Written in English by Mr. Camden.
Original. SOME Learned men, which have discoursed of Offices and Magistracies, in respect of some conveniencies in military matters, have thought the office of Marshal in our age, to be answerable to that of the Tribuni militum in the ancient Roman state; and of the Protostrator in the late state of the Greek or Eastern Empire. But this name of Marshal now in use, which in process of time hath ascended unto so high a dignity, began at such time as the Goths, Vandals, Franks, and other Northern people overflowed Europe, who setling themselves in the provinces of the Romans, liking well their policy and government, began not only to imitate the same, but also to translate their titles of civil and military dignities into their own tongues; so they translated, retaining the signification; Limitanei Duces into Marche-graffes, Scutati into Shield-Knights, PræfectusPraefectus Palatii into Seneschalk, Comes Stabuli into Mar-staller, Minister Dei into Gods-schalke, Præfectus Equitum into Mar-schalk. For all they, who have lately traced out Etymologies, do consent, that as Mar and Mark signify a horse; so Schalk signifies a Ruler, an Officer, or Provost. But the French mollified this harsh concurrence of consonants, and have made of Seneschalk, Marschalk, &c. Senschal and Marshal. This name (albeit happily the office might be) was not in use in this realm in the Saxon government; only they had their Staller, which by signification and authority of Historians, doth seem to be all one with the Constable. But as this name came out of Germany with the Franks into France; so out of France, first arrived here with the Normans: and Roger de Montgomery, which was Marshal of the Norman army at the Conquest, is accounted the first Marshal of England.
Succession. For some years after, there is in Histories no mention of this office, until in the confusion under King Stephen: when, as Maud Fitz-Empress, for strengthening of her part, made Milo, Earl of Hereford and Constable of England; so he, for assuring his faction, made Gilbert Clare, Earl of Pembroke and Marshal of England, with the state of inheritance, who in respect of his usual habitation at Stryghall, was commonly called Earl of Stryghall; in which office, his son Richard, sirnamed Strongbow, succeeded, who first opened the way to the English for the conquest of Ireland, by whose only daughter and heir, it descended to William Marshall, who had by her five sons, which died all without issue; and five daughters, the eldest of them named Maud, to whom, in the partition, was assigned the office of Marshal of England, with the Mannor of Hampsted-Marshal, which, as it is in old records, the Marshals held in Marescaugiâ, & per virgam Mareschalliæ.Mareschalliae Marescaugia
This Maud was married to Hugh Bigod Earl of Norfolk, whose son Roger, in right of his mother, was Marshal of England; and after him Roger Bigod, his nephew by the brother, who incurring the displeasure of King Edward the first, by denying to serve him in Guienne, practising to hinder the King’s expedition into Flanders, and dissuading the Commons to pay subsidies imposed by Parliament in that respect, for recovery of the King’s favour, surrender’d up to the King for ever, both his Earldom of Norfolk, and office of Marshal of England; which King Edward the second granted to his brother Thomas of Brotherton, from whom it came inheritably to Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham, whom King Richard the second created Earl Marshal of England; whereas in former time they were stiled only Marshals of England: and so from the Mowbrayes to Howards, late Dukes of Norfolk. Yet this office hath not so descended without interruption to the aforesaid families, but that upon disfavours and attainders, it hath been often-times conferred upon others, as appeareth by this Catalogue of them, wherein they are set down successively.
The Marshals of ENGLAND.
Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury.
Walter Giffard, Earl of Buckingham.
Robert Fitz-Ede, base Son of King Henry I.
Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Pembroke.
Richard his Son, Earl of Pembroke.
William Marshall the elder, Earl of Pembroke.
William his son, Earl of Pembroke.
Richard his brother, Earl of Pembroke.
Gilbert his brother, Earl of Pembroke.
Walter his brother, Earl of Pembroke.
Anselme his brother, Earl of Pembroke.
Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk.
Roger, his brother’s son, Earl of Norfolk.
Roger, Lord Clifford.
Nicholas, Lord Segrave.
Thomas Brotherton, son to King Edward the first, Earl of Norfolk.
William Montacute, Earl of Sarisbury.
Thomas Beauchamp the elder, Earl of Warwick.
Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March.
Henry, Lord Percye.
John Fitz-Alan, Lord Maltravers.
Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, half Brother to King Richard the second.
Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham.
Thomas Holland, Duke of Surrey.
John Montacute, Earl of Sarisbury.
Ralph Nevill, Earl of Westmoreland.
Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham.
John his brother, Duke of Norfolk.
John Holland, Earl of Huntingdon.
John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk.
John Mowbray his son, Duke of Norfolk.
Richard, son of King Edward the fourth, Duke of York and Norfolk.
Thomas Grey, Knight.
John Howard, Duke of Norfolk.
William Marquiss Berkeley, and Earl of Nottingham.
Henry Duke of York, son to King Henry the seventh.
Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, afterwards Duke of Norfolk.
Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk.
Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk.
Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset.
John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland.
Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, restored.
† So said, ann. 1607.
Thomas Howard his Nephew, † late Duke of Norfolk.
George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury.
Robert Devreux, Earl of Essex, descended from Eva de Breosa, daughter and co-heir of William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, by the Bohuns, Earls of Hereford and Essex, and from Ralph Bigod, brother unto Roger Bigod, Marshal, by Lacy, Verdon, and Crophul.
⌈Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey.
Henry Howard, son of Thomas aforesaid.
Thomas Howard, son of Henry, and Duke of Norfolk.
Henry Howard, brother of the last Thomas; and to the heirs male of his Body.
Henry Howard, son of the last Henry.
Thomas Howard, the present Duke of Norfolk.⌉
Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:52