Britannia, by William Camden


Big TTHE other part of the Trinobantes, call’d from it’s Eastern situation and the Saxons who possess’d it, Saxon: east-seaxa, and Saxon: east-sex-scire; ⌈and (together with Middlesex and part of Hartfordshire,) Saxon: east-seaxna-ric;⌉ by the Normans, Exssesa; and commonly, Essex; is a Country of great breadth, very fruitful, and abounding in Saffron; well stor’d with wood, and exceeding rich. On one side, the Sea, on the other the Rivers well stock’d with Fish, do, as it were, encompass the County, ⌈and make it a kind of Peninsula,⌉ and plentifully serve it with their several accommodations. To the North, the river Stour divides it from Suffolk; on the East the Sea comes up to it; on the South the river Thames (now encreas’d to a vast bigness) separates it from Kent; as on the West, the little river Ley separates it from Middlesex; and the StortStort riv. or lesser Stour (which runs into the Ley,) from Hartfordshire. ⌈As to Viscountile Jurisdiction, it seems formerly to have been annex’d to Hertfordshire; for in the 8th of Edward the third, John de Cogshall was Sheriff of both: about which time also, one Escheator discharg’d the office in both.⌉ In describing this County, I shall use my former method, and first observe what is most worthy our notice upon the Ley and the Thames, and then proceed to the parts that lie inward, and those that border upon the Sea.

Essex map, left Essex map, right


Near the Ley, in Saxon Saxon: lygean, is a Chase of vast extent, and full of game (the † † So said, ann. 1607.largest and fattest Deer in the Kingdom) call’d heretofore, by way of eminence, the Forest of Essex,Essex-Forest. ⌈(as reaching through this County to the Sea, as appears by Edward the Confessor’s GiftNord. Essex. MS. to one Randolph Peperkin ; and still thrusting out it self into a great many Hundreds.)⌉ It is now call’d Waltham-Forest,Waltham-Forest. from the Town Waltham, in Saxon Saxon: wealdham, i.e. a dwelling in the woods. This Town is seated on the Ley (where the stream, being divided, encloses several little Islands,) and is not very ancient. For in the later times of the Saxons, one Tovius, a Man of great wealth and authority, and * * Stallerus, i.e. Vexillifer.Standard-bearer to the King (as we read in a private History of the place,) by reason of the abundance of Deer, built the Town, and peopled it with sixty six men. After his death, his son Athelstan soon squander’d away the estate: and Edward the Confessor bestow’d this Village on Harold son to Earl Godwin, who builtWaltham-Abbey. a Monastery here, in which himself was inter’d. For having possess’d himself of the Crown (through his own ambition, and the inadvertency of others;) he rais’d this Structure in honour of the Holy Cross. Here he solemnly made his Vows for success against the Normans; and, being presently after slain by them in battle, his mother obtain’d his body of the enemy by the most submissive intreaties, and deposited it in the same place. † † Is, C.It has been honour’d with the title of a Baron in the Lord Edward Deny,Baron Deny. summon’d to Parliament by King James ⌈the first.⌉ Above this, stands Copt-hall,Copt-hall. which being built upon a rising hill, is seen at a great distance; formerly the seat of the Fitz-Auchers, and † † Lately, C.afterwards of Sir Thomas Heneage Kt, who brought it to great perfection. On this river, without doubt, was seated the old Durolitum of Antoninus; but it is beyond my skill to determine the exact place: for (to speak once for all) the ancient Places of this County are so strangely obscure and puzling, that I, who in other parts may pretend to have made some discoveries, must here freely own my self in the dark (a). But were I to guess in this matter, the place I should pitch upon, is Leiton,Leiton. which still retains the ancient appellation, signifying a Town upon the Ley, as DurolitumDurolitum. is in British the water of Ley. It is at present a little scattering Village some v. miles from London; for which number, thro’ the negligence of transcribers, xv. hath crept into the Itinerary. ⌈One Ward in Leyton-parish is still call’d Leyton-stone,Leyton-stone. which answers the old Roman way of expressing miles by Stones, and may be some confirmation of the foregoing conjecture, that for v. lapidem, is falsly read in the Itinerary xv. lapidem. And the Roman Antiquities found here, argue it to have been a Roman station. For of late years there hath been a large Urn resembling a great cream-pot, taken up in the Church-yard here, with some ashes and coals sticking to the sides of it. And between this Town and Stratford-Langton, near Ruckols or Ruckolt-hall,Ruckolt-hall. the seat of Sir William Hicks Knight and Baronet, on the south-side of a lane call’d Blind-laneBlind-lane. (which was the ancient High-way that led out of Essex through Old-ford to London,) abundance of these Urns of several sizes, figures, and moulds, have been taken up by the Gravel-diggers there, within two or three foot of the surface of the Earth. In some of these pots, are ashes; and in some, divers small pieces and slivers of bones, which have not been quite consum’d in the Funeral fires. And within this piece of land, are not only found the remains of burnt bodies; but coffins and bones have been met with, as well as pots; and among the rest, a chin-bone of a very great bigness, much exceeding that of an ordinary man. In the same place was dug-up a small brazen figure, resembling a man.⌉ That here was formerly a passage over the river, the forementioned place in the neighbourhood, call’d Ouldford,Ouldford. or the Old-ford, plainly evinces; and when Maud wife to Henry the first had very narrowly escaped drowning, she took care to have a bridge built somewhat lower on the river at Stratford. Where, being divided into three streams, it washes the green meadows, and makes them look very charming. In these, we meet with the ruins of a little Monastery, built by William Montfichet a great Norman Lord, in the year 1140. Then the Ley, presently uniting it’s streams, runs with a gentle current into the Thames; whence the place of the meeting is call’d Ley-mouth.Ley-mouth.

(a) N. B. He sought them in the wrong road, i.e. from London to Burntwood, &c. which was not used, till after the Conquest.

Near the Thames (now grown very large by the vast additions it hath receiv’d,) the most remarkable places, are these: Berking,Berking. call’d by

Bede Berecing; where was a Nunnery, founded by Erkenwald Bishop of London. Here, the Thames receives a little rivulet call’d Roding,Roding, riv. that gives name to several Villages by which it runs; as, Heigh-Roding, Eithorp-Roding, Leaden-Roding, &c. Two of which were given to the Church of ElyBook of Ely. by Leofwin a Nobleman, to atone for the most barbarous murder of his own mother. Next to this, is Angre:Chipping-Angre. where, upon a very high hill, are the marks of a Castle built by Richard Lucy, Chief Justice of England under Henry the second. A co-heir of which family was marry’dLiber Inqu. De Ripariis. by King John to Richard de Rivers, who liv’d at Stanford-Rivers, hard by. ⌈And, before it joins the Thames, it runs near Wansted,Wansted. where is a noble House, with elegant and spacious Gardens, the seat of Sir Richard Child, who hath been lately advanced to the Honour of Lord Castle-mayne; in Ireland.⌉

From the mouth of the Roding,Marshes. the Thames keeps on its course (through a low country, in many places frequently laid under water; the unwholsome vapours whereof do very much impair the health of the adjacent inhabitants,) to Tilbury.Tilbury. Near which, are several spacious Caverns in a chalky cliff, built very artificially of StoneHoles cut out. to the height of ten fathoms; and somewhat straight at the top. A person who had been down to view them, gave me a description of them, much like this.


Of these, I have nothing more to say, than what I have mention’d elsewhere. In Kent. But this Tilbury,Tilbury. which Bede calls Tilaburg, consisting at present of a few cottages by the Thames-side, was formerly the See of Bishop Ceada; when about the year 630. he converted the East-Saxons to the Christian Faith. Afterwards, passing by other places that do also lie low, and are unhealthy; the Tide separates the Island ConvennosConvennos Ins. (which is the Counos mention’d by Ptolemy) from the Continent. This place has not quite lost it’s name, but is still call’d Canvey.Canvey. It runs along the Essex-shore for five miles together, from Leegh to Hole-haven; and some part of it belongs to the Church of Westminster. But the ground is so extreme low, that it is very often quite drown’d; except a few of the highest hillocks, which serve for a retreat to the sheep. Of these, there are commonly fed four thousand in this Island; the flesh of which is a very excellent taste. I have observ’d the young men, with their little stools, milking them, like women in other places, and making cheese of Ewe’s milk in their little dairy-houses or huts built for that purpose; which they call Wiches.Wiches.

Over-against this Island, are seated in order, Beamfleet,Beamfleet. fortified with a Castle, and with large deep ditches (saith Florilegus) by Hastingus or Hasteny the Dane; which were all forc’d and taken by King Alfred. Then Hadleigh,Hadleigh. formerly the castle of Hubert de Burgh, afterwards of Thomas de Woodstock, now a heap of ruins: And lastly, Leegh, a pretty little town, well stock’d with lusty sea-men. Near this, stands Pritlewell,Pritlewell. in which one Swain de Essex heretofore built a Cell for Monks. Here, the land juts out into a nook, call’d Black-tayl-point, and Shoberry-Nesse, from Shobery,Shobery. a little village upon it, formerly the city Saxon: sceobirig. For we read in the old Saxon Annals,An. 894. that the Danes being chased from Beamfleot, repair’d to a city of the East-Saxons, call’d, in their language, Sceobirig, and there fortify’d themselves.Tamesae Jamesae aestuariam Here, the Thames, forsaken of it’s banks on both sides, empties it self, out of a vast mouth, into the Ocean. Whence the place is call’d by Ptolemy, Tamesæ, and, in some copies, corruptly, Jamesæ æstuariam; by us, the Thames-mouth.

Further into the main land, lies Rochford,Rochford. which gave name to this Hundred; † † Ann. 1607.the Estate of the Lords Rich. It was formerly possess’d by a very ancient family of the same name, whose estate, after a long time, came to Butler Earl of Ormond and Wiltshire, and then to Thomas Bollen, created by Henry the eighth, first Viscount Rochford, and afterwards Earl of Wiltshire; from whom the excellent Queen Elizabeth, and the Barons Hunsdon, are descended. ⌈In our time, it hath given the title of Earl, to William Henry, Lord of Zulestein in Holland, who, in consideration of his eminent Services, as well as affinity in blood, to King William the third, was created by his Majesty Baron of Enfield, Viscount Tunbridge, and Earl of Rochford.underground buried tsunami storm

In the marshy grounds adjoyning to the Thames, about West-Thurrock, Dagenham, &c. great numbers of Philosoph. Trans. N.335.subterraneous Trees have been discover’d by the Inundations of the Thames; which frequently happen in those parts, not-withstanding the greatest diligence to prevent them. They were found, with Roots, Boughs, and some part of the Bark; and have been probably beaten or blown down by some great Inundations, or by some violent Storms; which bear very strongly upon this Shore.⌉

Within sight of the Thames, going from West to East, and at some distance from the shore, the places of note, are these that follow, in their order. First, Havering,Havering. an ancient retiring place of the Kings, called so from a Ring given there by a certain stranger to Edward the Confessor, as a present from St. John. Horn-Church,Horn-Church. called formerly Horn-Monastery; from a pair of huge leaden horns shooting forth on the east side of the Church. Rumford,Rumford. famous for the Hog-market; and a house adjoyning called Giddy-Hall, which belong’d to Thomas CokeSee the Annals 1467. sometime Lord Mayor of London; whose great riches expos’d him to very great dangers. For, though he was innocent, yet was he accused of High Treason, and, being, by the integrity of Judge Markham, acquitted in the worst of times; he had notwithstanding a severe fine imposed on him, very near the value of his whole estate. Brentwood,Brentwood. and Engerston,Engerston. formerly Engheaston, noted only for their Markets and Inns.caesar caesaro

Here I am at a stand, and in doubt whether I had best take this opportunity to bring forth a conjecture which I have some time since conceiv’d. Seeing the City Cæsaromagus, call’d in the Itinerary-table Baromagus.Cæsaromagus was certainly seated in these parts, and was, no doubt, a place of great note in the time of the Romans, as the very name imports (signifying the City of Cæsar, in the same manner as Drusomagus, the City of Drufus;) Which too seems probably to have been built in honour of Augustus: For Suetonius informs us, that all the Princes who were the friends and allies of that Emperor, built Cities in his honour; in the names of which, the word Cæsar was always a part: What then if I should fix Cæsaromagus near this Brentwood? Could the reader forbear to smile at my fancy? For my Opinion can receive no support from the distances in the Itinerary, since the numbers are there so strangely corrupted: Yet those from Colonia and Camonium agree well enough. Nor can I draw an Argument from the situation of it on a Roman way; * * There are, at Raine. See below.since we can find no footsteps of any such in this County. Nor do we meet with the least shadow of the word Cæsaromagus, unless it be a very small affinity in the name of the Hundred formerly called Ceasford, now Cheafford-Hundred. And indeed, as the names of some ancient places are very little alter’d, and others quite changed; there are others so mangled, that only one syllable or two of the former denomination remains. Thus Cæsar-augusta in Spain, is now corrupted into Saragosa; Cæsaromagus in Gaul hath entirely lost it’s old name, and assum’d that of Beauvois; and Cæsarea in Normandy hath scarce one entire syllable left it in the present name Cherburg. But why do I dwell on these trifles? If Cæsaromagus be not in this neighbourhood, let others seek for it elsewhere. For my part, the discovery is beyond my reach, though I have used all the assistance that my eyes and ears could procure. ⌈This († † Burton’s Itinerary, the opinion of Mr. Talbot) was at Chensford or Chernsford; but that he should wheel about from Leyton, to seek for Cæsaromagus in those parts, seems a little strange. Had he gone from thence, right over Epping-Forest, about the distance from London as set forth in the Itinerary, viz. twenty-eight miles, he would have met with a town, the first sight whereof might promise something great and august. I mean Dunmow, written in Domesday Dunmaw, and in old Deeds, now in the possession of some of the neighbours thereabouts, and sometimes in the Registers of the Bishops of London, Dunmage. Now, this DunmowDunmow. appears, even from the name, to be a place of great Antiquity, being deriv’d from two old Gaulish, or British words; viz. Dunum, a dry gravelly hill, and Magus a town. As for the change of Mawe, Mauge, or Mage into mow, it is very natural; whether we consider the sound of (a) changed commonly, in after-times, into (o), as ham, home; fald, fold, &c. or the melting of (g) into (w), than which nothing is more common, and obvious, to any one who compares the more ancient with the more modern words. So that no difference now remains, but the substituting Dun for Cæaro; and nothing was more common with the Saxons, than to take part of the Roman name, and out of it to frame another by addition of burh, chester, dun, &c. Besides, the distance between this and the next station, adds strength to the conjecture, that Dunmow is the old Cæsaromagus; being distant in the Itinerary from Colonia (Colchester) twenty-four miles; which may agree well enough with the common computation of twenty, since (as appears by Domesday-book) our reckoning is according to the Saxon or German Leugs, consisting of fifteen hundred paces, and the Italick make only one thousand. Add to this, that from Dunmow, to Colchester, is a direct road; wherein are still to be seen in some places, the remains of an old Roman way; which, by the Country-people who live upon it, is to this day (particularly at Raine) call’d, The Street: the very word (strata,) us’d by our Country-man Bede to signify a Roman road. And in an old Perambulation of the Forrest, in the time of King John, it is said to bound on the north super stratam ducentem à Dunmow versus Colcestriam, upon the street leading from Dunmow towards Colchester; meaning this road: To which it may be further added, that, hard by, near Little-Canfield, are two ancient Fortifications, both defended by deep ditches; one of which is called at this day the Castle-yard : and these (together with the name, and the distances) induced the late learned Commentator upon the Itinerary, to settle the Canonium of Antoninus, at Little-Canfield, in the neighbourhood of Dunmow.⌉

Below Brentwood, I saw South-Okindon,South-Okindon. heretofore the seat of the Bruins, a family of very great repute in these parts. From which, by two co-heirs who were several times marry’d, Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk, the Tirels, Berniers, Harlestons, Heveninghams, and others, are descended: The issue male of this family are still remaining in Hamshire. And Thorndon,Thorndon. where Sir John Petre Knight, Baron PetreBaron Petre. of Writtle, built a fair seat. It was formerly the habitation of the noble family of Fitz-Lewis; the last of which, if we believe common report, was by the casual burning of the house at the solemnity of his wedding, miserably consum’d in the flames. Then Burghsted, by contraction Bursted,Bursted. i.e. the place of a Burgh; a denomination given to many places by our ancestors. Here, I once thought was the Cæsaromagus; but whatever it was formerly, at present it is only a small village inhabited by husbandmen; near Billiricay, a pretty large market. Hard by, is Ashdown,Ashdown. formerly Assandun, i.e. as Marianus interprets it, The Mount of Asses; famous for a desperate battel, in which Edmund Ironside at first had the better of the Danes, but afterwards, through treachery, lost the day, together with a great number of his Nobility. In memory of which, we read, that Canutus the Dane built a Church here: when, repenting of all the blood he had occasion’d to be spilt, he erected some kind of Religious structure, wherever he had engaged in fight.

Not far from hence, lies Raleigh,Raleigh. a pretty little Town: it seems to be called Rageneia in Domesday, which makes mention of a Castle built here by one Sueno. Where also we read thus, There is one Park, and six ArpenniesArpennies. of Vineyard, which, if it takes well, yields twenty Modii of wine;Wine. which I here take notice of, both for the French word Arpennis, and for the mention of the Wine made in this Island. This SuenoRalph de Diceto. was a very eminent and honourable person, the son of Robert Fitz-Wimaerc, and father of Robert de Essex,Family of Essex. to whom was born Henry de Essex, * * Vid. Flintshire, Coleshul.Standard-bearer to the King by right of inheritance: who, in a skirmish with the Welsh, threw away his courage and standard together; and being accus’d of High-treason, and overcome in single combat ⌈by Robert de Montfort,⌉ and cast into prison; his vast estate made a considerable addition to King Henry the second’s Exchequer. His Barony remain’d a long time in the Crown, till Hubert de Burgh obtain’d a Grant of it from King John.

Further to the North, the shore, retiring by degrees, gives entrance to the sea in two places; one of which Bays, the Inhabitants call Crouch,Crouch. and the other Blackwater,Blackwater. formerly Pant. In Crouch, there lie four pretty green Islands, but the frequent overflowings make them fenny and moorish.

The most considerable, are Wallot;Wallot. and Foulness,Foulness. that is, the Promontory of Birds or Fowls, which hath a Church, that at low water may be come-at, on horse-back. Between these Bays, lies Dengy-hundred,Dengy-Hundred. formerly Dauncing: the grass here is excellent good, and it is well stock’d with Cattel; but the air none of the healthiest. The only trade, almost, that is driven here,Essex cheese. is in Cheese; and men milk the ewes, like women in other places. Here are made those Cheeses of an extraordinary bigness, which are used, as well in foreign parts as in England, to satisfie the coarse stomachs of husbandmen and labourers. Dengy, the chief Town, is thought to have receiv’d it’s name from the Danes; which it gives to the whole Hundred. Nigh this, stands Tillingham,Tillingham. given by Ethelbert, the first Christian King of the Saxons, to the Monastery of St. Paul in London. Higher up, toward the Northern shore, stood once a flourishing City, called by our ancestors Ithancester. For thus Ralph Niger tells us out of Bede, Ceada the Bishop baptized the East-Saxons near Maldon in the city of Ithancester,Ithancester. which stood upon the bank of the river Pant, that runs near Maldon in the Province of Dengy; but that City hath since been swallow’d up in the river Pant. I cannot exactly point out the place; but, that the river Froshwell was heretofore called Pant, I am pretty confident, because one of it’s springs still keeps the name of Pant’s-Well, and the Monks of Coggeshall speaking of it, use the same appellation. Some think this Ithancester to have been seated in the utmost point of Dengy-Hundred, where stands at present St. Peter’s on the Wall. For along this shore, the Country-people are hard put to it, to keep the Sea out of their Fields, with great banks and walls. I am enclin’d to believe, that this Ithancester was the same as Othona,Othona. the Station of the Band of the Fortenses with their Provost, in the declension of the Roman Empire; who were placed here under the Count of the Saxon shore, to secure the Coast against the Pirating Saxons. For Othona might very easily pass into Ithana; and the situation in a creek at the mouth of several rivers, was very convenient for such a design. Here we may add, that the Confessor granted the Custody of this Hundred to Ranulph * * The Normans call him Peverell.Peperking, by a short Charter; which I am willing to set down, that we, who examin every thing by the niceties of Law, may see the innocent plainness of that age. It stands thus in the Records of the Exchequer; but, by often transcribing, some words are made smoother than they were in the Original.

Iche Edward KoningAmong the Records of Hilary-term, 17 Ed. 2. in the Custody of the Treasurer and Chamberlain of the Exchequer.
Have geven of my Forrest the keeping.
Of the Hundred of Chelmer and Dancing,
To Randolph Peperking and to his kindling:
With heorte and hinde, doe and bocke,
Hare and Foxe, Cat and Brocke,
Wilde Fowell with his flocke,
Partrich, Fesant hen, and Fesant cock:
With greene and wilde stob and stock.
To kepen and to yemen by all her might,
Both by day and eke by night:
And Hounds for to holde
Good and swift and bolde:
Fower Grehounds and six racches,
For Hare and Fox, and wild Cattes.
And therefore ich made him my booke:
Witnesse the Bishop Wolston
And booke ylered many on,
And Sweyne of Essex our Brother
And teken him many other,
And our Stiward Howelin
That by sought me for him.

Such was the honest,Seals first in use among the English. undesigning simplicity of that age; which thought a few lines and a few golden crosses, sufficient assurances in all cases. For before the coming-in of the Normans (as we read in Ingulphus) Indentures were confirm’d by golden crosses and such other marks; but the Normans us’d to do it, with an impression in wax, of the particular seals of the parties concern’d, and three or four witnesses. But before, many Tenures were granted by a bare word, without writing or paper, only by the sword of the Lord, or his helmet; by a horn or a cup: and several others by a spur, a curry-comb, a bow, and sometimes by an arrow.

Blackwater-bayBlackwater-bay. (which, as I said before, bounds the north-part of this Hundred) affords plenty of the best Oysters, which we call Wallfleot-oysters. ⌈¦ ¦ Norden’s Essex MS.They are so term’d from the shore of that name, where they lie; along which, the inhabitants have been forc’d to build a Wall of earth to defend themselves against the breakings-in of the sea. It was made 5 miles in length; and upon that shore only where this reaches, are these oysters to be met with.⌉ Into that Bay, flow two rivers, which wash the greatest part of the County,Chelmer and Froshwell, rivers. Chelmer and Froshwell. Chelmer, coming from the inner parts that are cloathed with wood, passes through Thaxsted,Thaxsted. a little Market-town, seated very pleasantly on a hill; and Tiltey,Tiltey. where Maurice Fitz-Gilbert founded a small Monastery; to caesaromagus Estannes by the tower, now Eston; which was the seat of theLords of Lovain. Lords of Lovain, descended from Godfrey brother to Henry the sixth Duke of Brabant; who being sent hither to take care of the Honour of Eya, were Barons, to the sixth generation. But in the time of Edward the third, for want of issue-male, the estate and honour pass’d by marriage to William Bourgchier; whose Posterity were for a little while Earls of Essex. ⌈From this place, Sir William Maynard was, in the third year of King Charles the first, advanced to the honour of Lord Maynard of Estains.⌉

Then Chelmer runs to Dunmow,Dunmow. anciently Dunmawg, and in Domesday Dunmaw ⌈(which is proved beforeVid. Brentwood, p.409. to be the Cæsaromagus of Antoninus;)⌉ a town of a very delightful situation, on the top of a gentle ascent; where one Juga founded a Monastery in the year 1111. But William Bainard (as we read in the private History of that Monastery,) of whom Juga held the village of Little Dunmow, was for felony depriv’d of his Barony, and King Henry the first gave it to Robert Son of Richard Fitz-Gislbert Earl of Clare, and to his heirs, with the Honour of Bainard-castle in London; which Robert was then Sewer to King Henry. These are the Author’s own words. Nor do I think it just for me to alter them, tho’ they contain a manifest Greek text, or anticipation of time; a failing, to be met withal in the best historians. For that family was not as yet honour’d with the dignity of Earls of Clare. ⌈* * Plott’s Staffordshire, pag.444.In the Priory here, Robert Fitz-Walter (a powerful Baron in the time of Henry the third,) instituted a custom, that whoever did not repent of his marriage, nor quarrel’d with his wife within a year and a day, should go to Dunmow and have a gamon of Bacon. But the Party was to swear to the truth of it, kneeling upon two hard-pointed stones set in the Priory Church-yard for that purpose, before the Prior and Convent, and the whole Town. But this by the way.⌉

Now let us retire a little further from the river on both sides. On one ⌈side, not far off, stands Hatfield Broadoake,Hatfield-Broadoake. in which Church lieth cross-leg’d the first Earl of Oxford;⌉ and at a little distance from the river, Plaisy,Plaisy. so call’d in French from Pleasing. The former name was Estre; the seat of the Constables of England in the latter end of the Saxons; and afterwards too, as the Ely-book informs us. To the same place, two very powerful Nobles (who could not keep themselves between the two extremes of Flattery and Obstinacy, to their Prince) do owe their death; Thomas de Woodstock Duke of Glocester, and Earl of Essex; and John Holland Earl of Huntingdon, brother, by the mother’s side, to King Richard the second, and once Duke of Exeter; but afterwards depriv’d of that honour. The former, for his rashness and contumacy, was hurry’d from hence to Calais, and strangled: the other was beheaded in this very place, for rebellion, by command of Henry the fourth. So that he seem’d by his death to have appeas’d the ghost of Woodstock; of whose fall he was accounted the main procurer. Hence the Chelmer runs near Leez, a little Monastery, built by the Gernons; once the seat of the Lords Rich, who ow’d their honour to Barons Rich.Richard Rich, a person of great Wisdom, and Chancellour of England under Edward the sixth; ⌈whose posterity were advanced to the dignity of Earls of Warwick; but it is now a seat of the Duke of Manchester.⌉ A little lower is Hatfield-Peverel,Hatfield-Peverel. al. Peperking. so call’d from the owner of it Ranulph Peverel, who had to wife one of the most celebrated beauties of the age, daughter to Ingelric a noble Saxon. SheThe Book of St. Martin’s in London. founded here a College, now in a ruinous condition, and lies intomb’d * * In the window of the Church; whereof a little is still remaining. By her, he had William Peverel Governour of Dover-castle, and Pain Peverel Lord of Brun in Cambridgeshire. The same Lady bore to William the Conqueror, whose Concubine she was, William Peverel Lord of Nottingham. But to return to the Chelmer. Next ⌈(at a little distance from Hatfield-Peverel,)⌉ it visits Chelmerford, commonly Chensford,Chensford. which by the distance from Camalodunum, should be the old Canonium.Canonium. ⌈Unless, perhaps, that station may be better settled at Writtle, not far from it; as by reason of the distances from Cæsaromagus and Camalodunum, so also upon another account, which follows. It is an Observation made by Antiquaries, that the Saxon Kings and Nobles seated themselves upon the forsaken Camps and Stations of the Romans. And this Town (so far as there is any light from Records to direct us) has always been in the possession of Kings or Noble-men. * * Domesday.It was King Harold’s before the Conquest, and King William’s after; and continu’d in the Crown, † † Claus. 6 Joh. m.9.till King John pass’d part of it to Nevil, for life. Afterwards, it was granted ¦ ¦ Rot. 7 Hen. 3. m.2. Cl. 2 H. 3. Henry the third to Philip de Atheney, and to William Earl of Salisbury; besides which, another share pass’d to Bruce. As for Chelmsford, that indeed was a Villa belonging to the Bishop of London, when the Conqueror’s Survey was made, and so continu’d till Bishop Bonner alienated it to King Henry the eighth. But it was of no great note, till Bishop Maurice built the bridge about the time of Henry the first; and his Successor, William Bishop of London, procur’d from King John, in the first year of his reign, a Market here, and in his second year, a Fair. When it grew thus famous, the road (which is most considerable, as to our business) began to be through this Town, tho’ till then it had all along lain through Writtle.⌉ As to Chelmsford, it is a pretty large Town, seated almost in the middle of the County, between two rivers which meet here; Chelmer from the east; and another from the south, of which if the name be Can (as some will have it) we may * * Conclude, C.still fansy this place to have been the old Canonium.

It was famous in the memory of the † † So said, ann. 1607.last age, for a little Monastery built by Malcolm King of Scotland. At present, it is remarkable only for the Assizes being kept there. The place began to recover it self, when Maurice Bishop of London, (to whom it belong’d) did in the time of Henry the first build a bridge here, and brought the great road through this Town. Before ⌈(as we have already hinted)⌉ it lay through Writtle,Writtle, formerly Estre. famous for the largeness of the parish; which King Henry the third gave to Robert Bruce Lord of Anandale in Scotland, who had marry’d one of the daughters and heirs of John last Earl of Chester; because he was unwilling that the County of Chester should be divided among Women. But the posterity of Bruce forsaking their Allegiance, Edward the second granted this place to Humphrey Bohun Earl of Hereford and Essex. And, when King James ⌈the first,⌉ at his coming to the Crown, advanc’d several deserving persons to the honourable degree of Barons; he created John Petre, a very eminent Knight, Baron Petre of Writtle, whose father William Petre, was a person of extraordinary wisdom and learning; not so famous for the great Offices Abbatisae he had born in the Kingdom (having been of the Privy Council to Henry the eighth, Edward the sixth, Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, and often Embassador to foreign States,) as for his liberal education, and his encouragement to learning at Oxford, and for his bounty to his poor neighbours at Engerston. ⌈This Place, in the Bull of Pope Paul the fourth (whereby he granted to the aforesaid William Petre the sale of several Monasteries belonging to Religious houses dissolv’d by King Henry the eighth) is call’d Ging-Abbatisæ, alias Ging ad Petram, vel Ingerstone. And in the neighbourhood are several Villages, whereof Ging or inge make part of the name, as, Ging-grave, Menas-inge, Marget-inge, and Frier-inge.⌉

Froshwell, call’d more truly Pant, and afterwards Blackwater, rising out of a little spring near Radwinter, which belong’d to the Lords Cobham; after it has run a great way and met with nothing considerable (except ⌈Finchingfield,Finchingfield. which John Compes held of Edward the third, by the service of turning the spit at his Coronation;⌉ Bocking,Bocking. a rich Parsonage, ⌈in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury, (the Town, till the dissolution, belonging to Christ-Church, Canterbury;)⌉ Cogshal,Cogshal. built by King Stephen for Cluniack Monks; and Whittam,Whittam. by Edward the elder, in the year 914; said to have been the Honour of Eustace, Earl of Bologn;) meets with the Chelmer, which * * Solidus delatus.coming down with its whole stream from a pretty high hill not far from DanburyDanbury. (for a long time the habitation of the noble family of the Darcies;) passes by Woodham-Walters,Woodham-Walters. the ancient seat of the Lords Fitz-Walters,Barons Fitz-Walters. as eminent for nobility as antiquity; being descended from Robert, younger son to Richard Fitz-Gislbert an Earl; and, in the † † So said, ann. 1607.last age, grafted by marriage into the family of the Ratcliffs; who, being advanc’d to the honour of Earls of Sussex, had a noble seat not far from hence, call’d New-hallNew-hall.. This belong’d formerly to the Butlers Earls of Ormond; then to Thomas Bollen Earl of Wiltshire, of whom King Henry the eighth Leland in Cygnea-Cantio.procur’d it by exchange; and, having been at great charge to enlarge it, gave it the name of Beau-lieu; tho’ this never prevail’d among the common people. ⌈As to the title of Lord Fitz-Walter; upon the death of Robert Ratcliff, without issue, anno 1629, it was claimed by Sir Henry Mildmay in right of his wife, only daughter of Henry Radcliff, cousin and heir of the half blood to Robert before-mention’d. Upon which Claim so made (the unhappy Civil wars coming on) no determination was given; till, in the year 1669, the said title was adjudged in Parliament to Benjamin, son of the said Sir Henry, and father of Charles the present Lord.⌉

Now the Chelmer with the confluence of the other Rivers (being divided by a river-Island, and quitting its ancient name for that of Black-water or Pant) salutes the old Colony of the Romans, Camalodunum,Camalodunum. which has made this shore famous; call’d by Ptolemy Camudolanum, and by Antoninus Camulodunum and Camoludunum: but that the true name is Camalodunum, we have the authority of Pliny, and Dion, and of an ancient Marble. How strangely have some persons lost themselves in the search after this City! though the very name points it out to them, be they ever so blind. Many have sought it in the west of England; as did one, among the rest, who thought himself no mean man in Antiquity; and others in the furthest part of Scotland; and others have, with Leland, affirm’d Colchester to be the place: when, all the while, the name is very little alter’d; and instead of Camalodunum, it is call’d at present Maldon,Maldon. and in Saxon Saxon: Maledune) and Saxon: Mealdune; the greatest part of the word remaining whole and entire †† Gale, pag.111. places it near Walden; which see.. Nor are the plain remains of the name the only argument for this assertion; but the distance too from the Mona of Pliny, and the situation in the ancient Itinerary-table, are as plain proofs, as any in the world. I dare not venture to say, that this place was so call’d from the God Camulus;The God Camulus. and yet, that Mars was worship’d under this name, appears from an old stone at Rome * * In œdibus the house of the Colloti, and from Altars that have been found with this Inscription, CAMVLO DEO SANCTO ET FORTISSIMO. And, upon an old Coin of Cunobeline (whose chief seat this was, as I have observed before,) I have seen a figure, with a helmet and a spear, which probably was that of Mars; with the Letters CAMV. But because at present that piece is not in my hands, I will present you with some others of the same Cunobeline, which seem to relate to this Camalodunum:

CoinsSee in the British Coins.

He govern’d this Eastern part of the Island in the reign of Tiberius, and is suppos’d to have had three sons, Adminius, Togodumnus, and Caractacus. Adminius, being banish’d the kingdom by his father, and receiv’d by C. Caligula, accompany’d him into Batavia on that ridiculous expedition, which he made, to put a terrour upon Britain. As for Togodumnus, Aulus Plautius overcame and kill’d him in a set battel; and the same person having put Caractacus to the rout, as I haveSee the Romans in Britain. mention’d in another place, carry’d him to Rome, to grace his Ovation (or Lesser Triumph.) This is that Plautius, who, by the advice of one Caius Bericus caesar Phoenician ansae boadicea satire a British exile (pretences for war always offering themselves) did, first after Julius Cæsar, make an attempt upon Britain under the Emperor ClaudiusClaudius in Britain. whom Claudius himself soon follow’d with the whole force of the Empire, and with Elephants; the bones of which being casually found, have given rise to several groundless stories. Passing the Thames, he put the Britains to flight, who stood to receive him on the other side; and easily possess’d himself of this Camalodunum. For which Atchievements, his son was honour’d with the title of Britannicus, and himself often saluted Emperor; and six months after his setting out, he return’d to Rome. But I have spoken of these matters more fully in another place, and am not willing to trouble the Reader with a repetition of them here. ⌈Nor will it be very material, to add, what a † † Sammes Britan.late Writer has advanc’d, in favour of his own hypothesis, as to the original of the name Camalodunum, viz. that it comes from Camol, which in the Phœnician signifies a Prince and Governour, and the old dun a hill; so that this may be call’d the Kings-hill; as Mons Capitolinus at Rome, signifies Jupiter’s-hill. Its being Cunobelin’s Regia or Palace, may seem to give some strength to the conjecture; but how it will suit with the old Altar-Inscription, which mentions Camulus Deus, and with the coins which confirm it, I much doubt; and yet those must be look’d upon as the best authorities.⌉

Camalodunum being reduced under the subjection of the Romans, Claudius placed here a stout band of Veterans for a Colony, and coined money in memory of this action, with the following Inscription:

Col. camalodvn.Colonia Camalodunum.

From whence it appears, that this happen’d in the twelfth year of that Emperor, which falls-in with the year of Christ 52. In an old Inscription which follows, it is call’d COLONIA VICTRICENSIS, from the Veterans of the fourteenth Legion, which had the Name of Gemina Martia Victrix, whom Tacitus calls the Conquerors of Britain.

Cn. Munatius. M.F. Pal.
aurelius bassus
proc. Aug.
præf. Fabr. Præf. Coh. Iii.
sagittariorum. Præf. Coh. Ii.
astyrum. Censitor. Civium.
romanorum. Coloniæ.
quæ. Est. In. Britannia.
curator. Viæ. Nomentanæ.
patronus. Ejusdem. Municipii.
flamen perpetuus. Duumvirali.
potestate. ædilis. Dedicator. IIII.

Now a ColonyServius. (if the Knowledge of this be material) is a Body of Men brought into a fortify’d Place, and invested with the Right of Possession. These, for the most part, were Veterans; both, that Provision might be made for them, and that they might defend the Place against Rebels, and inure the Friends and Allies of the Romans to the Laws and Customs of the Empire. These ColoniesTacitus of this Colony. were in great honour and esteem, being, as it were, images and representations of the City of Rome. They had their Magistrates too, superior and inferior; of which since others have given us accounts already, it would be unnecessary for me to spend time in describing them. In this Roman Colony (the first in Britain,) was a Temple erected to the honour of Claudius; Tacitus calls it, The altar of eternal Dominion.The Altar and Temple to Claudius. Seneca also takes notice of it in his scoffing Satyr on the death and deification of that Emperor: It is no great matter (saith he) that Claudius hath a Temple in Britain, which the barbarous people now worship and adore as a deity. For there were Priests chosen to his honour, namely the Sodales Augustales, who under pretence of Religion, juggled the poor Britains out of their fortunes and estates. But after ten years space, the course of things turn’d, and this Colony was utterly ruin’d. For when the Veterans, that were brought into this country after it had been subdued, exercis’d a cruel tyranny over the poor subjects; the sparks of the war, which had lain conceal’d so long, broke out in a more violent flame than ever. The Britains, under the conduct of Bunduica, or Boodicia, plunder’d and burnt this Colony, as secur’d with no fortifications; and in two days space storm’d the Temple, where the Soldiers had got together to defend themselves; routed the ninth Legion that was coming to their assistance; and, in a word, kill’d Dio says 80000.seventy thousand Romans and Allies. This dreadful slaughter was foretold by several Prodigies.Prodigies. The image of Victory in this City, turn’d it self round, and fell to the earth. In the Court, were heard strange cries, and the Theater sounded with howlings and groans: houses were seen under the water of the Thames, and the neighbouring bay overflow’d with blood. (This bay we since call Blackwater, though I know not for what reason, as Ptolemy calls it Idumanus,Idumanus. which seems to denote the same thing; Ydu in British signifying black. Yet the Romans rais’d it again out of it’s ashes: for Antoninus makes mention of it a long time after this.) ⌈In a Garden here at Maldon, was found a gold Roman Coin, almost as large as a Guinea; on one side Nero, and on the reverse Agrippina, very exactly wrought.⌉

During the Saxon government, we scarce find it nam’d; only Marianus informs us, that Edward, son to King Alfred, repair’d914. Malduna, which had been ruin’d in the Danish Wars, and fortified it with a Castle. William the Conqueror (as we read in Domesday) had in it one hundred and eighty houses, held by the Burgers, and eighteen Mansions laid waste. At present, for largeness and store of Inhabitants, it is justly reckon’d among the chief Towns of this County, and is call’d, in Law-language, the Borough of Maldon.Maldon-Borough. It is a pretty convenient harbour, and for its bigness populous enough; being one long street, about a mile in length.

Six miles from Camalodunum, Antoninus fixeth the place which he calls Ad Ansam.Ad Ansam. I should guess this to have been some mark relating to the boundsBounds of the Colonies. of that Colony, made in the shape of a handle. For I have read in Siculus Flaccus; The fields that lay near the Colony were determin’d by several sorts of bounds: in the limits, there were placed for marks, sometimes one thing, and sometimes another. In some, a little statue of Mercury; in others a wine-vessel; in others a Spatula; in others a Rhombus, or figure in shape like a Lozenge; and in some, according to Vitalis and Arcadius, a flagon or a jar. And why might not Ansa be such a mark? especially since Antoninus hath Ad Ansam, and not Ansæ, according to his usual Style. What a Religious care they took in setting up their land-marks, I shall in a short digression describe out of the Arcae Hypogaeum caesaromagus kitchen same Author. † † Vid. Northamptonshire, Termini Veterum.For in ordering and disposing these bounds, first they brought the stones and set them on the firm ground, nigh the place where they design’d to dig holes, to fix them in. Then they adorn’d them with ointments, coverings, and garlands. Having kill’d and sacrific’d a spotless victim on the hole where they were to set them, they drop’d down the blood on burning torches that were plac’d in the earth, and scatter’d incense and fruit upon them. They added to these, wine, honey-combs, and whatever else was customary in sacrifices of this kind; and when the fire had consum’d all the provision, they plac’d the stone that was for the boundary on the burning coals, and so fasten’d it with all imaginable care, treading-in small fragments of stones round about it, to make it the more firm. Where-ever this station Ad Ansam was, I continue in my former opinion about the name of it; That it was either a boundary in that shape, or some Station or Inn on the road with this sign; and that, from the distance, near Cogshall. For they were no other than Boundaries or Inns, which the Romans, after the same form of speech, call’d, Ad Columnam, Ad Fines, Ad tres Tabernas, Ad Rotam, Ad septem Fratres, Ad Aquilam minorem, Ad Herculem, &c. and therefore a longer enquiry into this matter would be time and pains thrown away to no purpose.

⌈¦ ¦ Burton Comment. in Itinerar.A later writer imagins, that Ad Ansam might be written instead of Ad Arcam: which, if true, favours the foregoing conjecture; because Arca was a monument also, such as they set up in the borders of fields, and observ’d for limits. Hence we read in an old Glossary, Arcæ, Greek text, i.e. the utmost extent of possessions. And, as for the position, suppos’d before not to be far from Coggeshal ** Ibid.; what has since happen’d in those parts, confirms his opinion. By the road-side was discover’d an Hypogæum or Grot, with arched work; wherein was a lamp in a glass vial, cover’d with a Roman tile, whose diameter was fourteen inches. There were also some urns and crocks, wherein were ashes and bones. Among the rest, was one of a polite and most fine substance, resembling rather Coral than red Earth, which had this Inscription upon the cover, Coccillim, perhaps for Coccilli. M. that is, Coccilli Manibus. If this Coccillus was some Governour, who, under Antoninus Pius, had the command of these places (as † † Funeral Monument.Weaver imagins) it is possible that the present name Coggeshal may have still some remains of that.

Notwithstanding which, there is this objection against that conjecture. From Dunmow (the old Cæsaromagus) to Colonia or Colchester, there is a direct Port-way which runs thro’ Coggeshal. Now, if that had been the old Ad Ansam, it is unaccountable, how the Itinerary (which often takes a wide circuit to hook in a town) should, in the fifth Iter, pass by this, that lay in its road. What then, if we should pitch upon Wittham? The direct road from Combretonium (or Bretton in Suffolk,) the next station before Ad Ansam (Iter 9.) lies thro’ it: and it stands at an exact distance from Camalodunum (Maldon) which immediately follows Ad Ansam in the Itinerary, viz. six Miles. Besides, it does not want good evidences of its Antiquity; for, between the Church and the Street, are still visible the remains of a large old Camp; tho’ much of the fortifications are dug-down to make way for the plow, and a road lies thro’ the midst of it. What Matthew Westminster has observ’d, of a Castle built there by Edward the Elder about the year 912, or 914, and how, in the mean time, he kept his Court at Maldon; is a farther testimony of its Antiquity, since (as we observ’d before) the Saxon Nobility made choice of the forsaken Camps of the Romans. If these arguments be convincing, that Ad Ansam was at Wittham, and that the ruinous Camp there, is the remains of it; then it is probable, that the stately Manour-place here in Fauburn, a mile distant from it, was formerly the Villa or Country-house of some noble Roman. And what renders the conjecture more plausible, is a silver Coin of Domitian, discover’d under the very foundation of an old wall (built partly of Roman brick) by the servants of Edward Bullock, Lord of the Manour.⌉

After this, the banks give entrance to the salt-water in a large and most pleasant bay, abounding with the best sort of Oysters which we call Wallfleot-Oysters.Wallfleot-Oysters. And lest the British shore should be depriv’d of the Glory that belongs to it, I fansy those to have been the very same, which, Pliny tells us, serv’d the Roman Kitchins. For Mutian reckons our British Oysters, in the third place after those of Cizicum, in the following words; The Cizican are larger than the Lucrine, and sweeter than the British. But neither at that time, nor afterwards when Sergius Orata brought the Lucrine OystersLib.9. c.54. into request, did the British shore (for so he words it) serve Rome. So that he seems to give pre-heminence to the British one.

These are the same, I believe, that Ausonius calls mira (wonderful,) in that Verse of his to Paulinus:

Mira Caledonius nonnunquam detegit æstus.

The British Tide does sometimes Wonders show.

But to speak of these, and of the stews or pits on this shore which they are preserv’d in, would be a more proper subject for those, who, by their exquisite palate, are able to decide Criticisms in a Kitchin.

Into this Bay, among other rivers, runs the Coln; which, growing out of several springs in the north-part of the County, washeth Hedningham, or Hengham, commonly Heningham;Heningham. formerly a neat Castle, and the ancient seat of the Earls of Oxford. Opposite to which, on the other side of the river, lies Sibble-Heningham, the birth-place (as I have been told) of the famous John Hawkwood; call’d corruptly by the Italians Aucuth: By whom he was so highly admir’d for his military courage and conduct, that the Senate of Florence, in token of his extraordinary deserts, honour’d him with a Statue on horseback, and with a noble tomb, for a perpetual testimony of his valour and fidelity. The Italians talk largely of his noble Exploits, and Paulus Jovius celebrates them in his Elogies. I shall only set down these four Verses of Julius Feroldus, concerning him.

Hawkwood Anglorum decus, & decus addite genti
Italicæ, Italico præsidiumque solo.
Ut tumuli quondam Florentia, sic simulachri
Virtutem Jovius donat honore tuam

Hawkwood whom England boasts her stoutest son,
And glad Italians their preserver own,
A stately tomb as grateful Florence gave,
So learned Jovius does thy Picture save.

⌈Near Heningham, is Wetherfield,Wetherfield. which in an old Deed of Hugh Nevil, is written Weresfield. This Hugh was with King Richard the first in his Wars in the Holy Land, where he slew a Lyon, by an arrow-shot, and by running him through with his sword; which gave occasion to that old Verse,

Viribus Hugonis vires periêre Leonis.

The Lion’s strength couragious Hugh excels.

To the above-mentioned * * In the possession of Mr. John Nevil, a branch of that Family.Deed (which is short and plain, according to the undesigning simplicity of those times,) is affix’d his Seal, wherein is express’d the manner of this Atchievement, and about which is written, Sigillum Hugonis Nevil.⌉

From Heningham, the Coln keeps on its course through Hawsted,Hawsted. which was the seat of the family of the Bourgchiers; of whom Robert Bourgchier was Chancellor of England in the time of Edward the third, and from him an honourable series of Earls and Lords are descended. From hence, passing through Earls-Coln (so call’d from being the burying-place of the Earls of Oxford; where Aubrey de Vere founded a small Convent, and himself took a religious habit;) it goes on to Colonia, which Antoninus mentions, and makes a * * Dr. Gale makes them the same, and reads Colanea, p.91.different place from Colonia Camaloduni. Whether this ColoniaColonia. be deriv’d from the same word signifying a Colony, or from the river Coln, is uncertain. For my part, I am more inclin’d to the latter, since I have seen several little Towns upon it, which, adding the name of Coln to that of their respective Lords, are call’d Earls-Coln,Earls-Coln. Wakes-Coln,Wakes-Coln. Coln-Engain,Coln-Engain. Whites-Coln.Whites-Coln. ⌈But yet it is also true, that it was usual for the Saxons to make new names, by adding their Saxon: ceaster, burh, &c. to part of the Roman one; and so, Earls-Colne, Wakes-Colne, &c. which were probably of much later Being, might be so call’d, immediately from the river, as that from the Colony. Why might not this be a Colony of the Londoners (as London-derry, of late years, in Ireland,) especially since Tacitus has particularly observ’d, that London was a famous Mart-town, and very populous? If this be allow’d, there is no doubt but that Adelphius de Civitate Colonia Londinensium (one of the British Bishops at the first Council of Arles) had his Seat here; though it be deny’d by some Learned Men, for no other reason but an imaginary supposition of a mistake committed by some ignorant Transcriber.⌉ This City the Britains call’d Caer Colin, the Saxons Saxon: Coleceaster, ⌈and more anciently Saxon: Colneceaster as in the Saxon-Annals;⌉ and we Colchester.Colchester. It is a beautiful, populous, and pleasant place, extended on the brow of an hill from West to East, and surrounded with walls, and adorn’d with fifteen Churches;So said, ann. 1607. besides that large Church which Eudo, Sewer to Henry the first, built in honour of St. John; * * turn’d into a private house.AElfred aequilaterally In the middle of the City, stands a Castle ready to drop with age: Historians report it to have been built by Edward son to Ælfred, when he repair’d Colchester, which had suffer’d very much in the wars. But that this City flourish’d exceedingly in the time of the Romans, abundance of their Coins every day found here, are a most certain argument. Tho’ I have met with none more ancient than Gallienus; viz. those of the Tetrici, Victorini, Posthumus, C. Carausius, Constantine, and the succeeding Emperors. ⌈Besides which, here are also found old Roman bricksAubr. MS. æquilaterally square, like paving-bricks, but thinner; and some huge thick ones. It is likewise observable, that the Towers and Churches are built of Roman bricks and ruins. And at an * * The Queens-head.Inn in the Market-place, the stable, as also the room above it, is of Roman building. There is likewise,Philosoph. Trans. No.255. 266. in this Town, an ancient House (some of the back-part of which, is Roman-building, but the front more modern,) whereon, in an Escutcheon, are these Figures, 1090; from whence it hath been proved, that Numerals here in England are of longer standing, than has been generally supposed,Ibid. N.154. and longer by forty three years, than appears from that other Inscription, in Numerals also, on a mantle-piece at Helmdox in Northamptonshire.⌉ The Inhabitants glory that Fl. Julia Helena,Helena, mother to Constantine the Great. mother to Constantine the Great, was born in this City, being daughter to King Coelus. And in memory of the Cross which she found, they bear for their arms, a Cross enragled between four Crowns. Of her and of this City, thus sings Alexander Necham, though with no very lucky vein:

Effulsit sydus vitæ, Colcestria lumen
Septem Climatibus lux radiosa dedit.
Sydus erat
Constantinus, decus imperiale,
Serviit huic flexo poplite Roma potens

A star of life in Colchester appear’d,
Whose glorious beams of light seven climates shar’d.
Illustrious Constantine the World’s great Lord,
Whom prostrate Rome with awful fear ador’d.

The truth is, she was a woman of a most holy life, and of unweary’d Diligence in propagating the Christian Faith: whence in old Inscriptions she is often stiled, PIISSIMA, and VENERABILIS AUGUSTA. ⌈In the reign of King James the first, Thomas Lord Darcie of Chich, was advanced to the honour of Viscount Colchester, and afterwards, 2 Car. 1, to that of Earl Rivers; upon whose death, these honourable titles descended to Sir John Savage, Son of Sir Thomas, who had married the eldest daughter of the said Thomas Lord Darcie.⌉

Below this Town, where the Coln empties it self into the Sea, lies the little Town of St. Osith;S. Osith. the former name was Chic,Chic. ⌈in the Saxon Annals Saxon: Cice;⌉ the present it receiv’d from the holy Virgin St. Osith, who, devoting her self entirely to the Service of God, and being stabbed here by the Danish Pirates, was by our Ancestors esteem’d a Saint. In memory of her, Richard Bishop of London about the year 1120. built a Religious house, and fill’d it with Canons Regular. This ⌈was made an Honour by Act of Parliament in the 37th year of King Henry the eighth, and⌉ † † Is now, C.was the chief Seat of the Right honourable the Lords Darcy, stiled Lords of Chich,Barons Darcy of Chich. and advanced to the dignity of Barons by Edward the sixth. ⌈At some distance from the river is Lair-Marney,Lair-Marney. * * Norden MS. call’d from the Lord Marney to whom it belong’d, and who, with some others of that name, lie inter’d in very fair tombs in the Church there.

Upon the sea-coast lies Mersey-Island,Mersey-Island. containing eight parishes. It is a place of exceeding great strength; for which reason the Parliament put in a thousand men to guard it from being seiz’d by the Dutch, about the beginning of the Dutch-wars. Beyond this, to the east, is Great Clackton,Great Clackton. * * Norden.where was sometime a stately house of the Bishops of London, and a Park; but the House is now fallen, and the Park dispark’d.⌉

From Colchester, the shore thrusts it self out a vast way, to Nesse-point,Nesse. in Saxon Saxon: Eadulphesness. What was once found hereabouts, let Ralph de Coggeshal tell you, who wrote † † So said, ann. 1607.350 years ago. In the time of King Richard, on the sea-shore, in a Village call’d Edulfinesse, were found two teeth of a Giant, of such a prodigious bigness, that two hundred of such teeth, as men ordinarily have now, might be cut out of one of them. These I saw at Cogshal, and handled, with great admiration.fossils Another, I know not what Gigantick relique,Giants. was dug-up near this place in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth, by the noble R. Candish.Bones of Giants. Nor shall I deny, that there have been men of such extraordinary bulk and strength, as to be accounted Prodigies; whom God (as St. Austin tells us) produc’d in the World, to shew, that comeliness of body and largeness of stature, were not to be esteem’d among the good things, because they were common to the Wicked, with the Virtuous and Religious. Yet we may justly suspect, what Suetonius hath observ’d, that the vast joints and members of great beasts, dug-up in other countries, and in this kingdom too, have been called and reputed the bones of Giants. ⌈Those, particularly, which we have mentioned,Phil. Trans. N.274. and others that have been more lately found near Harwich, at a small Village called Wrabness,Wrabness.
See below.
are supposed to be the Bones of Elephants; not only because they far surpass the bigness of the largest Creatures which we have in our Island at this day, but also because (as hath been already observ’d from the Roman Histories,) the Emperor Claudius brought over abundance of Elephants, in his Wars with the Britains.⌉

From the Neffe-point, the shore runs back by little and little to the Stour’s mouth, famous for a Sea-fight between the Saxons and Danes in the year 884. ⌈And I know not, whether this, which is call’d Orwell-haven,Orwell haven. might not be the place which the Danes sail’d-up in the year 1016,Annal. Saxon.
See Ware in Hartfordshire, and Arrow, in Warwickshire.
when they had a design upon the kingdom of Mercia. The Saxon Annals call it Arwan; and as it may not be unreasonable to suppose that the true name of this harbour may be Arwell, so do we find, on one side of it, Harwich, and on the other side, Arwerton. But this by the by.⌉

Here ⌈as I said⌉ is seated, Harewich,Harewich. a very safe harbour, as the name imports; for the Saxon Saxon: hare-wic signifies as much as a haven or bay where an army lies. ⌈* * Silas Taylor’s Hist. of Harwich, MS.The Walls of this Town are for the most part built, and the Streets generally pitch’d, with a petrify’d sort of clay falling from the Cliffs thereabouts; which tumbling down upon the shore, and being wash’d by the Sea at high-water, is in a short time turn’d into stone. Some that are new fallen, are as soft as the clay in the Cliff; others that have lain longer, crusted over and hard: but if open’d or broken, the clay is still soft in the middle. Others that have lain longest, are petrify’d to the very heart: And the like Petrification is made of wood as well as clay; a large piece whereof sent from hence, is reserved in the Repository of the Royal Society. Tho’, after all, Philos. Trans. hath been made a question of late, whether this hardness of the Clay is owing at all to Petrification, and is not really its natural State. At the bottom of the Cliff, in a Stratum of Stone, are imbedded divers Shells, as well of the Turbinate, as bivalve kind.

Through the growth of the Marine Action of England, this Place has been of great importance to the Crown for fifty-years past, and still is; from its Conveniences for the ready cleaning and refitting of Ships of War resorting hither, and its capacity for New-erections, to the degree of second and third Rates; divers whereof have been built here, to the great accommodation of the State. Till the beginning of the last Century, the use generally made of Colne-water (in the neighbourhood of this place) was, the harbouring of the Royal Navy; but by the forementioned more noble use, this hath been laid aside and extinguish’d. In the seventh year of the reign of Queen Anne, a Law was enacted for appointing Commissioners to treat for such Lands, as should be judged proper for the better fortifying of this place, together with Portsmouth and Chatham.

In the year 1689. Meinhardt Schonberg, together with the title of Duke of Schonberg, had also confer’d on him, by King William the third, the title of Marquiss of Harwich.

Over-against it at LangerfortLangerfort. (contracted from Land-guard-fort, which, tho’ it may seem to be in Suffolk, is notwithstanding by the Officers of his Majesty’s Ordnance in the Tower of London, writ in Essex, according to former Precedents,) are the Remains of an ancient fortification, which shew great labour and antiquity. The line of it runs southerly, from a little without the town-gate to the Beacon-hill-field, about the midst of which is a round artificial hill, cast up probably either for placing their Standard on, or else for a Tumulus over some one of their Commanders deceas’d; for, that we find common in many parts of England. Another work runs a-cross from the first, easterly; but they are both broken off by the encroachings of the Sea.

At Warbness, near Harwich,Philos. Trans. N.274.
See before.
in the year 1701. were found bones of an extraordinary bigness, fifteen or sixteen foot beneath the Surface of the Earth; supposed by those, who have viewed and considered them, to be the bones of Elephants, as agreeing with * * Mullin’s Anatomical Account.a late description thereof; and it being also certain, (as we just now observ’d) that Claudius brought great numbers of them into Britain. And the depth at which they were found, may be accounted-for by the continual washings of the Soil, from the adjacent hills.

South of Harwich, are Thorp, Kirkby, Walton.Thorp, Kirkby, and Walton, † † Norden’s Essex MS.included within the ancient Liberty call’d the Liberty of the Stoke. In these, no man may be arrested by any kind of Process, but of the Bailiff of the Liberty; and not by him, but with the consent of the Lord, first obtain’d. The Sheriff hath no power within this Liberty, in any cause whatsoever; but the Bailiff executeth all matters as if he had Viscountile Authority.⌉

The Stour parteth Essex and Suffolk; ⌈and in the fourth year of the reign of Queen Anne,Cap. 15. an Act of Parliament passed for the making it navigable from Maningtre in this County to Sudbury in Suffolk.⌉ On this side, it runs by no Place, except some fat pastures. But not far from the spring of this river stands Bumsted,Bumsted. which the family of the Helions held by Barony. And in that part of the county which is opposite to Cambridgeshire, lies Barklow,Barklow. famous for four great Barrows,Old Barrows. such as our ancestors us’d to raise to the memory of the Soldiers who were kill’d in battel, and, as some will have it, * * Quorum reliquiæ non faciles erant repertu.whose Remains could not otherwise have been preserved. But when two others in the same place were search’d by digging, we are told they found three stone Coffins, and abundance of pieces of bones in them. The Country-people have a tradition, that they were rais’d after a battle with the Danes in that place. And the † † Ebulum.Wall-wort or Dwarf-elder that grows hereabouts in great plenty, and bears red berries, they call by no other name but Danes-blood,Danes-blood. from the multitude of Danes that were slain there.

Lower, among the Fields (which make a pleasant show with the Saffron,) is seated Walden,Walden. a Market-town, call’d thence Saffron-Walden, ⌈formerly Waldenburg, and afterwards Cheping-Walden.⌉ It was heretofore famous for a castle of the Magnavils, of which, little remains at present; and for a small adjacent Monastery, in which the Magnavils,Commonly call’d Mandevilles. founders of it, lie inter’d. Jeffrey de Magnaville was the first that gave life to this place. For Maud the Empress gave him Newport, a pretty town in the neighbourhood, in these words, transcrib’d from the Original Charter; For as much money as he us’d to pay at the day of my father Henry’s death; and to remove the market of Newport to his castle of Walden, with all the customs which before belong’d to the said market, in Toll, Passage, and other Customs: and that the ways of Newport, which lie near the shore, be turn’d to Walden according to custom, upon the ground forfeited to me; and that the market at Walden be kept on Sundays and Thursdays, and that there be a fair held in Walden, to begin on Whitsun-eve, and last all the following week. (From this Market the place was long call’d Chepping-Walden.) We read also in the Register of this Abbey, as follows: He appointed Walden as the head of his Honour and of the whole County, and for a seat for himself and his heirs. The place, where he built the Monastery, had great plenty of water, which ran here continually from springs that never dried up. The Sun visits it very late in the morning, and forsakes it very soon in the evening, being kept off by the hills on each side. This place is now call’d Audley-end, from Thomas Audley Chancellor of England, who chang’d the Monastery into a dwelling-house for himself. He was created BaronBaron Audley of Walden. Audley of Walden by Henry the eighth, and left one daughter and heir, Margaret, second wife to Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk; who had issue by her, Thomas, William, Elizabeth and Margaret. Thomas, famous for his Naval Exploits, was summon’d to Parliament by Queen Elizabeth, Ann. 1587, by the name of Lord Howard of Walden. And King James ⌈the 1st⌉ created him Earl of Suffolk, and made him Lord Chamberlain. Near whose house, at Chesterford, there was a much more ancient little city (hard by Icaldune, in the very utmost limits of the County;) which now, from the old Burrough, the Country-people call Burrow-bank.Burrow-bank. There are only the marks of some ruin’d Place, and the plain track of the walls. I shall by no means affirm it to be the * * This is supposed to be St. Edmondsbury, in Suffolk.Villa Faustini which Antoninus mentions in these parts; for tho’

Ingrati haud læti spatia detinet campi
Sed rure vero, barbaroque lætatur:

Of no vast tracts of barren Land ’tis proud,
But like true Country, innocently rude:

Yet I shall not so much as dream, that this was the Villa Faustini described in these and the other Verses of the witty * * Martial.Epigrammatist.

The Fields all about, as I have said before, look very pleasant with Saffron.Saffron. For in the month of July every third year, when the roots have been taken up, and after twenty days put under the turf again, about the end of September, they shoot forth a bluish flower, out of the midst whereof hang three yellow chives of Saffron, which are gather’d in the morning before Sun-rise, and being taken out of the flower, are dried by a gentle fire. And so wonderful is the increase, that from every acre of ground, they gather eighty or an hundred pounds of wet Saffron, which when it is dry makes about twenty pounds. And, what is more to be admir’d, that ground which hath born Saffron three years together, will bear Barley very plentifully eighteen years without dunging, and then will bear Saffron again.Caesar ⌈A mile west from Walden, is Sterbury-hill;Sterbury-hill. by which passes the river Cam, arising in the confines of Essex; and to which, by reason of its heighth, the usual termination of dunum doth well agree. From these two circumstances, joined to the Antiquities found here (viz. a golden Coin of Claudius Cæsar, and a silver platter of antique work and shape, together with its lying upon two military ways, and the remains of Antiquity in the neighbourhood, as, the Barrows at Barklow; the Stone-Coffins full of burnt bones, in the fields hard by; abundance of Coins and Pavements; and the Forts at Chesterford, Castle-Camps, and Shedy-Camps:) From all these, put together, the Learned Annotator upon Antoninus concludes, that this Place was the ancient Camalodunum, and by consequence Colonia, or Colanea, as he reads it, which he makes the same with Camalodunum. For the removing whereof to this place (viz. Sterbury-hill;) besides the forementioned circumstances, and their agreement with the description given by Tacitus; he alledges one consideration more, which is, the remarkable fruitfulness as well as pleasantness of this Country; fit, in these respects, to be chosen for the residence of the Kings of the Trinobantes; as Camalodunum was.⌉

More to the South lies Clavering, which Henry the second gave, with the title of Baron,Barons of Clavering. to Robert Fitz-Roger, from whom the family of the Euers are descended. His posterity for a long time having, after the old way, taken for their sirname the Christian-name of their father (as, John Fitz-Robert, Robert Fitz-John, &c;) at length, upon the command of Edward the first, they look the name of Clavering,See in North­umberland. from this place. But of these, when we come to Northumberland. Here also Stansted-Montfitchet presents it self to our view; which I must not pass by in silence, since it was formerly the seat or BaronyBarons Montfitchet. of the family of the Montfitchets, who bore for ArmsArms of the Montfitchets. Three Cheverons Or in a shield gules, and were reckon’d among the chief of our Nobility. But the male-line continued no farther, than to five Descents; and then the inheritance fell to three sisters; Margaret, wife to Hugh de Bolebec, Aveline wife to William de Fortibus Earl of Albermarle, and Philippa wife to Hugh Playz.The Playzes. The posterity of the last, continued till within the memory of our † † So said, ann. 1607.Grandfathers, and ended in a daughter marry’d to Sir John Howard Knight; from whose daughter, by George Vere, the Lords Latimer and Wingfield are descended. A little lower stands Haslingbury,Haslingbury. the seat of the Lords Morley; of whom more in Norfolk. Adjoyning to this, is an old military Vallum, thence call’d Wallbery; and more to the East Barrington-hall,Barrington-Hall.

⌈heretofore⌉ the seat of that eminent family of the Barringtons, who, in the time of King Stephen, were greatly enrich’d with the estate of the Lords Montfitchet; and in the memory of our * * So said, ann. 1607.fathers, a match with the daughter and coheir of Henry Pole Lord Montacute, son and heir to Margaret Countess of Salisbury, render’d them more illustrious, by an alliance with the royal blood.

After the Norman Conquest, Maud the Empress, Lady of the English, as she used to stile her self, created Earls of Essex.Geoffrey de Magnaville or Mandevil (son of William, by Margaret heiress to Eudo ¦ ¦ Dapiferi.the Sewer) first Earl of Essex, that she might secure to her party a person of so great power, and experience in war. He, in the civil wars under King Stephen, put an end to a troublesome life, in the field. It was he also (as ancient writers inform us)Register of Walden. who, for his many villanous practices, incur’d the sentence of Excommunication; under which, at the little town of Burwell, he receiv’d a mortal wound in the head. As he was just expiring, some Templars came in, who put on him the habit of their Order marked with a red cross; and when he was dead, carry’d him away with them into their own precincts, the old Temple at London, where, putting him into a pipe of lead, they hanged him on a tree. To him succeeded his two sons Geoffrey and William, both taken off without issue. Afterwards King John, in consideration of a large sum of money, promoted Geoffrey Fitz-PierzFitz-Pierz, or Fitz-Petre. of Ludgershal (Chief Justice, and a very wise and grave man,) to this dignity. He had taken to wife Beatrice eldest daughter to William de Say, descended from the sister of Geoffrey de Magnavil first Earl of Essex. A great mony’d man (saith an old Author) and vastly rich; who, with a round sum of money, and many entreaties, made application to the Bishop of Ely the King’s Justice, and laid claim to this Earldom (in right of his wife, daughter of William brother to Geoffrey de Say the eldest son) by title of Inheritance. Who admitted him into full seizin thereof, and demanded the promis’d sum; which he receiv’d wthin a little time, to put into the King’s Exchequer. He, being thus admitted, and confirm’d by the * * Scriptis Regiis.King’s Letters Patents, held and possess’d this honour, and receiv’d the Homage of those that held of him by Knight’s service. Geoffrey and William, two sons of this Geoffrey Fitz-Pierz, taking the sirname of Magnavil or Mandevil, enjoy’d this honour. The former of these died young, being kill’d at a publick Tilting.Register of Walden-Abbey. The other took part with Lewis of France against King John, and died without issue. Upon which, the honour came to Humfrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, and Constable of England. For thus writes the Chronologer of Walton-Abbey: In the year 1228. the sixth of the Ides of January, William de Mandevil Earl of Essex died, &c. In the same year, Humfrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford, and Constable of England, espoused Maud, daughter to Geoffrey Earl of Essex, and so succeeded in that honour. But from the publick Records it is evident, that Henry de Bohun, father of this Humfrey, marry’d the said heiress. And such a mistake might easily creep in; for in the Writers of that age, the Christian-names are only marked with great Letters; as, H. for Henry or Humfrey, G. for Gilbert or Geoffrey, &c. Of this family the heirs-male succeededSee the Earls of Hereford. in the dignity of Earls of Hereford and Essex for a long time; whom I have reckon’d up among the Earls of Hereford, because they wrote themselves Earls of Hereford and Essex. Eleanor eldest daughter to the last of the Bohuns, being given in marriage (with the honour) to Thomas de Woodstock Duke of Glocester, had by him Anne, first married to Edmund Earl of Stafford, from whom sprang the Dukes of Buckingham; and then to William Bourgchier, to whom King Henry the fifth gave the County of Ewe in Normandy. This last had by her Henry Bourgchier; advanced to the dignity of Earl of Essex by Edward the fourth. He was succeeded by another Henry his son’s son, who died in his old age by a fall from his horse, leaving issue one only daughter, Anne; who being laid aside, King Henry the eighth (that he might make a new addition to the honours of Thomas Cromwell, who had been his main assistant in baffling the Pope’s authority;) made him, at the same time, Earl of Essex, High Chamberlain of England, and Knight of the Garter. Before this, for his extraordinary prudence and dexterity, he had made him Master of the Rolls, Secretary of State, Baron Cromwell of Okeham, Vicar-General to the King in Spiritual Matters, and Lord Keeper: and all this in five years time. But after five months enjoyment of his Earldom, he (like most great Favourites) concluded his scene very tragically, and lost his head for treason. The same King promoted to the Earldom of Essex William Par, to whom he had given in marriage Anne the only daughter and heir of Henry Bourgchier. But he also dying without issue, Walter Devreux Viscount Hereford, whose great grandmother was Cicely Bourgchier sister to Henry Bourgchier (of whom we spoke but now,) receiv’d the honour of Earl of Essex by the favour of Queen Elizabeth; and left it to his son Robert, who being, on account of his natural Graces and Endowments, highly in favour with that Excellent Princess, sail’d with such a smooth and prosperous gale into Honours and Preferments, as to make it the common hope and expectation of the Kingdom, that he would equal, if not exceed, the greatest Characters of his Ancestors. But at last, being carried away with ambition and popularity, and endeavouring to outrun even his own hopes, he hurried himself into destruction: thus, many who condemn slow methods, though secure, chuse sudden and violent ones to their own ruin. But his young son Robert was restor’d to full possession of his father’s honour by authority of Parliament, thro’ the special favour of † † Our present, C.the ⌈then⌉ most Serene Soveraign King James ⌈the first; and, being twice marry’d, by his second wife had only issue, Robert, who dy’d young. So that, departing this life Sept. 14, 1646. without issue, that honour became vacant; till shortly after the Restoration, King Charles the second created Arthur Capel (Baron of Hadham and Viscount Maldon) Earl of Essex; whose son Algernoon succeeded to the same Honours; and, dying in the year 1710, was succeeded therein by William his Son, the present Earl.⌉

There are reckon’d in this County 415 Parish-Churches.

More rare Plants growing wild in Essex.

Allium sylvestre bicorne flore ex herbaceo albicante, cum triplici in singulis petalis stria atro-purpurea. An Allium sive Moly montanum tertium Clus.? montanum bicorne, flore exalbido C. B.? Wild Garlick with an herbaceous striate flower. In a corn-field in Black-Notley call’d West-field, adjoyning to Leez-lane, plentifully. This plant is now almost lost in this field.

H. Alopecuros maxima Anglica paludosa Park. The greatest English Marsh Fox-tail-grass. Said by Lobel to grow in the moist ditches near the river Thames.

Argemone capitulo longiore glabro Morison. D. Plot. in Hist. nat. Oxon. Smooth-headed bastard Poppy. This was found by Mr. Dale at Bocking.

K. Atriplex maritima laciniata C. B. Jagged Sea-Orrache. On the sandy shores in Mersey-Island near Colchester plentifully; also on the sandy shores at Little-Holland in Tendring-Hundred, and elsewhere.

Atriplex angustifolia maritima dentata Hist. nost. p.193. An Atriplex angustifolia laciniata minor J. B.? maritima angustifolia C. B. prod.? At Maldon by the river, and on the banks of the marshes plentifully.

Auricula leporis minima J. B. An Bupleurum minimum Col. Park.? angustissimo folio C. B.? The least Hares-ear. At Maldon in the marshes by the river-side plentifully.coeruleo stoeles

Clematis Daphnoides major C. B. major flore cœruleo albo J. B. Daphnoides sive pervinca major Ger. Daph. latifolia sive Vinca pervinca major Park. The greater Periwinkle. Found near Colchester by Dr. Richardson. This plant I have found out of gardens; but being native of hot Countries, and frequent about Montpellier, I suspect it may owe its original to some plants weeded up and thrown out thence.

Clematis Daphnoides minor J. B.  C. B. Vinca pervinca Officinarum minor Ger. vulgaris Park. Periwinkle. I have observed it in some fields by the road-side leading from Wittham to Kelvedon in the hedges and among bushes: also in a hedge by the foot-way from Falburn-hall to Wittham, and elsewhere.

Cochlearia folio sinuato C. B. vulgaris Park. Britannica Ger. English or common Sea-scurvy-grass. It grows so plentifully in the marshes about Maldon, that the common people gather it, and send it about to the markets above ten miles distant, where it is sold by measure.

Crocus J. B. Ger. sativus C. B. verus sativus Autumnalis Park. Saffron. It is planted and cultivated in the fields about Walden, thence denominated Saffron-Walden, plentifully. Of the culture whereof I shall say nothing, referring the Reader to what is above-written by Camden; and to the full description thereof in the Philosophical Transactions.

Conserva palustris Anglica, seu Filum marinum Anglicum. Marsh-Thread. In the marsh-ditches about Maldon and elsewhere.

Cynoglossa folio virenti J. B. Cynoglossum minus folio virente Ger. semper virens C. B. Park. An Cynoglossa media altera virente folio, rubro flore, montana frigidarum regionum Col.? The lesser green-leav’d Hounds-tongue. Between Wittham and Kelvedon, but more plentifully about Braxted by the way-sides.

Cyperus gramineus J. B. gramineus miliaceus Ger. Pseudo-cyperus miliaceous Park. Gramen cyperoides miliaceum C. B. Millet Cyperus-grass. By Bocking-river, at the corn-mill below the town.

Cyperus rotundus litoreus inodorus Lob. J. B. rotundus inodorus Anglicus C. B. rotundus inodorus Ger. rotundus litoreus inodorus Anglicus Park. Round-rooted bastard Cyperus. Observed by Mr. Dale about Maldon plentifully.

Erica maritima Anglica supina Park. English Cow Sea-heath. On sandy banks by the way-side going from Heybridge to Goldhanger; also on the like banks in the marshes about Thurrington in this County: and elsewhere on the sea-coasts.

Gramen Avenaceum montanum, spica simplici, aristis recurvis. Mountain Oat-grass with a single spike and reflected awns. Found by Mr. Dale upon Bartlow-hills on the edge of Cambridgeshire. This I take to be the same with the Gramen Avenaceum glabrum panicula purpuro-argentea splendente of Mr. Doody: more strigose, and with a single spike, by reason of the dryness and barrenness of the place. See Middlesex.

Gramen caninum maritimum spicâ foliacea C. B. caninum maritimum alterum Ger. can. marit. alterum longius radicatum Park. Long-rooted Sea-dogs-grass with a foliaceous ear. Found by Mr. Dale on the shore in Mersey-Island near Colchester.

Gramen cristatum quadratum, seu quatuor in spica cristarum ordinibus. Square-eared crested grass. Found by Mr. Dale at Notley, among corn.

Herba Paris. Herb-Paris or True-love. In Chaulkney-wood seven miles from Colchester, and in Saffron-Walden Ger. I have observ’d it in a little wood call’d Lampit-grove belonging to Black-Notley-hall. It is no very rare plant in woods, and sometimes also in hedges, all England over.

Hieracium castorei odore Monspeliensium. Hieracium Cichorei vel potius Stœles folio hirsutum Cat. Cant. Rough Hawkweed smelling like Castor. I found it Anno 1690. plentifully growing in a field near my dwelling, belonging to the hall, call’d Stanfield, which had lain a-while since it was plowed.

Juncus acutus maritimus Anglicus Park. English Sea-hard-rush. In the marshy grounds about Maldon abundantly.AEginetae

Lepidium latifolium C. B. Lepid. Pauli J. B. Piperitis seu Lepidium vulgare Park. Rhaphanus sylvestris Officinarum, Lepidium Æginetæ Lobelio Ger. Dittander, Pepperwort. On the caussey leading to the Hith-bridge at Colchester; and at Heybridge near Maldon by the waterside plentifully: as also at the Lime-kiln near Fulbridge.

S. Lathyri majoris species flore rubente & albido minor dumetorum, sive Germanicus J. B.  The other great wild Lathyrus or everlasting Pease. Found by Mr. Dale near Castle-Campes, in the hedges by the way that leads from thence to Bartlow.

Lathyrus siliqua hirsuta J. B. An Lathyrus angustifolius siliqua hirsuta C. B. Rough-codded Chickeling. In the fields about Hockley and Ralegh, and elsewhere in Rochford-Hundred.

Lychnis sylvestris annua segetum flore dilute rubente vel albo minimo. Sylv. alba spica reflexa Bot. Monsp. arvensis minor Anglica Park. Little annual Corn-Campion with a small blush flower. In the corn-fields near Colchester observ’d by Mr. Dale.

Mentha angustifolia spicata glabra, folio rugosiore, odore graviore. Spear-mint with a more rugged leaf and strong scent. Found by Mr. Dale beside Bocking-river, below the Fulling-mill, in two or three places.

Mentastri aquatici genus hirsutum, spica latiore J. B. Mentha palustris folio oblongo C. B. Mentastrum minus Ger. emac. hirsutum Park. Water-mint, with a grosser spike. This also was first found and shewn to me by Mr. Dale near the same river a little above the Fulling-mill: since, I observ’d it my self in a ditch near the Corn-mill, below the Fulling-mill plentifully.

Mentastrum folio rugoso rotundiore spontaneum, flore spicato, odore gravi J. B. Mentha sylvestris rotundiore folio C. B. Menthastrum Ger. descr. Horse-mint, or round-leav’d wild mint. In a moist place of a little meadow adjoyning to Fauburn-hall, the seat of my honoured Friend Edward Bullock Esquire. Found also by Mr. Dale in a meadow behind the Alms-houses at Great Yeldham plentifully.

Mentastrum spicatum folio longiore candicante J. B. Mentha sylvestris folio longiore C. B. Long-leaved Horse-mint. Found by the same person in the same meadow with the precedent.

Orchis odorata moschata sive Monorchis C.B. pusilla odorata Park. parva autumnalis lutea J. B. The yellow sweet or musk Orchis. In black Notley on the greens of a field belonging to the hall call’d Wair-field.

Orchis sive Testiculus sphegodes hirsuto flore C. B. fucum referens, colore rubiginoso J. B. Sphegodes altera Park. Testiculus vulpinus major sphegodes Ger. Humble-bee Satyrion with green wings. Solo sicco & glareoso; with the following.foemina repraesentans

Orchis anthropophora oreades Col. anthropophora oreades fœmina Park. flore nudi hominis effigiem repræsentans C. B. Man-Orchis with a ferrugineous and sometimes a green flower. Found by Mr. Dale in an old gravel-pit at Balington near Sudbury, and in the borders of some corn-fields at Belchamp-S. Paul towards Ovington in this County.

S. Peucedanum vulgare. Common Hogs-Fennel. In a wood belonging to Walton at the Nase in Tendring-hundred.

Plantago aquatica minor stellata Ger. emac. aquatica minor muricata Park. Damasonium stellatum Dalechampii J. B. Plantago aquatica stellata C. B. Star-headed Water-Plantain. In a pond at Rumford town’s-end towards London; and a little on this side Ilford.

Potamogiton pusillum maritimum gramineo folio. Sea-Pondweed with grassy leaves. In the marsh-ditches about Maldon.

Potamogiton pusillum maritimum alterum, seminibus singulis longis pediculis insidentibus. Another grass-leav’d Sea-Pondweed. In the marsh-ditches beside the way leading from Maldon to Goldhanger.Drabae

Thlaspi Dioscoridis Ger. Drabæ folio Park. cum. siliquis latis J. B. Treacle-mustard, Penny-cresse. I have found in plenty growing in the fields near Wormingford; as also near St. Osith in Tendring-Hundred; and in other places.

Thlaspi minus Ger. Nasturtium sylvestre Osyridis folio C. B. Park. Nasturtium sylvestre J. Bauhini, Thlaspi angustifolium Fuchsii J. B. Narrow-leav’d Wild-cresse. In maritimis: as at Heybridge near Maldon copiously.

Tithymalus platyphyllos Fuchsii, J. B. Arvensis latifolius Germanicus C. B. peregrinus Clus. hist. Broad-leav’d Spurge. Among corn, but more rarely. It grows spontaneously in mine own Orchard here at Black-Notly, coming-up yearly of its own sowing; for it is an annual plant.

Tilia folio minore J. B. fœmina folio minore C. B. fœmina minor Park. The small smooth-leav’d Lime or Linden-tree, call’d in some Countries Bast, because they make ropes of the bark of it. Hereabouts it is call’d Pry. It is frequent in the hedges, all this part of the Country over.

Trifolium stellatum glabrum Ger. emac. Trifol. Dipsaci capitulis, nonnullis, Teasel-headed Trefoil. I have observ’d it by the water-side at Lighe; and at little Holland in Tendring-hundred plentifully.

Trifolium pumilum supinum flosculis longis albis P. B. parvum album Monspessulanum cum paucis floribus J. B. album tricoccum subterraneum reticulatum Morison. subterraneum, seu folliculos sub terram condens Magnol. Bot. Monsp. Dwarf-Trefoil with long white flowers, hiding its seed under-ground. In the road between Burnt-wood and Brookstreet plentifully.

Trifolium siliquis Ornithopodii nostras. Small Birdsfoot-Trefoil. On Sandy-banks by the Sea-side at Tolesbury plentifully.

Turritis Ger. vulgatior J. B. Park. Brassica sylvestris foliis integris & hispidis C. B. Tower-mustard. On the banks by the highway-side as you go up the hill from Lexden towards Colchester, and in the fields on each side the way.

It is to be noted, that these annual Plants may some years, by some accident or other, spring up of the seed, and afterwards appear again.

To these I might add the four sorts of Male-Fern describ’d by Mr. Goodyer in Dr. Johnson’s emaculated Gerard, which are all common about Black-Notley and Brain-tree, viz.

 1. Filix mas non ramosa pinnulis dentatis. Great-branched Male-Fern with indented leaves.

 2. Filix mas non ramosa pinnulis latis densis minutim dentatis. The most common Male-Fern.

 3. Filix mas non ramosa, pinnulis angustis, raris, profunde dentatis. Male-Fern with thin-set deeply-indented leaves. There is a good figure of a leaf of this in Dr. Plukenet’s Phytograph. part 3. Tab. 180.

 4. Filix mas non ramosa pinnulis latis auriculatis spinosis. Prickly Male-Fern with auriculate leaves.

If you look upon these plants in their several growths and ages, you may (as Mr. Goodyer saith well) make many more sorts of them: which I am afraid hath been the occasion of describing more sorts than indeed there are in nature.

Eryngium marinum Ger. Park. J. B. Dod. Ad. Lob. cui & Acanos Plinii. Maritimum & Gesn. hort. C. B. Sea-Holly or Eringo. This, being a plant common enough on sandy shores, I should not have mentioned, but that Colchester is noted for the first inventing or practising the candying or conditing of its roots; the manner whereof may be seen in Gerard’s Herbal.

Hieracium latifolium Pannonicum primum Clus. Synonyma vide in Catal. Cantab. Broad-leav’d Hungarian Hawkweed. On Bartlow hills not far from Linton in Cambridgeshire.

Gnaphalium parvum ramosissimum, foliis angustissimis polyspermon. Hist. nost. Small-branch’d narrow-leav’d Cudweed, full of seed. Found by Mr. Dale among corn in sandy grounds, about Castle-Heveningham plentifully.

Perfoliata vulgaris Ger. Park. vulgatissima seu arvensis C. B. simpliciter dicta, vulgaris annua J. B. Common Thorow-wax. Among the Corn at Notley and elsewhere.

Tormentilla reptans alata D. Plot. Hist. nat. Oxon. Pentaphyllum minus viride, flore aureo tetrapetalo, radiculas è geniculis in terram demittens Moris. hist. Creeping Tormentill with deeply-indented leaves. In some pastures at Braintree.

Salix folio Amygdalino utrinque aurito, corticem sponte exuens. Almond-leav’d Willow, that casts its bark. In an Osier-holt near my dwelling at Black-Notley.laevis

Sonchus arborescens alter Ger. emac. lævis palustris altissimus Clus. The greatest Marsh-tree Sow-thistle. On the banks of the river Thames near Blackwall.

Viola Martia hirsuta major inodora Morison. Viola Trachelii folio D. Merret. Great rough Violet without scent.

Ribes nigrum vulgo dictum folio olente J. B. Black Currans or Squinancy-berries. By Braintree river-side near the bridge call’d the Hoppet-bridge.

Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:52