Britannia, by William Camden


Big T TEifidale, that is to say, the Valley or Dale by the River Tefy or Teviot, ⌈(which divides that part properly called Teviotdale, into north and south)⌉ lies next to England, amongst cliffs of craggy hills and rocks. It is inhabited by a * * So said, Ann. 1607.warlike people, who by reason of the frequent encounters between the Scots and English in former ages, † † Are, C.were always very ready for service and sudden invasions. ⌈It comprehends under it Lidesdale, Eusdale, and Eskdale; and is in length, from Reddinburn on the east to Annandale on the west, about thirty miles, and in breadth, from the border to the blue Cairn in Lawdermoor, about fourteen or fifteen. It is a good soil, extraordinary well mix’d with Grass and Corn, and water’d with several rivulets which run into Tiot and Tweed. The Valleys abound with Corn, short of few Shires in North Britain for the goodness of the grain; so that great quantities of it are frequently transported into South Britain. Free-stone and Lime they have in great abundance. The high grounds are furnish’d with excellent grass, and produce great store of cattel of all kinds, and of the best broods in Scotland, both for largeness and goodness. Nor does this County want it’s remains of Roman Antiquity: for here are some footsteps of their Encampments; and a military way runs from Hownam to Tweed, call’d the Roman Causey, and by the vulgar, the Rugged Causey.

The Mountains most eminent in it, are Cokraw, from which there runs a tract of hills westward, dividing Scotland from England; and it is passable only at some places. There is another tract of hills going from Harewell, which run along to Craucross, being twelve miles; and, in the body of the Shire, are Rueburgh-Law, Mynto-hill, and Hadinton-hills.

They have the RegalitiesRegalities. of Jedburgh-forest belonging to the Duke of Douglas; the Regality of Hawick, belonging to Bacleugh; and the Regality of Melross, in the person of the Earl of Hadington.

The Sheriffdom (for it is governed by a Sheriff) is in a branch of the House of Douglas, who are hereditary Sheriffs. They have also three Presbyteries, Jedburgh, Kelso, and Melross.⌉

The first place we meet with, is Jedburgh,Jedburgh. a Borough pretty well inhabited and frequented, standing near the confluence of the Tefy and Jed, from whence it takes its name; ⌈as it gives title to the Laird of Fernherst of the Family of Ker, created by King James the sixth Lord Jedburgh, which Peerage was resigned in favour of William Lord Newbottle, eldest Son to the then Earl, since Marquis of Lothian; so that (what is peculiar to the Marquis of Lothian’s family) both the Father and the Son are Peers. Not far from whence, is Ancrum,Ancrum. honour’d, in the reign of K. Charles the first, by giving the title of Earl to Sir Robert Ker, of the family of Fernherst; of whom the Earl of Lothian is descended; as TeviotTeviot. was also dignify’d by giving the title of Earl to Lieutenant General Thomas Rotherford, in the reign of King Charles the second, who had before been advanced by the said Prince to the title of Lord Rutherford; with the remarkable Privilege of assigning that honour to whomsoever he should name at his death; which he accordingly devised by Will to Thomas Rotherford of Hunthill. Afterwards, in the reign of King James the seventh, Teviot gave the title of Viscount to Robert Lord Spencer, eldest Son of Robert Earl of Sunderland, in England; and, after that, to Sir Thomas Livingstoun, in the reign of King William the third.⌉

Then, Mailros,Mailros. a very ancient Monastery, where, in the infancy of the Church, were Monks of that antient institution, who gave themselves to prayer, and earn’d their living with the labour of their hands; ⌈which holy King David restor’d and replenish’d with Cistercian Monks.⌉ More Eastward, where the Twede and the Tefy join, is Rosburg, called also Roxburgh,Roxburgh. and in antient times Marchidun, from its being seated in the Marches; where stands a Castle, that by its natural situation, and tower’d fortifications, was in times past exceeding strong. Which being surpriz’d and held by the English; while King James the second of Scotland was besieging it, he was untimely slain in the flower of his age, by a piece of Cannon that casually burst; and was exceedingly lamented by all his Subjects. The Castle was surrender’d, and being mostly demolish’d, is now scarce to be seen. ⌈The Royalty also of this place is transmitted to Jedburgh, the chief Burgh Royal of the Shire.⌉ But the adjacent Territory (called from it the Sheriffdom of Roxborough)Sheriffdom of Roxborough. hath an hereditary SheriffHereditary Sheriffs. of the family of Douglass, who is called the Sheriff of Teviotdale. And * * Now, C.afterwards Roxborough, by the favour of King James the sixth, † † Is, C.was also made a Barony, in the person of Robert Kerr, of the house of the Kerrs, a very eminent and numerous family in this tract; from which descended the Fernhersts, and others, who being educated in the school of Arms, have render’d themselves very illustrious. ⌈The said Robert was created, first, Lord Ker of Cesford, upon his attending K. James the sixth in the year 1603, to take possession of the Crown of England; and afterwards in the year 1616. Earl of Roxburgh; whose descendant, John, Earl of Roxburgh, one of the Principal Secretaries of State, and a person of great Honour, Merit, and Fidelity to his Prince and Country, hath been advanced to the higher title of Duke of Roxburgh.

In the fifth year of the reign of Queen Anne, the Lord Henry Scot, second Son of James Duke of Monmouth, was advanced to the dignity of Lord Scot of Goldy-linds, Viscount of Hermitage, and Earl of Delorain; all in the District of Roxburgh.⌉

Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:52