Britannia, by William Camden


Big M MIDDLESEX has its name from the middle-Saxons, because the Inhabitants of it liv’d in the midst of the East, West, and South-Saxons, and of those whom in that age they call’d Mercians. It is divided from Buckinghamshire Westward by the little river Cole,Cole, riv. from Hertfordshire Northward by a certain known limit, from Essex Eastward by the river Lee, and Southward from Surrey and Kent by the Thames. The County is very small; being at longest but twenty miles, and where narrowest, only twelve. The air is exceeding healthful, and the soil fertile, the Houses and Villages every where neat and stately, and there is no part of it but affords a great many remarkables.

Midlesex map, left Midlesex map, right


Upon the river Cole, at its first entrance into this County, I met with Breakspear,Breakspear. the ancient seat of a family of that name, of which was descended Pope HadrianPope Hadrian 4. the fourth, mention’d a little before. ⌈Some miles to the west, is Cannons,Cannons. the beautiful seat of the Duke of Chandois. Nigh to Breakspear, and on the same river, is⌉ Haresfeld,Haresfeld. formerly Herefelle, the possession of Richard son of Gislebert, in the time of William the Conqueror. More to the South, Uxbridge, a * * So said, ann. 1607.Uxbridge.modern Town, and full of Inns, is stretch’d out into a great length; ⌈made famous in the last age, by a treaty there held January 30. 1644. in the time of King Charles the first, between the King, and Parliament then sitting at Westminster; the particulars of which are largely related by our Historians. Near Uxbridge,Aubr. MS. in the Parish of Hedgerley,Hedgerley. is an ancient Camp, which seems to be British.⌉ Below it, is Draiton,Draiton. built by the Barons Paget; ⌈now advanced to the honour of Earls of Uxbridge, in the person of Henry Paget; who (besides the said hereditary Title of Baron,) did, before, enjoy also the Title of Lord Paget of Burton; having been created a Peer of this Realm, by that Stile, in the life-time of his Father. Hard by, is⌉ Colham,Colham. which came from the Barons Le Strange to the Earls of Derby; and Stanwell,Stanwell. the seat of the family of Windesore, from the coming-in of the Conqueror, till within the memory of * * So said, ann. 1607.our Fathers. Not far from hence, the Cole, after it has made some Islands, slides through a double mouth into the Thames; upon which, as a German Poet of our age, describes it,

Tot campos, sylvas, tot regia tecta, tot hortos
Artifici dextrâ excultos, tot vidimus arces.
Ut nunc Ausonio Tamisis cum Tybride certet

Such Fields, such Woods, such stately Piles appear.
Such Gardens grace the Earth, such Tow’rs in the Air;
That Thames with Roman Tiber may compare.

Stanes,Stanes in Saxon Saxon: Stana, offers it self first, in the very Western limit, where is a † † Sublicius.wooden bridge over the Thames. As to the name, it had it from a boundary-stone formerly set up here, to mark out the extent of the City of London’s Jurisdiction in the river; ⌈and not (as some wou’d have it) from a Roman Milliarium here placed. For Stanes doth not lie upon the Roman way betwixt London and Pontes, or any other of that kind; upon which the Milliaria or mile-stones were only set. An Army of Danes in the year 1009. after they had burnt Oxford, returning along the Thames side, and hearing that an Army from London was coming against them, past the River at this Town, as the Saxon Chronicle tells us; and so went into Kent, to repair their Ships.⌉runnymede runymede magna charta carta Near the fore-mentioned Stone, there is a famous Meadow call’d Runing-mead,Runing-mead. and commonly Renimed, wherein was a great Meeting of the Nobility in the year 1215. to demand their Liberties of King John. Upon the Thames’s running by that place, the Author of the Marriage of Tame and Isis has these Lines:

Subluit hic pratum, quod dixit Renimed Anglus,
Quo sedêre duces armis annisque verendi,
Joannis cuperent qui vertere sceptrum,
Edwardi Sancti dum leges juráque vellent
Principe contempto tenebroso è carcere duci:
Hinc sonuere tubæ plusquam civilia bella,
Venit & hinc refugus nostras Lodovicus in oras

Now Renimed upon the bank appears,
Where Men renown’d for honour, arms, and years
Met to reform the State, controul the King,
And Edward’s Laws from long oblivion bring.
Hence more than civil wars the land opprest,
And Lewis with his French the Rebels strength increast.

Then it passes by Coway-stakesSee the Romans in Britain.
near Lalam, where (as we have observ’d) Cæsar pass’d the Thames, and the Britains, to prevent him, obstructed the bank and ford with stakes; from whence it has its name. ⌈At Sheparton,Aubr. MS. hard by, is an enclosed ground called Sheparton.
Warre-Close, in which have been dug-up Spurs, Swords, &c. with great numbers of Men’s bones; and at a little distance, to the west, part of a Roman Camp is still visible.⌉ Gliding from hence, the Thames takes a view of Harrow,Harrow-hill. the highest hill in this County, which on the South has very fruitful Fields for a long way together; especially about the little Village of Heston,Heston. the Wheat-flowre whereof has been particularly made choice of by our Kings, for their own bread. ⌈By reason of its great heighth, it was also chosen by William Bolton, the last Prior of great St. Bartholomew’s in Smithfield, on which to build him a house, to preserve him from a Deluge that was prognosticated from certain Eclipses in watery signs, and was to happen in the year 1524. With this, not only the vulgar, but also learned men, were so unreasonably infatuated, that they victuall’d themselves (as both Hall and * * Chron. p.1014.Speed confidently report) and went to high grounds, for fear of being drown’d. Amongst whom, was this Prior, who not only provided himself with a house here at Harrow, but carried all sorts of provisions with him thither, to serve for the space of two months. Mr. † † Survey, p.417, 419.Stow, I acknowledge, would have all this to be a fable, and that Prior Bolton being also Parson of Harrow, did only repair his Parsonage-house, and build a Dove-coat to serve him with that sort of fowl, after he was spoiled of his Priory; but the date of this Deluge, and the dissolution of the Priory (which was not till Anno 1539. 30 Henry 8.) do not agree; and therefore those Historians are not to be reconciled.⌉ At a little distance from thence is Hanworth,Hanworth. where * * Is, C.was a Royal, tho’ but small house; much admir’d by King Henry the eighth, as being his chief Pleasure-seat. Afterwards, it glides by Hampton-Court,Hampton-Court. a Royal Palace, and a very magnificent Structure, built by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey purely out of ostentation, to show his great Wealth; a Person upon all other accounts exceeding prudent, but that Pride and Insolence carry’d him beyond himself. It was enlarg’d and finish’d by King Henry the eighth, and has five large Courts set round with neat buildings, the work whereof is exceeding curious. ⌈It was also erected into an Honour, in the 31st year of that Prince.⌉ Leland has this stroke upon it:

Est locus insolito rerum splendore superbus,
Alluitúrque vaga Tamisini fluminis unda,
Nomine ab antiquo jam tempore dictus
Hic Rex Henricus taleis Octavius ædes
Erexit, qualeis toto Sol aureus orbe
Non vidit

A place, which Nature’s choicest gifts adorn,
Where Thame’s kind streams in gentle currents turn,
The name of Hampton hath for ages born.
Here such a Palace shows great Henry’s care,
As Sol ne’re views from his exalted sphere
In all his tedious stage.—

And the Marriage of Tame and Isis, this:

Alluit Hamptonam celebrem quæ laxior urbis
Mentitur formam spatiis; hanc condidit aulam
Purpureus pater ille gravis, gravis ille sacerdos
Wolsæus, fortuna favos cui felle repletos
Obtulit, heu tandem fortunæ dona, dolores

To Hampton runs, whose state and beauty shows
A City here contracted in a House.
This the grave Prelate Wolsey’s care begun,
To whom blind Fortune’s arts were fully known,
And all her smiles dash’d with one fatal frown.

⌈This being inviron’d, both House and Parks, on three sides with the River Thames, and consequently enjoying as pleasant a situation, as the prudence of its first founder, Cardinal Wolsey, could select for it; was indeed a piece of work of great Beauty and Magnificence, for the age it was built in. But the additions made to it by King William and Queen Mary, do so far excel what it was before, that they evidently shew what vast advancements Architecture has receiv’d since that time. The gardens are also improv’d to a wonderful degree, not only in the walks both open and close, and the great variety of Topiary-works; but with Green-houses, having stoves under them so artificially contriv’d, that all foreign Plants are there preserved in gradual heats, suitable to the Climes of their respective Countries, whereof they are natives. The whole is contrived with so much magnificence, as equals, if not exceeds, the most noble Palaces.⌉

From hence the river fetches a large winding toward the north by Gistleworth (for so our ThistleworthThistleworth. was formerly call’d) where was once a Palace of Richard, King of the Romans and Earl of Cornwal, which was burnt by the Londoners in an Insurrection.

Next we see Sion,Sion. a small Religious house, (so call’d from the holy Mount of that name,) which Henry the fifth, after he had driven out the Monks Aliens, built for Nuns of St. Briget; as he erected another at the same time: call’d Bethelem,Shene. opposite to this, on the other side of the river, for the Carthusians. In this Sion, to the Glory of God, he plac’d as many Virgins, Priests, and Lay-brethren, within several partitions, as amounted to the number of the Apostles and Disciples of Christ: and having given them very ample revenues, even beyond what was necessary, he made * * Lege cavit.a special Order that they should be content with that, and not receive any thing from other hands; but that so much of the yearly revenue, as was over and above their maintenance, they should give to the poor. But upon the general expulsion of the Religious within the memory of † † So said, ann. 1607.our Fathers, it was turned into a Country-house of the Duke of Somerset, who pull’d down the Church, and begun a new house. Hard by, is BrentfordBrentford. (which receiv’d that name from the little river Brent,) where Edmund Ironside, after he had oblig’d the Danes to draw off from the siege of London, attack’d them so successfully, that he forc’d them to a disorderly flight, wherein he kill’d great numbers of them. ⌈Here the Thames was anciently so easily forded, and is so still (I mean at old Brentford, there being now at low ebb not above three foot water) that, beside the foregoing instance, * * Chron. Sax. in An. 1016.King Edmund past the Thames again, at the same place, and went thence into Kent after the Enemy, where he prevail’d so against them, that he drove them into Shepey. Since which time,Ibidem. we do not find any thing of moment that hath happen’d here; till 1642. when King Charles the first (coming after his Victory at Edghill with his forces from Oxford towards London) with the loss of but ten men beat two of the best Regiments of the Parliament-forces out of this town, kill’d their Commander in chief, took five hundred Prisoners, as many Arms, eleven Colours, and fifteen pieces of Canon, and then march’d to Oatlands, Reading, and so back again to Oxford. In which action, Patric Ruthen Earl of Forth in Scotland, performing the part of an expert and valiant Commander, was first made General of the caesar Naenia King’s Army; and in further consideration of his services, was by Letters Patents bearing date at Oxford, May 27. 20 Car. 1. advanced to the dignity of an Earl, by the title of Earl of Brentford; on account (no doubt) of the particular service he did here.

Near the Roman high-way which passes through this town, and so over Hounslow-heath towards Pontes, lies the Village of Arlington,Arlington. aliàs Harlington, which having been the ancient seat of the Bennets, and particularly of Sir Henry Bennet, principal Secretary of State, and one of the Privy Council to King Charles the second; when his Majesty thought fit to set a mark of Honour on him, for the many Services he had done the Crown, he was first created Baron, and afterwards Earl of Arlington, and quickly after made Knight of the Garter, and in Sept. 1674. Lord Chamberlain of the House-hold. On the north-endAubr. MS. of this Heath, towards Kings-arbour, is a Roman Camp; a single work, and not large; and another about a mile distant from it.⌉

From Stanes to Brentford, all that which lies between the high-road along Hounslow and the Thames, was call’d the Forest or Warren of Stanes;Warren of Stanes. till Henry the third (as we read in his Charter) deforested and dewarren’d it. Next, we see ⌈Cheswick,Cheswick. a neat Village, adorned with several beautiful Seats; and⌉ Fulham,Fulham. in Saxon ⌈ Saxon: fullan-hamme, Saxon: fullan-homme, and⌉ Saxon: fullon-ham, i.e. a house of Fowle, which receives its greatest honour from the Bishop of London’s Country-seat, and ⌈was anciently remarkable (as the Saxon Chronicle and that of Mailros do both tell us) for an Army of the Danes wintering there Anno Dom. 879. whence they decamp’d the same year, and went into Flanders, then call’d Saxon: Fronc-land, and encamp’d themselves at Gaunt, where they remain’d another year. Also, at a little distance from the river, is Kensington;Kensington. which hath been of late years a Place of Retirement for the Kings and Queens; and, upon the river,⌉ Chelsey,Chelsey, as one should say Shelfsey. so call’d from a bed of Sands in the river Thames; adorn’d with stately buildings by Henry the eighth, William Powlett Marquess of Winchester, and others. ⌈Here, a College was once design’d for Students in Divinity, and others, who were to make it their whole business to oppose the Church of Rome; as appears by an Act of Parliament 7 Jac 1. and a Declaration set forth by the same King An. 1616. specifying what mov’d the King and State to found this College, and why here rather than at either of the Universities; for an account whereof, I refer the Reader to Mr. * * P.257, &c.Stow’s Survey. For the furtherance of this design, the King sent his Letters to the Archbishop of Canterbury, to move all the Bishops and whole Clergy of his Province, to put-to their helping hands; which though actually done, and in a time of deep peace, and † † S. Hern’s Domus Carthusiana, p.58.though eagerly sollicited by Dr. Sutcliff Dean of Exeter, the first design’d Provost, and Mr. Camden, who was one of the Fellows of it; yet the building it self (not to mention the want of endowments) could never be further advanced, than the outward shell of a College. In which condition it stood, till the Restoration of King Charles the second; who quickly after, erecting another Royal Society at London for promoting natural knowledge, gave this to them; but they never attempting any thing toward finishing or using it, conveyed it back to the same King, to build an Hospital in the place of it, for the maintenance of wounded and superannuated Soldiers. Which being begun by him, was carried on by his Successor King James the second, and finish’d and furnish’d with all sorts of Necessaries and Conveniencies by King William and Queen Mary. It is indeed a Structure well suiting the munificence of its Royal Founders; being nobly accommodated with all sorts of Offices, and adorn’d with spacious walks and gardens.⌉

But amongst these, LONDONLondon. (which is, as it were, the Epitome of all Britain, the Seat of the British Empire, and the * * Camera.Residence of the Kings of England) is, to use the Poet’s comparison, as much above the rest, as the Cypress is above the little sprig. Tacitus, Ptolemy, and Antoninus call it Londinium, and Longidinium; Ammianus, Lundinum and Augusta; Stephanus in his book of Cities, Greek text; our Britains Lundayn; ⌈NinniusUsser Primord, p.34. in his Catalogue of the British Cities, Cair Lundein;⌉ the Saxons, ⌈ Saxon: Lundone, Saxon: Lundune,⌉ Saxon: Londen-ceaster, Saxon: Londenbyrig, Saxon: Londen-wic; Foreigners, Londra, and Londres; our own Nation, London; the fabulous Writers, Troja Nova, Dinas Belin, i.e. the City of Belin, and Caer Lud, from one King Luddus, whom they affirm to have given it both Being and Name. But as for those new-broach’d names and originals, as also Erasmus’s conjecture that it came from Lindum a City of Rhodes; I leave them to those, that are inclin’d to admire them.

For my own part, since CæsarBritish Towns. and Strabo have told me, that the ancient Britains call’d such woods or groves as they fenc’d with trees that they had cut down, Cities or Towns, and since I have been inform’d, that in British they call such Groves Llhwn; I am almost of the opinion, that London was by way of eminence simply call’d the City, or the City in a Wood. But if that do not satisfy, give me leave, without the charge of inconstancy, to guess once more, namely, that it might have it’s name from that which was the original both of it’s growth and glory; I mean Ships, called by the British Lhong; so that London, is as much as a Harbour or City of Ships. For the Britains term a City Dinas,Dinas. which the Latins turn’d into Dinum. Upon this account, it is call’d in one place Longidinium; and in a * * Nænia.Song of an ancient British Bard, Lhongporth, i.e. a Port or Harbour for Ships. And by the same word, Bologne in France (in Ptolemy Gessoriacum Navale,) is interpreted in the British Glossary Bolung Long. For several Cities have had their names from shipping, as Naupactus, Naustathmos, Nauplia, Navalia Augusti, &c. None of which can lay better claim to the name of † Navalis.a harbour, than our London. For it is admirably accommodated from both Elements: standing in a fruitful soil, abounding with every thing, and seated upon a gentle ascent, and upon the river Thames, which, without trouble or difficulty, brings it in the riches of the World. For by the convenience of the tide coming in at set hours, with the safety and depth of the river, which brings up the largest Vessels, it daily heaps in so much wealth both from East and West, that it may at this day dispute Pre-eminence with all the Mart-towns in Christendom. Moreover, it is such a sure, noble, and complete station for Ships, that one may term it a grov’d wood; so shaded is it with Masts and Sails. ⌈Another Etymology is also given us of it’s Latin name, by the Judicious Mr. Somner, † † Glossar. ad X. Script.who derives it from the British Llawn, plenus, frequens, and dyn, homo; or din (the same with dinas) urbs, civitas; either of which joyned with Llawn, will signify a populous place, as London has always been.

AEneas caesar Praefecture Praefecturae nundinae praefect prefect militae boadicea

Before we go further, it is to be observed, that both Ptolemy and Ravennas speak of Londinium, as in Cantium, and on the south-side of the Thames; which the late learned CommentatorGale, Itinerar. p.64. upon Antoninus, solves thus; that probably a station of that name might be placed on the south-side of the Thames by the Romans, for the protection and security of the Conquests which they had made, before they attacked and overcame the Trinobantes; and the place pitched upon for it, is, that large space between Lambeth and Southwark, called St. George’s fields,St. George’s-fields. where have been found many Roman Coins, chequer’d Pavements, and Bricks; and not long since, an Urn full of Bones; where also three Roman ways centered (out of Kent, Surrey, and Middlesex;) and nigh to which, Kenington,Kenington. on one hand, is well-known to have been an ancient Town, belonging to the Kings of England (and so, probably, before that, a Roman Station, according to the custom of the Saxons, in settling where the Romans had been;) and Southwark,Southwark. on the other hand, hath always been reputed a Burrough or place of Strength. This then is supposed to be the Londinium meant by Ptolemy and Ravennas, on the south-side of the River; which became neglected, after the Romans had subdued the Trinobantes, and driven the Britains further north, and settled themselves on the other side of the Thames. But this by the way.⌉

Antiquity has told us nothing of the first Founder of this City; as indeed Cities, growing up by little and little, do seldom know their original. Notwithstanding, this among others, has fabulously deriv’d it self from the Trojans, and is persuaded that Brute, * * Abnepos.second Nephew to the famous Æneas, was it’s Founder. ⌈It not being clear,City built. that there was any such place in Cæsar’s time, and yet clear that it was a Town of great trade in Nero’s, as Tacitus witnesses; doubtless it must be founded within that little compass, between the times of those Emperors; and in all probability (as the learned * * Orig. Brit. p.43.Bishop of Worcester thinks) about the time of Claudius; and, likely, was inhabited by the Romans and Britains together, being a trading, though not a military Colony (as Camulodunum was) from the very beginning.⌉

But whoever built it, the growth of it may evince, that it was begun with a ¦ ¦ Vitali genio.lucky omen; and Ammianus Marcellinus has taught us to pay it a veneration upon account of it’s Antiquity, when even in his time (which is † † Twelve, C.thirteen hundred years ago) he calls it an ancient Town. And agreeably Cornelius Tacitus, who flourish’d under Nero, has told us, that then it was a place exceeding famous for the number of merchants, and it’s trade. Even then, nothing was wanting to complete it’s glory, but that it was neither a * * Municipium.Free-borough, nor a Colony. Nor indeed would it have been the interest of the Romans, that a City of such vast trade should enjoy the privileges of a Colony, or Free-borough; for which reason, I believe, they made it a ¦ ¦ Præfecturæ.Præfecture; for so they call’d the Towns wherein there were † † Nundinæ.Fairs and Courts kept. Not that such Places had Magistrates of their own, but had Præfects sent them yearly to do justice, who were to act in all publick Affairs, such as Taxes, Tributes, Imposts,* * Militæ.the business of the Army, &c. according to the Instructions of the Roman Senate. Upon which account it is, that London is only term’d Opidum (a Town) by Tacitus, and by the Panegyrist, and by Marcellinus. But although it had not a more honourable title, yet it has been as powerful, wealthy, and prosperous as any; and that almost without interruption under the Roman, Saxon, and Norman Governments; scarce ever falling under any remarkable Calamity.

In Nero’s reign, when the Britains under the conduct of Boadicia, had resolv’d to recover their ancient liberty, the Londoners could not prevail with Suetonius Paulinus either by cries or tears, but that, after he had got together the Citizens to his assistance, he would march, and leave the City defenceless to the mercy of the Enemy; who immediately dispatch’d those few, that either by reason of their sex, their age, or their natural inclination to the place, had stay’d behind. Nor must it have suffer’d a less dismal Massacre from the Franks, had not the Divine Providence unexpectedly interpos’d. For when C. Allectus had treacherously cut off C. CarausiusC. Carausius. a Citizen of Menapia,A Panegyrick spoken to Constantius Cæsar, and falsly entitl’d to Maximian. who (depending upon the boisterousness of our Sea, upon the difficulties of the War wherein Dioclesian was engag’d in the East, and upon the Franks, with that bold crew of his sea-allies) had kept back the Revenues of Britain and Batavia, and enjoy’d the title of Emperor (as we learn from several of his Coins that are dug-up) for six years together; when also M. Aurelius Asclepiodatus had cut off and defeated Allectus in a set battle, who for three years together had usurp’d the government of Britain: Then the Franks,The Franks slain. that escap’d alive out of the engagement, posted to London, and were just ready to plunder the City, when the Thames (which always stood the Londoners a true friend) brought up some Roman Soldiers, who had very seasonably been parted from the main Fleet by a fog. These fell-upon and destroy’d the Barbarians, in all parts of the City; by which means the Citizens were not only secure themselves, but had the satisfaction of seeing their Enemies destroy’d. Then it was, as our Annals tell us, that L. Gallus was slain near a little river, which run almost through the midst of the City, and was call’d from him Nantgall in British, and in English Walbroke.Walbroke. A name, that still remains in a Street there; under which, I have heard, there goes a ditch or sink to carry off the filth of the Town. It is not far from that great Stone call’d London-stone:London-stone. This I take to have been a Mile-stone (such a one as they had in the Forum at Rome) from which the dimensions of all the Roads or Journeys were begun; since it stood in the middle of the City as it run out in length. ⌈This is confirmedGale, Itiner. p.64. by the discovery made of the Roman way at Holborn-bridge, after the fire of London; from whence it went through Watlingstreet, directly to this London-stone.⌉

And hitherto, I do not think that London was walled round. But our Historians tell us, that a little after, Constantine the Great, at the request of HelenaCoins of Helena, often found under the walls. his mother, first wall’d it about with hew’n Stone and British Bricks, containing in compass about three miles: whereby the City was made a square but not equilateral; being longer from west to east; and, from south to north, narrower. That part of these WallsThe Walls. which run along by the Thames, is quite wash’d away by the continual beating of the river; though Fitz-Stephens (who liv’d in Henry the second’s time) tells us, there were some pieces of it then to be seen. The rest remains to this day, and that part toward the north, very firm; for having † † 1474.not many years since been repair’d by one Jotcelin who was Mayor, it put on, as it were, a new face and freshness. But that toward the east and west, though the Barons repair’d it in their Wars out of the demolish’d houses of the Jews, † † So said, ann. all ruinous, and going to decay. For the Londoners, like the Lacedæmonians of old, do slight fenced Cities, as fit for nothing but women to live in, and look upon their own City to be safe, not by the assistance of Stones, but by the courage of it’s Inhabitants. These Walls have seven principal GatesThe Gates. in them (for those lesser I industriously omit,) which, as they have been repair’d, have taken new names. To the west there are two; Ludgate,Ludgate. so call’d, either from King Luddus, or, as Leland thinks, from Fludgate, with reference to the small river below it (as there was the Porta Fluentana at Rome,) this was † † 1586.
lately built from the very foundation: and Newgate, the most beautiful of them all; so nam’d from the newness of it (for before they call’d it Chamberlan-gate) which is the publick Gaol. On the north-side there are four; Aldersgate,Aldersgate. so called, either from it’s Antiquity, or (as others would have it) from Aldrick the Saxon: Cripplegate,Cripplegate. from the adjoyning Hospital for lame people: Moregate,Moregate. from a neighbouring bog or fen (now turn’d into a Field and a pleasant Walk;) first built by one Francerius, who was Mayor, in the year 1414: Bishopsgate,Bishopsgate. from the Bishop; and this (as I have been told) the German MerchantsEasterlings. of the Society of the Hanse-towns, were bound by Article to keep in repair, and, in case of a siege, to defend it. To the east there is but one, AldgateAldgate. (from it’s oldness) or as others will have it call’d, Elbegate.

The common Opinion is, that there were two more towards the Thames, besides that at the bridge, namely, Belings-gate, now a ¦ ¦ Cothon.Wharf to receive Ships; and Dourgate, i.e. the water-gate, call’d commonly Dow-gate.

At each end of the wall that runs along by the river, were strong Forts; the one, toward the east, remains to this day, call’d commonly the Tower of London,The Tower. and in British, from it’s whiteness, Bringwin, and Tour-gwin. Which is indeed a stately Tower, surrounded with walls of great compass, mounting up with turrets, and guarded with a rampire and broad ditches, together with the accommodation of a noble Armory, and other houses; so that it self looks like a Town: and a conjecture, That the two Castles, which Fitz-Stephens has told us were at the east end of the City, may have been turn’d into this one, would be plausible enough. At the west-end of the City, was another Fort, where the little river FleetFleet, riv. (from whence is our Fleetstreet) * * Now, the last age of small use, but formerly, as I have read in the Parliament-Records, navigable ⌈and of late years made so again,⌉ empties it self into the Thames. Fitz-Stephens call’d this Fort the Palatine Tower, and tradition affirms it to have been burnt down in William the Conqueror’s time. Out of the ruins whereof was built a great part † † The old Church. of St. Paul’s Church; as also a Monastery for Dominican Friers (from whom we call the place Black Friers)Black-Friers. founded in the very area or plot of it, by Robert Kilwarby Archbishop of Canterbury: from whence you may easily take an estimate of it’s largeness. And yet in Henry the second’s time, there were in the same place (as Gervasius Tilburiensis, in his Otia Imperialia, affirms) two Pergama, or Castles with walls and rampires; one whereof belong’d to Bainard, the other to the Barons of Montfitchett by Inheritance. But there is nothing now to be seen of them; though some are inclin’d to think that Pembroch-house was part of them; which we call Bainard’s castle,Bainard’s-castle. from a Nobleman, one William Bainard, Lord of Dunmow, formerly owner of it; whose successors, the Fitz-Walters, were hereditary * * Antisignani.Standard-bearers of London.

Nor was London only wall’d round at that time; but also, upon the confirmation which Christianity receiv’d from that best of Emperors, the Flamin was remov’d,The Bishoprick. and a Bishop put in his place. For it is certain that the Bishop of London was at the Council of Arles, held in the year 314. under Constantine the Great; since we find it said in the first Tome of the Councils,See Baronius, concerning this Council.Out of the Province of Britain, Restitutus Bishop of the City of London;” whom (with his successors) some affirm to have had his residence at St. Peter’s in Cornhill.

⌈From that time, London flourish’d so exceedingly, that by degrees it was call’d Augusta,London call’d Augusta. and had that honourable title under Valentinian the Emperor. For thus says Ammianus Marcellinus, in his 27th Book; And going to London an ancient Town, which Posterity named Augusta. And in his 28th Book; Going from Augusta, which the Ancients call’d London. Upon which account, when a MintThe Mint. was settled here in Constantine the Great’s time (for we read on those Medals which he made in memory of Constantius his father, as well as on others, P. LON. S. i.e. Pecunia Londini signata, or, Money coin’d at London,) then, he who was Governour here under the Count of the * * Sacrarum largitionum.Imperial Largesses, is call’d by the Notitia, Provost of the Treasures of the Augustenses in Britain. This AugustaAugusta a most honourable name. was a name of the greatest Honour and Majesty. For the Builders or Restorers of Cities, out of hopes or wishes at least that they might be powerful, flourishing, and great, us’d to give them auspicious names. But among all the rest, there was none so magnificent, none so auspicious, as Augusta. For that best and greatest of Emperors Octavianus, took the name of Augustus, not without the judgment and advice of the most learned Men of the Age. He was surnam’d Augustus (says Dio,)Lib. 54. to imply that he was above the common reach of mankind. For those things which best deserve honour and are most sacred, are call’d Augusta. Nor had London this name, and this particular mark of honour, without the consent of the Roman Emperors. Which custom of taking no name without particular Licence, Virgil hints in that Verse of his;

Urbem appellabant, permisso nomine, Acestam.

The City they, with leave, Acesta call’d.

⌈Whether this Place had the name Augusta from Helena Augusta mother of Constantine the Great, or from the Legio Secunda Augusta residing here, we have no account in History; but that the said Legion was here, seems to be plain from the following Sepulchral Inscription, dug-up near Ludgate, ann. 1669, and now preserved at Oxford.

AEthelbert Praecentor Mariae

Tablet inscription

But as time has destroy’d this most honourable name, so has it confirm’d that more ancient one of London. While it had that other name, it was very near being sack’d by a seditious gang of Robbers; but Theodosius, father to Theodosius the Emperor, falling upon them while they were laden with the spoils, routed and slew them, and (as Marcellinus has it) with great joy and in a triumphant manner enter’d the City, which had just before been overwhelm’d with miseries. Marching from thence, he so effectually freed Britain, by his great Valour, from the Calamities wherein it was involv’d, that (as Symmachus tells us) * * Consecrarunt Britannicum Ducem – inter prisca nomina.the Romans honour’d this British General with a Statue on horse-back, among their ancient heroes. Not long after, when the Roman Government in Britain expir’d, this, according to the unhappy Fate of the whole Island, London in the Saxons hands.fell under the power of the Saxons; but by what methods, does not appear from History. I fansy, that Vortigern, when a captive, gave it to Hengist the Saxon for his ransom; for it belong’d to the East-Saxons, and Authors tell us, that Vortigern gave Hengist that Country upon this Account. At which time, the Church suffer’d the greatest Calamities; it’s Pastors were martyr’d or banish’d, and their flocks driven away; and when all the wealth, sacred and profane, was swallow’d-up in plunder and rapine, Theonus, the last Bishop of London that was a Britain,Reliques hid to preserve the memory of persons. hid the Reliques of the Saints (as my Author says,) to preserve their memory, and not out of any superstition. But though the Confusions of the Saxon age were such, that the God of War seem’d to head them in person; yet was London (as Bede tells us) a Mart-town of great traffic and commerce both by sea and land. And afterwards, when a gentle gale of peace began to fan and revive this weary Island, and the Saxons were turn’d Christian; it rose again with a new and greater lustre. 610. For Æthelbert King of Kent (under whom Sebert was a * * Quasi beneficiarius.sort of petty Prince in those parts) built here a Church dedicated to St. Paul;St. Paul’s. which, by improvements at several times, † † Is grown, C.grew to an exceeding large and magnificent Structure; and the revenues of it are so considerable, as to maintain a Bishop, Dean, Præcentor, Chancellor, Treasurer, five Archdeacons, thirty Prebendaries, and others. ⌈While this ancient Church was * * From ann. building, the successive Bishops despairing to finish it by private hands, were forced to apply themselves to the bounty of all good people throughout the Realms both of England and Ireland, as appears by the hortatory Letters of several Bishops of both Nations, to the Clergy under their charge, for recommendation of the business to their particular Congregations. By which Letters, there were Indulgences granted for release of Penance enjoined, extending to certain numbers of days, to all such as being truly penitent, should afford their assistance toward this great work; which Indulgences were not only granted to the Contributors toward it, but also to the Sollicitors for Contributions, and to the very Mechanicks who labour’d in it** Dugdale’s Hist. of St. Paul’s..

By this means, it seems to have been finish’d about the year 1312. being paved that year with good † † Five-pence per foot.firm marble.

The Ball above the head of the Spire of this Church, was so very large, that it would contain in it ten bushels of Corn, and the length of the Cross above the said Ball or Pommel, fifteen foot, and the traverse six. In which Cross, the reliques of divers Saints were put by Gilbert de Segrave then Bishop of London, to the intent, that (according to the Superstitions of those Times) God, by the glorious merits of his Saints, whose reliques were therein contained, would vouchsafe to preserve the Steeple from all danger of tempests. But how ineffectual they were for that purpose, after-ages shewed; for, within 132 years, viz. Anno 1444. 22 Henry 6. the Shaft or Spire was fired by Lightning, which though happily quenched by the labour of many well-disposed People, yet did so much harm, that it was not sufficiently repaired till the year 1462. (2 Edward the 4th,) when a costly Weathercock of Copper gilt (the length whereof from head to tail was four foot, the breadth over the wings three foot and a half; of forty pounds weight) was added to it; the Cross whereon it stood (which from the Ball upwards was fifteen foot six inches long; and the traverse five foot ten inches) being made, within, of firm Oak, and cover’d first with Lead, which was plated over again with Copper varnish’d red, the Ball being also of Copper gilt, in compass nine foot and one inch, as appear’d by measure at the taking of it down for it’s better repair An. 1553; 1 Mariæ.

And thus, the Spire being brought once more to perfection, it stood not much above an hundred years; but a more deplorable mischance befell it again by Lightning, July 4. An. 1561. 3 Eliz. whereby the Shaft was first set on fire about three yards from the top; which being wholly consumed, it next seized the roof of the Church and Iles, burning down all the rafters, and whatever else was liable to it, in four hours time. The repair hereof was prosecuted with that zeal and diligence by the Queen, Clergy, and Laity, that in April 1566. all the roofs of timber were perfectly finish’d, and cover’d with lead: only the Steeple (tho’ divers Models were then made of it) was left imperfect, which continued so, notwithstanding the attempts made towards it’s farther reparation in the time of James 1, and by Archb. Laud in the time of his son, till it was again wholly consumed just a hundred years after, in that dreadful Conflagration, which happen’d in the year 1666. and which we shall mention more particularly, by and by. In the account of this Church we have been thus distinct, because even what the Fire it self left, was afterwards demolish’d to the very foundation, in order to the erecting of that noble, beautiful, and stupendous Pile, now finished; the charge whereof hath been chiefly supported by an impost on Sea-coal (a much better Fund, than that of Benevolence, whereby the former Church was By Mr. James. built.) The Dimensions of this New Church, are as follow:

Feet Inch.
From the East end to the West, between the Walls, } 463 00
From North to South in the Cross Ile between the Walls, } 228 00
From North to South in the Nave, between the Walls, } 101 08
From the Pavement to the top of the Cupola, } 215 00
From the Pavement to the top of the Cross, } 344 09
From the Pavement to the highest part of the arch’d Roofing, in the Nave and Choir, } 90 9

The said Cupola is exceeding large, and, on the inside, is adorn’d with curious Paintings; which are a Representation of the Life and Acts of St. Paul. In the Church also, is a Library, well stored with valuable and curious Books.⌉

TheThe old Cathedral. east-part of * * This, C. the old Church which † † Seems, C.seemed to be newer, and † – Is, C.was curiously wrought, having a vault and a most beautiful porch (call’d also St. Faith’s Church;) was re-edify’d by Bishop Maurice about 1086. out of the ruins of that Palatine Tower above-mentioned; having before that been burnt down. Of which Malmesbury writes thus: It has such a majestick beauty, as to deserve a name among the buildings of greatest note. So wide is the vault, so capacious * * Superior ædes.the body of the Church, that one would think it might contain the greatest Congregation imaginable. And thus Maurice, by satisfying his extravagant humour, entail’d the charge of this great work upon posterity. And afterward, when Richard his successor had allow’d the entire revenues of his Bishoprick to the building of this Cathedral, finding other ways to maintain himself and his family; he seem’d to have done nothing towards it: Thus did he bestow all he had upon it, and yet to little purpose. The west-part of it, as also ¦ ¦ Transeptum.the Cross-Ile, † † Is, C.was spacious, with lofty large pillars and a most beautiful roof of Stone. Where these four parts * * Meet, C.met, there † † Arises, C.arose a large and lofty tower; upon which stood a spire cover’d over with lead, and of a prodigious height (for from the ground it was 534 foot;) but in the year 1087. it was burnt with lightning, not without great damage to the whole City: and tho’ it was built again;1561. yet * * Very lately, when we were boys, suffer’d the same fate once more †† And is not yet re-edified, C.. I will subjoyn the Dimensions of this magnificent structure out of an Author of pretty good Antiquity, which you may read or let alone, as you please: The length of Paul’s Church is ¦ ¦ 720, Stow, in anno 1599.690 foot; the breadth 130 foot; the height of the western-roof from the area, 102 foot; the height of the roof of a new building from the area, 88 foot; the height of the stone-work belonging to * * Campanile.the Belfrey from the ground, 260 foot; the height of the wooden part belonging to the same Belfrey, 274 foot, &c. (a)

(a) An exact Measure was taken of that Church about 1312. being the year wherein it was finish’d; which was written in a Tablet in large Characters, heretofore hung on the north-part of the Quire. From whence Dugdale seems to have taken the dimensions; for he differs in nothing from what was express’d in the Table, but in the height of the steeple. Tho’ the height of the tower from the level of the ground was 260 foot; and the height of the spire above it 274, as he says; yet the whole, viz. both of tower and spire, did not exceed 520 foot, as is testify’d by the Tablet (whereof there is a MS. Copy in the publick Library in Cambridge;) and this is 14 foot short of the height mention’d by that Author, who makes it 534 foot high, agreeable to the two dimensions of the tower and spire added together. Which must indeed have been true, had the spire risen from the summit of the battlements: whereas I suppose it rose (as the spires of most steeples do) much below them; the battlements here rising 14 foot above the base of the spire, which must occasion the difference.

Some have fansy’d that the Temple of DianaDiana’s Temple. formerly stood here; and there are circumstances that strengthen their conjecture: as, the old adjacent buildings being called in their Records Dianæ Camera, i.e. the Chamber of Diana; the digging up in the Church-yard, in Edward the first’s reign (as we find by our Annals) an incredible number of Ox-heads; which the common people at that time, not without great admiration, look’d upon to have been Gentile-sacrifices; and the Learned know that the Tauropolia were celebrated in honour of Diana. And when I was a boy, I have seen a stag’s head fix’d upon a spear (agreeable enough to the Sacrifices of Diana) and carry’d-about in the very Church, with great solemnity and sounding of Horns. And I have heard that the Stag which the family of Baud in Essex were bound to pay for certain lands, was us’d to be receiv’d at the steps of the Quire by the Members of this Church, in their Sacerdotal robes, and with garlands of flowers about their heads. Whether this was a custom, before the Bauds were obliged to the payment of that Stag, I know not; but certain it is, this ceremony savours more of the worship of Diana and the Gentile-errors, than of the Christian Religion. And it is beyond all doubt, that some of these strange Rites did creep into the Christian Religion; which the primitive Christians either clos’d with, out of that natural inclination mankind has to Superstition, or bore with them in the beginning, with design to draw over the Gentiles by little and little to the worship of the true God. ⌈But much rather should I found such an opinion (of a Temple of Diana) upon the witty conceit of Mr. Selden; who (upon occasion of some Ox-heads, sacred also to Diana) that were discover’d in digging the foundations of a new Chapel on the south-sideAnno 1316. of St. Paul’s, would insinuate that the name of London imported no more than Llan Dien, i.e. Templum Dianæ. And against the foregoing Conjectures it is urged, That, as for the Tenements call’d Camera Dianæ, they stood not so near the Church as some would have us think, but on St. Paul’s-wharf-hill near Doctors-Commons, and seem to have taken their denomination from a spacious Building full of intricate Turnings, wherein King Henry the second (as he did at Woodstock) kept his heart’s delight; whom he there call’d Fair Rosamund, and here Diana. Of which winding vaults there remain’d some parts in Mr. Stow’s time,Survey, p.781. as also of a passage under-ground from Baynard’s Castle to it; which possibly might be the King’s way to his Camera Dianæ, or secret apartment of his beautiful Mistress: And that, as to the donation of a Buck annually to the Dean and Chapter on the feast of the Commemoration of St. Paul, and the carrying the head in procession before the Cross; it is said to have been a plain composition betwixt the Church and the Family of Baud, of no older date than the third of Edward the first, in lieu of twenty-two Acres of Land, parcel of their Manour of Westley, granted to Sir William Baud, to be taken into his Park at Coringham in Essex. Which being an acknowledgment so naturally arising from the use and application of the Grant; it is not probable that any thing more * * Ibid. signify’d by it.

But though this do not countenance the Conjecture, yet ought not the Opinion to be altogether rejected, since it receives confirmation from those pieces of Antiquity dug-up hereabouts; not only in ancient times, but also of later years. For in making the foundation of this new Fabrick, among other things they cast-up the teeth of Boars and of other Beasts, and a piece of a Buck’s horn, with several fragments of Vessels, which by the figure one would imagine to have been us’d in their Sacrifices. A great number of these (with an entire Urn, a Lamp, and other things belonging to the Roman Funerals, and dug-up in Good-man’s-fields,) came into the hands of a † † Mr. Worsley.very knowing and ingenious Gentleman.⌉

Ever since that ⌈ancient⌉ Church was built, it has been the See of the Bishops of London; and under the Saxons (fifty years after the expulsion of Theonus the Britain) the first Bishop that it had was Melitus a Roman, consecrated by Augustine Archbishop of Canterbury. It was in honour to this Augustine, that the Archiepiscopal * * Insignia.Dignity, and the Metropolitical See, were translated from London to Canterbury, against the express order of Pope Gregory.

There † † Are, C.were Persons bury’d in the old Paul’s.bury’d in this Church (to say nothing of St. Erkenwald, and the Bishops) About 680.Sebba King of the East-Saxons, who quitted his Crown for the sake of Christ and Religion; 1016.Ethelred or Egelred (who was rather an oppressor than governour of this kingdom: Guil. Malmesb.the beginning of his reign was barbarous, the middle miserable, and the end shameful: he made himself inhuman, by conniving at Parricide: infamous, by his cowardise and effeminacy: and by his death, miserable:) Henry Lacy Earl of Lincoln, John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster, Simon de Burley a famous Knight, J. de Beauchamp Warden of the Cinque-Ports, J. Lord Latimer, Sir John Mason, William Herbert Earl of Pembroke, Nicholas Bacon Lord Keeper, a person of great Wisdom and profound judgment, Sir Philip Sidney and Sir Francis Walsingham most famous Knights, &c. and Christopher Hatton Lord High Chancellour of England, to whose sacred and lasting memory his † † Nepos.nephew William Hatton of the ancient family of the Newports (but by him adopted into the name and ¦ ¦ of the Hattons,) dutifully erected a magnificent monument, becoming the dignity and high character of so great a Person. ⌈But here, we must not omit the particular mention of Dugd. Hist. of St. Paul’s.Robert Braybrook Bishop of London, and sometime Lord High Chancellor of England, who dy’d August 27. Anno 1404. fifth of Henry the fourth, above two hundred and sixty years before the ruin of this Church in 1666. Notwithstanding which distance of time, upon pulling down the stone-work, and removal of the rubbish, his body was found entire, the skin still inclosing the bones and fleshy parts; only in the breast there was a hole (made I suppose by accident) thro’ which one might view and handle his lungs. The skin was of a deep tawny colour, and the body very light; as appear’d to all who came to view and touch it, it being exposed in a Coffin for some time without any offensive smell; and then re-inter’d. To which Mr. * * Survey, p.227.Stow gives us a parallel History in this very City, in the corps of Alice Hackney, wife of Robert Hackney, Sheriff of London 15 of Edward the second, Anno 1321. whose body, being dug-up by the Labourers in April Anno 1497. (as they were working the foundations of a Wall in the Parish-Church of St. Mary-hill) was found with her skin whole, her bones all in their natural posture, and the joynts of her arms pliable; but yielding an ill smell, after it had been kept four days above-ground. In which two last points, this (though equally entire) differ’d from the former: whence it is very evident that they had, in ancient times, more ways than one, of preserving the dead from corruption, as well as now.⌉

There is * * Besides the ancient Church of St. Paul, C.nothing of the Saxon Work that I know of now remaining in London; for it was not long that they had enjoy’d a settled peace, when the West-Saxons subdu’d the East-Saxons, and London fell into the hands of the Mercians. And these civil wars were scarce ended, when presently a new northern storm broke out, namely that Danish one, which miserably harrass’d all these parts, and gave a terrible blow to this City. AElfred AEthelred For the Danes got possession of it, but Ælfred retook it; and, after he had repair’d it, committed it to the government of his son-in-law Æthelred, Earl of the Mercians. Notwithstanding, after this, those Plunderers did often besiege it; especially Canutus, who dug a new chanel with design to divert the Thames: but they † † Always, C.oft-times lost their labour, the citizens stoutly defending it against the assaults of the Enemy. ⌈Indeed, in the year 839, in the reign of King Ethelwolf, it was surpriz’d by the Danes, and the Citizens inhumanly butcher’d. Quickly after, in the year 851. it was again sack’d by the Danes; the army of Beorhtwulf King of Mercia, who came to it’s defence, being totally routed. Again, in the year 872. in the days of King Ethelred, the Danes took it, and winter’d in it. And so again in the year 1013. after a great fight with Swane King of Denmark who besieg’d it, the Citizens were at last forced to admit him and his army to winter in it, and to pay him such tribute as he demanded. Lastly, in the year 1016. it was twice besieged, and so much streighten’d by Canutus, that they were necessitated in fine to receive him into the City, and to give him winter-quarters, and to buy their peace with a sum of money ** Chron. Sax.. Also before the Conquest, anno 983. it was much wasted by fire, as Ranulph Higden, in his Polychronicon,Lib. 6. tells us.⌉

But ⌈notwithstanding they held out, under all these Calamities⌉ they were under continual apprehensions, till they joyfully receiv’d William the Norman, whom Providence had design’d for the Crown of England; and saluted him King. From that time, the winds ceas’d, the clouds scatter’d, and the true golden age began to shine forth. Since then ⌈till the year 1666.⌉ it † † Has, C.had not felt any signal calamity; but by the bounty of our Princes it obtain’d several immunities, and began to be called the ¦ ¦ Camera.Chamber of the Kings, and grew so in Trade, that William of Malmesbury, who liv’d near that time, calls it a City, noble, wealthy, in every part adorn’d by the riches of the citizens, and frequented by merchants from all parts of the world. And Fitz-Stephens, who liv’d in that age, has told us, that then London had one hundred and twenty-two Parish-Churches, and thirteen belonging to * * Conventuales.Convents; and that upon a muster made of all that were able to bear Arms, it sent into the field forty thousand foot, and twenty thousand horse. ⌈But yet, ever since the Conquest, it hath had mixtures of divers remarkable Disasters, in several ages. For, not to mention the grievous Insults made upon it of later years, by Wat Tyler and Jack Straw in the time of Richard the second, anno 1381; by Jack Cade (otherwise call’d by his Followers John Mendall) anno 1450, in the time of Henry the sixth; and by the bastard Falconbridge, in 1481, in the reign of Edward the fourth: not (I say) to mention these Insults: In the year 1077, in the days of William the Conqueror, it was consumed by so great a fire, as had not happen’d to it (as the Saxon Chronicle expresses it) since it’s foundation. † † Chron. Sax. p.188.Quickly after again, in the same King’s reign, anno 1086. the Church of St. Paul was quite burnt down, with the greatest and most splendid part of the City.

¦ ¦ Stow’s Survey, p.243.Again in the year 1135. the first of King Stephen, by a fire which began in Cannon-street near London-stone, the City was consumed from thence, to the Eastward as far as Aldgate; to St. Paul’s Church Westward; and to the South as far as Southwark; the bridge (then of timber) being quite burnt down. This bridge was afterwards rebuilt of stone, and houses set upon it, but within four years after it was finish’d (anno 1212.) upon occasion of a fire in Southwark (whilst a multitude of people were passing the bridge, either to extinguish, or to gaze at it,) on a sudden the houses on the North-end of the bridge, by a strong South wind, were set on fire. So that the people thronging betwixt two fires, could now expect no help but from the vessels in the river, which came in great numbers to their assistance; but the multitude so unadvisedly rush’d into them, that they were quickly overset, and the people drown’d; and betwixt fire and water, there perish’d above 3000 persons†† Gault. Covent. & Lib. Dunmow MS.. Also Feb. 13. anno 1033. a third part at least of the same bridge was again burnt down¦¦ Stow’s Survey, p.782..

But the most dreadful fire that ever befel this great City, was that which happen’d within our own memory, viz.Fire of London. on Sunday Sept. 2. anno 1666. which beginning in Pudding-lane, in three days time (being driven by a fresh easterly wind) consumed no less than eighty-nine Churches, the Guild-hall, Hospitals, Schools and Libraries, with fifteen entire Wards of the twenty-six, leaving eight of the rest half burnt and miserably shatter’d. In this compass, were four hundred streets, and in them thirteen thousand two hundred houses, which cover’d no less than four hundred thirty-six acres of ground: It destroy’d all on the Thames-side, from Al-hallows Barkin to the Temple Church, and all along from the North-east walls of the City to Holburn-bridge: and when all artificial helps fail’d, it languish’d and went out of it self, though amongst as combustible buildings as any it had burnt before. In memory whereof, near the place where the fire began, is erected a magnificent Pillar (somewhat resembling, except the Imagery, those of Trajan and Antonine at Rome) of two hundred and two foot high, which equals exactly the distance of the Pillar from the place where the fire first began. Out of these stupendous Ruins, it recover’d it self, and in few years rose again with surprizing beauty and magnificence; far surpassing its former condition, both in stateliness of Buildings, and number of Inhabitants. Infomuch, that Political Essay.(as the ingenious Sir William Petty probably computed it, from the number of Burials and Houses in each City,) London in the year 1683, or thereabouts, was as big as Paris and Rouen (the two best Cities of the French Monarchy) put together; and now (above seven parts of fifteen having been new built since the great Fire and the number of Inhabitants increased near one half, the total amounting to near seven hundred thousand) it is become equal to Paris and Rome put together.

The additional Buildings, which have run out a great way into the Fields on every side, consist of noble Squares, and sumptuous Streets, in great numbers; and this prodigious Increase of Inhabitants, especially in the Suburbs on the several sides, hath render’d the Out-Parishes immoderately large: For the Division of which, and the erecting of several new Churches and Parishes, within the Bills of Mortality, several Acts of Parliament have been made in the reigns of Queen Anne and King George.

But to return to the more ancient State, and the gradual Improvements of this great City. Having recover’d it self by the favour of the Norman Kings;⌉ it began to increase on every side with new buildings; and the Suburbs stretch’d it self a long way beyond the City-gates; especially to the west, where it is most populous, and has * * Besides two for Serjeants. twelveNurseries for Common Law; or Inns of Court. Inns of Court for the study of our Common-Law. Four of them, very large and splendid, belong † † Ad Forum sive the Judicial-Courts; the rest to Chancery. In these, such numbers of young Gentlemen apply themselves to the study of the Law, that in this point they are no way inferior to Angiers, Caen, or Orleans; as J. Fortescue in his little Treatise of the Laws of England, has told us. Those four principal ones I mention’d, are theFormerly call’d, The New Temple.
The Old Temple, where now Southamton-house is in Holborn.
Inner-Temple, the Middle-Temple, Grays-Inn and Lincolns-Inn. The two first are in the place where formerly (in the reign of Henry the second) Heraclius Patriarch of Jerusalem consecrated a Church for the Knights Templars,Templars. which they had built after the model of the Temple near our Saviour’s Sepulchre at Jerusalem. For there they liv’d in that part of the Temple next the Sepulchre, and from it had their name; being under a vow to protect the Christian Religion, and all such as came in pilgrimage to the Sepulchre of our Lord, against the Mahometans. muslims mohammedans By which means, they gain’d great esteem and respect from all hands; and by the bounty of Princes had large Possessions and much wealth in all parts; and were in great reputation for their exemplary piety. Many Noblemen were bury’d among them;Upon one of those Monuments, the characters whereof are obscure, I read, Comes Pembrochiæ; and on the side, Miles eram Martis, Mars multos vicerat armis. whose Images are to be seen in this Temple with their legs across (for so all those in that age were bury’d, who had devoted themselves to the service of the Holy War, or, at those times worded it, had taken up the Cross.) Among the rest, were William the father, William and Gilbert the sons, all, Marshals of England, and Earls of Pembroke. But in the year of our Lord 1312. this Order was condemn’d for Impiety, and by authority of the Pope utterly abolish’d.Pembrochiae However, their revenues byThe Statute concerning the Templars lands, 17 Edw. 2. act of Parliament went to the Knights-Hospitalers of St. John of Jerusalem; lest what was given upon a Religious design, should, contrary to the Will of the Donors, be converted to other uses. Notwithstanding, it appears plainly by ancient Records, that after the Templars were driven out, this place was the Seat of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, and of that Spenser who was the great favourite of King Edward the second; as afterwards of Audomar de Valentia, Earl of Pembroke; and at last it was turn’d into two † † Collegia.Inns for the education of Lawyers. Concerning the other two, I have met with nothing upon record; only there is a Tradition, that one of them was the habitation of the Lords Grey, the other of the Earls of Lincoln. ⌈All these Inns of Court have been in great measure new built, in a most stately and splendid manner; together with the Ornaments of Groves, Walks, Gardens, and all other Accommodations for Pleasure and Retirement. And, besides these, there are two other Inns, one in FleetstreetSerjeants-inn. and the other in Chancery-lane, for the reception of those Lawyers who attain the degree and dignity of Serjeants at Law; and are therefore call’d by the name of Serjeants-inn.

To these we must add the College of Civilians, commonly call’d Doctor’s-Commons;Doctors-Commons. where the Courts of Civil and Canon Law are held, and the Professors thereof do live in a Community, and in a Collegiate way.⌉

Near the forementioned Inns of Court, between the New and Old Temple, King Henry the third built a House of Converts, for the maintenance of those who turn’d from Judaism to Christianity; which afterwards King Edward the third made a Repository of the Rolls and Records, whereupon it is at this day call’d the Rowles.Rowles. ⌈That building, call’d Domus Conversorum, was erected in the seventh year of Henry the third (in the place of a Jews house, to him forfeited;) and in it all Jews and Infidels who were converted to the Christian Faith, had sufficient maintenance allowed them, were instructed in the Doctrine of Christ, and liv’d under a Christian Governour; till Anno 1290, when all Jews were banish’d out of the realm: by which means, the number of Converts necessarily decaying, and the House becoming as it were depopulated, it was granted to William Burstall, Custos Rotulorum, by Letters Patents bearing date 51 Edw. 3. for keeping of the Rolls, which Grant was ratified in Parliament 1 Rich. 2, and by other Letters Patents 6 Rich. 2. Notwithstanding which Grant and Ratifications, all converted Jews have ever since been allowed (and will be hereafter, as often as any such shall appear) one penny half-penny per diem toward their maintenance: which allowance was paid to Peter Samuel and John Maza, two converted Jews, Anno 1685. 2 Jac. 2, as appears by the Master of the Rolls account in the Hannaper, and a Constat out of the Pell-office, both of the date above-mention’d; who were the two last I can find that ever enjoy’d this benefit†† MS. in Capel. Rot..⌉

This Suburbs * * Runs, C.ran along in a continu’d range of Buildings, and the stately houses of some of the Nobility upon the Thames, as far as Westminster. The most considerable of them, † † Are, C.were, ¦ ¦ Bride-well.St. Bridgid’s-Well, where King Henry the eighth built a Palace for the reception of the Emperor Charles the fifth; but now it is a house of Correction: Buckhurst-house,Buckhurst-house. sometime belonging to the Bishops of Salisbury; the house of the Carmelites; the TemplesThe Temples. before-mentioned; Essex-house,Essex-house. built by the Lord Paget; Arundel-house;Arundel-house. Somerset-house,Somerset-house. built by Seimor Duke of Somerset. Next, to pass by the rest, the SavoySavoy. (so call’d from Peter Earl of Savoy, who liv’d in it,) which Eleanor wife of Henry the third bought of the * * Fratribus.Fraternity of † Montis Jovis.Montjoy, and gave to her son Edmund Earl of Lancaster; whose posterity for a long time had it for a seat, till Henry the seventh made it a ¦ ¦ Pauperibus sacravit.Hospital. Durham-houseDurham-house. built by Anthony Bec Bishop of Durham, and Patriarch of Jerusalem. York-house (for so it * * Hath been called of late, C.was call’d,) formerly Bath-house. ⌈Besides these (which were the most remarkable) there were between Temple-Bar and Westminster many other Houses, as well of the Spiritual, as Temporal, Nobility. For the Bishops of Exeter, Bath and Wells, Salisbury, Lichfield and Coventry, Worcester, Norwich, Landaff, and Carlisle, had all anciently houses here: and so had the Dukes of Buckingham, and Beauford; and the Earls of Exeter, Worcester, Bedfort, Salisbury, and Rivers.⌉ But why do I give particular names to these, † Greek textwhich belong not to any one, but as Fortune disposes of them? ⌈especially, since all of them, except Somerset, and Northumberland-house, are now pull’d down, and the Sites and Gardens converted into Streets.⌉

Westminster,Westminster. formerly above a mile distant from London, is now by these Suburbs joyn’d so close to it, that it seems to be part of it; notwithstanding it is a distinct City of it self, and enjoys its own Magistrates and Privileges: ⌈being also erected into an Honour by Act of Parliament in the 37th of Henry the eighth.⌉ Once it was call’d Thorney, from the Thorns; now Westminster, from its westerly situation and the minster. For it is particularly eminent for the Abbey,The Abbey, and Hall. and for its Hall of Justice, and for the King’s Palace. The Church’s greatest honour is deriv’d from the Inauguration, and Burial of our Kings, in it. Sulcardus affirms, that there once stood in that place a Temple of Apollo, and that it was thrown down by an Earth-quake in the time of Antoninus Pius; out of the ruins whereof, Sebert King of the East-Saxons built another to St. Peter; which being destroy’d by the Danes, was re-edify’d and granted to a few Monks by Bishop Dunstan. But afterwards, King Edward the Confessor, built it anew out of the tenth penny of all his revenues, for a burying-place to himself, and a Monastery to the Benedictine Monks; endowing it with lands, dispers’d here and there, throughout England. But hear a contemporary Historian: The devout and pious King has dedicated that place to God, both for its neighbourhood to the famous and wealthy City, and for its pleasant situation among fruitful grounds and green fields, and for the nearness of the principal river of England, which from all parts of the world conveys whatever is necessary to the adjoining City. But above all, for the love he bore to the Prince of the Apostles whom he always reverenc’d with a singular zeal and veneration, did he make choice of that for the place of his Sepulchre. Then he order’d a noble Structure to be begun and built out of the tenths of his whole revenue, such a one as might become the Prince of the Apostles; that, after the transitory course of this life, he might find a propitious God, both upon account of his piety, and of his free-offering of those lands and ornaments with which he designs to endow it. Whereupon, the work thus nobly begun at the King’s command, is successfully carry’d on, without sparing either present or future charges; so it may be made worthy of and acceptable to God and the Blessed S. Peter.choir Be pleased also to take the Form and Figure of this ancient building out of an old Manuscript: * * Principalis area.The chief Ile of the Church is roof’d with lofty Arches of square work, † † Pari commissura.the joints answering one another; but on both sides it is enclos’d with a double Arch of stones firmly cemented and knit together. Moreover, the Cross of the Church (made to encompass the middle Quire of the ¦ ¦ Canentium Domino.Singers, and by its double supporter on each side to bear up the lofty top of the middle tower) first rises singly with a low and strong Arch, then mounts higher with several winding stairs artificially contriv’d, and last of all with a single wall reaches to the wooden roof, which is well cover’d with lead. But one hundred and sixty years after, K. Henry the third pulled down this Fabrick of Edward’s, and erected a new one of curious workmanship, supported by several rows of marble Pillars, and leaded over; which was fifty years in building. This, the Abbots very much enlarg’d on the west-side; and Henry the seventh, for the burial of himself and * * Suorum.his children, added to the east part of it a Chapel of most neat and admirable contrivance (call’d by Leland the Miracle of the World; for all the Art in the world seems to be crowded into this one Work.) ⌈It is erected in the place of the Chapel of our Lady (built before, with the Church, by King Henry the third,) and of a Tavern near adjoyning; both which being pull’d down, he laid the foundation of this, Jan. 24. 1502, fetching most of the stone from Huddlestone quarrey in Yorkshire. The whole charge of it amounted to no less than fourteen thousand pounds Sterling. In this is to be seen his own most splendid and magnificent Monument, of solid Brass, richly gilt; made and finish’d Anno 1519. by one Peter a Painter of Florence, for which he had paid him (for materials and workmanship) a thousand pounds Sterling by the King’s Executors†† Stow’s Survey, p.499..⌉

From the expulsion of the Monks, it has had several sorts of Constitutions: first, it had a Dean and Prebendaries; next, one single Bishop, Thomas Thurlbey, who, after he had squander’d away the revenues of the Church, gave it up, and left it to the Dean. Presently after, the Monks and their Abbot were restor’d by Queen Mary; but they being quickly ejected by Authority of Parliament, Queen Elizabeth converted it into a Collegiate Church, nay, I may say a Nursery of the Church. For she settled twelve Prebendaries, and as many old Soldiers past service, and forty Scholars (called King’s Scholars) who are sent successively to the Universities, and thence transplanted into Church and State, &c. Over all these, she constituted a Dean; which dignity was * * So said, ann. 1607.lately possess’d and supported with great honour by Dr. Gabriel Goodman, a person of singular worth and integrity, and a particular Patron both to me and my Studies. ⌈The School, The it is famous for the great service it has done both to Church and State; so it is more particularly memorable in this work, for the relation which Mr. Camden had once to it as Master; and also for Dr. Busbey its late Master, whose worth and learning for many years did greatly support its reputation. To the latter of these it is beholden for its Museum, and for several improvements both in beauty and convenience: as is the Master’s House (wherein he had all along liv’d) for its enlargement. The same Person built his Prebend’s house there a-new, pav’d the Quire of Westminster-Abbey with white and black Marble-stone, and added a building to the King’s Hospital of Green-coats in Turtil-fields. choir income In Buckinghamshire, he rais’d from the ground the Church of Willen, where his estate lies; at Wells he built a Library; he also repair’d the Church of Lutton; and at his death, among other Benefactions, he left a perpetual Fund, to be employed in the annual Augmentation of the in-come of a certain number of poor Clergy; who, in consideration thereof, are oblig’d to read Catechetical Lectures in their respective Parishes, according to the direction given in the Will of this their pious and charitable Benefactor.⌉

There were bury’dPrinces bury’d in Westminster-Abbey. in this Church, (to run-over those likewise in order, and according to their Dignity, and the time when they dy’d;) Sebert, the first King of the East-Angles; Harold (bastard-son of Canutus the Dane) King of England; St. Edward King and Confessor, with his Queen Editha; Maud, wife to King Henry the first, and daughter to Malcolm King of Scots; Henry the third; Edward the first, his son, with Eleanor his wife, daughter to Ferdinand the third, King of Castile and Leon. King Edward the third, and Philippa of Hanault his wife; Richard the second, and Anne his wife, sister of the Emperor Wenzelaus; Henry the fifth, with his wife Catharine, daughter of Charles the sixth, King of France; Anne, wife of Richard the third, and daughter of Richard Nevil, Earl of Warwick; Henry the seventh, with his wife Elizabeth, and his mother Margaret Countess of Richmond; King Edward the sixth; Anne of Cleve, fourth wife to King Henry the eighth; Queen Mary; and another, not to be mention’d without the highest expressions both of respect and sorrow;Queen Elizabeth. I mean our † † So said, ann. 1607.late most serene Lady Queen Elizabeth of blessed memory, the darling of England; a Princess endow’d with heroick Vertues, Wisdom, and a greatness of Soul, much beyond her Sex, and incomparably skill’d both in Affairs of State, and in Languages. Here she lies bury’d in a stately Monument, which King James ⌈the 1st⌉ piously erected for her. But, alas, how inconsiderable is that Monument, in comparison of the noble qualities of so heroical a Lady! She her self is her own Monument, and a more magnificent and sumptuous one than any other. For let those noble Actions recommend her to the praise and admiration of Posterity; Religion reform’d, peace establish’d, money reduc’d to its true value, a most compleat fleet built, our naval glory restor’d, rebellion suppress’d, england for xliii. Years together most prudently govern’d, enrich’d, and strengthen’d, scotland rescued from the french, france it self reliev’d, the netherlands supported, spain aw’d, ireland quieted, and the whole world twice sail’d round.

⌈To whom add, King James the first, Queen Anne, Queen of Bohemia, and others of their Children. The Princess of Orange, Anne, her Sister, and Prince Rupert. King Charles II, and several of the Children of him and of King James II. King William and Queen Mary, the glorious Restorers and Preservers of our Religion and Liberties; Henry Duke of Glocester, William Duke of Glocester, with many other Children of Prince George of Denmark, and of the Princess (afterwards Queen) Anne; who also themselves lie here inter’d; as doth also George William, a young Child of the Prince and Princess of Wales.

To this Catalogue we must now add King Edward the fifth, and his Brother Richard Duke of York, who were most barbarously smother’d to death with Pillows in the Tower of London Anno 1483. by order of their unnatural Uncle Richard Duke of Glocester. Their bodies (tho’ * * Continuat. of Harding’s Chron.some have written, that they were put into a Leaden Coffin and cast into the black deeps near the Thames mouth, by Sir Robert Brackenbury’s Priest) were found July 17. 1674. by some workmen who were employ’d to take up the steps leading into the Chapel of the white Tower, which in all probability was the first and only place they were deposited in. Their bones, except some few of them sent to the Museum at Oxford †† Catalog. MS. Musæi Ashmoleani Oxon.) were commanded Anno 1678. by King Charles the second, to be translated thence, and decently inter’d here, under a curious Altar of black and white marble, with the following Epitaph engraven on the Pedestal.


Reliquiæ Edwardi 5. Regis Angliæ, & Richardi Ducis Eboracensis. Hos germanos fratres Turri Londinensi conclusos, injectisque culcitris suffocatos, abdite & inhoneste tumulari jussit Patruus Richardus, perfidus Regni prædo. Ossa desideratorum, diu & multum quæsita, post annos 190, &c. Scalarum in ruderibus (scalæ istæ ad sacellum Turris albæ nuper ducebant) alte defossa, indiciis certissimis reperta 17 die Julii, Anno Dom. 1674.

Carolus secundus Rex clementissimus acerbam sortem miseratus, inter avita monumenta, Principibus insœlicissimis justa persolvit Anno Dom. 1678. Annoque Regni sui 30.

That is;

Here under lie inter’d the Remains of Edward 5. King of England, and of Richard Duke of York. Which two Brothers, their Uncle Richard, who usurp’d the Crown, shut up in the Tower of London, and smother’d them with Pillows, and order’d them to be dishonourably and secretly buried. Whose long-desired, and much sought-for Bones, after above an hundred and ninety years, were found by most certain tokens, deep inter’d under the rubbish of the Stairs that led up into the Chapel of the White Tower, on the 17th of July, in the year of our Lord 1674.

Charles the second, a most merciful Prince, commiserating their hard fortune, performed the funeral Obsequies of these unhappy Princes, amongst the Tombs of their Ancestors, Anno Dom. 1678. being the 30th of his reign.⌉

The Dukes and LordsOther Persons bury’d here. ⌈that have been bury’d here,⌉ are Edmund Earl of Lancaster, younger son to King Henry the third, Avelina de Fortibus, Countess of Albemarle, his wife; William and Audomar de Valentia, of the family of Lusignia, Earls of Pembroke; Alphonse, John, and other Children of King Edward the first; John de Eltham Earl of Cornwall, Son of King Edward the second; Thomas de Woodstock Duke of Glocester, youngest Son of Edward the third, with others of his children; Eleanor daughter and heir of Humfrey Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, wife to Thomas de Woodstock; the young daughters of Edward the fourth, and Henry the seventh; Henry, young Son of Henry the eighth, who dy’d at two months old; Sophia, daughter of King James ⌈the first,⌉ who dy’d * * Primo ætatis diluculo.almost as soon as born; Philippa, Dutchess of York; Lewis, Viscount Robsert of Hanault, in right of his wife; Lord Bourchier; Anne, the young daughter and heir of John Moubray Duke of Norfolk, betroth’d to Richard Duke of York, younger Son to King Edward the fourth; Giles Daubeney, Lord Chamberlain to King Henry the seventh, and his wife of the family of the Arundels in Cornwal; Viscount Welles; Frances Brandon Dutchess of Suffolk; Mary her daughter; Margaret Douglas Countess of Lenox, grandmother to James ⌈the 1st⌉ K. of Great Britain, with Charles her Son: Winefrid Bruges Marchioness of Winchester; Anne Stanhop Dutchess of Somerset, and Jane her daughter; Anne Cecil Countess of Oxford, daughter of Baron Burghley Lord Treasurer of England, with her mother Mildred Burghley; Elizabeth Berkley Countess of Ormond; Frances Sidney Countess of Sussex; Thomas Butler Viscount Thurles, son and heir of the Earl of Ormond.

Besides, Humfrey Bourchier Lord Cromwell; another Humfrey Bourchier, son and heir of the Lord Berners; both slain in the Battle of Barnet. Nicholas Baron Carew; the Baroness of Powis; Thomas Baron Wentworth; Thomas Baron Wharton; John Lord Russel; Thomas Bromley Lord Chancellor of England, Douglasia Howard daughter and heir of Viscount Bindon, wife of Arthur Gorge; Elizabeth daughter and heir of Edward Earl of Rutland, wife of William Cecil; John Puckering, Keeper of the Great Seal of England; Frances Howard Countess of Hertford; Henry and George Cary, father and son, Barons of Hunsdon, and Lord Chamberlains to Queen Elizabeth; the Heart of Anna Sophia (the young daughter of Christopher Harley, Count de Beaumont, Embassador in England from the French King) put in a golden little Urn upon a Pyramid; Charles Earl of Devonshire, Lord Deputy of Ireland.

⌈During the last Century, much greater numbers of the Nobility of all degrees have been inter’d in this Church, than in former days; some of whom are, Thomas the first Lord Burleigh, Earl of Exeter, Lodowick Duke of Richmond and Lenox, George Duke of Buckingham, Lionel, Earl of Middlesex, Robert Earl of Essex, several of the Veres Earls of Oxford, Lord Goring Earl of Norwich, George Duke of Albemarle, Edward Earl of Sandwich, Edward Earl of Clarendon, William Duke of Newcastle, the Earl of Roscommon, James Duke of Ormond, Charles Earl of Macclesfield, the Marquiss of Halifax, William Earl of Portland, Laurence Earl of Rochester, Sidney Earl of Godolphin, Charles Earl of Halifax, Maynard Duke of Schomberg. Besides great numbers of the Nobility of the Female Sex, and many of their Children.

Here⌉ Geoffrey Chaucer, Prince of the English Poets, ought not to be pass’d by; as neither Edmund Spencer, who of all the English Poets came nearest him in a happy genius, and a noble vein of Poetry; ⌈nor the famous Ben. Johnson, and the ingenious Mr. Cowley (to whom I wish we could have added Mr. Butler) who equal, if not exceed the best of their Predecessors. To these we must add two other excellent Poets, Sir John Denham, and Mr. Dryden; and a third, viz. Mr. Addison, not inferior to any of the rest, in liveliness of Fancy, and exactness of Judgment; besides his many excellent Performances in Prose, which are composed with the greatest accuracy, and are full of beautiful Thoughts, and (what is the highest Commendation of all) are constantly directed to the great and noble Ends of Religion, Humanity, and the Liberties of his Country.⌉

Besides these, there are also several others buried here, ⌈not only of the Nobility of both Sexes, but also⌉ of the Clergy, and Gentlemen of quality. ⌈And, on account of the Burials, and Monuments of our Princes, and Nobles, and of other Persons of Honour and Eminence, in this Place; this ancient Church, and the Care of it, is deservedly reckon’d a National Concern; and, accordingly, the Fabrick having been much worn and decay’d with Age, an ample Provision was made by Parliament, to repair those Decays; whereby this noble Fabrick, both within and without, is render’d very firm and beautiful.⌉

Hard by, was another CollegeSt. Stephen’s. of twelve Canons, dedicated to St. Stephen; which King Edward the third rais’d to such royal magnificence, and endow’d with such large possessions after he had carry’d his Victories through France; that he seems rather to have been Founder, than Repairer; devoutly considering (as the Foundation-Charter has it) the great benefits of Christ, whereby, out of his rich mercy, we have been prevented upon all occasions, and delivering us, although unworthy of it, from divers perils; and by the right hand of his power mightily defending us, and giving us the victory in all assaults of our enemies: as also, comforting us with unexpected relief in the other tribulations and difficulties we have labour’d under. Near this, was a Palace,King’s Palace. the ancient habitation of the Kings of England from the time of S. Edward the Confessor; which in the reign of King Henry the eighth was burnt down by a casual fire. This Palace was very large and magnificent, a building not to be equall’d in that age; having also a gunpowder guy guido fawkes Praetorium Leucaeum Fitz-Steph. * * Antemurale.vawmure, and bulwarks. For the remains of this, are, the † Camera.Chamber wherein the King, the Nobility, and great Ministers of State, meet in Parliament; and that next to it, wherein our Ancestors us’d to open their Parliaments, call’d the Painted Chamber of S. Edward.

How bloody, hainous, and horrible, how odious to God and Man that Design was, whereby certain Brutes in the shape of Men, under that Arch-traitor Francis Catesby,Fr. Catesby’s Plot. did (by undermining, and placing a vast quantity of gun-powder in the Vaults of those buildings) contrive the destruction of their Prince, Country, and the Estates of the Realm, out of a specious colour and pretence of Religion; my very heart quakes to consider: and I cannot reflect, without the greatest horrour and astonishment, in what an irrecoverable darkness, and lamentable ruin, this most flourishing Kingdom had been involv’d in a moment, if that Design had succeeded. But what an ancient Poet said in a matter of less concern, we may, mournfully, apply to our case:

Excidat illa dies ævo, ne postera credant
Secula, nos certè taceamus, & obruta multa
Nocte tegi propriæ patiamur crimina gentis

May that black day ’scape the record of fate,
And after-ages never know’t has been,
Or us at least, let us the time forget,
And hide in endless night our guilty nation’s sin.

⌈Adjoining to these is theCotton’s Library. Cottonian Library, consisting of many hundred Volumes of curious Manuscripts, chiefly relating to the History and Antiquities of this Nation; which were collected, at great charge, by Sir Robert Cotton, and much increased by his son, and grandson; the last of whom, viz. Sir John Cotton, established the said most valuable Library for ever, for the use of the Publick, according to an12, & 13 W.3. c.7. Act of Parliament specially made for that purpose.⌉

Near these is the White-hall, wherein * * Is, C.was held the Court of Requests: Below which, is a Hall larger than any of the rest, the Prætorium,Westminster-hall. and Hall of Justice, for all England. In this the Courts of Justice are held, namely, King’s-Bench, Common-Pleas, and Chancery; and in places round it, The Star-Chamber, and Court of Wards, ⌈while in being,⌉ the Exchequer, the Court of the Dutchy of Lancaster, &c. In these are heard Causes, at the set seasons or Terms of the year; whereas before the reign of Henry the third, the Guil. Lambard.General Court of Justice was unfix’d, and follow’d the King’s Court. But he, in his Magna Charta, made a law in these words; The Common-Pleas shall not follow our Court, but be held in some one certain place. Tho’ there are some who understand by this, only that the Common-Pleas should from that time forward be held in a distinct Court, and not in the Kings-Bench, as formerly. The * * Prætorium.Hall which we now see, was built by King Richard the second (as we may learn from his Arms in the stone-work, and the † † Lacunaribus.beams;) when he pull’d down that more ancient Hall built in the place by William Rufus, ⌈about the year of Christ 1097; wherein, as * * P.44 Edit. Watts.Matthew Paris tells us, upon his return out of Normandy, Anno 1099. he most royally kept the Feast of Whitsuntide. The length of it was two hundred and seventy foot, and the breadth seventy four; of which when he heard some say, that it was too great, he answer’d, That it was not big enough by one half, and was but a Bed-chamber, in comparison of what he intended to make. The foundations (as we are told) were to be seen in the days of Matthew Paris, stretching themselves from the river to the common high-way; whence we may gather, that it was intended to have pointed in length East and West, and not North and South, as it now does.⌉ The new Hall, Richard the second made his own habitation. For then the Kings us’d to hear Causes themselves, as being the Greek text, or Judges; whose mouthProv. c.16. (as the Royal Pen-man speaks) shall not err in judgment. But this Palace, being burnt down in the year 1512, lay desolate; and a little after, King Henry the eighth remov’d the Royal Seat to a neighbouring house, which had been Cardinal Wolsey’s; and which is now call’d White-hall. This † † Is, C.was a truly Royal Palace, enclos’d on one side with a Park, which reaches to another house of the King’s, built by King Henry the eighth, and called St. James’s; and, on the other side, with the Thames. A certain Poet, from it’s Whiteness, has term’d it Leucæum.

Regale subintrant
Leucæum Reges (dederant memorabile quondam
Atria, quæ niveo candebant marmore, nomen)
Tamisis prima est cui gloria pascere cygnos
Ledæos, rauco pronus subterluit æstu

To the Leucæum now the Princes came,
Which to it’s own white marble owes it’s name.
Here Thames, whose silver swans are all his pride,
Runs roaring by with an impetuous tide.

⌈But this Palace (all, except the Banqueting-house, a most stately and elegant Fabrick) having been burnt down, and still remaining in ashes; the Royal Residence is now at St. James’s, the neighbouring Palace aforesaid, which is render’d exceeding pleafant by the Park, commonly call’d, from it, St. James’s Park; and round which, are large and shady Walks, with many fair and beautiful Buildings.⌉Mews

Hard by White-hall, near theThe Mues. Mues (so call’d because it was a place for keeping of Hawks, but is now a † † Ann. 1607.beautiful stable for the King’s horses;) there ¦ ¦ Stands, C.stood a monument which King Edward the first erectedCharing-cross. in memory of Queen Eleanor, the dearest husband to the most loving wife, whose tender affectionThe tenderness of a wife. will stand upon record, and be an example, to all posterity. She was daughter of Ferdinand the third, King of Castile; and marry’d to Edward the first, King of England, with whom she went into the Holy Land. When her husband was treacherously woundedRodericus Toletanus, lib.1. by a Moor with a poyson’d sword, and rather grew worse than receiv’d any ease by what the Physicians apply’d, she found out a remedy, as new and unheard of, as full of love and endearment. For by reason of the malignity of the poyson, her husband’s wounds could not possibly be clos’d: but she lick’d them daily with her own tongue, and suck’d out the venomous humour; to her a most delicious liquor. By the power whereof, or rather by the virtue of the tenderness of a wife, she so drew out the poysonous matter, that he was entirely cur’d of his wound, and she escap’d without catching any harm. What then can be more rare than this Lady’s expressions of love? or, what can be more admirable? The tongue of a wife, anointed (if I may so say) with duty and love to her husband, draws from her Beloved those poysons which could not be drawn out by the most approv’d Physician; and what many and most exquisite medicines could not do, is effected purely by the love of a wife. ⌈At present, Charing-cross is adorn’d with an elegant Statue of King Charles the first, on horseback.

Near the MewsSt. Martin’s School and Library. aforesaid, is a publick School, well endowed; and, over it, a publick Library, which is furnished with a great variety of excellent Books. Both these were erected, in the reign of King James the second, by the Reverend Dr. Thomas Tenison; at that time, and for some years before, the pious and indefatigable Pastor of this Parish of St. Martin’s in the Fields. And it deserves to be particularly noted in this place, that the said School was erected by him about the same time, that a Popish School was open’d in the Savoy for the promoting of Popery, of which he had ever been, and continued to his dying day, a strenuous Opposer, and a zealous Asserter of the Protestant Cause; and, more especially, in that critical and dangerous juncture. On account of which merit, together with great Learning and exemplary Piety; assoon as that Storm was blown over by our happy Revolution, he was most deservedly advanced to the Bishoprick of Lincoln, and, within a few years, to the Metropolitan See of Canterbury; which he administer’d, for twenty years and upwards, with the greatest Wisdom, Temper, and Stability. During his life, besides these and other remarkable Charities, he erected and endowed two Charity-Schools at his two Archiepiscopal Seats, viz. one at Lambeth, and the other at Croydon; and at his death, among a variety of other Bequests and Benefactions, he left one thousand Pounds, towards the erecting of Sees for two Protestant Bishops in the West-Indies.⌉

And thus much of Westminster; which (tho’ as I observ’d, a City of it self, and of distinct Jurisdiction) I have describ’d along with London; because it is so joyn’d to it by continu’d buildings, that it seems to be but one and the same City.

On the west-side of the City, Holburn.the Suburbs runs out in another row of † † Ann. 1607.beautiful buildings, namely Holborn, or rather Oldburn; wherein are some Inns for the study of the Common Law, and a house of the Bishops of Ely, * * Anno 1607.becoming the State of a Bishop; which they owe to John Hotham Bishop of that See under Edward the third. The Suburbs has grown likewise on the north-side; where Jordan Briset, a pious and wealthy man, built a House for the Knights HospitalersHospitalers of St. John. of St. John of Jerusalem, which was afterwards improv’d into the stateliness of a Palace, and had a very beautiful Church with a high tower so elegantly rais’d, that, while it stood, it was a singular Ornament to the City.Praefectus At their first Institution, they were so humble, while poor; that their ¦ ¦ Præfectus.Governour was call’d Servant to the poor Servants of the Hospital at Jerusalem; as was that of the Templars.Templars, who arose a little after, The humble Minister of the poor Knights of the Temple. But what by their piety, and their bravery in War, their condition came to be so much alter’d from this mean and humble state, by the bounty of good Princes and private persons, that they even abounded in wealth. For about the year 1240. they had nineteen thousand Lordships or Manours, in Christendom; as the TemplarsMatth. Par. had nine thousand (whose revenues here in England came also afterwards to the Hospitalers.) And this vast increase of revenues was such an effectual passage to Honours, that their Prior was reckon’d the first Baron of England, and liv’d in great state and plenty, till King Henry the eighth, by the instigation of evil Counsellors, seis’d their lands; as he did also those belonging to the Monasteries: which were piously dedicated to the glory of God, and, by the Canons of the Church, were to be expended in the maintenance of Priests, relief of the poor, redemption of Captives, and the repair of Churches. Near this place, where is now a stately circuit of houses, was formerly a rich House of the Carthusians,Charter-house. built by Walter Many of Hanault, who got himself great honour, by his service in the French War under Edward the third. And before that time, there was a very famous Church-yard, which in the plague of London in the year 1349. had above fifty thousand persons bury’d in it; as appear’d by an Inscription in brass, for the information of posterity. ⌈This House of Carthusian Monks (founded about 1370. 45 of Edward the third) was, after the dissolution, bestow’d upon Sir Thomas Audley, Speaker of the House of Commons, and pass’d from him with his sole daughter Margaret by marriage to Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk, and so by descent to Thomas Earl of Suffolk. Of him it was purchased (under the name of Howard-house, otherwise call’d the late dissolv’d Charter-house near Smithfield in Middlesex) by Thomas Sutton of Camps-castle in the County of Cambridge, for the sum of thirteen thousand pounds. He erected it into an Hospital, by the name of the See Stat.
7 Jac. 1.
3 Car. 1.
Hospital of King James, founded in Charter-house in the County of Middlesex, at the humble petition and only cost and charges of Thomas Sutton Esq;. Endowing it with divers ¦ ¦ 4493l. 19s. 10d.Manours and other Lands, of considerable value; for the maintenance of a Master or Governour, a Preacher, Physician, Register, Receiver, &c. and 80 poor Brothers or Pensioners, which are to be either Gentlemen by descent, and in poverty; or Merchants decay’d by piracy or shipwreck; or superannuated Soldiers, by sea or land: and none of these are to be under the age of fifty-years at the time of their Admission: Except only Soldiers maim’d in the wars (and not in private quarrels,) which, in regard of their misfortune, are capable ten years sooner. Besides 6l. 6s. 8d. wages, they are allow’d meat, drink, lodging, gowns, and other cloaths.

And so are forty poor Scholars, who are only capable of admission between the years of ten and fifteen, and not to continue in the School above eight years at most. Before the expiration whereof, they are either transplanted to one of the Universities (where, since the increase of the Revenue, there are no less than twenty-nine always maintain’d with the allowance of 20l. per Annum each, to be paid quarterly for eight years time:) or they are put forth to be Apprentices; the House now giving no less than 40l. with them. The government is in the hands of the most honourable Grandees of the State, and most reverend Prelates of the Church, besides the Royal Family; who put in both Pensioners and Children, in their courses; only, the King first puts in two** Hern’s Domus Carthusiana..⌉Praetentura barbican

The Suburbs also, which runs out on the north-west side of London, is large, and was formerly a watch-tower or military ¦ ¦ Prætentura.fence, from whence it was call’d, by an Arabick name, Barbacan. Barbacan. By the gift of Edward the third it became a seatGaleottus Martius. of the Uffords; from whom by the Willoughbies it descended to Peregrine Bertie Lord Willoughby of Eresby, a person of a most generous temper, and truly martial Courage. Nor is the Suburbs that shoots forth towards Patinae brothel cathenaei Praefectus the north-east, and east, less considerable; in the fields whereof ⌈(call’d Spittle-fields,Spittle-fields. and dug for making of Bricks,)⌉ were found in the † † So said, ann. 1607.last age many sepulchral Vessels, Seals, and Urns, with Coins in them of Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, &c. glass Vials also, and small earthen vessels, wherein was a sort of liquid Substance; which I should imagin to be either an oblation of wine and milk (us’d by the Romans at the burning of their dead,) or of those odoriferous Liquors mention’d by Statius,

Phariique liquores
Arsuram lavere comam

And precious odours sprinkled on his hair,
Prepar’d it for the flames.

This was a place set apart by the Romans for burning and burying their dead; they being oblig’d by the Twelve Tables to carry them without the Cities, and to bury them by the military high-ways. ⌈Divers other Roman Coins and vessels were found (as Mr. Stow tells us) belonging to their Sacrifices and Burials, besides those above-mention’d. Such as the Coins of Trajan and Antoninus Pius, Lamps, Lachrymatories, Patinæ, and vessels of white earth with long necks and handles, which, we may suppose, were the Gutti, used in their Sacrifices †† Survey, p.177.. There were many Roman Coins also discover’d in the foundations of Aldgate, when it was rebuilt in the year 1607, which were formerly kept in the Guild-hall ¦¦ Ibid. p.121.: But many more of all kinds since the late fire, have been found in the foundations of St. Paul’s Church, and in the making of Fleet-ditch; which were carefully collected by Mr. John Coniers Citizen and Apothecary of London, and are now, many of them, in the possession of the ingenious Dr. Woodward, the present Professor of Physick in Gresham-College in London. Many Urns and Coins have been also met with in digging the foundations of the new buildings in Goodmans-fields; as there still are, in many other places, upon the like occasions; especially in the Suburbs of the City.⌉ And thus much of the land-side of the City.

But to the river, that large Borough of SouthwarkBorough of Southwark. before-mention’d, on the South-side of the Thames, is joyn’dSee Surrey, p.193. to the City by a bridge; first, built on wooden piles, where formerly,The Bridge. instead of a bridge, they pass’d the river in a ferry. Afterwards, in the reign of King John, they built a new one, of free-stone and admirable workmanship, with nineteen Arches, besides that which makes the * * Versatilis.Draw-bridge; and did so continue it all along with lines of handsome buildings like a street, that it may claim preheminence over all the bridges in Europe, whether in largeness, or beauty.

⌈This Borough (Apr. 23. 1549. 4th of Edward the sixth) * * 647l. 2s. 1d.was purchased of the King by the Lord Mayor, Commonalty, and Citizens of London, and annex’d to their City, and erected immediately into a new Ward, call’d the Bridg-ward without, and was thenceforth esteemed within the government and correction of the Lord Mayor, and other Officers of London, and their Deputies. The inhabitants were licensed to enjoy and use all such Laws and Privileges whatsoever, within their Borough and Precincts, as the Citizens of London did within their City. But it was not therebyStow’s Survey, p.442, 443. remov’d out of Surrey; as appears by the provisions of the King’s Grant, whereby care is taken that the Lord Mayor should do and execute all such things within the Borough, as other Justices might within the County of Surrey; and that he, as Escheator within the Borough and Precincts, should have power to direct Precepts to the Sheriff of Surrey for the time being †† See more of this in Surrey..⌉

In this Burrough of Southwark, the things that have been remarkable, are, a noble Abbey for Monks of the Benedictine Order, call’d Bermondsey, dedicated to our SaviourSt. Saviour. by Aldwin Child, Citizen of London; and a stately houseSuffolk-house. built by Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk, which was pull’d down again, after it had been for a very little time the delight of it’s Master. There still remains the Hospital of St. Thomas,St. Thomas’s Hospital. repair’d or rather founded by the City of London, for the lame and infirm; and the Church of the Priory of St. Mary (which, because it is seated over or beyond the Thames, with respect to the City of London, is call’d St. Mary Over-rhe; ⌈or is rather derived * * Hickes’s Sax. Grammar.from Saxon ofre, a bank, on which it stands:)⌉ founded for Canons by William Ponte del Arche a Norman: As also the house of the Bishops of Winchester, built by William Gifford Bishop, about the year 1107. for the use of his successors; ⌈and now turn’d into private Houses.⌉ From this, along the Thames-side, there runs westward a continued line of houses, in which compass, within the memory † † So said, ann. 1607.of our fathers, there were Publick Stews, call’d by the Latins Lupanaria (wherein Women prostituted and set to sale their modesty,) because they, like rapacious She-wolves, hale miserable silly people into their dens. But these were suppress’d by King Henry the eighth, at a time when England was at the height of Lust and Luxury; though in foreign nations they are still continu’d for gain, under the specious pretence of making provision for human frailty. But I do not believe that they call’d this place The Stews,Stews. from these Bawdy-houses, but from the fish-ponds here, for the fatting of * * Lucios.Pikes and Tench, and taking off their muddy fennish taste. Here I have seen the bellies of Pikes open’d with a knife to shew their fatness, and the gaping wounds presently clos’d by the touch of Tenches, and, by their glutinous slime, perfectly heal’d up. Among these buildings, † † Is, C.was a place for Bull-baiting and Bear-baiting, with certain severalCanes cathenæi. Kennels of Band-dogs, which ¦ ¦ Are, C.were so strong, and † † Bite, C.bit so close, that three of them * * Are, C.were able to manage a Bear, and four a Lion. So that, what the Poet said formerly of our Dogs, That they could break the necks of Bulls, is very true; as is also, what another observ’d, That they are more fierce and eager than those Arcadian ones, suppos’d to be engender’d of Lions.

At what time this Borough was joyn’d to London by a bridge, the City was not only enlarg’d, but also modell’d into an excellent form of Government; the Citizens being distributed into * * Corpora sive Collegia.Bodies or Colleges. The City it self was divided into twenty-six Wards,Wards. and the management of all Tribus.publick concerns put into the hands of as many ancient Men (call’d in our language, from their age, Aldermen; in Latin, Senatores,) each of whom had the government of one Ward. And whereas formerly they had for their chief Magistrate a Port-reve, i.e. a † † Præfectus.Governour of the City, Richard the first instituted two Bailiffs; Mayor.instead of which King John granted them the privilege of choosing a Mayor yearly out of their twelve principal Companies, and of nominating two Sheriffs, the one call’d the King’s, and the other the City-Sheriff.

After this new form of Government was establish’d, it is incredible how it grew in publick and private Buildings, and is still growing (while the rest of the Cities in England are rather decaying.) For, to pass by the Senate-house, call’d 1411.Guild-hall, ⌈the great Court of Judicature for the City,⌉ built with exquisite beauty by 1445.Thomas Knowles, Mayor; and Leaden-hall, a large and curious piece of work, built by Simon Eire, for a common Garner against times of dearth: That circuit of Pillars also (or the middle Janus,) which the common people † † Ann. the Burse, but Queen Elizabeth nam’d the Bursa.Royal Exchange, built by Sir Thomas Gresham Knight,1567. for the use of Merchants,Royal Exchange. and the ornament of the City: (A magnificent Building it is, whether you consider the structure it self, or the resort of Merchants from all Nations, or the variety of Commodities:) and the same person, being a great admirer of Learning, Gresham-College.consecrated a spacious house that he had in the City, to the improvement thereof; and settled plentiful Salaries upon six Professors, of Divinity, Law, Physick, Astronomy, Geometry and Musick; that London might not only be, as it were, a Mart of all kinds of Wares, but a Treasury also of Arts and Sciences. ⌈From whence great Advantage hath likewise accrued to Natural Knowledge, Antiquities, &c. since the erection of the Royal Society; together with a publick Repository of all the Rarities of Art and Nature: To pass by the three other publick Colleges; namely, Sion-College.Sion-College, for the use of the Corporation of London-Ministers; and the Colleges of Physicians, and Heralds.Colleges of Physicians, and Heralds, for the use and improvement of the respective Sciences, and the Professors of them; all furnish’d with their several Libraries for the several ends.Aquaeduct aquaduct The Halls also of the several Companies or Fraternities; which are like the Houses of Noblemen; having stately Courts, and spacious Rooms.⌉ To pass by also the house of the Hanse-Company, the conveyance of water into all parts of the City by pipes under-ground, and the neat little Castles for the reception of it; together with the new Aquæduct, contriv’d * * Lately, the last age by Peter Maurice, a German of great Ingenuity and Industry, which, by the help of a wheel with little pipes plac’d at a certain depth, brings water out of the Thames to a great part of the City: Besides these, I say, it is in all parts so beautified with Churches, and other Religious places, that one would think Religion and Piety had made choice of it for their residence. For it has in it † † Now, in City and Suburbs, 113, besides those in Westminster; and the additional new ones, built, and in hundred twenty one Churches (a greater number than Rome her self can show,) besides ¦ ¦ Nosocomia & Xenodochia. Hospitals ⌈of several kinds; that of St. Bartholomew,St. Bartholomew. and St. ThomasSt. Thomas. in Southwark, for the Cure of the Sick, Lame, and Infirm; and Bethlem,Bethlem. for the cure of Persons who are Lunatick and Distracted: all which are accommodated with able Physicians, Surgeons, Nurses, and with ample Conveniences of every kind, for the effecting of the several Cures.⌉ Particularly, in that Nursery of young Boys, call’d Christ-Church,Christ-Hospital. this City maintains about * * 600, thousand Orphans, and twelve hundred and forty poor People that live upon Alms, &c. ⌈This Hospital of Christ-Church was founded Anno 1552. by King Edward the sixth; and, in this last age (the Fund being uncertain, and depending as well upon the casual Charity both of living and dying persons, as upon its real Estate) the number has been augmented and diminish’d in proportion to the increase and decrease of that sort of Charity. However, it seldom now maintains less than one thousand annually, nor is there reason to fear they will ever have fewer. Here, having run through the several Schools, at fifteen years they are put forth to a seven-year’s Apprenticeship; except some Boys of the best parts, who are sent to the Universities, and there also are maintain’d for seven years: which is the present state of King Edward’s foundation.

To this there has been added another of late years, stiled the Mathematical-School.New Royal Foundation of King Charles the second, consisting of forty Boys, all wearing Badges appropriate to their Institution; to be fill’d up successively out of such of the above-mention’d Children, as have attain’d to a competency in fair writing and Latin-learning. Thence-forward they are instructed in the Mathematicks and Art of Navigation, till they are sixteen years of age; at which time they are disposed of in a seven year’s Apprenticeship to the practice of Navigation. Which Institution most highly charitable in it self, and tending to the honour and safety of the Kingdom, as well as the security and advancement of our Trade, was founded the 19th of August, Anno 25 Car. 2.⌉

It would be too tedious to enlarge particularly upon the excellency of the Laws and Constitutions of this City; the dignity of its Governours the Aldermen, it’s loyalty and obedience to Princes, the humanity of the Citizens, the splendour of its buildings, the many choice and excellent Wits it produces; the pleasure of it’s * * As, ann. 1607.Gardens in the Suburbs, admirably stock’d with foreign Plants; its numerous and well-appointed Fleet; that incredible treasure of all sorts of Commodities (particularly it’s * * This said, Anno 1607.furnishing Antwerp yearly with two hundred thousand † † Pannorum Laneorum.woollen Cloaths, besides what it sends to other places;) and the great Abundance of the necessities and conveniencies of human life. So that what H. Junius says in his Philippeis, is very true:

Tectis opibusque refertum
Londinium, & si fas, numeroso cive superbum,
Larga ubi fœcundo rerum undat copia cornu

London, where circling riches still return,
Where num’rous tribes the stately piles adorn,
And willing Plenty shakes her fruitful horn.

And J. Scaliger in his Book of Cities:

Urbs animis numeroque potens, & robore gentis.

For number, strength and courage of her Men
Great London’s fam’d.—

AnotherMarriage of Tame and Isis. also has these Verses concerning London, if you please to read them:

Londinum gemino procurrit littore longè
Æmula maternæ tollens sua lumina Trojæ,
Clementer surgente jugo dum tendit in ortum.
Vrbs peramœna situ, cœloque soloque beata,
Urbs pietate potens, numeroso cive superba,
Urbsque Britannorum quæ digna
Britannia dici.
Hæc nova doctrinis Lutetia, mercibus Ormus,
Altera Roma viris, Crysæa secunda metallis

Stretch’d on a rising hill betwixt the strands,
London, her mother Troy’s great rival stands.
Where heaven and earth their choicest gifts bestow,
And tides of Men the spatious Streets o’reflow.
London! the mighty Image of our Isle,
That we Great Britain of it self may stile.
Where Chryse, Paris, Rome, and Ormus yield,
In Metals, Learning, People, Wealth excell’d.

Henry of Huntingdon also in the time of King Stephen, writes thus in commendation of London:

Ibis & in nostros dives Londonia versus,
Quæ nos immemores non sinis esse tui.
Quando tuas arces, tua mœnia mente retracto,
Qua vidi, videor cuncta videre mihi.
Fama loquax & nata loqui, moritura silendo,
Laudibus erubuit fingere falsa tuis

And thou, rich London, shalt my Verse adorn,
Thou in my joyful mind art ever born.
When e’re thy lofty Towers, thy stately Wall,
And all thy glories my glad thoughts recall,
My ravish’d soul still swells with full delight,
And still my absent eyes admire the grateful sight.
Fame, that’s all tongue, and would, if silent, die,
Of thee her greatest Theme nor dares nor needs to lie.

And another in a Poetical vein, penn’d this:

Hæc Urbs illa potens, cui tres tria dona ministrant,
Bacchus, Apollo, Ceres, pocula, carmen, ador.
Hæc Urbs illa potens, quam Juno, Minerva, Diana
Mercibus, arce, feris, ditat, adornat, alit

A place where Ceres, Phœbus, Bacchus joyn
Their three great gifts, Corn, Poetry, and Wine.
Which Pallas, Juno, and chast hunting Maid,
With buildings, goods, and beasts, adorn, enrich, and feed.

But my friend the famous John Jonston of Aberdeen, Professor of Divinity in the Royal University of St. Andrew’s, has manag’d the subject more soberly:

Urbs Augusta, cui cœlumque, solumque, salumque,
Cuique favent cunctis cuncta elementa bonis.
Mitius haud usquàm cœlum est, uberrima Tellus
Fundit inexhausti germina læta soli.
Et pater Oceanus Tamisino gurgite mistus,
Convehit immensas totius orbis opes.
Regali cultu sedes clarissima Regum,
Gentis præsidium, cor, anima, atque oculus.
Gens antiqua, potens virtute & robore belli,
Artium & omnigenûm nobilitata opibus.
Singula contemplare animo, attentusque tuere,
Aut Orbem aut Orbis dixeris esse caput

Renown’d Augusta, that sea, earth, and sky,
And all the various elements supply:
No peaceful climate breaths a softer air,
No fertile grounds with happier plenty bear.
Old Ocean, with great Thames his eldest son,
Makes all the riches of the World her own.
The ever famous seat of Britain’s Prince,
The Nation’s Eye, Heart, Spirit and Defence.
The Men for ancient Valour ever known,
No Arts and Riches gain them less renown.
In short, when all her Glories are survey’d,
It must with Wonder still at last be said,
She makes a World her self, or is the World’s great head.

But these matters, with others of the same kind, are handled more at large, and with greater accuracy, by John Stow, a Citizen of London and a famous Chorographer, in his Survey of London † † So said, ann. 1607.lately publish’d: ⌈a new Edition of which Work being speedily expected, it is needless to enlarge further upon the vast Improvements in Buildings, Ornaments, &c. all which will be very particularly set forth and enumerated in that Work.⌉ And so I will take leave of my dear native place, after I have observ’d, that the Latitude of it is 51 Degrees, * * 32, as the moderns say.34 Minutes; and the Longitude 23 Degrees, and 25 Minutes: ¦ ¦ Orpheus’s harp.Fidicula, of the nature of Venus and Mercury, is the Topick Star, which glances upon the Horizon, but never sets; and the Dragon’s-head is look’d upon by Astrologers as the Vertical.

The Thames leaving London, waters Redcliff,Redcliff. a neat little Town, inhabited by Sea-men, and so call’d from the red cliff. ⌈In the Fields adjoyningSee Spittle-fields. to this Place, were found two Coffins, one of Stone, another of Lead, in which was the body of a Woman, with a Cupid of white stone standing at her breast; at the right and left hand, two ivory Scepters, and at head and feet two large Urns, with others of less size. There were also many Large Vessels of Glass, all full of white Liquor.⌉ Next, after a great winding, it receives the river Lea, the Eastern bound of this County, which yet has nothing upon it belonging to this Shire, that is worth the notice; ⌈(save that the Hundred of Ossulston, of which it is also the bound to the East, gives the title of Baron to the Right Honourable Charles Earl of Tankerville in Normandy.)⌉AEdelmton For Ædelmton,Edmonton. has nothing remarkable but the name, being deriv’d from Nobility: nor Waltham,Waltham-Cross. but a Cross built by King Edward the first for the funeral pomp of his wife Queen Eleanor, from which it has the additional name. Only, there is Enfield,Enfield. a Royal Seat, built by Thomas Lovel (Knight of the Garter, and Privy-Councellor to King Henry the seventh) as one may gather from the Arms. Near which, is a place, cloath’d with green trees, and famous for Deer-hunting, Enfield-chace;Enfield-chace. formerly the possession of the Magnavils Earls of Essex, then of the Bohuns their Successors; but now it belongs to the Dutchy of Lancaster, ever since Henry the fourth, King of England, marry’d a Daughter and Co-heir of the last Humfrey Bohun. And, almost in the middle of this Chace, † † Ann. 1607.are still * * Rudera.the ruins of an ancient house, which the common People from tradition affirm to have belong’d to the Magnavils Earls of Essex.

Towards the north-bounds of Middlesex, a Military way of the Romans, commonly called Watlingstreet,Watling-street. enters this County: coming straight along from the old Verulam to London, over Hamsted-heath (from which one has a curious prospect, of a most beautiful City, and a most pleasant Country:) Not the Road which lies now through Highgate, for that (as is before observ’d) was open’d only about † † Three, C.four hundred years ago by permission of the Bishop of London; but that more ancient way (as appears by the old Charters of Edward the Confessor) which run along near Edgeworth,Edgeworth. a place of no great Antiquity; so on to Hendon,Hendon. which Archbishop Dunstan (a Man born for promoting the Interest of Monkery) purchas’d for a few Bizantine pieces of Gold, and gave to the Monks of St. Peter in Westminster. These Bizantini aurei were Imperial Money coyn’d at Bizantium or Constantinople by the Grecian Emperors; but what the value of them was, I know not. There is also a sort of Silver-money, call’d simply Bizantii and Bizantini,Bizantine Coins. which (as I have observ’d here and there in ancient Records) were valued at two Shillings. But leaving those matters to the search of others, I will go forward, on the Journey I have begun.

⌈Sir Lionel Cranfield Kt.Earls of Middlesex. Merchant of London, having for his great Abilities been first made Master of the Requests, then of the great Wardrobe, and after of the Wards, and at last Privy Counsellor; upon the 19th of July 19 Jac 1. was advanced to the degree of a Baron of this Realm, by the title of Lord Cranfield of Cranfield in Bedfordshire, and to the Office and Dignity of Lord High Treasurer of England: and by Letters Patents bearing date Sept. 2. 1622. 20 Jac. 1. to the Earldom of Middlesex. Who by his second wife Anne, daughter to James Bret of Howbey in the County of Leicester Esq; had issue four Sons; James, Edward, Lionel, and William; of whom James and Lionel succeeded him in the Honour; but both dying without issue, this Title descended to his eldest daughter Frances, married to Richard Earl of Dorset, and her issue; and was accordingly enjoyed by the Right Honourable Charles Earl of Dorset and Middlesex, Lord Chamberlain of the Houshold to K. Charles the 2d, and Knight of the Garter; as it is at present, by the Right Honourable Lionel Cranfield Sackville, his son and heir.⌉

In this County, without the City, there * * Ann. 1607.are about 73 Parishes; within the City, Liberties and Suburbs, † † Now, 113, besides Westminster; and in the whole County and City, 186; besides those newly built, and in building.221.

More rare Plants growing wild in Middlesex, communicated by Mr. James Petiver.

Filicula saxatilis ramosa maritima nostras Raii synops. & Hist. Plant. Small branch’d Stone-fern. On many old walls in and about London, as the Savoy, Westminster, Royal Garden, &c.

Fungus spongiosus niger reticulatus, doliolis vinosis adnascens Raii synops. Mr. Doody’s spunge-like Mushrome. In most vaults sticking to the wine-casks.

Eruca sylvestris Ger. sylv. vulgatior Park. major lutea caule aspero C. B. tenuifolia perennis fl. luteo J. B. Wild Rocket. On old walls about this City frequently, as on London-wall between Cripplegate and Bishopsgate, the Charter-house, &c. plentifully.

Viscum Ger. vulgare Park. baccis albis C. B. Quercus & aliarum arborum J. B. Misseltoe. On some trees at Clarendon-house, St. James’s.

Nasturtium aquaticum amarum Park. majus & amarum C. B. Nasturtium aq. fl. majore elatius Raii syn. Bitter Cresses. On the Thames-bank between Peterborough-house and Chelsey.

Conserva reticulata Raii Hist. Plant append. 1852. & synops. 15. Mr. Doody’s netted Crow-silk. In some ditches about Westminster and Hounslow-heath.

Bardana major Rosea Park. 1222. lappa Rosea C. B. prodr. 102. Rose-Burdock. This variety (which Caspar Bauhine avers to be found frequently about Leipsick) I have observed near the Thames between Westminster and Chelsey.

Juncus caule triangulari Merr. Pin. 67. The three-corner’d Bulrush. In the Thames, between Peterborough-house and the Horse-ferry, Westminster.

Cyperus rotundus litoreus inodorus, J. B. rotundus inodorus Anglicus C. B. rotundus litoreus Ger. rotundus litoreus inodorus Anglicus Park. Round-rooted Bastard Cyperus.

Sagitta aquatica omnium minima Raii synops. append. 242. The least Arrow-head. Observed by that most curious Botanist Dr. Plukenet to grow with the two last.

Salix minima fragilis foliis longissimis utrinque viridibus non serratis Raii synops. append. 238. Dr. Sherard’s Green Osier. Amongst the Willows on the Thames-side, between Westminster and Chelsey.

Salix folio Amygdalino utrinque aurito corticem abjiciens Raii synops. 216. Almond-leav’d Willow that casts its bark. Found with the last.

Persicaria pusilla repens Ger. Park Small creeping Arsmart.

Trifolium pumilum supinum flosculis longis albis Phyt. Brit. Raii synops. 133. Dwarf-Trefoil, with long white flowers hiding its seed underground. See Essex.

Trifolium siliquis Ornithopodii nostras Raii synops. 136. Birds-foot Trefoil.

Chamæmelum nobile seu odoratius C. B. Sweet-scented creeping Camomile. These four last Plants I have often found in Tuttle-fields, Westminster.

Chamæmelum fl. nudo Raii synops. 57. Naked flower’d Camomile. This also is said to be found with the other.

Gramen Dactylon latiore folio C. B. Ischæmon sylv. latiore folio Park. Cocks-foot grass.

Gramen Paniceum spicâ asperâ C. B.  Rough-ear’d Panick-grass. Both these have been found upon the Thames-bank about the Neat-houses; as also the

Bardana seu Lappa major capitulis minus tomentosis Raii synops. 245. which Mr. Doody has very well observed to be far different from that in Gardens, for which it has been taken.

Conyza annua, acris, alba, Linariæ foliis. Boccon. rarior. plant. desc. Boccones white flower’d biting Fleabane. In many barren places about London.

Argemone laciniato folio capitulo hispido longiore. Raii syn. 122. Long rough-headed bastard Poppey.

Argemone laciniato folio capitulo hispido rotundiore Raii syn. 122. Round rough-headed bastard Poppey.

Argemone capitulo longiore glabra Morison. Smooth-headed bastard Poppey. All these Argemones, are found about Chelsey in Cornfields and elsewhere.

Erysimum latifolium Neapolitanum Park. Smooth or broad-leav’d hedge-mustard. After the great fire in London, in the years 1667, and 1668. it came up abundantly among the rubbish in the ruins, and grows now plentifully on the Lord Cheney’s wall at Chelsey, and in several other places near London.

Hieracium Castorei odore Monspeliensium Raii syn. 43. Rough hawk-weed smelling like Castor. This Mr. Doody (Master of the Company of Apothecaries Physick-Garden) informs me he hath found about Chelsey.

Gramen Arundinaceum aquaticum paniculâ Avenaceâ Raii syn. Mr. Doody’s Water-reed-grass with an oat-like pannicle. First observed by him on the banks of the river Thames between London and Chelsey.

Muscus trichoides minus, foliis ad caulem convolutis capitulis subrotundis reflexis Raii syn. append. 244. Mr. Doody’s Goldilocks, with leaves growing like a bulbous roots. On some walls about Chelsey, and in several Gardens about London.

Dipsacus minor seu virga pastoris Ger. sylvestris capitulo minore, vel virga pastoris minor C. B. virga pastoris Park. pastori s vulg. J. B. Small wild Teasel or Shepherd’s Rod.

Gramen paniceum spica divisa C. B. panicum vulgare Ger. sylvestre herbariorum Park. Panick-grass with a divided spike.

Gramen avenaceum glabrum paniculâ è spicis raris strigosis compositâ, aristis tenuissimis Raii syn. Mr. Doody’s Oat-grass with hairy awns. I have observed these three last about the Moat which encompasses the seat of the Right Reverend the Bishop of London at Fulham.

Nymphea lutea Ger. J. B. major lutea C. B. Park. The greater Water-lily with a yellow-flower. In the aforesaid moat near the garden-gate.

Cardamine impatiens, vulgo Sium minus impatiens Ger. minimum Noli me tangere dictum, sive impatiens Nasturtii sylvestris folio Park. Impatient Ladies-smock. On the moat-sides near the last.

Acoras verus sive Calamus officinarum Park. The sweet-smelling Flag or Calamus. This Mr. Doody hath observed about the said moat.

Ranunculus hirsutus annuus flore minimo Raii syn. 86. Field-Crowfoot with a very small flower.

Turritis Ger. vulgatior J. B. Park. Brassica sylvestris foliis integris & hispidis C. B. Tower-Mustard. This, with the foregoing Plant, Mr. Doody hath observed in a lane near Thistleworth.

Gramen Avenaceum glabrum panniculâ purpuro-argenteâ splendente Raii Hist. Plant. 1909. synops. 192. Mr. Doody’s Oat-grass with purplish shining pannicles. In the pastures about the Earl of Cardigan’s at Twittenham.

Armeriæ species flore summo caule singulari Raii syn. 242. The single flow’ring Pink. In the Park at Hampton Court.

Millefolium aquaticum pennatum spicatum C. B. Park. pennat. aq. J. B. Feathered water Milfoil. This I have found in the Canal at Hampton-Court, as also in a slow running rivulet near Poplar.

Millegrana minima Ger. fig. 567. minima seu Herniaria minor Park. Polygonum minimum seu millegrana minima C. B. The least Rupture-wort or All-seed. On Hounslow-heath.

Muscus palustris gracilis summo ramosus. parvus stellaris C. B. & Phytographia L. Plukenetii Tab. 47. Fig. 6. Small upright Bog-moss, with starry tops. In the Bogs on Hounslow-heath.

Sium alterum Olusatri facie Ger. Fig. 256. majus alterum angustifolium Park. Fig. 1241. Erucæ folio C. B. Cicuta aquatica Gesneri J. B. Long-leav’d water-Hemlock. In a shallow pool of water on Hounslow-heath by the road-side, near the Town, and in some pools of water at Thistle-worth.

Sium minimum Raii hist. Plant. 444. syn. 67. The least water-Parsnep. In several ponds on Hounslow-heath.

Potamogiton aquis immersum, folio pellucido lato, oblongo acuto Raii syn. an Pot. foliis angustis splendentibus C. B? longis acutis foliis Ger.? fontalis lucens major J. B? Long-leav’d great Pondweed with pellucid leaves. In many places in the Thames between Fulham and Hampton-Court.

Carduus Mariæ hirsutus non maculatus Phyt. Brit. Leucographus hirsutus capitulo minore Morison. Ladies-Thistle without spots. On the bank of the New-River between the two roads from London to Islington.

Potamogiton perfoliatum Raii syn. 34. foliis latis splendentibus C. B. Pot. 3. Dodonei Ger. Perfoliate Pondweed.

Potamogiton pusillum, gramineo folio, caule tereti Raii hist. Plant. 190. syn. 35. Small grass-leav’d Pondweed. This, with the last, grows plentifully in the New-river-head.

Potamogiton affinis graminifolia aquatica Raii hist. Plant. 190. & syn. Water-grass with small crooked cods. I found this plentifully in a small pond on the east side of Islington.

Gramen panniculatum aquaticum minus Raii synops. 186. Miliaceum fluitans suavis saporis D. Merret Pin. caninum supinum panniculatum dulce C. B. J. B. The lesser water-grass with fine pannicles. Or rather (as Mr. Doody stiles it) Liquorice-grass, which tast it exactly resembles. On the New-river bank behind Islington, and in many muddy ponds about London plentifully.

Adiantum album Tab. Ruta muraria C. B. J. B. Ger. Muraria, seu salvia Vitæ Park. Fig. 1050. White Maiden-hair, Wall-Rue, or Tent-wort. On an old stone Conduit between Islington and Jack Straw’s Castle.

Radix cava minima viridi flore Ger. Ranunculus nemorosus Moschatella dictus Park. Tuberous Moscatell.

Vinca pervinca Officinarum minor Ger. vulgaris Park. clematis Dapnoides minor J. B. C. B. Small Periwincle. This, and the last, grow on the Mote-side as you enter into Jack-Straw’s Castle.

Xyris Ger. seu spatula fætida Park. Xyris 1 seu Gladiolus fætidus C. B. Stinking Gladdon or Gladwyn. On Jack-Straw’s Castle, and in a hedge near it.

Cardamine impatiens altera hirsutior Raii syn. 114. Sysymbrium Cardamine hirsutum minus fl. albo J. B. The lesser hairy impatient Cuckow-flower or Ladies-smock. On the New-river banks between Canberry-house and Newington, in many places.

Tormentilla reptans alata foliis profundius ferratis D. Plot. Hist. nat. Oxon. Creeping Tormentil with deeply indented leaves. In a ditch between the Boarded-river and Islington road.

Gramen Cyperoides spica pendula breviore C. B. Cyperus seu Pseudo-Cyperus spica brevi pendula Park. Pseudo-Cyperus Ger. Bastard Cyperus with short pendulous spikes. In the same place with the last.

Stellaria pusilla palustris repens tetraspermos. Lenticula aq. bifolia Neapolitana Park. Fig. 1293. Raii hist. Plant. 1852. Small creeping Marsh-Star-wort. This I found in some moist writts in a wood near the Boarded-river. But the first discovery of it to be a native of England, we owe to that ingenious Physician and expert Botanist Dr. Hans Sloan, who found it in a Bog on Putney Heath.

Alpus nigra baccifera J. B. C. B. nigra sive Frangula Ger. Frangula seu Alnus nigra baccifera. Park. The black-berry bearing Alder. This, with the following, grows plentifully in a wood against the Boarded-river.

Gramen arundinaceum panicula spadicea molli majus C. B. Gramen tomentosum arundinaceum Ger. Reed-grass with a pappose pannicle.

Gramen Cyperoides polystachion flavicans, spicis brevibus, propè summitatem caulis Raii syn. 195. Mr. Ray’s yellowish Cyperus-grass with short spikes.

Gramen Cyperoides sylvarum tenuius spicatum Park. Slender-ear’d wood Cyperus grass.

Gramen Cyperoides spica è pluribus spicis brevibus mollibus composita Raii syn. Mr. Ray’s round cluster-headed Cyperus-grass.

Sambucus aquatilis seu palustris Ger. aq. fl. simplicis C. B. Water-Elder. In the same wood, but sparingly.

Myosurus J. B. cauda muris Ger. Holosteo affinis cauda muris C. B. Mouse-tail. This (with the next) I found in a sloughy lane near the Devil’s-house going to Hornsey.

Plantaginella palustris C. B. Plantago aquatica minima Park. Chickweed with Water-plantain leaves.

Muscus muralis platyphyllos Raii syn. 237. Broad-leav’d moss. This Mr. Bobart, the Botanick Professor of Oxford, shewed me on many walls about that City, the which I have this year found on a brick-wall on the right hand assoon as you enter into Hornsey town from London.

Bardana-minor Ger. lappa minor, Xanthium Dioscoridis C. B. The lesser Burdock. This I observed in the road-side near the Bridge at Newington.

Cynoglossum minus folio virenti Ger. semper virens C. B. Park. The lesser green-leav’d Hound’s tongue. In a hedge facing the road on Stamford-hill between Newington and Tottenham.

Cruciata Ger. vulgaris Park. hirsuta C. B. Gallium latifolium Cruciata quibusdam fl. luteo J. B. Crosswort or Mugweed. In Hampsted Church-yard.

Alsine tetrapetalos Caryophylloides, quibusdam Holosteum minimum Raii syn. 145. The least Stich-wort. On Hampsted-heath plentifully.

Filix florida seu Osmunda Regalis Ger. Osmund Royal or flowering Fern. Towards the north side of the heath, and in a ditch near it, the

Lichen petreus cauliculo calceato C. B. Small Liverwort with crumpled leaves. With the

Gramen Cyperoides spicis brevibus congestis folio molli Raii Hist. 1910. Mr. Doody’s short-headed Cyperus-grass. And

Ros solis folio rotundo, J. B. C. B. Ger. Park. Round-leav’d Ros-solis or Sun-dew. In the Bogs.

Muscus trichoides medius capitulis sphæricis Raii in append. syn. 243. Mr. Doody’s Goldilocks with round heads.

Muscus trichoides foliis capillaceis capitulis minoribus Raii syn. 243. Mr. Doody’s fine-leav’d Goldilocks with small heads.

Muscus trichoides minor capitulis longissimis Raii syn. 243. Mr. Doody’s small Goldilocks with very long and slender heads. These three last, that most indefatigable Botanist first discovered on a ditch-bank leading from Mother Huffs towards Hampsted.

Muscus trichoides minor capitulis perexiguis per Microscopium Botro referens. Mr. Dare’s cluster-headed Goldilocks. This is a singular Moss, its rough heads distinguishing it from any yet discover’d. I found it in the lane going from Mother Huffs to Highgate, but it was first discover’d by Mr. Dare in a lane beyond Putney-heath. I have also lately receiv’d it from my ingenious friend Mr. T. Pool a Mercer at Nottingham, who gather’d it near that town.

Filix mas non ramosa pinnulis latis auriculatis spinosis Ger. 1130. Prickly auriculate male Fern. This, with the following, is found in the woods about Highgate and Hampsted.

Filix mas non ramosa pinnulis angustis raris profunde dentatis Ger. 1130. Male Fern with thin-set deeply indented leaves.

Filix mas ramosa pinnulis dentatis Ger. 1129. Great-branch’d Fern with indented leaves.

Alsine longifolia uliginosis proveniens locis J. B. Long-leav’d water Chickweed.

Alsine Plantaginis folio J. B. Plantain-leav’d duckweed.

Bifolium sylvestre vulgare Park. Common Tway-blade.

Cyperus gramineus J. B. gramineus Miliaceus Ger. Fig. 30. Millet Cyperus-grass,

Equisetum omnium minimum tenuifolium Park. Fig. 1201. sylvaticum Ger. 1114. Wood Horse-tail. These five last are found in the moistest places in the abovesaid woods; the following in the dryer parts.

Astragalus sylvaticus Ger. Wood-pease.

Androsemum vulgare Park. Tutsan or park-leaves.

Anagallis lutea Ger. Yellow Pimpernel.

Gramen Avenaceum rariore gluma spicatum Park. Fig. 1151. Wood Oat-grass.

Gramen Cyperoides spica pendula longiore Park. Cyperus-grass with long pendulous heads.

Gramen Cyperoides spicatum minimum spica divulsa aculeata Raii syn. Tall prickly-headed spiked Cyperus-grass.

Gramen nemorosum hirsutum latifolium maximum Raii syn. Great broad-leav’d hairy Wood-grass.

Hieracium fruticosum latifolium hirsutum C. B. Park. Bushy Hawkweed with broad rough leaves.

Hieracium fruticosum angustifolium majus C. B. Park. Narrow-leav’d bushy Hawkweed.

Juncellus omnium minimus, Chamæschœnus Ad. Lob. The least Rush.

Lilium convallium Ger. fl. albo Park. Lily of the Valley, or May-lily.

Sorbus sylvestris seu Fraxinus bubula Ger. The Quicken-tree.

Sorbus torminalis Ger. The common wild Service or Sorb.

Vaccinia nigra Ger. Black Whorts, Whortle-berries, or Bilberries.

Aparine minima Raii. syn. Mr. Sherard’s least Clivers. First discover’d by that compleat Botanist on a wall at Hackney.

Carduus stellatus Ger. Star-Thistle. In some barren fields near White-chapel.

Carum seu Careum Ger. Caraways. This I have more than once found about London.

Chondrilla viscosa humilis C. B. Ger. Park. The least wild Lettice. In a lane against Pancras-Church near London.

Eruca aquatica Ger. Park. Water-Rocket. In a ditch in the road between White-chapel and Mile-end.

Lapathum pulchrum Bononiense sinuatum J. B. Fiddle Dock. In Bunhill and Morefields plentifully.

Mercurialis mas & fœmina Ger. French Mercury. This, though a scarce Plant wild in England, yet grows spontaneously in most Gardens in and about London.

Ulmus folio latissimo scabro Ger. latiore folio Park. The Wych-hasel or broad-leav’d Elm. I have seen large trees of this at Hoxton near London.

Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:52