certain person has endeavour’d to comprise in these four Verses:

Mira alto Pecco tria sunt, barathrum, specus, antrum;
Commoda tot, plumbum, gramen, ovile pecus.
Tot speciosa simul sunt, Castrum, Balnea,
Plura sed occurrunt, quæ speciosa minus.

Nine things that please us at the Peak we see,
A Cave, a Den, and Hole, the Wonders be,
Lead, Sheep, and Pasture, are the useful three:
Chatsworth, the Castle, and the Bath, delight;
Much more you’ll find, but nothing worth your sight.

⌈And Mr. Hobbes has comprehended the Seven Wonders in this one Verse;

Ædes, Mons, Barathrum, Binus fons, Antraque bina.

House, Mountain, Depth, two Fountains, and two Caves.⌉

Those of the family of Peverel, who, as I said before, were Lords of Nottingham,Lords and Earls of Derby. are also said to have been Lords of Derby. Afterwards, King Richard the first gave and confirm’d to his brother John,Simeon Dunelmensis. the Counties and Castles of Nottingham, Lancaster, Derby, &c. Hoveden.with the Honours belonging to them, and also the Honour of Peverel.Mat. Par. 204. After him, those of the family of the Ferrars (as I gather from the Registers of Tutbury, Merivall, and Burton Monasteries) were Earls; viz. William de Ferrariis son of the daughter and heir of Peverel, whom King John (as it is in an ancient Charter)An ancient Charter, 1 Joan. ¦ ¦ Cinxit, &c.created Earl of Derby with his own hands: William his son; and Robert the son of this William, who in the Civil wars was so entirely strip’d of this dignity, that none of his posterity, though they liv’d in great splendour, were ever restor’d. A great part of Robert’s Estate was given by King Henry the third to his younger son Edmund; and King Edward the third (so says the original record) gave by Act of Parliament to Henry of Lancaster, the son of Henry Earl of Lancaster, the Earldom of Derby, to him and his heirs; and did likewise settle on him one thousand marks yearly, during the life of Henry Earl of Lancaster his father. From that time, the title continu’d in the family of Lancaster, till Henry the seventh bestow’d it upon Thomas Stanley,Vid. Ormeskirke, in Lancashire; more of this Family. who had marry’d Margaret the King’s mother, ⌈to whom succeeded Thomas, Edward, Henry, and Ferdinand; and † † Now, C.then⌉ William, the sixth Earl of Derby, a person of great worth and honour. ⌈Which William,See Latham in Lancashire. departing this life Ann. 1642, was succeeded by James his son and heir, eminent for his good services to King Charles the first, as was also his excellent Lady Charlotte. But, after the fight at Worcester, he being taken in Cheshire, and upon the 15th of October beheaded at Bolton in Lancashire, was succeeded by Charles his son. Which Charles was succeeded in this honour, first by William-Richard-George his eldest son, and then (he dying without issue-male, and also Robert his second son dying young) by James his third son, the present Earl.

Thus far, of the Counties of Nottingham and Derby; which were, in part, inhabited by those who in Bede’s time were call’d Mercii Aquilonares (because they dwelt beyond the Trent, northward) and who possess’d, as he says, the land of seven thousand families.

This County has in it 106 Parishes.The Northern Mercians.

More rare Plants growing wild in Derbyshire.

Alsine pusilla pulchro flore, folio tenuissimo nostras seu Saxifraga pusilla caryophylloides, flore albo pulchello. Small fine-leav’d mountain Chickweed, with a milk-white flower. In the mountainous parts of Derbyshire about Workesworth and elsewhere, plentifully.

Cochlearia rotundifolia Ger. major rotundifolia sive Batavorum. Park. Common round-leaved Scurvy-grass or garden Scurvy-grass. On the mountains at Castleton in the Peak, about the great subterraneous vault or hole.

Lapathum folio acuto, flore aureo C. B. anthoxanthon J. B. Golden Dock. In the meadows by the road-side leading to Swarston-bridge, which in winter-time in floods are overflown by the Trent.

Trachelium majus Belgarum Park. majus Belgarum sive Giganteum Park. Campanula maxima, foliis latissimis C. B.  Giant Throat-wort. In the mountainous pasture-fields by the hedge-sides, &c. plentifully, as well in this County as in Yorkshire, Staffordshire, Nottinghamshire.

Viola tricolor Ger. tricolor major & vulgaris Park. Jacea tricolor, sive Trinitatis flos J. B. Pansies or Hearts-ease. In the mountains among the corn, and upon the mud-walls and fences of Stone.

Viola montana lutea grandiflora nostras. Flammea lutea seu 5 Ger. Pansies with a large yellow flower. In the mountainous pastures of the Peak in several places, principally where the soil is moist and boggy.Idaea

Vitis Idæa semper virens fructu rubro J. B. Idæa, foliis subrotundis non crenatis, fructu rubro C. B. Vaccinia rubra Ger. rubra buxeis foliis Park. Red-whorts or Bilberries. In the mountains of the Peak plentifully.

On the mountains in the Peak grow also those great mosses called Muscus clavatus sive Lycopodium, Club-moss or Wolves-claw, and Muscus erectus abietiformis, Firr-leaved moss. Of which we have made mention, and given the Synonymes in Yorkshire.

Nothing more common there than Alchimilla vulgaris or common Ladies mantle, known to the vulgar by the name of Bearsfoot.


Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:52