Britannia, by William Camden


Big T TO the utmost bounds of Lancashire on the North, joyns another small tract of the Brigantes, call’d in Latin Westmorlandia, in English Westmoreland, and by some modern Writers Westmaria. On the West and North, it is bounded by Cumberland; and on the East, by Yorkshire and the Bishoprick of Durham.* * This is a mistake; vide infrà. From its situation among high Mountains (for here our Appennine runs out broader and broader) and from its lying generally uncultivated, it ⌈seems to have⌉ had this name. For the North parts of England call wild barren places, such as are not fit for tillage, by the name of Mores; so that Westmoreland implies an uncultivated tract lying towards the West. Let then that idle story about King Marius (whom some of our Historians affirm to have conquer’d the Picts, and to have call’d this County after his own name) be banished for ever out of the School of Antiquities; ⌈unless, as to the History it self, the truth of it may in some measure be retrieved, or stand doubtful at least, by whatAntiq. Eccl. Brit. p.302. the learned Primate of Armagh has said in favour of it. But before we go further, it is to be observed, that the fore-mentioned description of the County in general, answers but one part of it, viz. from Lancaster, through the Barony of Kendal, to Workington in Cumberland, where Travellers meet with little in their road, besides mountains, with here and there a Valley between, and so take an estimate of the whole from that part; imagining probably, that that more southerly corner is like to be as good at least, if not better, than the rest. But if they go directly northward, they will find reason to change their opinion; the Barony of Westmorland (commonly call’d the bottom of Westmorland, from its low situation) being a large open champain country, in length not less than twenty miles, and in breadth about fourteen. And so far is it from being uncultivated, that it affords great plenty of arable grounds; and those, good store of corn. Nor do Mores in the northern parts signifie wild barren mountains, but generally Common of Pasture, in opposition to Mountains or Fells. So that in the Barony of Kendal (where they have most Mountains) there are few or no Mores, their Commons being generally call’d Fells; and in the bottom of Westmorland there are few mountains (except that ridge which bounds the Country like a rampire or bulwark,) but very many Mores: which yet are so far from being uncapable of improvement, that most of them have been formerly plow’d, as the ridges appearing do assure us. If the whole Country therefore were to be derived from barren mountains; we might say with more reason, that it had the name from lying westward of that long ridge of hills, which is call’d the English Appennine.

Westmorland map, left Westmorland map, right


The Gentlemens houses in this County, are large and strong, and generally built Castle-wise, for defence of themselves, their Tenants, and their goods, whenever the Scots should make their inroads; which before the time of King James the first were very common.

It is divided into the Barony of Kendal, and the Barony of Westmorland, as we have before hinted: And these two parts belong to two several Dioceses; the former to Chester, the latter to Carlisle. In each we find (with two Wards,) several Deaneries, Parishes, and Constable-wicks; but no Hundreds: possibly, because in ancient times these parts paid no Subsidies, being sufficiently charg’d in the Border-service against the Scots.⌉

The South part of the County (which for some space is pent up in a narrow compass between the river Lone and Winander-mere) is pretty fruitful in the Vallies, though not without rocks, rough and smooth; and is called by one general name, The Barony of KendalBarony of Kendal. or Candalia, signifying a Vale upon the Can. This it took from the river Can, which runs along the valley in a stony Chanel, and has upon its Western bank a very populous town, call’d Candale,Candale. or Kirkby-Candale, i.e. a Church in the valley, upon Can; ⌈which Dr. GalePag.39. will have to be the Brovonaca of Antoninus.⌉ It has two Streets crossing each other; is very eminent for the woollen manufacture, and for the industry of the inhabitants, who trade throughout England with their woollen cloath: ⌈And as early as Richard the second and Henry the fourth,13 R.2. c.10.
9 H.4. c.2.
we find special Laws enacted on purpose for the regulating of Kendal-Clothes. Queen Elizabeth, in the eighteenth year of her reign, erected it into a Corporation, by the name of Aldermen and Burgesses. But afterwards King James the first incorporated it with a Mayor, twelve Aldermen, and twenty four Burgesses.⌉ Lords of Kendal. Their greatest honour is, that Barons, Earls, ⌈and Dukes,⌉ have taken their titles from the place. The Barons were of the family of Ivo Taleboys, of whose posterity, William, by consent of King Henry the second, call’d himself William of Lancaster. His * * Neptis.
Family of Lancaster.
niece and heir was marry’d to Gilbert, son of Roger Fitz-Reinfrid, by whose daughters (upon the death of William his son) the estate came to Peter Brus the second Lord of Skelton of that Christian-name, and to William Lindsey, from whom, on the mother’s side, Ingelram Lord of Coucy in France deriv’d his pedigree; as I understood by the History of Fourness-Abbey.History of Furness-Abbey. By the daughter of this Peter Brus, sister and heir to Peter Brus the third, the Barony descended to the Rosses of Werke; and from them the honour was devolv’d by Inheritance upon the Parrs, whose Castle over-against the town, is ready to drop down with age. It has had three Earls;Earls of Kendal. John Duke of Bedford, who was advanc’d to that honour by his brother King Henry the fifth; John Duke of Somerset; and John de Foix, descended from the noble family of Foix in France, whom King Henry the sixth advanc’d to this Dignity, for his faithful services in the French wars. Upon which account, possibly, it is, that some of this family of Foix in France, have still the sirname of Kendal. ⌈The first Duke of this place, was Charles Stuart (third Son of James Duke of York, afterwards King James the second) who was declared Duke of Kendal in the year 1664. Since which, his Royal Highness Prince George of Denmark, at the same time that he was created Duke of Cumberland, was also created Earl of Kendal. And, lately, Melusina Erengart Schulenberg, who had been before created Dutchess of Munster in Ireland, hath been honour’d with the title of Dutchess of Kendal; together with the titles of Baroness of Glassenbury, and Countess of Feversham.⌉

I know no other mark of Antiquity, that Kendal can boast of. Once indeed I was of opinion that it was the old Roman station, Concangii; but time has inform’d me better. ⌈Below Kendal, is Water-CrookWater-Crook. (so call’d from a remarkable crooking in the river,) where, on the east-side of that river, is an old square fort, the banks and ditches whereof are still visible. That it was Roman, the discovery of Coins, broken Altars, and other pieces of Antiquity, will not give us leave to make the least doubt: which seems to some, to fix the Concangii rather here, than in any other place; because in the Notitia it is plac’d as it were in the very middle of the Northern Stations. Lavatrae Verterae Praefectus For whereas between York and Derwent, the Notitia speaks of fourteen Stations, the Concangii is the seventh; and the very next that come after it are Lavatræ (Bowes,) Verteræ, (Brough,) and Brovoniacum (Browham:) the two last in this County, and the first upon the edge of it. But, after all, this Concangii, which the Notitia makes the Station of the Præfectus Numeri Vigilum, is most probably to be sought for nearer the Wall; and perhaps (as * * Hist. p.44.Dr. Brady has observed) on the north-side of that Fortress.

The Forces.
Lower in the river Can, there are † † One is in Betham-river, above Milthorp.two Water-falls, where the water is tumbled headlong with a hideous noise; one at a little village call’d Levens,Levens. another more Southward near BethamBetham.. From these, the neighbours form their prognostications of the weather: for when the Northern one sounds clear, they make themselves sure of fair weather; but when the Southern, of rain and mists. ⌈At Levens is a fair stone bridge over the river Kent; on the south-side of which river, are still to be seen the ruins of an ancient round building (now call’d Kirks-head) which is said to have been formerly a Temple dedicated to Diana. And not far from it, there appear the ruins of another building, which seems to have belong’d to the same place. In the Park (well stor’d with Fallow-deer, and almost equally divided by the river Kent) is a Spring call’d the Dropping-Well, that petrifies moss, wood, leaves, &c.catadupae West from hence, lies Witherslack,Witherslack. in which Manour, not long since, a fair Parochial Chapel was built and endowed by Dr. John Barwick late Dean of St. Pauls, a native of the place; and consecrated by Dr. WilkinsJun. 22. 1671. late Bishop of Chester, and dedicated to St. Paul. The Charity was so much the greater, because of its remoteness from Betham, the Parish-Church. Below this, at the mouth of the river, is Milthrop,Milthrop. the only Sea-town in this County; and the Commodities which are imported, are brought hither only in small Vessels from Grange in Lancashire.⌉

And thus much of the Southerly and more narrow part of this County, which is bounded on the West with the river Winster, and the spacious Lake we mention’d but now, call’d Winander-mere;Winander-mere. and on the east, with the river Lone or Lune †† It goes beyond the river.. ⌈But it is to be observed, before we leave it, that this doth wholly take in the great Lake Winander-mere. For all the Isles (or Holmes, as they call them) that are in it, are own’d to be in the County of Westmorland: all the Fishing belongs to Apelthwate in Winandermere-Parish in the said County, and all the Tithe-fish to the Rector thereof; who has a Pleasure-boat upon the said Lake, and a Prescription of so much a boat, in lieu of the Tithe of all the Fish that are taken in it. Nor is it of any moment, that the Abbey of Fourness had two boats upon it; since that was the gift of William de Lancaster Baron of Kendal.⌉

At the upper corner of the Lake Winander-mere, lies the carcass, if I may so say, of an ancient City, with large ruins of walls; and without the walls, the rubbish of old Buildings, in many places. The Fort has been of an oblong figure, fortify’d with a ditch and rampire; in length, one hundred thirty two Ells, and in breadth, eighty. That it was a work of the Romans; the British bricks, the mortar temper’d with small pieces of bricks, the little Urns, the Glass Vials, the Roman Coins commonly met with, the round stones like Mill-stones (of which, * * Coagmen­tatis.soder’d together, they us’d formerly to make Pillars,) and the pav’d ways leading to it, are all undeniable testimonies. But the old name is quite lost; unless one should imagine from the present name Ambleside,Ambleside. that this was the AmboglanaAmboglana. mention’d by the Notitia. AElia ⌈But there are two things which stand in our way: the first, that we are directed by the Notitia to seek it ad Lineam Valli; the second, that without all doubt, the Cohors prima Ælia Dacorum had their abode at Willyford in Cumberland, as appears from several Inscriptions which have been found at a little distance on the other side of the river. These two Opinions, then, cannot perhaps be more plausibly reconciled, than by supposing that this Ambleside might be the chief station or standing-quarters; and that the other (not Willowford, but the Bank-end; and perhaps the bridge there over the river which they were to defend) was possibly the Fort assign’d them, when they were call’d out upon extraordinary occasions to defend the Picts-wall. It is not to be doubted, but Amboglana had the name from the Glen of Cambock near Willowford; as the many Roman Monuments, found in that neighbourhood, do abundantly prove. Nor can we imagine, but that the Troops which were quarter’d there on purpose to repel the Enemy, knew their particular Posts, as well as their place and employments in their Camps and Entrenchments. And this Post they might possibly enough mark out by Inscriptions and Altars. It will be objected, That the Notitia places Amboglana, Ad Lineam Valli: but this may be so constru’d, as not strictly to imply the Line or Track of the Wall it self, but only to signifie the Line of Communication which several Auxiliaries had with those who were quarter’d upon the Picts-wall. Among other pieces of Antiquity, discover’d about this old Work at Ambleside, were several Medals of gold, silver, and copper; some of which are in that Collection which Mr. Thomas Brathwate of Ambleside gave by † † Nov. 26. 1674.Deed to the Library of the University of Oxford. A little mile north of Ambleside, is Ridal-hall,Ridal-hall. a convenient large ancient house: in which Lordship is a very high Mountain call’d Ridall-head, from the top whereof one has a large prospect, and, if the day be clear, may see Lancaster-Castle, and much farther. The Manour anciently belong’d to the Family of Lancaster, from whom it descended in the reign of Henry the fourth to the Flemings, who have been Lords of it ever since; and the late Sir Daniel Fleming ought to be particularly mention’d, as a great lover of ancient Learning, and to whom this Work is oblig’d for several useful Informations in Westmorland and Lancashire.⌉

Towards the East, the river Lone is the limit, and gives its name to the adjoyning tract, Lonsdale,Lonsdale. i.e. a Vale upon the Lone; the chief Town whereof is Kirkby Lonsdale, whither the neighbouring Inhabitants resort to Church and Market. ⌈This hath been honoured by giving the title of Viscount, to Sir John Lowther, who was created Baron of Lowther, and Viscount Lonsdale, a person of great Accomplishments; who hath been succeeded in these Titles by his two Sons, Richard and Henry.⌉ Above the head of the Lone, the Country grows wider, and the Mountains shoot out with many windings and turnings; between which there are exceeding deep Vallies, and several places hollow’d, like so many dens or caves. ⌈But, as we caution’d before, this is only to be understood of one part of it; the Barony of Westmorland being an open champain Country, of Corn-fields, Meadows, and Pastures, mix’d with woods, and as it were hemm’d-in by a wall of high Mountains.

The river Lune rising a little above Rissendale, runs by Lang-gill,Lang-gill. where the learned Dr. Barlow late Bishop of Lincoln was born; famous for his great Reading, and his Zeal against Popery. Afterwards, receiving the river Birkbeck, it runs down by a field call’d Gallaber; where stands a * * Stone, about an ell high, with two Crosses cut deep on one side. The tradition among the Inhabitants, is, that formerly it was the Mere-stone between the English and Scots. How true it may be, I dare not affirm: but shall only observe, that it is about the same distance from Scotland that Rere-cross upon Stanemore is; and to what end that was erected, hath been † † In Richmondshire.already observ’d. To prevent also the Incursions of that people, there is an artificial Mount call’d Castle-how, near Tebay (where is a Free-School endow’d by Mr. Adamson, born at Rownthwait; who was likewise a great Benefactor to the Church of Orton,) and another at Greenholme; which two Mounts command the two great Roads.

A little above Rownthwait, on the north-side of Jeffrey-mount, is a small Spring call’d Goud-sike,Goud-sike. which continually casts up small silver-like pieces resembling spangles: what the cause is, must be left to Naturalists to determine. This Parish of Orton, in the year 1612. purchas’d very honourably all the Tithes belonging to the Rectory, for the use of the Incumbent, with the Advowson and Patronage of its Vicaridge, for ever. For which they paid a considerable * * 570 l.Sum, subscrib’d by the Parishioners. Hereabouts, they commonly dig up in their wet Mosses such Subterraneous Trees, as are met with in other parts of England.⌉

The noble river of Eden,Eden, riv. call’d by Ptolemy Ituna, rises in † Yorkshire, C.Westmorland, ⌈at a place called Hugh-seat-Morvill, or Hugh-MorvilsHugh Morvils, hill. hill, from one of the name, sometimes Lord of Westmorland; out of which hill also run two other great Rivers on Yorkshire-side, Eure and Swale.⌉ It has at first only a small stream; but increases by the confluence of several little rivers, and finds a passage through these Mountains to the North-west, by Pendragon-Castle. Pendragon-Castle. ⌈The walls being four yards in thickness (with battlements upon them) † † To which, Age has left nothing, but the name, and a heap of great Stones, C.were standing, till the year 1660. when the most noble Lady, Ann Clifford, Countess Dowager of Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery, repair’d this ancient house of her Ancestors, with three more Castles which she had in this County; and, removing frequently from one to another, kept hospitality, and diffus’d her Charity all over the Country. This Castle is wash’d on the East by the river Eden; and on the other sides are great trenches, as if the first builder had intended to draw the water round it. But the attempt prov’d ineffectual; from whence they have an old rhyme hereabouts,

Let Pendragon do what he can,
Eden will run where Eden ran

Then this River runs by Wharton-hall,Wharton-hall. the seat of the Barons of Wharton ⌈of which Manour the present FamilyLords of Wharton. have been Proprietors beyond the date of any RecordsRegistr. Halton. Ep. Carl. p.154. extant, and have likewise been Lords of the Manour of Croglin in Cumberland, and Patrons of the Rectory there, more than four hundred years past.⌉ The first Baron was Thomas; advanced to that honour by King Henry the eighth, ⌈for his surprising conduct and success in the entire defeat of the Scots at Solom-moss. Which Victory, in all its circumstances, was perhaps one of the most considerable that the English ever obtained over the forces of the neighbouring kingdom. And therefore King Edward the sixth, in recompence of that eminent Service, granted to the said Lord an augmentation of his Paternal Coat of Arms, viz. a Border engrailed, Or; charged with Legs of Lions in Saltire, Gules; Armed, Azure.⌉ To him succeeded his son of the same name; who was succeeded by Philip ** The present Lord, C., a person of great honour; ⌈and he by Philip his grandchild (son of Sir Thomas his eldest son who dy’d in his father’s life-time,) whose son Thomas Lord Wharton, in consideration of his great Abilities and Services, was further advanced to the Honours of Viscount Winchenden and Earl of Wharton, as his only son hath since been, to the yet higher honour of Duke of Wharton.⌉

Next, Eden goes to Kirby-Stephen,Kirby-Stephen. or Stephen’s Church, a noted Market; ⌈where is a Free-School, founded and endowed by the Family of Wharton,⌉ and so by two little villages call’d Musgrave,Musgrave. which gave name to the warlike family of the Musgraves; ⌈unless one may say, with greater probability, that the Towns had their name from the Family. For the name of Musgrave is to be reckon’d among those, which have been taken from Offices, and Civil or Military Honours; and is of the like original as Landtgraff, Markgraff, Burggraff, &c. among the Germans. And indeed, this name and Markgraff (now turn’d into Marquis) are probably the same. The signification of both, is Dux Limitaneus; and anciently Musgrave, or Mosgrave, was all one as in in our later language, a Lord Warden of the Marches.⌉ Of this family, Thomas Musgrave, in the time of Edward the third, was summon’d to Parliament among the Barons: their seat was Heartly-Castle,Heartly-Castle. hard by.Verterae Praefect Caesar

Here the Eden seems to stop its course, that it may receive some rivulets; upon one of which, scarce two miles from Eden it self, stood Verteræ,Verteræ. an ancient Town mention’d by Antoninus and the Notitia. From the latter of these we learn, that in the decline of the Roman Empire, a Præfect of the Romans quarter’d there with a band of the Directores. The Town it self is dwindl’d into a village, which is defended with a small Fort, and the name is now Burgh; for it is call’d Burgh under Stanemore;Burgh under Stanemore. i.e. a Burrow under a stony Mountain. ⌈It is divided into two, the Upper, otherwise, Church-Brough,Church-Brough. where the Church standeth, of which Robert Eglesfield, Founder of Queens-College in Oxford, was Rector, and procur’d the appropriation thereof from King Edward the third to the said College. Here also stands the Castle of Brough, and a tower call’d Cæsar’s tower, or the Fort before-mention’d: the Castle, having been raz’d to the ground, was rebuilt not long since by the Countess of Pembroke. Near the bridge, is a Spaw-well, which hath not been long discover’d. The other village is call’d Lower-BroughLower-Brough. from its situation, and Market-broughMarket-Brough. from a Market held there every Thursday.⌉ In the time of the later EmperoursVeget. l.4. c.10. (to observe this once for all) the little Castles, which were built for the emergent occasions of war, and stor’d with provisions, began to be call’d Burgi; a new name, which, after the translation of the Empire into the East, the Germans and others seem to have taken from the Greek Greek. And hence the Burgundians have their name from inhabiting the Burgi;Orosius. for so that age call’d the Dwellings planted at a little distance one from another along the Frontiers. I have read no more concerning this place, but that in the beginning of the Norman Government, the English form’d a Conspiracy here against William the Conquerour. Verterae Levatrae I dare be positive, that this Burgh was the old Verteræ; both because the distance, on one side from Levatræ, and on the other from Brovonacum, if resolv’d into Italian miles, exactly agrees with the number assign’d by Antoninus; and also because a Roman military Road, still visible by its high ridge, runs this way to Brovonacum, by Aballaba, mention’d in the Notitia; the name whereof is to this day kept so entire, that it plainly shews it to be the very same, and leaves no ground for dispute. For instead of Aballaba,Aballaba. we call it at this day, by contraction, Apelby.Apelby. Nothing is memorable about it, besides it’s antiquity and situation: for under the Romans it was the Station of the Mauri Aureliani; and it is seated in a pleasant field, and almost encompass’d with the river Eden. But it is † slenderly peopl’d, and the buildings are so mean, that if Antiquity did not make it the chief Town of the County, and the Assizes were not held * * They are held in the Town-hall, and the Gaol is now at the end of the the Castle, which is the publick Gaol for Malefactors; it would be but very little above a village; ⌈(tho’ the best Corn-market in these Northern Parts.)⌉ For all its beauty consists in one broad street, which runs from north to south with an easie ascent; at the head of which is the Castle, ¦ ¦ Entirely, C.almost surrounded with the river, ⌈and trenches, where the river comes not. But it hath several testimonies of its ancient splendour. Henry the first gave it privileges equal to York; that City’s Charter being granted (as it is said) in the fore-noon, and this in the afternoon. Henry the second granted them another Charter of the like Immunities; and Henry the third (in whose time there was an Exchequer here, call’d Scaccarium de Apleby) a third. Which were in all things like York; and were confirm’d by the succeeding Kings of England. When it was first govern’d by a Mayor, does not appear; but it is certain that in the reign of Edward the first, they had a Mayor and two Provosts (who seem to have been formerly men of principal note, i.e. Sheriffs, or the same as we now call Bailiffs; and who sign’d the publick Acts of the Town together with the Mayor ** E Chartis Machellorum de Crakenthorp.; though at present they only attend the body of the Mayor with two Halberds.) Brompton makes mention of Apleby-schire, which should seem to imply, that at that time it had Sheriffs of its own, as most Cities had; though we now call them Bailiffs. For in the second year of Edward the first, in a Confirmation Charter to Shap-Abbey, we find this Subscription, Teste Thomâ filio Johannis, tunc Vice-Comite de Apelby. Unless one should say, that Westmorland was call’d the County of Apelby, or Apelby-schire; as indeed Brompton seems to intimate. But the Scotch-wars by degrees reduc’d this Town to a much lower condition. † † See the Inscription a little below.In the 22d of Henry the second, it was set on fire by them; and again, in the 11th of Richard the second; when of 2200 Burgages (by due computation of the Fee-farm-rents) there remain’d not above a tenth part, as appears by Inquisitions in the Town-chest. Since which, it never recover’d it self, but lay as it were dismember’d and scatter’d one street from another, like so many several villages; and one could not know, but by Records, that they belong’d to the same body. For though Burgh-gate only is spoken of above, as the principal street; yet Bongate, Battle-burgh, Dungate, Scattergate, are all of them members of it, and probably the Burrals also; which may be an evidence of its having been wall’d round (that word implying Burrow-walls;) and the rather, because at Bath in Somersetshire, they call the town-walls by the same name of Burrals. Concerning the condition and misfortunes of this place, take the following Inscription, which is placed in the Garden belonging to the School-house;

Aballaba qvam c. c.
Flvit itvna. statio fvit
Ro. tem. mavr. avrel.
Hanc vastavit. ff
Gvil. r. scot. 1176.
Hic pestis sævit 1598.
Opp. desert. mercatvs
Ad gilshavghlin f.

devm time.

The CC. in the first line, is Circumfluit: the FF in the fourth, Funditus: and the F in the end, Fuit. So that here we have its situation, its Roman Antiquity, and the devastations made in it by War and Pestilence; together with the remove of the Market to Gilshaughlin, four or five miles north-west of the town.⌉

At the lower end, is the Church, and a School built by Robert Langton and Miles Spencer Doctors of Law; ⌈and, since that time, much improved and augmented by Benefactors, the chief of whom was Dr. Thomas Smith late Bishop of Carlisle.⌉ The worthy Master hereof, Reginald Bainbrigg, a very learned Person, courteously transcrib’d for me several ancient Inscriptions, and has remov’d some into his own garden; ⌈where also (as we have said) is to be seen the Inscription of a more modern date, which describes the Misfortunes and Calamities of this place.⌉ It was not without good reason, that William of Newburrow, call’d this place and the foremention’d Burgh, * * Regias munitiones.Royal Forts; where he tells us that William King of Scots took them by surprise, a little before himself was taken at Alnewick. Afterwards, they were recover’d by King John, who gave them to John de Veteri ponte or Vipont, as a reward for his good services; ⌈and the Viponts, and Cliffords (the Ancestors, by the mother’s side, of the Earls of Thanet) have been Lords of this Country, and flourish’d at this place, for above five hundred years.⌉

From hence the river posts to the north-west, by Buley-Castle;Buley-Castle. belonging to the Bishop of Carlisle. ⌈It is said to have been erected at several times by two or three Bishops, and there is still in being an account of several Ordinations held here.

Next, Eden runs to Crakenthorp-hall,Craken­thorp-hall. a pleasant seat on the East-side of it; where the chief branch of the Machels (a family of good note in this Country) † Guillam’s Heraldry.have always resided, from the Conquest downwards, to this very day; nor do any Records afford an account how much longer they have flourish’d here. And as the place is memorable on account of this uninterrupted succession for so many ages; so is it also for the wonderful Camps which lie near it, and the Antiquities discover’d thereabouts, which (with others found in these parts) were carefully collected and preserv’d by Mr. Thomas Machel (brother to Hugh Machel Lord of this Manour, and late Minister of Kirkby-Thore) in order to his intended Antiquities of this County.⌉

Then, it runs to Kirkby-Thore,Kirkby-Thore. below which appear the vast ruins of an ancient Town: where also Roman Coins ⌈and Urns⌉ are now and then dug-up; and not † † So said, ann. 1607.long ago, this Inscription:

Deo belatvcad-
Ro lib votv
M. fecit

Time has quite worn out the old name; and they call it at this day * * Wheallep, C.Whelp-Castle.Whelp-Castle. If it might be no offence to the Criticks in Antiquity, I should say that this was the Gallagum mention’d by Ptolemy, and call’d by Antoninus Gallatum.Gallatum. Which conjecture, as it agrees with the distances in the Itinerary, so is it partly favour’d by the present name. For such names as in British begun with Gall, the English turn’d into Wall. Thus, Galena was call’d Wallingford, Gall-Sever, Wall of Sever, &c. This was, without doubt, a place of considerable note; seeing an old causey (commonly call’d Maiden-way)Maiden-way. runs almost directly from it to Caer-Vorran (near the Picts Wall) along moorish hills and mountains, for some twenty miles. Upon this, I am enclin’d to believe, the old Stations and Mansions mention’d by Antoninus in his ninth Iter, were settl’d; though no one has pointed out the particular places. For indeed how should they? when Time (which consumes and destroys every thing) has been, as it were, preying upon them for so many years.

Pag.133. ⌈Dr. Gale (in his Notes upon Ninnius,) cites an old Manuscript fragment in Cotton’s Library; which seems to intimate something of a quarrel betwixt Ambrosius and Geitolinus and his son Marchantus, at Catguoloph. This, he fansies, is the same that is now call’d Whellop or Whallop-Castle; and he believes the neighbouring ruins of Marchantoniby (carrying such evident remains of Marchantus) a great support to his Opinion. But what if there should be no such place as Marchantoniby? It is certain, there is no such thing appears at this day, as the hanging-walls mention’d to be there. Besides, I see no reason, why Catguoloph in one of the Appendices of that learned person, may not be the same with either Catgabail, Catgubail, Cotgualat, or Catgublaum, in the other: and those are manifestly the names of men, and not of places.Kirkbythure

Whether this place was the ancient Gallagum, or not; the old Saxon God Thor (from whom our Thursday is call’d) seems to have had a Temple here; which is imply’d in the present name Kirkbythûre, written in old Records Kirkbythore, and sometimes Kirkby-Thor. Of the manner of Worship, and magnificence of the Temple of this God Thor among the Saxons, we need not be particular, because it is already done to our hands ¦¦ Verstegan’s Antiq.. But a new discovery having been lately made of a curious Rarity relating to this Idol, and communicated by an ingenious * * Mr. Ralph Thoresby.Antiquary to some learned Gentlemen, for their Opinion, we cannot but observe something of it, and of their thoughts concerning it. The shape is this:


It is a Coin about the bigness of a silver Groat: but the best Danish Antiquaries are of opinion, that no currant money was ever minted in these Northern Kingdoms till the Runick Character was laid aside. So that, though it be true that they sometimes meet with pieces of Silver, of the like fashion with this before us; Ast ego (says Tho. Bartholine T. F. who speaks the sense of all the rest) Amuletorum quoddam genus, &c. i.e. But for my part, I look upon them to have been a sort of Amulets, us’d as Magical Spells: having learnt from our Antiquities, that our Pagan Ancestors had certain portable pieces of gold or silver, with their Gods represented upon them in a human face. By these they foretold what was to come; and look’d on them as their Tutelar Deities, which (so long as they kept them) would assure them of safety and prosperity. Now, it is probable, that this may prove one of these Amulets. For the imagery gives us a human visage with a glory surrounding the head, &c. And the account which † † Notes upon Saxo Grammaticus.Stephanius (with some others of his learned Country-men) has left us of their God Thor, is this; That (in the posture they worshipp’d him) he had Caput flamma circumdatum, &c. i.e. his head surrounded with a flame, like the Sun; just as Painters us’d to adorn the heads of their Gods. In his hand they paint a Scepter, or (as others will have it) a golden ¦ ¦ Malleum.mallet. A description, so agreeable (at first sight) to the figure represented, that it could not have been more exact, though copy’d from this Original. But the Runick Characters on the Reverse go yet further; if they are to be read thus,

Cross Thur gut Luetis: i.e.

Thoris Dei facies (seu effigies:)

The face or effigies of the God Thor.

The figures of the Half-moon and Stars may seem also to confirm the same opinion.Phoenicians For the old Gothick Nations had the same notion of their mighty God Thor, as the Phœnicians had of their Sun, their Greek, cujus nutum Planetæ reliquáque sidera observabant, the only God of Heaven, to whose direction the Planets, and other Stars, were subject; and this was the Diety that the old Pagan Saxons ador’d, above all other Gods.

D. Andr. Fountaine, Dissert. ad Num. Sax. p.165. The learned Dr. Hickes is of opinion, that the words Thur Gut Luetis in this curious Coin (supposing them to be the true reading) ought rather to be render’d Thor Deus patrius.

But N. Keder, a worthy member of the College of Antiquaries at Stockholme, published a critical discourse upon it at Leipsick, A.D. 1703. wherein he endeavours to shew, that the Legend has no relation to the northern God Thor; though he acknowledges, that the additional embroidery of the Moon and Stars, suits well enough with that account which their Writers have given of this Deity. He thinks it probable, that the Imagery represents our Saviour, as King of Kings, according to the practice of other Nations in the early times of Christianity; and that Thurgut on the reverse, is the proper name of the Mint-master; which is agreeable to the usage observed in most of the Coins of our Saxon Kings, as he proves by several instances. For Luetis he reads Luntis; by which word he believes that the piece was coined at London; but whether in the City of that name here in England, or in that of Schonen in the dominions of his own Soveraign, he refers to the determination of his Readers.leibniz

Another Opinion, is that of the famous G. Leibnitz, who believes that this is a Medal struck in honour of Thurgut, the Admiral and General of those Danish Pirates, who (in the year 1016) block’d up our great City of London; whose name (for our English Historians say nothing of him) he learns from the Saxon History of Dithmar, Bishop of Merseburg.

Not. G. Wotton, in Hickesii Thesaur. To the several Conjectures and Opinions concerning this famous and most valuable Coin, I will subjoin what is said of it by a learned person,Dissert. Epist. ad Com. Pemb. and an excellent Judge of these matters, Sir Andrew Fountaine; Numismatum omnium, quæ aut Anglo-Saxonibus aut Anglo-Danis, in usu fuisse videntur, nullum notatu dignius est, quàm id Literis Runicis inscriptum, quod possidet Vir genere & ingenio clarus, Radulphus Thoresbeius Leodiensis; i.e. Of all the Coins, which seem to have been in use, either among the Anglo-Saxons or Anglo-Danes; there is none that more deserves our Notice and Regard, than that, with a Runick Inscription, which is in the possession of Ralph Thoresby of Leeds, a person of an ancient Family, and an excellent Genius.

As to the forementioned Roman Way, it may not be amiss to give you here the course of it through this County, at one view. First then, it passes through a large Camp where the stone of King Marius formerly stood; instead of which there is another erected call’d Rere-Cross. Thence, through Maiden-Castle, a small square fort, in which has been found Roman mortar: next, it runs quite through Market-Brough, over Brough-Fair-hill, on which are some tumuli, barrows, or ancient burying-places. Then, leaving Warcop (a pretty village which gave name to the Warcops,) on the left-hand, it passes along Sandford-moor; and so down a delicate horse-race to Cowplandbeck-brig; where, on the right, are the ruin’d foundations of a noble round tower; and near it on the left, Ormside-hall,Ormeside-hall. the seat of the ancient family of Hiltons. Then by Apleby to the Camps upon Crackenthorp-moor; so, through the Down-end of Kirkby-Thore, and through Sawerby, a village of the Dalstons of Akernbank: then all along by the side of Whinfeld-Park to Hart-horn-tree, which may seem to give name to Hornby-hall, a seat of the Dalstons, and to have borrow’d its own from a Stag which was cours’d by a single Grey-hound to the Red Kirk in Scotland, and back again to this place, where, both being spent, the Stag leapt the pales, but dy’d on the other side; and the Grey-hound, attempting to leap, fell, and dy’d on this side. Whence they nail’d up their heads upon the tree; and (the dog’s name being Hercules) they made this rhyme upon them:

Hercules kill’d Hart-a-greese,
And Hart-a-greese kill’d Hercules

In the midst of the Park, not far from hence, is the three-brether-tree (so call’d because there were three of them, whereof this was the least) thirteen yards and a quarter in circumference, a good way from the root. From Hart-horn-tree, the way goes directly westward to the Countess-pillar, erected by Anne Countess Dowager of Penbroke, and adorn’d with Coats of Arms, Dials, &c. with an Obelisk on the top colour’d with black; and this Inscription in brass, declaring the occasion and meaning of it.

This pillar was erected anno 1656.
By the right hono. anne countess dowager of
Penbroke. and sole heir of the right
Honorable george earl of cumberland, &c.
For a memorial of her last parting in this place
With her good and pious mother the right honorable
Margaret countess dowager of cumberland.
The second of april 1616. in memory whereof
She also left an annuity of four pounds
To be distributed to the poor within this
Parish of brougham every second day of april
For ever upon the stone table here by.

laus deo.

Brougham-castle. From this Pillar, the Way carries us to Brougham-castle, mentioned below; and from thence, directly to Lowther-bridge, and so over Emot into Cumberland.⌉

Hard by Whelp-castle, at Crawdundale-waith,Crawdundale-waith. there appear ditches, rampires, and great mounts of earth cast up; among which was found this Roman Inscription, transcrib’d for me by the above-mention’d Reginald Bainbrig School-master of Appleby. It was cut in a rough sort of rock; but the fore-part of it was worn away with age.

Roman Inscription

i.e. (as I read it) Varronius Præfectus legionis vicesimæ Valentis victicis ----- Aelius Lucanus Præfectus legionis secundæ Augustæ, castrametati sunt; or some such thing. ⌈The two upper lines are cut very deep; but the two lower with a lighter hand, and in a much finer and more polite Character. For which reason, one may conclude them to be different Inscriptions; and the rudeness of the Characters in the first, must needs argue it to be of much greater Antiquity. And what may the more induce us to believe them two distinct Inscriptions, is the writing of the letter A, which in Varronius wants the cross-stroke; whereas all the three in the two last lines are according to the common way of writing.⌉ The Legio Vicesima Valens Victrix, garrison’d at Deva or West-Chester; as also the Legio secunda Augusta, which was in garrison at Isca or Caer-Leon in Wales, being both detach’d against the enemy in these parts, seem to have fix’d, and pitch’d their camps for some time in this place; and it is probable that the Officers, in memory thereof, might engrave this in the rock. ⌈Or, what if one should say, that this was the place which afforded the Romans a supply of Stones for their buildings hereabouts; and that upon this account the Inscriptions were left here? The truth of the fact appears from the Stones dug-up out of the Foundations at Kirkby-thore,Kirkby-thore. most of which did certainly come from hence; and that upon those occasions they us’d to leave Inscriptions behind them, is confirm’d by the like instances both in Helbeck-Scar, by the river Gelt; and on Leuge-Crag near Naward-Castle in Gilsland, from whence they had their stone for the Picts-wall. Doubtless there have been more Letters here, though now defac’d. Also, the foremention’d Mr. Machel discover’d the following Inscription, not observ’d before:

Another inscription

When † † This was, C.these were done, is hard to determine; though, to signify the time, these words were engraven in large Characters, and are still to be seen in a rock near it, CN. OCT. COT. COSS. But I do not find in the Fasti, that any two of that name were Consuls together. This Observation however I have made, that from the age of Severus to that of Gordianus and after, the Letter A in all the Inscriptions found in this Island, wants the cross-stroke, and is engrav’d thus, Λ,Λ for A. ⌈as it is in the first of those Inscriptions.⌉ Verterae praefectus vicesimae secundae augustae

From hence the Eden runs along, not far from Howgil,Howgil. a castle of the Sandfords; but the Roman Military way runs directly west through * * See above. Whin in the North is the same as a Furz.Whinfeild (a large Park thick set with trees) to Brovoniacum,Brovoniacum. twenty Italian miles, but seventeen English, from Verteræ, as Antoninus has fix’d it. He calls it also Brocovum; as the Notitia Broconiacum; from which we understand that the † Numerus.Company of the Defensores had their abode here. Though Age has consum’d both it’s buildings and splendour, the name is preserv’d almost entire in the present one of Brougham;Brougham. ⌈the Antiquity whereof hath been further confirm’d of late years, by the discovery of several Coins, Altars, and other testimonies.⌉

Here the river Eimot (which runs out of a large Lake, and is for some space the border between this County and Cumberland) receives the river Loder;Loder, riv. near the head of which, at Shap,Shap. formerly Hepe (a small Monastery built by Thomas Fitz-Gospatrick, the son of Orm) there † † Is, C.was a Well, which, like Euripus, ebb’d and flow’d several times in a day. ⌈Which intermittent Springs are no rarities in hollow and rocky Countries; though perhaps not so commonly observ’d, as they might be. The cause of this unconstant breaking-out of their streams, is purely fortuitous; and therefore the effect is not always very lasting, nor is there any ebbing-fountain at present to be heard of near Shap.⌉ Here are large Stones in the form of Pyramids (some of them nine foot high and fourteen thick) almost in a direct line, and at equal distances, for a mile together. They seem design’d to preserve the memory of some Action or other; but time has put it beyond all possibility of pointing out the particular occasion. Upon Loder is ⌈Bampton,Bampton. where is a good Free-School, built and endowed by Dr. John Sutton, a worthy Divine in his time; and also⌉ a place of the same denomination with the river, which (as likewise Strickland,Strickland. not far off) hath given name to an ancient and famous family, ⌈the Lowthers. This is one of those English Sirnames, concerning which Sir Henry Spelman, at the request of Sir Peter Osburn, desired the thoughts of the learned O. Wormius; who observes it to be amongst the most ancient names of the Kings of Denmark, and (deriving it from the words Loth and Er)Mon. Dan. p.192, &c. makes it to carry a fortunate stock of honour, in its very Etymology. The conjecture of this excellent Antiquary seems to be further strengthen’d by the name of Lotharius, which we meet with so frequently among the Emperors and other Princes of Germany. And yet, after all this, it is perhaps more agreeable to truth, to believe that both the seat and family of Lowther in this County (as Lauder, and Lauderdale in Scotland) have their names from that neighbouring river, which in the old * * Gladdwr.British language signifies water that is clear, limpid, and without mud; all, very proper Epithets to this river. The now noble family of Lowther hath made a great figure in this County for many generations; and the late Sir John Lowther was Keeper of the Privy Seal, and one of the Lords Justices of England during the absence of King William; and was, for his many eminent Services and great Abilities, advanced to the dignity of Baron of Lowther and Viscount Lonsdale. Here, he erected a noble Seat, adorn’d by him with curious Paintings, and rich Furniture; which hath been lately burn’d down.

A little before Loder joins the Emot, it passes by a large round entrenchment, with a plain piece of ground in the middle, and a passage into it on either side; the form of which is this:


It goes by the name of King Arthur’s Round Table: and it is possible enough, it might be a Justing-place. jousting AEthelstan However, that it was never design’d for a place of strength, appears from the trenches, being on the inside. Near this, is another great Fort of Stones, heap’d-up in form of a horse-shoe, and opening towards it; call’d by some King Arthur’s Castle, and by others Mayburgh, or Maybrough.

Emot may be called the Ticinus of the two Counties of Westmorland and Cumberland (falling in a clear and rapid stream, out of Ulleswater, as the Tesin doth from the Lago Maggiore,) and will yet be more remarkable on account of this and the neighbouring remains of Antiquity upon its banks, if we believe them to be, as I think we may, Monuments of that treaty of Peace and Union, which was finish’d by King Æthelstan, in the year 926, with Constantine King of Scots, Hacval King of the Western Britains or Stratcluid-Welsh, &c. of which St. Dunelmensis (and, from him, R. Hoveden in the same words) gives us this account, Hi omnes, &c. All these, finding that they could not make head against him, and desiring Peace of him, met together on the 4th of the Ides of July, in the place which is called Eamotum, and enter’d into a League, that was confirmed by the said Oath. The very name also of Mayburg extremely favours this Opinion:Woluspa, Str.1. and 51. For in the old Islandick Writers, we have Mogur, and Mogu, in the plural, for Son and Sons. But in the Islandick Lexicon of G. Andreas, Magr is render’d by Affinis, Gener, Socer; and Maegel is Affinitas. The same thing † † Gram. Sax. p.108, 109. 119.Dr. Hickes observes of the Saxon words Saxon Mago, Saxon Magu, &c. * * Goth. Glossar. in voc. Magus.and saith Junius, Ab hoc nexu, &c. From this relation of blood, the word came by degrees to be transferr’d to any intimate union or friendship among Men or Societies; where he observes, that in the old Cimbrian or Runick Language, Mag signifies Socius, a Companion: So that Mayburg seems to have been (on occasion of the forementioned Treaty) so called, as if one should say, The Fort of Union or Alliance. Would M. Zeiller, and the rest of the German Geographers give me leave, I should willingly fetch the name of the famous City of Magdeburgh from the same Original; since Magde, in the Teutonick, signifies kindred, as well as a Girl, or Virgin; and Irenopolis might sound as well as Parthenopolis, as they love to call it. The fable of the Image of Venus anciently worship’d there (supported by the Arms of the Town) is of the like authority with our † † Middlesex.Llan Dian.⌉

Lower down, at the confluence of Loder and Eimot, was dug-up (in the year 1602.) this Stone, set-up in memory of Constantine the Great:

C. val.

⌈Here, the Loder joyns Emot, which runs by Barton,Barton. a very large Parish, reaching from the bounds of Rydal and Ambleside on the south, to the river Loder on the north. They have a School well endow’d by that learned and great man, Dr. Gerard Langbain, Provost of Queen’s College in Oxford, who was a native of this parish; as was also Dr. William Lancaster the late Provost, who was a considerable Benefactor to the said School.⌉

After Eimot has been for some space the boundary between this County and Cumberland; near Isanparles,Isanparles. a rock well known in the neighbourhood, which Nature hath made of a very difficult ascent, with several caverns and windings, as if she design’d it for a retreat in troublesome times; it empties its own waters, with those of other rivers, into Eden, a few miles below: having first receiv’d the little river Blencarne (the boundary on this side between Westmorland and Cumberland,) upon which I understood there were vast ruins of a Castle, by the name of the Hanging Walls of Marcantoniby,Hanging-walls of Marcantoniby. that is (as they tell you) of Mark Antony; ⌈nothing whereof now remains.⌉

The † Ralph Meschines, and Hugh de Mervil, are said to have been Lords thereof, before.first Lord of Westmorland that I know of, was Robert de Veteri ponte or Vipont,Arms of the Viponts. who bore in a shield gules six annulets Or. For King JohnFin. Term. Mich. R.6. H.8. gave him the Bailiwick and Rents of Westmorland, by the service of four Knights: whereupon the Cliffords his successors, ⌈and after them, the Tuftons,⌉ have holden the Sheriffdom of Westmorland, down to this time. For Robert the last of the Viponts, left only two daughters; Sybil wife of Roger Lord Clifford, and Idonea wife of Roger de Leybourne. A long time after, King Richard the second created Ralph de Nevil or New-Ville (Lord of Raby, and a person of a very noble and ancient English Pedigree, being descended from Uhtred Earl of Northumberland)Earls of Westmorland. first Earl of Westmorland; whose posterity by his first wife M. daughter of the Earl of Stafford, enjoy’d this honour, till Charles, hurry’d on by a boundless Ambition to violate his duty to Queen Elizabeth and his Country, brought an eternal infamy upon this noble family, and a foul blemish upon his own honour; so that, leaving his native Country, he liv’d and dy’d miserably in the Netherlands. His issue by the second wife Katharine, daughter of John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster, became so famous and numerous, that, almost at the same time, there flourish’d of that Family, the Earl of Salisbury, the Earl of Warwick, the Earl of Kent, the Marquiss of Montacute, Baron Latimer, and Baron Abergevenny.

⌈From the year 1584. this Honour lay dead, till King James the first, in the year 1624, advanced Francis Fane (as a Descendant of the said Nevils) to the dignity of Earl of Westmorland, who was succeeded in that Honour by Mildmay his Son, and Charles his Grandson. Which Charles, dying without issue, was succeeded by his brother Vere Fane, father of Vere Fane, who died unmarried, and of Thomas the present Earl.⌉

In this County are * 32* 26, C. large Parishes; ⌈besides a great number of Chapels of Ease.⌉

More rare Plants growing in Westmoreland.

Adiantum petræum perpusillum Anglicum foliis bifidis vel trifidis. Small moss-Maiden-hair with leaves divided into two or three segments. petraeum caeteris tenuissime Found by Mr. Newton and Mr. Lawson on Buzzard rough crag near Wrenose. Dr. Plukenet in his Phytography hath figured this, and intitled it Adiantum radicosum erectius, foliis imis bisectis, cæteris vero integris tenuissimè crenatis: distinguishing it from that found by Mr. George Daire near Tunbridge in Kent; which he calls Adianthum radicosum globuliferum, humi sparsum. I am now of opinion, that neither of them are any species of Adiantum, but mere mosses.

Allium sylvestre amphicarpon, foliis porraceis, floribus & nucleis purpureis. An Allium seu Moly montanum primum Clus.? Broadleav’d mountain Garlick with purple flowers. In Troutbeck-holm by great Strickland.

Bistorta minor nostras Park. Alpina minor C. B. minima J. B. Small Bistort or Snakeweed. In several places of this County, as at Crosby Ravensworth. See Yorkshire.

Cratæogonon foliis brevibus obtusis Westmorlandicum. Eye-bright-Cow-wheat with short blunt leaves.Crataeogonon Chamaecistus Near Orton beside a rivulet running by the way that leads thence to Crosby.

Cerasus avium sive Padus Theophrasti. Birds Cherry: common among the mountains as well in this Country as in Yorkshire; where see the Synonymes.

Cerasus sylvestris fructu minimo cordiformi P. B. The least wild Heart-cherry-tree, vulgarly called the Merry-tree. About Rosgill.

Chamæcistus seu Helianthemum folio Pilosellæ minoris Fuchsii J. B. (The Pilosella minor Fuchsii is nothing but Mountain-Cudweed or Cats-foot) Hoary dwarf mountain Cistus or Holy-rose, with Cats-foot leaves. Pilosellae Found by Mr. Newton on some rocks near Kendale.

Gentianella fugax verna seu præcox. Dwarf Vernal Gentian. praecox Found by Mr. Fitz-Roberts on the backside of Helse-fell-nab near Kendall; as also in the Parks on the other side of Kendall on the back of Birkhog. It begins to flower in April, and continues to flower till June.

Geranium batrachoides flore eleganter variegato. Crowfoot-Cranesbill with a party-coloured flower. In old Deer-park by Thornthwait. This, though it may be but an accidental variety, yet is so ornamental to a garden, that it deserves to be taken notice of.

Geranium batrachoides montanum nostras. Mountain Crowfoot-Cranesbill. In the hedges and among the bushes in the mountainous meadows and pastures of this County no less than in Yorkshire.

Filix saxatilis caule tenui fragili. Adiantum album folio Filicis J. B. Stone Fern with slender brittle stalks and finely-cut leaves. On old stone walls and rocks plentifully.

Fiticula petræa crispa seu Adiantum album floridum perelegans. Small flowering Stone-fern.petraea At the bottom of stone walls made up with earth in Orton-parish and other places plentifully.

Filix ramosa minor J. B. Saxatilis ramosa, nigris punctis notata C. B. Pumila saxatilis prima Clusii Park. Dryopteris Tragi Ger. The lesser branched fern. On the sides of the mountains, in shady places especially.

Gladiolus lacustris Dortmanni Clus. cur. post. Leucoium palustre flore subcœruleo C. B. Gladiolus lacustris Clusii sive Leucoium palustre flore cœruleo Bauhini Park. subcoeruleo coeruleo spica foliacea graminea cauda Schoenolaguros Water Gladiole. In a pool call’d Huls-water, and in Winander-mere plentifully.

Gramen sparteum spicâ foliaceâ gramineâ majus P. B. Grass upon grass. In an Isle call’d House-holm in Huls-water.

Gramen juncoides lanatum alterum Danicum Park. Item Gr. junceum montanum spicâ subcœruleâ Cambro-Britannicum ejusdem. Juncus Alpinus cum caudâ leporina J. B. Alpinus capitulo lanuginoso sive Schœnolaguros C. B. Hares-tail-rush or Moss-crops. On Mosses and boggy places.

Helleborine minor flore albo Park. The lesser white flower’d bastard Hellebore. In Sir John Lowther’s Wood, directly against Askham-hall.

Hieracium fruticosum latifolium glabrum Park. The smoother broad-leav’d bushy Hawkweed. Near a Lake call’d Huls-water.

Hieracium macrocaulon hirsutum folio rotundiore D. Lawson. An Hierac. fruticosum folio subrotundo C. B. Round-leav’d rough Hawk-weed with a long stalk. By Buckbarrow-well in long Sledale.

Hieracium Greek leptocaulon hirsutum folio rotundiore D. Lawson. On the rocks by the rivulet between Shap and Anna-well.

Juncus parvus calamo seu scapo supra paniculam compactam longiùs producto Newtoni. longius Small rush with the shaft produced to a great length above its compact panicle. Not far from Ambleside.

Juniperus Alpina J. B. Clus. Park. Mountain dwarf-Juniper, call’d by the Country-people Savine, as well here as in Wales. Upon the tops of the Mountains.

Lilium convallium angustifolium D. Lawson. Narrow-leav’d Lilly-convally. By Water-fall-bridge and elsewhere in this County.

Meum Ger. vulgatius Park. foliis Anethi C. B. Meu vulgare, seu Radix ursina J. B. Common Spignell or Meu. About two miles from Sedberg in the way to Orton abundantly in the meadows and pastures, where it is known to all the Country-people by the name of Bald-money, or (as they pronounce it) Bawd-money, the reason of which name I could not fish out.

Oxalis seu Acetosa rotundifolia repens Eboracensis folio in medio deliquium patiente Moris. Hist. Round-leav’d Mountain-sorrel. Observ’d by Mr. Lawson on the Mountains of this County; and by Mr. Fitz-Roberts in Long Sledale near Buckbarrow-well, and all along the rivulet that runs by the Well for a mile or more. This never degenerates into the common Roman or French Sorrell.

Persicaria siliquosa Ger. Noli me tangere J. B. Mercurialis sylvestris, Noli me tangere dicta, sive Persicaria siliquosa Park. Balsamine lutea, sive Noli me tangere C. B. Codded Arsmart, Quick in hand, Touch me not. I observ’d it growing plentifully on the banks of Winander-mere near Ambleside, and in many other places.

Rubia erecta quadrifolia J. B. Cross-wort-madder. Near Orton, Winander-mere, and elsewhere in this County plentifully.

Salix folio laureo sive lato glabro odorato P. B. Bay-leav’d sweet Willow. Frequent by the river-sides in the meadows among the Mountains.

Tormentilla argentea Park. potius Alchymillae Idaea Alpina folio sericeo C. B. Pentaphyllum seu potiùs Heptaphyllum argenteum flore muscoso J. B. Pentaphyllum petrosum, Heptaphyllum Clusii Ger. Vera & genuina Alchymillæ species est. Cinquefoil Ladies-mantle. On the rocks by the side of the Lake call’d Huls-water, or as some write it Ulles-water.

To these I might add, Lunaria minor ramosa, & Lunaria minor foliis dissectis; That is, branched Moon-wort, and cut-leav’d Moon-wort, both observ’d by Mr. Lawson at great Strickland; though they be (I suppose) but accidental varieties.

Vitis Idæa magna, sive Myrtillus grandis J. B. The great Billberry Bush. In the forest of Whinfield. Mr. Lawson.

Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:52