Britannia, by William Camden


Big T THE County of York, in Saxon ⌈Saxon eoforwicscyreSaxon euerwicscyre, Saxon effrocscyre, and Saxon eborascyre, commonly Yorkshire, is by far the largest County in England; and is reckon’d, as to Fruitfulness, a mixt kind of soil. If in one place it be of a stony, sandy, barren nature, in another it is pregnant and fruitful; and so if it be naked and expos’d in one part, we find it cloath’d and shelter’d with great store of wood in another; Nature using an allay and mixture, that the entire County, by this variety in the parts, might appear more pleasing and beautiful. Towards the west, it is bounded by those hills already mention’d, and by Lancashire, and Westmorland. Towards the north, it borders upon the County of Durham, which is separated from it throughout by the river Tees. On the east, it bounds upon the German Ocean. The south-side is enclos’d, first with Cheshire and Derbyshire, then with Nottinghamshire, and lastly with Lincolnshire, where that noble æstuary the HumberHumber. breaks-in; the common rendezvouz for the greatest part of the rivers hereabouts.aestuary estuary The whole County is divided into three parts, denominated from three several quarters of the world, West-Riding, East-Riding, and North-Riding. ⌈And this Division by Ridings, is only a corruption of the Saxon Saxon Drihing, which consisted of several Hundreds or Wapentakes. Nor was it peculiar to this Country, but formerly common to most of the neighbouring ones, as appears by the * * Cap.13. 34.Laws of Edward the Confessor, and † † Pag.74, 75, &c.the life of King Alfred.⌉ West-RidingWest-Riding. or the West-part, is for some space bounded by the river * * First called Ure and Your.Ouse, by Lancashire, and by the southern limits of the County, and lies towards the south and west. East-Riding or the east-part of the County, lies towards the east, and towards the Ocean, which, together with the river Derwent, encloses it. North-Riding or the north-part, fronts the north, and is in a manner surrounded by the rivers Tees and Derwent, and by the long course of the river Ouse. From the Western mountains, or those that border on the west part of the County, many rivers break forth; which are, every one, at last receiv’d by the Ouse, and so in one chanel flow into the Humber. And I do not see any better method in describing this part, than to follow the course of the Dane, Calder, Are, Wherfe, Nid, and Ouse, which issue out of these mountains, and are not only the most considerable rivers, but flow by the most considerable places.

Danus,Don, river. commonly Don and Dune, seems to be so call’d, because it is carry’d in a low deep chanel; for that is the signification of the British word Dan. It first salutes Wortley,Wortley. which has given name to the eminent family of the the Wortleys; ⌈the issue-male of which, expir’d in Sir Francis Wortley, † † Sid. Reports, 315.who devis’d the greatest part of his estate to Anne Newcomen, wife of the honourable Sidney Wortley Esq; (¦ ¦ Dugd. Bar. 2 Vol. p.445.second son of Edward Mountague Earl of Sandwich, May 28. 1672.slain in the Dutch wars) who in right of his said wife is Lord of Wortley.⌉ Then it salutes another place near Wortley, call’d Wentworth,Wentworth. from which many Gentry both in this County and elsewhere, as also the Barons of Wentworth, have deriv’d their name and original. ⌈Of the family of that name and place, was Thomas Viscount Wentworth, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, created Earl of Strafford, and15 Car.1. Knight of the Garter: who being beheadedMay 12. 1641. on Tower-hill, lyeth here inter’d, and was succeeded in his Honours by his son William Earl of Strafford, and Knight of the said noble Order; who dying without issue, the title was extinct, until it was revived in the person of Thomas Wentworth, the present Earl; who succeeded the last Earl in the Barony of Raby, and was advanced by Queen Anne (by whom he had the honour to be employ’d in divers Embassies abroad, and to be made Knight of the Garter) to the Earldom of Strafford.⌉ Next, the Done arrives at Sheafield,Sheafield. remarkable, among other little towns hereabouts, for Blacksmiths (great plenty of iron being dug in these parts;) and for a strong old Castle, which has descended by inheritance from the Lovetofts, the Lords Furnival,Furnival. and Nevil Lord Furnival, to the most honourable the Talbots, Earls of Shrewsbury. ⌈It is the Staple-town for Knives, and has been so these three hundred years: Witness that Verse of Chaucer’s,

A Sheffield whittle bare he in his hose.

Many of the Talbots, Earls of Shrewsbury, are here inter’d, particularly, George the first of that name, who dy’d the 26th of July, 1538, and his grandson of the same name (to whose custody Mary Queen of Scots, was committed) the date of whose death is now inserted upon the Tomb [xviii. Novembris, anno redemptionis Christi Curly MDLXXXX] which is the more worthy our observation, because it was deficient in that part, when Sir William Dugdale publish’d his * * Vol.1. p.334.Baronage. His son Gilbert, likewise inter’d here, gave 200 l. per Ann. to the poor of Sheafield, where his great grandson erected a stately Hospital with this Inscription;

The Hospital of the Right Honourable Gilbert Earl of Shrewsbury, erected and setled by the Right Honourable Henry Earl of Norwich, Earl Marshal of England, Great grand-child of the aforesaid Earl, in pursuance of his last Will and Testament, Anno Dom. 1673.

The Manour of Sheafield is descended from the said Earl Marshal to the present Duke of Norfolk. The foremention’d Castle was built of stone in the time of Henry the third, and was demolish’d (when other Castles also were order’d to be ras’d) after the death of King Charles the first. Here it was (or in the Manour-house in the Park) that Mary Queen of Scots was detain’d Prisoner in the custody of George Duke of Shrewsbury, between sixteen and seventeen years. Concerning the vast Oak-tree growing in this Park, the Reader is refer’d to Mr. Evelyn’sSylva, p.155. account of it; who says, it had above ten thousand foot of board in it; and he adds, concerning another Oak growing in the same Park, that it was so vast, that when cut down, two men on horse-back being on each side of it, could not see the Crowns of each others hats.

Before the river Don comes to Rotheram, it passes close by a fair Roman fortification, call’d Temple-Brough.Temple-Brough. The north-east corner of it is worn away by the river: the area is about two hundred paces long, and one hundred and twenty broad, besides the agger; and without it, is a very large Trench, thirty-seven paces deep from the middle of the Rampire to the bottom. On the outside of it is another large bench, upon which are huge trees; and upon the side of the bench of the high-way, there grew a Chesnut-tree, that had scarce any bark upon it, but only upon some top-branches, which bore leaves. It was not tall; but the Bole could scarcely be fathom’d by three men. On the north-side of the river, over-against Templebrough, is a high Hill call’d Winco-bank,Winco-bank. from which a large bank is continu’d without interruption almost five miles; being in one place call’d Danes-bank. And about a quarter of a mile south from Kemp-bank (over which this Bank runs) there is another agger, which runs parallel with that from a place call’d Birchwood, running towards Mexburgh, and terminating within half a mile of its west-end; as Kemp-bank runs by Swinton to Mexburgh more north.⌉

From hence the Dane, under the shade of alder, yew-trees, and others, flows to Rotheram,Rotheram. which glories in having had an Archbishop of York of its own name, viz. Thomas Rotheram, a very wise and prudent man, born here, and a great benefactor to the place; having founded and endow’d a College with three Schools for instructing boys in Writing, Grammar, and Musick; which are now suppress’d by the wicked Avarice of * * This, C.the last age. ⌈It is also honour’d, by being the birth-place of the learned and judicious Dr. Robert Sanderson, late Lord Bishop of Lincoln. Near which, is Thribergh,Thribergh. lately the seat of Sir William Reresby, Baronet, but since the estate of John Savil of Medley, Esq.; and Sandbeck,Sandbeck. which hath been honour’d by giving the title of Viscount to the Right Honourable James Sanderson, Viscount Castleton of Sandbeck.⌉ Then the Done runs within view of Connisborow,Connisborow. an old Castle, call’d in British Caer Conan, and situated upon a rock; whither (at the battel of Maisbelly, when Aurelius Ambrosius routed the Saxons, and put them to a disorderly flight) Florilegus 487.Hengist their General retir’d, to secure himself; and a few days after, took the field against the Britains, who pursu’d him, and with whom he engag’d a second time, which prov’d fatal both to himself and his army. For the Britains cut off many of them, and † Captus, amputato capite, M. Westm.taking him prisoner, beheaded him, if the authority of the British History is to be prefer’d in this matter before that of the ¦ ¦ It appears not, that any Saxon Annals say so.Saxon Annals, which report him to have dy’d a natural death, being worn out and spent with fatigue and business. ⌈This Castle hath been a large strong-built Pile, the out-walls whereof are standing, situate on a pleasant ascent from the river, but much over-top’d by a high hill on which the town stands. Before the gate is an agger, said by tradition to be the burying-place of Hengist. In the Church-yard, under the wall, lies a very ancient stone of blue marble, with antique figures upon it; one representing a man with a target encountering a vast winged Serpent, with another bearing a target behind him. It is ridg’d like a Coffin, on which is engraven a man on horse-back, curiously cut, but very ancient. Fuller’s Worth. p.91. This place is also famous for being the birth-place of Richard Plantagenet Duke of York, grandson to King Edward the third, and grandfather to Edward the fourth; who aspiring too soon to the Crown, was beheaded by King Henry the fifth. Nigh this Town, is Carhouse,Carhouse. the seat of John Gill Esq; High-Sheriff of the County in the year 1692: And above three miles off, Aston,Aston. the ancient seat of the Lords D’Arcies, now Earls of Holderness.

Not far from Conisburgh, is Edlington,Edlington. the seat of the Lord Molesworth; near which place, at Clifton,Clifton. a considerable quantity of Roman Coins was found in the year 1705, by a labourer, who casually struck his pick-axe into an Urn full of them. Upon further search, there was found a larger Theca nummaria, that might contain about two Gallons. They were both full of Copper-Coins of the Bas-Empire, Gallienus, Postumus, &c. and some, particularly, of Quintillus, who reign’d but seventeen days.Musaeum Museum Vid. Philos. Trans. n.303. A considerable number of these are now deposited in the Musæum of Mr. Ralph Thoresby of Leeds.⌉

After Conisburrow, the Done washes Sprotburg,Sprotburg. the ancient Seat of an ancient Family the Fitz-Williams,Fitz-Williams. Knights, ally’d to the best families of England; the ancestors of William Fitz-Williams, who within the memory of † † So said, ann. 1607.the last age was Earl of Southampton; and also of William Fitz-Williams, * * Late Lieutenant, C.Lieutenant of Ireland. But this is now descended to the Copleys (as Elmsley and many other estates of their’s in these parts, are to the Saviles,) ⌈and is made a most delightful seat by Sir Godfrey Copley, Baronet, who has greatly adorn’d it, with Canals, Gardens, Fountains, &c.⌉

From hence the Dan, severing into two Chanels, runs to an ancient town, to which it leaves its name, commonly call’d at this day Doncaster,Doncaster. but by the Scots Doncastle, and by the Saxons, Saxon Donacester; by Ninnius, Caer-Daun; by Antoninus, Danum, and so likewise by the Notitia; which relates, that the Præfect of the Crispinian Horse, under the Dux Britanniæ, garrison’d there. Britanniae Praefect About the year 759. it was burnt to the ground by lightning, and so bury’d in its own rubbish, that it has hardly yet recover’d it self. The plot of a large tower is still visible (which they imagin was destroy’d in that fire,) where now stands a neat Church dedicated to St. George, the only Church in the town. ⌈In this Church is inter’d Thomas Ellis, five times Mayor, and founder of an Hospital call’d St. Thomas the Apostle: and one Byrks, who gave Rossington-wood to the publick, with this uncouth Inscription upon his Tomb. Howe. Howe. Who is heare, I Robin of Doncastere and Margaret my feare; that I spent that I had, that I gave that I have, that I left that I lost. A.D. 1579. Quoth Robertus Byrkes, who in this world did reign threescore years and seven, and yet liv’d not one.

At the end of Doncaster, is a memorable old Cross, with this Norman Inscription round it.
Crossicest: est: la crvice: ote: d. tilliaki: alme: dev: en: face: merci: am:

This place hath afforded the title of Viscount, to James Hay Baron of Sauley, created 16 Jac. 1; who afterwards, in the 20th year of the same King, was also made Earl of Carlisle, and was succeeded in his estate and titles by James his son, who dy’d without issue. Whereupon, in the 15th of Car. 2. James Fitz-Roy Baron of Tindale, was created Earl of Doncaster, and Duke of Monmouth.

Thence Done runneth by Wheatley,Wheatley. the Seat of Sir George Cook, Baronet, whose uncle Bryan Cook Esq;Ann. 1660. gave by Will the whole Rectory of Arksey to five Trustees for the payment of so much to the Vicar there, as with his * * 12 l. 13 s. 4 d.ancient stipend amounts to 100 l. per Ann. He gave also 40 l. per Ann. to a School-master to instruct the poor of the Parish, and 60 l. for the building of an Hospital for twelve of the ancientest poor, which receive each 5 l. per Ann. His brother Sir George Cook Baronet, gave1683. by Will 200 l. and two Cottages, for building of a fair School-house. Scarce two miles from Arksey, lies Adwick in the street,Adwick. memorable on this account, that Mrs. Anne Savill (a Virgin Benefactor) daughter of John Savill of Medley Esq; † † For about 900 l.purchas’d the Rectory thereof, and settled it in the hands of Trustees for the use of the Church for ever: and this from a generous and pious principle, upon the reading of Sir Henry Spelman’s noted Treatise, De non temerandis Ecclesiis.annae prosapia oriundae The ¦ ¦ Mr. Joshua Brook.Incumbent erected this Inscription over the door of the Parsonage-house, built from the foundation at his own charge: Rectoria de Adwick accessit Clero ex Donatione D Annæ Savile, ex Prosapiâ Savillorum de Methley oriundæ.⌉

Scarce five miles from Doncaster, to the south, stands a place which I must not pass by, nam’d TickhillTickhill. ⌈(so call’d from a Saxon word, signifying Goats;)⌉ an ancient town, and fortify’d with an old castle, which is large, but only surrounded with a single wall, and by a huge mount with a round tower on the top of it. It was of such dignity heretofore, that all the manours hereabouts appertaining to it, were stil’d, the Honour of Tickhill. In Henry the first’s reign, it was held by Roger Busly; but afterwards King Stephen made the Earls of Ewe in Normandy Lords of it. Next, King Richard the first gave it to his brotherPlac. An. 3 Joan.
Plac. M. 4 H.3.
John. In the Barons war, Robert de * * Veteri ponte.Vipont took and held it, till Henry the third deliver’d to him the castle of Carlisle, and that County, upon condition that he should restore it to the Earl of Ewe. But upon the King of France’s refusal to restore the English to the estates they had in France, the King dispossess’d him again; John Earl of Ewe still demanding the restitution of it from King Edward the first, in right of Alice his great grandmother. Lastly, Richard the second, King of England, gave it to John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster. Now, the Dan, which rises often hereabouts and overflows its banks, re-unites its divided streams, and runs on in one entire chanel by Hatfield Chase,Hatfield Chase. where is most excellent Deer-hunting. ⌈In this place Cadwallin King of the Britains (the * * Lovanii, Ann. 1566.printed Bede calls him Carduella, but Ceadwalla seems to be the right, as it is in a † † Penes R. Thoresby.Manuscript Bede) with Penda, the Pagan King of Mercia, in a bloody battel slew Edwyn the first Christian King of Northumberland, and Prince Offride his eldest son, in the year 633. Here also was the birth-place of Prince William, second son of King Edward the third,A.D. 1335. which the rather deserves our mention, because by most Historians it is misplac’d at Hatfield in Hertfordshire; but that it is an error, plainly appears by the Rolls, which tell us, that Queen Philippa gave five marks per Ann. to the neighbouring Abbot of Roch, and five nobles to the Monks there, to pray for the soul of this her son William de Hatfield; which summs are transfer’d to the Church of York, where he was bury’d, and are to this day paid by the Earl of Devonshire to the Bishop, and Dean and Chapter of York, out of the Impropriation of the Rectory of Hatfield. Near the town are many Entrenchments, as if some great army had been there encamp’d. It is said, that no Rats have ever been seen in this town; nor any Sparrows at a place call’d Lindham, in the Moors below it; though it is a good earth for corn or pasture, but encompass’d with a morass.⌉ aestuary estuary After this, the Dan divides it self again, one stream making towards the river Idel which comes out of Nottinghamshire, and the other towards the river Are; in both which they continue till they fall into the æstuary of Humber. ⌈Near the confluence of Don and Are, is Cowick,Cowick. the pleasant seat of the ancient family of the Dawneys (which name occurs frequently amongst the Sheriffs of this County) of which Sir John Dawney was by King Charles the second advanc’d to the degree of Viscount Downe in the Kingdom of Ireland.⌉ Within the Island, or that piece of ground encompass’d by the branches of these two rivers, are Diche-march and Marshland,Marshland. fenny tracts, or rather River-islands, about fifteen miles round, which produce a very green rank grass, good for cattle, and are in a manner set round with little villages. ⌈One of these is Whitgist;Whitgist. from the family of which name and place, was descended John Whitgist, the learned and pious Archbishop of Canterbury.⌉ Some of the inhabitants imagin that the whole Island floats upon the water; and that when the waters are encreas’d, it is rais’d higher; just like what Pomponius Mela tells us of the Isle of Antrum in Gaul. ⌈These LevelsLevels. or Marshes, especially eastward, and north-east of Thorn (a market-town,) are generally a Turf-moor; but in other places are intermix’d with arable and pasture grounds. By reason of the many Meres, it was formerly well-stor’d with fresh-water fish (especially Eels) and with fowl. But in the reign of King Charles the first several Gentlemen undertook to drain this morish and fenny country, by drawing some large rivers, with other smaller cuts. There is an angle cut from about Thorne to Gowle, which is ten miles in length, and extraordinary broad. As to what is observ’d before, of the ground being heav’d up, several old men have affirm’d, that the Turf-moor betwixt Thorne and Gowle was so much higher before the draining (especially in winter-time) than now they are; that before, they could see little of the Church-steeple, whereas now they can see the Church-yard wall. Under the Turf-earth and other grounds, from one yard to two yards deep, are frequently dug-up great quantities of Firr-wood, and of other Trees, particularly Oaks; the wood of the last being very black. At low-water, in the great cut to Gowle-sluice, have been observ’d several roots of trees; some very large, standing upright, others inclining; some of the trees have been found lying along with their roots fasten’d, others seem’d to have been cut or burnt, and broke off from the roots. Upon the digging of these large rivers, there were found gates, ladders, hammers, shoes, nuts, &c. and the land in some places was observ’d to lie in ridges and furrows, as if it had been plow’d. Under some part of the Turf-more, firm earth was found; but in other places, nothing but sand. About fifty years since, they found the entire body of a man at the bottom of a Turf-pit, about four yards deep, with his head northward; his hair and nails not decay’d. It is said, that in the cut-river to Gowle, there was found a Roman Coin, either of Domitian or Trajan; and it is very † † Philos. Trans. n.275.certain, that other Coins of divers of the Roman Emperors, have been since met with. From the position of the Trees, Roots, and all other circumstances, it appears evidently, that those trees grew where they are found lying; of which, it is a very ingenious and very probable * * Ab. de la Pryme, Phil. Trans. n.275.account, That this, and the other like places where subterraneous wood is found, were anciently Forests, cut down and burnt by the Romans, wherever they were found to be a refuge to the Britains, in their wars against them.⌉

Among other brooks which water this place, I must not forget to mention the Went, because it arises from a pool near Nosthill,Nosthill. where formerly stood a monastery dedicated to that Royal Saint King Oswald,St. Oswald. which was repair’d by A. Confessor to King Henry the first; and † † Is, C.hath been the seat of the famous family of the * * Now of Sir Rowland Wynne.Gargraves Knights. ⌈Not far from Nosthill is Hemsworth,Hemsworth. where Robert Holgate Archbishop of York (depriv’d in the first year of Queen Mary, for being marry’d) did found an Hospital for ten poor aged men,Ann. 1544. and as many women, who have each about 10 l. per Ann. and the Master who is to read Prayers to them, betwixt 50 and 60 l. per Ann. He was likewise a Benefactor to, if not Founder of, the School there.⌉

The river Calder,Calder, riv. which flows along the borders between this and Lancashire; among other inconsiderable little places, runs near ⌈Stainland,Stainland. where have been found several Roman Coins; and⌉ Gretland,Gretland. situated on the very top of a hill, accessible on one side only, where was dug-up this Votive Altar, sacred, as it seems, to the tutelar God of the city of the Brigantes. It is to be seen at Bradley,Bradley. in the house of the famous Sir John Savil, Knight, * * Ann. 1607.Baron of the Exchequer; ⌈whose brother was Sir Henry Savil, Warden of Merton-College, Provost of Eaton-College, and the learned Editor of St. Chrysostom.⌉

DVI CI. BRIG. Anno Christi 209.
On the other side.


Which is to be read, Dui Civitatis Brigantum & numinibus Augustorum, Titus Aurelius Aurelianus dedicavit pro se & suis, i.e. To the God of the City of the Brigantes, and to the Deities of the Emperors, Titus Aurelius Aurelianus hath dedicated this in behalf of himself and his. As for the last remaining letters, I cannot tell what they mean. The Inscription on the other side, is, Antonino tertiùm & Getæ Consulibus. tertium getae

Whether this DuiDui. be that God which the present Britains call Diw, or the peculiar and topical GeniusGenii of places. of the Brigantes, may be decided by those who are better Judges. But as Symmachus has it,Lib.1. Ep.40. As the souls are distributed among those that are born, even so are the fatal Genii among Nations. God appoints every Kingdom its respective Guardians. This was the perswasion and belief of the Ancients in those matters. For, to say nothing of foreign Nations, whose Histories are full of such local Deities, the Britains themselves had theirDio. Andates in Essex, their Bello-tucadrus in Cumberland, their Viterinus and Mogontus in Northumberland; as will be more manifest from the Inscriptions, which I shall insert in their proper places. And it is rightly observ’d by Servius Honoratus, that these local Gods were never transitory, or removed from one Country to another. ⌈At Sowerby,Sowerby. near Gretland where the Votive Altar was dug-up, a considerable quantity of Roman Coins was found in plowing, in the year 1678; but the greatest part thereof was seis’d and conceal’d by the workmen.⌉

But to return to the Calder: Which, with supplies from other currents, is now become larger, and therefore made passable by a very fine bridge at Eland, not far distant from Grimscar,Grimscar. where bricks have been dug-up with this Inscription:


For the Romans,Vopiscus in Probo. who were excellent Masters in all the arts of War, wisely took care to preserve their Soldiers from effeminacy and sloth, by exercising them in times of peace, in draining the Country by ditches, mending the high-ways, making bricks, building bridges, and the like.

Then, the river Calder passing through the Mountains, on the left leaves Halifax,Halifax. a very famous town, situated from west to east upon the gentle descent of an hill. This name is of no great antiquity. Not many ages since, it was call’d Horton,Some think it was formerly call’d The Chapel in the Grove. as some of the Inhabitants say; who tell us this story concerning the change of the name. A certain Clergy-man of this town, being passionately in love with a young woman, and by no means able to move her to a compliance, grew stark mad, and in that condition villanously cut off her head. Her head was afterwards hung upon an Ew-tree, where it was reputed holy by the vulgar, till quite rotten, and was visited in Pilgrimage by them; every one plucking off a branch of the tree ⌈as a holy relique.⌉ By this means the tree became at last a meer trunk, but still retain’d its reputation of Sanctity among the people, who believ’d that those little veins, which are spread out like hair in the rind, between the bark and the body of the tree, were indeed the very hair of the Virgin. This occasion’d such resort of Pilgrims to it, that Horton, from a little village grew up to a large town, assuming the new name of Halig-fax or Halifax, which signifies holy hair. For faxFax, what it signifies. is us’d by the English, on the other side Trent, to signify hair. And that noble family of Fairfax in these parts, are so nam’d from their fair hair. And therefore, whoever from the affinity of the names, would have this place to be what Ptolemy calls Olicana, are certainly mistaken.DeSphaera This town is no less famous among the common people for a By-law,Halifax-law. whereby they † † Ann. 1607.behead any one instantly that is found stealing; nor among the Learned, who will have John de sacro Bosco, Author of the Treatise De Sphæra, to be born in it. But it is more remarkable for the unusual extent and largeness of the Parish, which has under it † † Eleven, C.twelve Chapels (two whereof are Parochial) and about twelve thousand men in it. So that the Parishioners are wont to say, that they can reckon more Men in their Parish, than any kind of animal whatever; whereas in the most fruitful places of England elsewhere, one shall find thousands of Sheep, but so few men, in proportion, that one would think they had given place to sheep and oxen, or were devour’d by them. The Industry of the Inhabitants is also admirable, who, notwithstanding an unprofitable, barren soil, not fit to live in, have so flourish’d by the Cloath-trade (which within these * * So said, ann. 1607.seventy years they first fell to) that they are very rich, and have gain’d a reputation for it above their neighbours. Which confirms the truth of that old Observation, That a barren Country is a great whet to the industry of the Natives: by which we find, that Norinberg in Germany, Venice and Genoua in Italy, and lastly Limoges in France (all situated in barren soils,) have ever been very flourishing Cities. ⌈To this Town and Parish,1642. Mr. Nathaniel Waterhouse,July 1. by Will. was an eminent Benefactor † † Extract of his providing an House for the Lecturer, an Hospital for twelve aged poor, and a Work-house for twenty children (the Overseer whereof is to have 45 l. per An.) and a yearly Salary to the preaching Ministers of the twelve Chapelries, which, with moneys for repair of the banks, amounts to three hundred poundsTo the first 10 l. to the second 20 l. per Ann. per Ann. Brian Crowther Clothier was a good Benefactor to the Poor, and to the Free-School of Queen Elizabeth in the Vicarage of Halifax. In this Church is inter’d the heart of William Rokeby (of the Rokebys of Kirk-Sandal by Doncaster, where he was born) Vicar of Halifax, and Parson of Sandall, afterwards Bishop of Meath and Archbishop of Dublin, where dying,Nov. 29. 1521. he order’d his bowels to be bury’d at Dublin, his heart at Halifax, and his body at Sandall, and over each a Chapel to be built; which was perform’d accordingly.

The vast growth and increase of this Town may be guess’d at from this instance, which appears in a Manuscript of Mr. John Brear-cliff’s, of one ¦ ¦ Born, 1443.John Waterhouse Esq. He was Lord of the Manour, and liv’d nigh a hundred years; in the beginning of whose time, there were in Halifax but thirteen Houses, which in one hundred twenty three years were increas’d to above five hundred and twenty house-holders that kept fires, and answer’d the Vicar, Ann. 1566. It is honour’d by having given title to George Lord Savile of Eland, Earl and Marquiss of Halifax; whose son William Lord Savil, late Marquiss of Halifax, dying without issue, the title of Baron of Halifax was conferred by King William the third, upon the honourable Charles Montague, a person of great Learning and Eloquence, descended from Henry, first Earl of Manchester, and advanced to this dignity (and afterwards by King George to the more honourable title of Earl of Halifax) for most eminent Services done to his Prince and Country; particularly, in that most difficult and important Article of Recoining the Money of the Nation; the effecting of which, at a very critical juncture, without damage to the Subjects at home or advantage to our Enemies abroad, was owing to the extraordinary conduct, industry, and penetration of this noble Lord. currency Since whose death, the Honour of Earl of Halifax hath been confer’d upon the Right Honourable George Mountague, his Nephew and Heir.

This place is also honoured with the nativity of Dr. John Tillotson, late Arch-bishop of Canterbury. So that this West-riding of Yorkshire had at one time the honour of giving both the Metropolitans to our Nation; Dr. John Sharp Archbishop of York, being born in the neighbouring town and contiguous parish of Bradford; where Mr. Peter Sunderland (of an ancient family at High-Sunderland nigh Halifax) besides other benefactions, founded a Lecture, and endow’d it with 40 l. per Ann.

But nothing is more remarkable, than their method of proceeding against Felons, which was just hinted before, viz. That a Felon taken within the Liberty, with Goods stol’n out of the Liberties or Precincts of the Forest of Hardwick, should after three Markets or Meeting-days within the town of Halifax, next after his apprehension, be taken to the Gibbet there, and have his head cut off from his body. But then the fact was to be certain; for he must either be taken hand-habend, i.e. having his hand in, or being in the very act of stealing; or back-berond, i.e. having the thing stolen either upon his back, or somewhere about him, without giving any probable account how he came by it; or lastly confesson’d, owning that he stole the thing for which he was accus’d. The cause therefore must be only theft, and that manner of theft only which is call’d furtum manifestum, or notorious Theft, grounded upon some of the foresaid evidences. The value of the thing stolen must likewise amount to above 13 d. ob. for if the value was found only so much, and no more, by this Custom he should not die for it. He was first brought before the Bailiff of Halifax, who presently summon’d the Frithborgers within the several Towns of the Forest; and, being found guilty, within a week he was brought to the Scaffold. guillotine The Ax was drawn up by a pulley, and fasten’d with a pin to the side of the Scaffold. If it was an horse, an ox, or any other creature, that was stol’n; it was brought along with him to the place of execution, and fasten’d to the cord by a pin that stay’d the block. So that when the time of execution came (which was known by the Jurors holding up one of their hands) the Bailiff or his Servant whipping the beast, the pin was pluck’d out, and execution done. But if it was not done by a beast, then the Bailiff or his Servant cut the rope.

But the manner of execution will be better apprehended by the following draught of it.

execution scaffold
A A. The Scaffold.
B. The piece of wood wherein the Axe is fix’d.
C. The Axe.
D. The Pulley by which the Axe is drawn up.
E. The Malefactor who lies to be beheaded.
F. The Pin to which the Rope is ty’d that draws up the Axe.⌉

Six miles from Halifax, not far from the right side of the river Calder, and near Almondbury,Almondbury. a little village, there is a steep hill,Cambodunum. only accessible by one way from the plain; where the marks of an old rampire, and some ruins of a wall, and of a castle well guarded with a round triple fortification, are plainly visible. Some would have it to be the remains of Olicana; but it is really the ruins of Cambodunum (by a mistake in Ptolemy, call’d Camulodunum, and made two words by Bede, Campo-dunum,) as appears by the distance which Antoninus makes from Mancunium on the one hand, and Calcaria on the other. ⌈It is, in King Alfred’s Paraphrase, render’d Donafelda. A Manuscript Copy of Bede has it, Attamen in campo dono, and so it is in the Lovain Edition; whence probably came that mistake of Stapleton, in translating it Champion, called Down.⌉ In the beginning of the Saxon times, it seems to have made a great figure. For it was then a Royal Seat, and graced with a * * Basilica.Church built by Paulinus the Apostle of these parts, and dedicated to St. Alban; whence, for Albanbury, it is now ⌈by corruption⌉ call’d Almonbury. But in those cruel wars that Ceadwall the Britain and Penda the Mercian made upon Edwin the Prince of these Territories, it was burnt-down: which † † Appears, C.hath been thought in some measure to appear in the colour of the stones to this day. ⌈It was probably built mostly of wood, there being no manner of appearance of stone or brick. The fire that burnt it down seems to have been exceeding vehement, from the cinders which are strangely solder’d together. One lump was found, of above two foot every way, the earth being melted rather than burnt. But the conjecture of a burning there, from the blackness of the stones in the present buildings, is groundless: for the edges of them are so in the Quarry which is half a mile off; and so deep, that for fire to reach them there, is a thing impossible.⌉ Afterwards, a Castle was built here, which, as I have read, was confirm’d to Henry Lacy by King Stephen.

Not far from this stands Whitley,Whitley. the Seat of the ancient and famous family of the Beaumonts (who are different from that of the Barons and Viscounts Beaumont, and flourish’d in England before they came over;) ⌈of which, Richard Beaumont is lately dead without issue.⌉

The Calder having passed by these places, runs on to Kirkley,Kirkley. heretofore a Nunnery; thence to Robin Hood’s Tomb, a generous robber, and very famous upon that account; and so to Deusborrough,Deusborrough. situated at the foot of a high Hill. Whether this name be deriv’d from Dui, the local Deity already mention’d, I cannot determine: The name is not unlike; for it resembles Duis Burgh in sound, and this Town has been considerable from the earliest date of Christianity, among the English of this Province. For I have been inform’d that there was once a Cross here, with this Inscription:

pavlinvs hic prædicavit
et celebravit.

That is,
Paulinus here preach’d and Celebrated.

⌈Of which Cross, nothing now appears, either in sight or by tradition; but,⌉ that this Paulinus was the first Archbishop of York, about the year 626, we are assured by the concurring evidence of our Historians. From hence Calder goes by Thornhill,Thornhill. which from a knightly family of that name descended to the Savils, ⌈and became the possession of the Lord Marquiss of Halifax:⌉ and so to WakefieldWakefield. ⌈(to which place, from Castleford, it was made navigable in the year 1698,)⌉ a Town famous for it’s Cloath-trade, largeness, neat buildings, and great Markets; and for the bridge, upon which King Edward the fourth built a very neat Chapel, in memory of those that were cut-off in the Battel here. ⌈The carved work hath been very beautiful, but is now much defaced. The whole structure is artificially wrought, about ten yards long and six broad.⌉ This town belong’d heretofore to the Earls of Warren and Surry; as also Sandal-castle, hard by, built by John Earl of Warren, whose mind was never at liberty from the slavery of lust; for, being too familiar with the wife of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, his design was to detain her there securely from her husband. Below this town, when England was embroil’d with civil wars, Richard Duke of York, and father1460. of Edward the fourth (whose temper was rather to provoke fortune, than quietly to court and expect it,) was here slain amongst many others, by the Lancastrians. ⌈And in the very place was found a large antique * * In Mr. Thoresby’s Musæ, suppos’d to belong to that Prince. Within it, is engraved in the characters of that age, pour bon amour; and on the out-side, which is very broad, are wrought the effigies of three Saints. On the right hand of the high-way leading from Wakefield to Sandal, is a small square plot of ground hedg’d in from a Close, within which (before the war between King Charles and the Parliament) there stood a Cross of stone, where Richard Duke of York was slain. The owners are oblig’d by the tenure of the land, to hedge it in from the Close. Here, by the noble Charity of the pious Lady Campden, is a weekly Lecture, endow’d with fourscore pounds per Ann. The other (for she left three thousand pounds to Trustees for the founding two Lectures in the north of England) is at Grantham.⌉Museum Musaeum

The ground hereabouts for a pretty way together, is call’d the Lordship of Wakefield, and hath always some one or other of the neighbouring Gentry for its Seneschal or Steward; an Office often administer’d by the Savils, a very numerous family in these parts, and † † At this day, C.particularly in the hands of Sir J. Savil Knight, whose * * Now demolish’d.very beautiful seat ¦ ¦ Is, C.was at Howley,Howley. not far off. ⌈This, with several other considerable Lordships, went from the Savils to the Brudenels, by the marriage of Frances, sister and sole heir to James Earl of Sussex. Two miles from Howley, is Drighlington,Drighlington. memorable only for the nativity of Dr. James Margetson, Archbishop of Armagh, who founded a School here, with a good * * 60 l. per an.endowment.

At some distance from Wakefield, is Darton,Darton. a seat of a branch of the family of the Beaumonts: of which, Mr. George Beaumont, a Merchant, left considerable Sums of money to be employ’d in several charitable Uses, viz. † † 500 l.the founding of a free School at this place of his Nativity, and to ¦ ¦ 500 l.poor Ministers, and to the Poor of * * 150 l.London, † † 50 l.York, and ¦ ¦ 30 l.Hull; besides a considerable estate amongst his relations. Farther from the Calder, lies Burton-grange,Burton-grange. where the no less religious than honourable Lady Mary Armyn daughter of Henry Talbot, fourth son of the illustrious George Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury, and Relict of Sir William Armyn, Baronet, erected an Hospital for six poor widows, each of which have 40 s. and a Gown every year. She built also and endow’d two other Hospitals in other Counties during her life, and at her deathAnn. 1675. left 40 l. per Ann. for 99 years, to be apply’d to such-like uses. More to the south, is Wurspur,Wurspur. where Henry Edmunds Esq; and others, have generously built a good house for the Minister; and Mr. Obadiah Walker, late Master of University-College in Oxford, and born here, annex’d a Library to the school: and Stainbrough,Stainbrough. where the Earl of Strafford hath erected a noble seat; which also gives him the title of Baron. But to return.

Between Wakefield out-wood, and Thorp on the hill, at a place call’d Lingwell-yate,Lingwell-yate. in the year 1697, were found certain Coining-molds or impressions upon clay, which had been invented for the counterfeiting of Roman Coins; and are accordingly all of such Emperors, in whose times the Roman monies were notoriously adulterated. It is probable enough, that the Lingones who were quarter’d at Ilkley, were also sometimes encamp’d here, near Thorp super montem, as it is written in the Registers; and that the entrenchments there were from them denominated Ling-well, the Roman Vallum being pronounced Wallum.⌉

About five miles from Wakefield, the river Calder loses both its name and waters in the river Are. Upon the confluence stands Medley,Medley. formerly Saxon medeley, so call’d from its situation, in the middle between two rivers. In the † † So said, ann. 1607.last age, this was the seat of Robert Waterton, Master of the Horse to King Henry the fourth, and * * At present, C.afterwards of the famous Sir John Savil, a most worthy Baron of the Exchequer, to whose Learning this work, and to whose Civility the Author of it, † † Is, C.was exceedingly engag’d. ⌈In this Church, he has a stately monument; which says, that he was, by the special favour of the King, Justice of Assise in his own County. In the 10th year of King William, an * * Stat. 10 W.3. c.19.Act of Parliament pass’d, for making and keeping navigable the two rivers Are and Calder.

But before we proceed to the Are, we must take notice, that the river RibbleRibble, riv. runs a course of forty miles in this County, before it enters Lancashire; upon which is Gigleswick,Gigleswick. where, at the foot of a very high mountain, is the most noted spring in England for ebbing and flowing, sometimes thrice in an hour; and the water subsides three quarters of a yard at the reflux, though thirty miles from the Sea. At this town, is a noted School, founded by Mr. Bridges, and well endow’d; and at Waddington,Waddington. upon the same river, is a noble Hospital for ten poor Widows, and a Chaplain, founded by Mr. Robert Parker.⌉

The river AreAre, riv. issuing from the root of the Mountain Pennigent (which is the highest in these parts,) at first seeming doubtful whether it should run forwards into the Sea, or return to its Spring, is so winding and crooked, that in travelling this way, I had it to pass over seven times in half an hour, upon a strait road. Its course is calm and quiet; so easy that it hardly appears to flow: and I am of opinion that this has occasion’d the name. For I have already observ’d that the British word ara, signifies slow and easy: and hence that slow river ArarisAraris in Gaul. in France, takes its name. That part of the Country where the head of this river lies, is call’d Craven,Craven. possibly from the British word Crage, a rock: for what with huge stones, steep rocks, and rough ways, this place is very wild and unsightly. In the very middle of which, and not far from the Are, stands Skipton,Skipton. hid (as it were) with those steep precipices surrounding it; like * * Lateo, to lie hid.Latium in Italy, which Varro thinks was so call’d from its low situation under the Appennine, and the Alps. The town is pretty handsome, considering the manner of building in these mountainous parts, and is secur’d by a very beautiful and strong Castle, built by Robert de Rumeley; by whose posterity it came to be the inheritance of the Earls of Albemarle. But being afterwards escheated (as the Lawyers term it) to the Crown, Edward the second gave it (with other large possessions hereabouts) to Robert de Clifford ancestor to the Earls of Cumberland, in exchange for some lands of his in the Marches of Wales. ⌈Here lie inter’d several of the Cliffords, particularly, George, third Earl of Cumberland, honour’d with the Garter by Queen Elizabeth, and famous for his Sea-services; performing * * Inscription in Skipton Castle.nine Voyages in his own person, most of them to the West-Indies, and being the best born Englishman that ever hazarded himself in that kind. He dy’d in the year 1605,Octob. 30. leaving one only daughter Anne, Countess of Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery, an eminent benefactor, born in the year 1589-90.Jan. 30. at Skipton-castle in Yorkshire; wherein we are the more particular, because Dr. Fuller in his Worthies,Com. Westm. p.140. by a mistake, says it was in Hertfordshire. She built from the ground, or considerably repair’d, six ancient Castles; one of which, Brough, had lain one hundred and forty years desolate after the fire had † † Ann. 1520.consum’d it; another, Pendragon-castleSee Westmorland. (of which nothing remain’d above an hundred years since, but the bare name and an heap of stones,) three hundred and twenty years after the invading Scots, under their King David, had * * Ann. 1341.wasted it. She built also seven Chapels or Churches, with two stately Hospitals richly endow’d; and dy’d in the year 1675.Mar. 22. This Country (Craven) gave the title of Earl to William Craven; who by King Charles the first was created Baron of Hampsted-Marshal, and by King Charles the second,Mar. 16. in the 16th year of his reign, Earl of Craven.

From hence the Are passeth by Thornton (the seat of the Thorntons,) to Rawdon,Rawdon. famous for Sir George Rawdon, a most accomplish’d person, who with two hundred or fewer British, most valiantly repuls’d Sir Philim o Neile, at the head of an army of about seven thousand Rebels, assaulting Lisnegarvy (now Lisburn) in Ireland, in that grand massacre 1641, wherein thousands of Protestants were most cruelly murder’d. Henry (son of Francis) Layton Esquire, in pursuance of his father’s Will, built here, and endow’d with 20 l. per ann. a Chapel, which was † † May 4. 1684.consecrated by Archbishop Dolben. In the year 1664, were summon’d out of a small villagePhil. Trans. n.160. in Craven, call’d Dent,Dent. two persons as Witnesses in a Cause at York-Assises, the father and the son, the first of whom wanted only half a year of 140, and the second was above 100 years of age.

From Carlton, a town in Craven, the Right Honourable Henry Boyle, third son of Charles Lord Clifford of Lanesborough, hath been created a Peer of this Realm by King George, under the title of Baron of Carlton; a person of great Honour and Abilities, and who hath been successively Principal Secretary of State to their Majesties King William and Queen Anne.⌉

The Are having pass’d Craven, is carry’d in a much larger chanel with pleasant fields on both sides, by Kigheley,Kigheley. from which the famous family of Kigheley derive their name. One of whom, Henry Kigheley ⌈(inter’d here)⌉ procur’d from Edward the first, for this his manour, the privileges of a Market and Fair, and a free Warren,Libera Warrena. so that none might enter into those grounds to chase there, or with design to catch any thing pertaining to the said Warren, without the permission and leave of the said Henry and his Successors. Which was a very considerable favour in those days: and I the rather take notice of it, because it teaches us the nature and meaning of a Free-Warren. The male-issue in the right line of this family ended in Henry Kigheley of Inskip, within the memory of the † † So said, ann. 1607.present age: the daughters and heirs were marry’d, one to William Cavendish * * Now, C.then Baron Cavendish of Hardwick; the other to Thomas Worseley of Boothes. ⌈At Cookridge,Cookridge. on the way from Ilkley to Adle, have been Phil. Trans. n.316.dug-up ancient Roman Coins; and upon the moor, not far from Adle-mill,Adle-mill. in the year 1702, were discover’d the footsteps of a Roman Town. Among the Ruins, are many fragments of their Urns, and others of their Plasticks, with the remains of a large aquæduct in stones. aquaeduct aqueduct At a little distance, is a Roman Camp, pretty intire, above four Chains broad and five long, surrounded with a single Vallum. Three monuments have been found there; of which, one is but a fragment, but has enough remaining to discover it to have been Sepulchral: the other is evidently a Funeral-monument; and the third, the head of a Statue, found some years before, with a large Inscription, which perish’d by the ignorance of the Labourers.


Near Bramham-moor, have also been discover’d ancient brass Instruments.⌉

From Kighley the river Are glides on ⌈by Bingley, from which, Robert Benson Esq; was created by Queen Anne Baron of Bingley; and⌉ by Kirkstall,Kirkstall. a Monastery of good note, founded about the year 1147. by Henry Lacy. And thence ⌈(being made navigable thus far in the year 1698.)⌉ by Leeds,Leeds. in Saxon Saxon loydes, which was made a Royal Village when Cambodunum was burnt down by the enemy; and now much inrich’d by the woollen manufacture. ⌈The name of Leeds is possibly taken from the Saxon Saxon Leod, gens, natio; implying it to have been very populous in the Saxon times. Which town and parish King Charles the first, by † † Jul. 30. 2. regn.Letters Patents, incorporated under the government of one chief Alderman, nine Burgesses, and twenty Assistants; Sir John Savil, afterwards Baron Savil, being the first Alderman, and his Office executed by John Harrison Esq; a person to be particularly mention’d here, as a most noble benefactor, and a pattern to succeeding ages. 1. He founded and * * 80 l. per an.endow’d an Hospital for relief of indigent persons of good conversation, and formerly industrious; with a † † 10 l. per an.Chapel, for a Master to read Prayers, and to instruct them. 2. He built the Free-school1669. (to which Godfrey Lawson Esquire, Mayor of the Burrough of Leeds, added a Library) placed it upon his own ground, and enclos’d it with a beautiful Wall. 3. He built a most noble Church, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, and ¦ ¦ 80 l. per an. and 10 l. per an. for Repairs.endow’d it; and provided a house for the Minister. 4. He erected a stately Cross for the conveniency of the market. When his estate was almost exhausted in acts of charity, he left the remainder for relief of such of his relations as by the frowns of the world should unhappily be reduc’d to poverty, bequeathing an * * 30 l. per an.annual Sum to be manag’d by four Trustees, to put out the males to trades, and to prefer the females in marriage. And as these are instances of his charity, so in a Codicil annex’d to his Will, there is a fair testimony of his strict justice and integrity. Whereas I heretofore bought of Richard Falkingham Esq; divers lands and tenements, part of which I endow’d the New Church withal, and part I since sold to several persons for a good sum of money more than I purchas’d the same for; I thought my self bound to bestow upon the eldest son of John Green, and the eldest son of John Hamerton, who marry’d the coheirs of the said Richard Falkingham, the surplus of all such moneys as I sold the lands for, over and above what indeed they cost me, together with a large addition thereunto: the product of the whole sum amounting to 1600 l. which, upon a strict estimate of his whole estate, appears to be a full half. He was baptiz’dAug. 16. 1579. in St. Peter’s Church at Leeds, and was chief Alderman in the year 1626, and again 1634; in which year the new Church of his own foundation was † † Sept. 21.consecrated by Richard Neile, then Archbishop of York. He dy’d ¦ ¦ Oct. 29. seventy-seven years of age, and lies inter’d under an Altar-tomb of black marble in the said Church; over which is the well-painted effigies of this Benefactor (in his scarlet-gown,) the gift of the reverend Mr. Henry Robinson, the present Incumbent, who is perhaps the single instance of one that enjoys a Church both founded and endow’d by his own Uncle, and from whom there is a fair and near prospect of some exemplary acts of public piety.

By a second Patent, bearing date 2. Nov. 13 Car. 2, the government of Leeds was alter’d to a Mayor, twelve Aldermen, and twenty-four Assistants. This place was also honour’d by giving the title of Duke, to the right honourable Thomas Lord Marquiss of Caermarthen; to which dignity he was advanc’d, for his personal merits and eminent Services to the Crown, in the sixth year of King William and Queen Mary; and was succeeded in those titles by his son and heir.

From Leeds, Are passeth by Temple Newsome,Temple Newsome. of old a Commandery belonging to the Knights Templars, the seat of the right honourable Rich Lord Ingram, Viscount Irwin, in the Kingdom of Scotland.⌉

In these parts, Oswy the Northumbrian routed Penda the Mercian, to the great advantage, says Bede, of both people; for it both secur’d his own nation from the inroads of the Pagans, and was the occasion of converting the Mercians to the Christian Faith. The very spot where this engagement was, goes by the name of WinwidfieldWinwidfield. in our Historians: I suppose, deriv’d from the victory it self; as when Quintilius Varus and his Legions were cut off in Westphalia, the place of Action was call’d in High Dutch Winfield (the field of Victory,) as the most learned, and my most worthy friend, Abraham Ortelius, has observ’d. ⌈It is at this day call’d Winmore, and is four miles from Leeds in the road to York: But all the difficulty is, to find out the right Winwid fluvium of Bede (in the Lovain edition misprinted Innet; whence probably Speed’s Innet, but a very old ManuscriptPenes R. Thoresby. has it Winwed, as that also which Wheelock us’d,) and the Saxon winwidstream of King Alfred. For a † † Mr. Thoresby, Antiq. Leeds.very curious Enquirer declares, that after many years search, and frequent traversing the ground, he cannot find or hear of either great or small Brook, that carries a name any thing akin to Winwed; which he now concludes to be our river Are. And indeed, there is no river besides, that seems to have the least probability of being it. Wherf cannot pretend to it, because the Mercians, upon their defeat, would certainly flee homewards. Calder is too remote from the place of Battel, which was in regione Loidis. All the difficulty (for the Inclosures between the present Winmore and Leeds may well enough be concluded of a modern standing, and consequently the old Winwid-field, the nigher Are) is, the different names; and yet the matter may be thus solv’d; That the Christian Saxons, in memory of so signal a deliverance from their Pagan Enemies, who threaten’d the extirpation of their whole race, might endeavour to change the British Are into the Saxon Saxon winwid; and Bede, who was a Northern man, and wrote his History presently after, might accordingly celebrate it under that name, though in a few ages the old name seems to have reverted. Now, that British names sometimes gave place to Saxon, Somner himself admits, in his Treatise of the Roman Ports, where he concludes Sandwich to have let go its British Rutupium, for the Saxon Saxon lunden-wic: and Limene and Rother he positively asserts to be different names of the same Romney-water. As to the Etymon, I fansy it to be from Saxon win victory and Saxon wid broad, as is observ’d before; and so it had need have been for so vast an army, where thirty Saxon cyne-bearna, Captains of the Blood Royal, with their forces, were slain on one side, or rather drown’d in the Saxon winwidstream; for Bede puts the accent upon that, l.3, c.4. That the river Winwid, having overflow’d the banks, by reason of excessive rains, many more were drown’d in the flight, than kill’d in the field. And, methinks, our modern Winmore and Broad-Are agree very well with the old Winwid-field and Winwid-stream: And I am very apt to think, that even when the old British name reverted, it hence got that universal Epithet of broad, which is to this day so generally us’d, or rather incorporated into the very name of the River, that the common people can scarce pronounce the one without the other. And why (except from this memorable Victory, which was chiefly owing to the water) it should be Broad Are, rather than Broad Ouse or Calder, I cannot conceive. And I am rather induc’d thus to take Saxon wid appellatively, both because the place of battel is call’d Winmore, not Winwidmore; and because Saxon widstream is synonymous to Saxon Bradan ae, i.e. Broadwater, which was so nigh akin to the old name, that nothing is more easy, than the change of Saxon Brad ea to Saxon brad are.⌉

The Country, for some little way about Winwidfield aforesaid was anciently call’d Elmet,Elmet. ⌈i.e. a grove of Elms;⌉ which Edwin King of Northumberland, son of Ella, brought under his own dominion,Ninnius. by the conquest of Cereticus a British King, An. Dom. 620. ⌈† † L.2. c.14.Bede says, that out of the Fire which burnt the Royal Villa Donafeld, one Altar was sav’d, being of stone, and was kept in the Monastery of Abbot Thrythwulf, in the wood Elmete; which Monastery might possibly be placed at * * Vid. infrà.Berwick in Elmet.⌉ Here, in Elmet, Lime-stoneLime-stone. is plentifully dug-up: they burn it at Brotherton and Knottingley; and at certain seasons convey it in great quantities, for sale, to Wakefield, Sandall, and Standbridge: from thence it is sold into the western parts of this County, which are naturally cold and mountainous; and herewith they manure and improve the soil. But leaving these things to the Husbandmen, let us return.

The Calder above-mention’d, is at last receiv’d by the Are: and near the Confluence stands the little village Castleford,Castleford. but call’d by Marianus Casterford; who tells us, that the Citizens of York slew great numbers of Ethelred’s army there, pursuing them in a disorderly flight; at the time when he infested this Country, for their treachery and breach of Leagues. Yet the older name of this place is that in Antoninus, where it is call’d LegeoliumLegeolium. and Lagetium, which, among other plain and remarkable remains of antiquity, is confirm’d by those great numbers of Coins (call’d by the common people Sarasins-heads) dug-up here in Beanfield, a place near the Church, and so call’d from the beans growing there: Also, by the distance of it from Danum and Eboracum on each side; not to mention its situation by a Roman way; nor that Hoveden expressly calls it a City. ⌈Thomas de Castleford, a Benedictine, who flourish’d Anno 1326,Fuller’s Worthies. wrote the History of Pontfract, from Ask a Saxon, first owner thereof, to the Lacies; from whom that large Lordship descended to the Earls of Lancaster. Not far from hence is Ledston-hall,Ledston-hall. formerly the seat of the ancient family of the Withams, but late of Sir John Lewis Baronet, who having got a vast estate during his nine years factorship for the East-India Company (much augmented by the Jewels presented him by the King of Persia, who much delighted in his company) dy’d here without issue-male, in the year 1671 ¦¦ Aug. 14.. He * * It cost 400 l.erected a curious Hospital, and † † 60 l. per an.endow’d it for the maintenance of ten aged poor people, who by his Will are requir’d religiously to observe the Sabbath-day, and to be present at Church in time of Divine-Service and Sermon. At present, Ledston-hall is the seat of the Lady Elizabeth Hastings, daughter of Theophilus Earl of Huntington, by the eldest daughter and coheir of Sir John Lewis: which said Elizabeth (a true pattern of Piety and Charity) hath greatly improv’d and adorn’d this Seat.⌉

The river Are, now enlarg’d by the confluence of the Calder, leaves BrothertonBrotherton. on the left, where * * His second wife.Margaret wife of King Edward the first took up as she was hunting, and was brought to bed of her son Thomas, sirnam’d de Brotherton from this place, who was afterwards Earl of Norfolk, and Marshal of England. ⌈He was born in the year † † June 1.1300. having his Christian name from St. Thomas of Canterbury, whom his mother in her extremity pray’d to for ease. Not far from the Church, is a place of twenty acres, surrounded with a trench and a wall, where (as tradition saith) stood the House in which Queen Margaret was deliver’d; and the Tenants are oblig’d by the tenure of their Lands, to keep it surrounded with a wall of stone.⌉ Somewhat below this town, the river Are is joyn’d by the Dan, and then runs into the river Ouse. On the right, there is found a yellow marleA yellow Marle. of such virtue, that the fields once manur’d with it prove fruitful many years after.marl And not far from the banks of the river, is Pontfract (or, Broken-bridge) commonly call’d Pontfreit,Pontfreit. which arose out of the ruins of Legeolium. In the Saxon times, the name of this town was Kirkby, which was changed by the Normans into Pontfract, because of a broken bridge there. The story is,T. de Castleford. that here was a wooden bridge over this river, when William Archbishop of York, who was sister’s son to King Stephen, return’d from Rome; and that he was welcom’d here with such a crowd of people, that the bridge broke, and many fell into the river; but thatS. Gulielmus Eboracensis. the Archbishop wept and pray’d so fervently, that not one of them was lost. ⌈But this account is inconsistent with the Records of the place, especially in point of time. At first, as hath been said, it was call’d Kirkby; for, in the Charter made by Robert de Lacy, son of Hildebert, to the Monks of St. John the Evangelist, they are stil’d De dominio suo de Kirkby; and this,Monast. Angl. vol.1. he says, he did by advice of T. Archbishop of York. Yet the same Robert by another Charter (to which are the same witnesses, except that T. Archbishop of York is added) confirms other Lands and Churches Deo & S. Johanni & Monachis meis de Pontefract. By this account, it is plain, that in the time of T. Archbishop of York, it had both the names of Kirkby and Pontefract. Now this T. could be no other than the first Thomas, who came to the Archbishoprick about the eighth of the Conqueror, and continu’d in it till about the beginning of Henry the first whom he crown’d, and soon after dy’d. For Robert, who granted these Charters, was banish’d in the 6th of Henry the first, for being at the battel of Tenercebray, on behalf of Robert Duke of Normandy against King Henry, and dy’d the year after; which was before any other Archbishop succeeded in that See, to whose name the initial T. will agree. Thomas the second indeed came presently after (Anno 1109.) but this St. William (to whom the Miracle is attributed) was not possess’d of it before 1153. From which it is evident, that the town was call’d Pontefract at least fifty-two years before the miracle; and how much longer, we know not.

Below the Church and a water-mill (call’d Bongate-mill) there is a level ground nam’d the Wash, the road from Pontefract to Knottingley, and the directest way from Doncaster to Castleford. By this Wash, the current of waters, flowing from the springs above and supplying two mills, passes into the river at Knottingley. But it retains not that name above a large bow-shot, being terminated by a place call’d Bubwith-houses, where, by an Inquisition taken in the reign of Edward 2, it appears that one John Bubwith held the eighteenth part of a Knight’s fee juxta veterem pontem de Pontefract, i.e. near the old bridge of Pontefract. Which must have been over this Wash; as will be made more probable, if we consider that even now upon any violent rains, or the melting of snow, it is so overflow’d as to be scarce passable; and that formerly, before the conveyance of the waters into chanels to serve the mills, and the dreins made from hence to Knottingley, the passage must have been much more difficult, and by consequence did the rather require a bridge. So then, from the probability of a bridge over this Wash, and the Record making the Pons de Pontefract to be near Bubwith-houses hard by, and there appearing no necessity of a bridge in any other part of the town; it follows, that the bridge which was broken, must have been here. And the occasion of it being, no doubt, very considerable, it was natural enough for the Norman Lords (who knew what numbers of places took their name from Bridges in their own country) to lay hold on this opportunity of changing the name; especially when that former one of Kirkby, upon the building of more Churches round it, grew less emphatical, and less distinguishing. And so much for the occasion of the name.⌉liquorice licorice skirret sium sisarum disseize

The town is sweetly situated, and is remarkable for producing Liquorish and Skirworts in great plenty: the buildings are neat, and secur’d by a castle which is very stately, and strongly founded upon a rock; and not only fortify’d, but also beautify’d, with many outworks. It was built by Hildebert LacyLacy. a Norman, to whom William the Conqueror gave this town, and the grounds about it, after he had dispossess’d Alric a Saxon;Monast. Angl. vol.2. ⌈though some question, whether the Castle was first built by Alric the Saxon, or by Hildebert. In the history of the Lacies indeed, the latter is said to have caus’d a Chapel to be erected in the Castle of Pontfract, which he had built. But since it’s being demolish’d of late years (among several others throughout England) it is observ’d that the round-tower stood upon a rais’d hill of very hard stiff clay: which looks as if it had been of those sort of fortifications that the Saxons call’d Keeps; and might, from a fortification of earth, be built of stone by the said Hildebert.⌉ But Henry LacyNepos.his nephew (as the Pleadings of those times tell us)Placit.
11 Hen. 3.
being in the battel of Trenchbrey against Henry the first, was disseis’d of his Barony of Pontfract; and then the King gave the honour to Wido de la Val, who held it till King Stephen’s time, when Henry de Lacy re-enter’d upon the said Barony; and, by the King’s intercession, the difference was adjusted with Wido for 150 l. Lib. Monast. de Stanlow. This Henry had a son Robert, who dy’d without issue, leaving Albreda Lisours, his sister by the mother’s side, his heir; for there was no one else so nearly related to him: so that by the decease of Robert, both the Estates, that of the Lacies by her brother, and that of the Lisours by her father, descended to her. This is word for word out of the Register of Stanlow Monastery. She was marry’d to Richard Fitz-Eustach Constable of Chester, whose posterity took the name of Lacy, and were honour’d with the Earldom of Lincoln. The daughter of the last Lacy of this family convey’d that fair inheritance * * Formula a short Deed to the Earls of Lancaster; who enlarg’d the Castle very much: it was afterwards repair’d, at great expence, by Queen Elizabeth, who began a fine Chapel here. This Castle has been fatal to great men: it was first stain’d with the blood of Thomas Earl of Lancaster.Thomas Earl of Lancaster, who held it in right of his wife, and was the first of this family that possess’d it. He was justly beheaded here by King Edward the second, who hop’d, by that example, to free himself from future Rebellions and Affronts: however, he was afterwards Sainted by the people. Here also King Richard the second (depos’d by Henry the fourth) was barbarously destroy’d with hunger, cold, and other unheard-of torments. Here, Anthony Earl Rivers, Uncle to Edward the fifth, and Sir Richard Grey Knight, brother by the mother’s-side to the said King Edward, were both put to death (notwithstanding their innocence) by King Richard the third. For this tyrant was jealous, that men of such spirits and honour as these were, might check his designs of tyranny and ambition. As for the Abbey founded here by the Lacies, and the Hospital by the bounty of R. Knolles, I industriously omit them, because † † So said, ann. the very ruins of them are hardly to be seen.

From Legeolium we pass by Shirborn,Shirborn. a populous small town (which takes the name from the clearness of the little river there, and was given by Athelstan to the Archbishops of York). ⌈It is now chiefly famous for the benefaction of Robert Hungate Esquire, a most zealous Protestant, who by Will ordain’d the erection of an Hospital and School, with convenient Lodgings, &c. for twenty-four Orphans, who have each 5 l. per ann. allow’d for their maintenance there from seven to fifteen years of age, and then a provision for binding them Apprentices, or sending them to the University. This, with the Salaries of the † † 30 l. per an.Master (who is also to catechize them,) and of the ¦ ¦ 20 Marks.Usher, and * * 20 Marks.of a man and his wife who are to make suitable provisions of meat and apparel for the Orphans, and forty marks per ann. for four poor scholars in St. John’s College Cambridge, &c. amounts in all to 250 l. per ann.⌉

From Shirborn, we travel upon a Roman way, very high rais’d, to Aberford,Aberford. a little town situated hard by that way, and famous for its art of pin-making; the Pins made here being in particular request among the Ladies. Under the town lies the course of the river Cock (or as it is in Books Cokarus;) between which and the town, the foundation of an old Castle (which they call Castle-Cary)Cary-Castle. is still visible. Scarce two miles from hence, where the Cock springs, stands Berwick in Elmet,Berwick in Elmet. which is said to have been the royal seat of the Kings of Northumberland: It has been walled round, as the remaining rubbish shews. On the other side stands Hessell-wood,Hessellwood. the chief seat of that famous and very ancient-family the Vavasors, who have their name from their Office (being formerly the King’s Valvasors,)Valvasors or Vavasors. and towards the end of Edward the first’s reign, we find by the Writs of those times, that William Vavasor was summon’d to Parliament among the other Barons of this Kingdom. Under the town is the remarkable Quarry, call’d Petres-Post,Petres-Post. because the stately Church at York dedicated to St. Peter, was built with the stones hew’d out here, by the bounty of the Vavasors. ⌈This Town has a pleasant prospect: the two Cathedrals of York and Lincoln, sixty miles asunder, may thence be discover’d; and Tonstal Bishop of Durham affirm’d to King Henry the eighthAnn. 1548. (when he made his progress to York,) that the Country within ten miles, was the richest valley that ever he found in all his travels through Europe; there being one hundred sixty five manour-houses of Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen of the best quality, two hundred seventy five several Woods (whereof some contain five hundred acres) thirty two Parks, and two Chases of deer; one hundred and twenty rivers and brooks, whereof seven are navigable, well-stor’d with Salmon and other Fish, seventy six water-mills for Corn, twenty five cole-mines; three forges for making of Iron, and stone enough for the same; within those limits also as much sport and pleasure for hunting, hawking, fishing, and fowling, as in any part of England.⌉

From Aberford the Cock runs somewhat slowly to the river Wherf, as if it were melancholy, and detested Civil wars, ever since it flowed with the English blood formerly shed here. For upon the very bank of this river, not far from Towton, a small country Village, was the true English Pharsalia. Towton battel.Here was the greatest Engagement of Nobility and Gentry, and the strongest Army that ever was seen in England; no fewer than an hundred thousand fighting Men; who under the conduct of two daring and furious Generals, engaged here upon Palm-Sunday, in the year 1461. The Victory continued doubtful for a long time; but at last the Lancastrians proved the weakest, by their being too strong. For their numbers proved cumbersome and unweildy; which first caused disorder, and then flight. The York-party gave the chase briskly; which, together with the fight, was so bloody, that no less than thirty five thousand English were cut off, and amongst them a great many of the Nobility. Somewhat below this place, near Shirburn, at a Village call’d Huddleston,Huddleston. there is a noble Quarry;A Stone-quarry. out of which when the Stones are first cut, they are very soft; but by being in the air, they presently consolidate and harden.

Out of the foot of Craven-hills, springs the river WherfWherf, riv. or Wharf, in Saxon Saxon guerf, the course of which, for a long way, keeps at an equal distance from the Are. If one should derive the name of it from a British word Guer, swift the nature of the river would favour him; for it’s course is swift and violent, fretful and angry, as it were, at those stones which obstruct it’s passage; and it rolls them along in a very surprising manner, especially when it is swell’d by the winter rains. However, it is dangerous and rapid even in the summer-time; as I am sensible by experience, who in my first travels this way run no small risk in passing it. For it has such slippery stones, that a horse’s foot cannot fix on them; or else the current it self is so strong, that it drives them from under his feet. Though the whole course of it be long (no less than fifty miles, computing from the first rise to its joyning the Ouse) yet there are no considerable Towns upon it. It runs down by Kilnesey-CraggeKilnesey-Cragge. (the highest and the steepest that I ever saw,) to Burnsall,Burnsall. where Sir William Craven, Alderman of London, was born, and * * Is now building, C.built a stone bridge; as, out of a pious concern for the good of his native Country, † † Lately, C.he founded and endowed a Free-School hard by.


⌈He built also a Church there, and encompass’d it with a Wall at great * * 600 l.expence. He built in all † † One, 500 l. another 250 l.four Bridges and a ¦ ¦ 200 l.Causeway. He gave one thousand Pounds to Christ’s Hospital in London, and the Royalties of Creek, with the perpetual donation of the Parsonage to St. John’s College in Oxford. William, his eldest Son, much affecting Military Discipline, was sent to the wars of Germany under Gustavus Adolphus, the famous King of Sweden, and after into the Netherlands under Henry Prince of Orange, by King Charles the first ** See before, at Craven..⌉ Then the Wherf runs to Barden-towre,Barden-towre. a little tower belonging to the † † So said, ann. 1607.Earls of Cumberland, noted for the good hunting thereabouts: and so to Bolton,Bolton. where stood formerly a little Monastery; ⌈and now is a Free-School, the noble † † To the value of 1100 l.Benefaction of the Honourable Robert Boyle,⌉ and to Bethmesley,Bethmesley. the seat of the famous family of Claphams, of which was J. Clapham, an eminent Soldier in the Wars between York and Lancaster. Hence it passes by Ilekely,Ilekely. which I imagin to be the OlicanaOlicana. in Ptolemy, both from its situation in respect of York, and the resemblance of the two names. Propraetor It is, without question, an ancient Town; for (not to mention those engrav’d Roman Pillars, lying now in the Churchyard and elsewhere,) it was rebuilt in Severus’s time by ¦ ¦ Mention’d by Ulpian. lib.2. de Vulgari & Pupillari substitutione.Virius Lupus, Legate and Proprætor of Britain, as we are informed by an Inscription lately dug-up near the Church.

* * Legato.LEG. EORVM ¦ ¦ Pro Prætore.PR. PR.

That the † † First.second Cohort of the Lingones quartered here, is likewise attested by an old Altar which I have seen there, now put under a pair of stairs, and inscribed by the * * Præfect.Captain of the second Cohort of the Lingones, to Verbeia; perhaps she was the Nymph or Goddess of the Wherf (the river,) and call’d Verbeia, I suppose, from the likeness of the two words.

VERBEIAE SACRVMVerbeia fl. vel Nympha.

For Rivers, says Gildas, in that age had divine honours paid them by the ignorant Britains. And SenecaEpist.41. tells us of Altars dedicated to them; We worship the heads of great rivers, and we raise altars to their first springs. And Servius says, that every river had it’s Nymph presiding over it. ⌈But it seems rather to have been the first Cohort, the last line of that Inscription being not II LINGON. but P. LINGON. in the original, as appears from Mr. John Thoresby’s Papers late of Leeds, an eminent Antiquary, who accurately transcrib’d it, being very critical in his Observations upon Inscriptions and original Coins, of which he had a valuable Collection: Besides his own, he purchas’d those of the Reverend Mr. Stonehouse, and the Right Honourable Thomas Lord Fairfax. Museum Musaeum This Musæum is very much improv’d, and still growing, by the curiosity and industry of Mr. Ralph Thoresby, an excellent Antiquary, who has obliged the Publick with the Particulars contained in it, in his late curious History of Leeds.

The original Altar above-mention’d, is remov’d to Stubham:Stubham. the new one erected at Ilkley, had this Inscription added upon the Reverse:

gvilm: midleton
arm: me: fecit ad
imaginem anti
qviss: lapidis hic
reperti 1608.⌉

In the Walls of the Church there is this imperfect Inscription.

— — —
rvm caes.
avg. —
et veri
jovi dilecti
praef. coh.

I found nothing in my search up and down the Church for pieces of Roman Antiquity, but the Portraicture of Sir Adam Middleton, armed and cut out in stone, who seems to have lived in Edward the first’s reign. His posterity remain still in the neighbourhood, at a place called Stubham.

⌈At some distance from hence is Bramhope,Bramhope. the Seat of the ancient family of the Dinelys; of which, Robert Dinely Esq; (deceas’d not many years since in a good old age, having seen four generations of most of the neighbouring Nobility and Gentry) erected a Chapel, with a competent endowment.⌉

Somewhat lower stands Otley,Otley. which belongs to the Archbishops of York; memorable for nothing but its situation under a huge craggy Cliff called Chevin. For the ridge of a mountain is in British Chevin;Chevin, what it signifies. and so, that long ridge of Mountains in France (where they formerly us’d the same language with our Britains) is called GevennaGevenna. and Gebenna. From hence, the river flows, in a chanel bank’d on both sides with Lime-stone, by Harewood,Harewood. where stands a tolerably neat and strong Castle, which has had † Pro temporum vicissitudine.successively a variety of Masters. It was formerly the Curcies, but passed from them, with Alice the heiress of that family, to Warren Fitz-Gerold, who married her,Placit. 1 Joan. Rot.10. in D. Monstr. le droit. 35 Ed.1. and had issue Margery; who being one of his heirs, and a great fortune, was first married to Baldwin de Ripariis, son to the Earl of Devonshire, who died before his father; and then, by the favour of King John, to Falcatius de Brent, for his great service * * In pillaging. Afterwards, Isabel de Ripariis, Countess of Devonshire, dying without issue, this Castle fell to Robert de Lisle,Lords de Insula, or Lisle. the son of Warren, as a relation, and one of her heirs. At last, by those of Aldborough, it came to the Rithers, as I learn’d from Fr. Thinn, who with great judgment and diligence * * So said, ann. 1607.has been long enquiring into the Antiquities of this Kingdom. ⌈This Castle was reduc’d to a skeleton in the late Civil-wars. In the Church are several curious Monuments of the owners of it, and the Gascoyns; of whom the famous Judge, Sir William Gascoyne, is the most memorable, for committing the Prince (afterwards King Henry the fifth,) prisoner to the King’s-Bench, till his Father’s pleasure was known; who being inform’d of it, gave God thanks, for having given him, at the same instant, a Judge who could administer, and a Son who could obey, justice. He was made Judge in the year 1401, and dy’d in † † Dec. 17.1412, as appears by their Pedigree curiously drawn by that accomplish’d Antiquary Mr. Richard Gascoyne; and it is the rather mention’d here, because most Histories are either deficient, or mistaken therein. This great Manour of Harewood, has eight or nine dependant Constabularies, wherein are many Antiquities; and the present generous and charitable * * John Boulter, Esq;.Lord thereof hath been a considerable Benefactor to the Church and Poor.⌉ Nor must I forget to take notice of a place hard by, called Gawthorp,Gawthorp. remarkable for that ancient, virtuous and warlike family the Gascoigns,Gascoigns. ⌈just now mention’d,⌉ and descended very probably from Gascoigne in France. ⌈This place, called Gawthorp-hall, hath been lately raised out of it’s Ruins by the present owner, the Lord of the Manour of Harewood before-mention’d, and from a place only venerable for it’s Antiquity, hath made it a most pleasant and delightful Seat.⌉

Hence, the course of the river Wherf is by Wetherby,Wetherby. a noted trading Town, which has no remains of Antiquity, but only a place below it called Helensford,Helensford. where a Roman military way lay through the river. ⌈Thence, Wherf passeth by Wighill,Wighill. the Seat of an ancient family of the Stapletons; of which, Sir Robert being Sheriff 23 Eliz. met the Judges with sevenscore men in suitable Liveries. For a Person well spoken, comely, and skill’d in the Languages, he is said to have had scarce an equal (except Sir Philip Sidney,) and no superiour, in England. Not far from it is Helaugh-manour,Helaugh-manour. which belong’d to the honourable and ancient family of the Whartons; in the Church whereof is the Monument of Sir Thomas Wharton, Lord Warden of the West-marches, who gave so great a defeat to the Scots at Solemn-moss, An. 1542,Nov. 24. that their King, James the fifth, soon after dy’d of grief. With three hundred men, he not only defeated their Army, but took * * Herbert.
Hen.8. p.484.
above a thousand prisoners, for which good service he receiv’d several marks of honour.⌉

Then Wherf passeth by Tadcaster,Tadcaster. a very small Town; which yet I cannot but think was the same with Calcaria,Calcaria. both from the distance, the name, and the nature of the soil; especially, since it is agreeable to the opinion of Mr. Robert Marshal of Bickerton, a person of excellent judgment. For it is just nine Italian miles from York, which is the distance in Antoninus. And Limestone (which is the main ingredient in mortar) is hardly to be found all about, but plentifully here; from whence it is conveyed to York, and all the Country round, for building. This Limestone was call’d by the Britains, the Saxons, and the Northern English, after the manner of the Latins, Calc (“For that imperious City not only imposed her Laws upon those she had subdu’d, but her Language too;”) and CalcariensesCalcarienses. in the Theodosian CodeDe Decurionibus, l.27.
Roman Language in the Provinces.
Augustin. l.9. de Civit. Dei.
is used to denote them who burnt this Limestone: from whence one may, not improbably, infer, that this Town had the name Calcaria, from Limestone, like the City Chalcis from Greek xalxos, brass; Ammon from Greek text sand, Pteleon from Greek text, elms; and perhaps the city Calcaria in Clive from the word Calx. Especially, considering that Bede calls it Calca-cester; who tells us farther, that Heina, the first woman of this Country that turned Nun, came to this City, and lived in it. ⌈(Some Copies of Bede call her Heru and Hegu, but others more truly Begu and Bega; being the † † Monast. Ang. p.395.S. Bega from Ireland, who built her first Monastery at St. Bege’s in Cornwall; her second at Heruty or Hartlepool; and her third, here. But this by the way.)⌉ Again, here is, by the Town, a hill called Kelcbar, which still retains something of the old name. The other proofs of Antiquity (not to mention its situation near a Roman Consular way,) are the many Coins of the Roman Emperours dug-up here, the marks of a trench quite round the Town, and the platform of an old Castle; out of the ruins of which, a bridge was made over the Wherf, not many years ago. ⌈But there are others, who place the Roman Calcaria at Newton-Kyme, in the Water-fields, near St. Helens-ford; for many Roman Coins have been plowed-up there, particularly of Constantius, Helena, and Constantine; also, an Urn or Box of Alabaster, with only ashes in it; melted Lead and Rings; one of which had a Key of the same piece joined with it. And as the Coyns, so the Roman High-way makes for this Opinion. For it goes directly to Roadgate, and crosses the river Wharfe at St. Helensford, so call’d from Helena mother of Constantine the Great; (unless we should say, with Dr. Gale, that it is a contraction of Nehalenn’s-ford; the Goddess Nehalennia being the Patroness of the Chalk-workers:) Also, the passage from that to York, is firmer ground by much than that from Tadcaster; which would hardly be passable, were it not for the Causey made over the Common, between Tadcaster and Bilburgh. Now, this Ford dividing the Roman Agger, gives just reason to expect a Roman City or Station, rather near this, than any other place. Nor ought it to be objected, that there is at present no passage: for it had formerly a bridge of wood, the sills whereof yet remain; but when that was broken down, and the Wharf was not fordable, they found a way by Wetherby. Nor is there any thing said in favour of Tadcaster, but what is equally, if not more, applicable to Newton-Kyme. The distance holds more exactly; the hill call’d Kelc-bar is at Smawe, which is nearer Newton than Tadcaster; and as to Heina, who remov’d to Calca-cester, it is possible enough there might in those early times be a Religious House consecrated to the memory of the pious Helena, about St. Helens-ford. At Calcaria liv’d also Adaman (who was afterward Abbot of Hue, or Huensis, and dy’d Octob. 23. An. 704.) of whose name there seem to be some remains, in that place at Newton-Kyme call’d Adaman-grove. The present name (which carries in it something new and modern) ought not to be any prejudice to it. For since it is back’d with such infallible proofs of Antiquity; this conclusion is very natural, that it was called New-town, when new buildings began to be erected upon the foundations of the old town. But, of these two Opinions, the Reader is left to chuse which he pleases.⌉ Not far from the foremention’d bridge, the Wherf glides gently into the Ouse. And really, considering the many currents that fall into it, this so shallow and easie stream under the Bridge, is very strange, and might well give occasion to what a certain Gentleman, who passed it in the Summer-time, said of it:

Nil Tadcaster habet Musis vel carmine dignumItinerary of T. Eades.
Præter magnificè structum sine flumine pontem

Nothing in Tadcaster deserves a name,
But the fair Bridge that’s built without a stream.

But if he had travell’d this way in winter, he would have thought the bridge little enough for the river. For (as Natural Philosophers know very well) the quantity of water in springs and rivers ever depends upon the inward or outward heat and cold.

⌈Here, at Tadcaster, Dr. Owen Oglethorp (a native of Newton-Kime) Bishop of Carlisle, who crown’d Queen Elizabeth (the See of Canterbury being then void, and York refusing it,) founded, and * * 40 l. per ann.endowed a Free-school, as also an Hospital for twelve poor people with a suitable Revenue. Near Tadcaster is Bramham-moor,Bram­ham-moor. where, at Bramham-Park, the Lord Bingley hath built a stately House.⌉

Somewhat higher, the river Nid,Nid, riv. issuing from the bottom of Craven-hills, is carried in a muddy chanel by Nidherdale,Nidherdale. a valley so call’d from it; and thence, under the cover of woods on both sides, by Ripley,Ripley. a Market-Town, where the family of the Inglebeys have flourish’d with great Antiquity and Reputation. ⌈This was the birth-place of Sir George Ripley, famous for his study after the Philosopher’s Stone; whom we are the rather to mention, because he hath been falsly plac’d at Ripley in Surrey.⌉ Then it goes on to Gnaresburgh, commonly Knarsborrow,Knarsborrow-Castle. a Castle situated upon a craggy rock (from whence it took its name) and surrounded by that deep river. It is said to have been built by Serlo de Burgh, uncle by the father’s side to Eustace Vescy; afterwards, it came to be the Seat of the Estotevilles; and now it belongs to the Dutchy of Lancaster. Under it, there is a fountain, which does not issue from the bowels of the Earth, but distills, in drops, from the rocks hanging over it, and so is call’d Dropping-Well:Dropping-Well. if a piece of wood be put in it, it is in a little time crusted overA Fountain that converts wood into Stone. with a stony substance, and by degrees turned into stone. ⌈The Castle is now demolish’d, so that it is chiefly famous for four medicinal Springs nigh unto it; and possibly England cannot produce a place, that may truly boast of four, so near in situation, and yet of very different operations. 1. The Sweet-Spaw or Vitrioline-well, discover’d by Mr. Slingsby about the year 1620. 2. The Stinking or Sulphur-well, said to cure the Dropsie, Spleen, Scurvy, Gout, &c. so that what formerly was call’d the dishonour of Physick, may be call’d the honour of the Scarborow-Spaw; the late way of bathing being esteem’d very soveraign. 3. St. Mongahs (not Magnus, amangus, mungus or mugnus, as frequently miscall’d) or Kentigern’s, a Scotish Saint, much honour’d in these parts; whom his Tutor Servanus Bishop of Orkney, lov’d beyond others, and us’d to call him Mongah† Spotswood’s History of the Church of Scotland, pag.11., in the Norish tongue a dear friend. The fourth, viz. the Dropping-Well before-mention’d, is * * Dr. Wittie’s Answ. to Dr. Tonstal, p.54.the most famous of all the petrifying Wells in England; and the ground upon which it drops from the spungy porous rock above twelve yards long, is all become a solid Rock; from whence it runs into Nid, where the spring-water has made a rock, that stretches some yards into the river. Yet it must be confess’d to fall short of that stupendous Spring at Clarmont in Auverne, a Province in France, where the Lapidescent is so strong, that it turns all its substance into stone, and being put into a glass will turn presently into a stone of the same form. And † † Hydrogr. Spag. l.2. c.14.Petrus Joannes Faber, a French Physician, reports,Wittie, ibid. p.52. that they make bridges of it to pass into their gardens over the rivulet that comes from it: for by placing timber, and then pumping up the water upon it, they have a compleat stone-bridge in 24 hours. Nor must St. Robert’s ChapelSt. Robert’s Chapel. be forgot, being a Cell hewn out of an entire Rock, part whereof is form’d into an Altar which yet remains, and three heads, which (according to the devotion of that age) might be design’d for the Holy Trinity. The said Robert, Founder of the Order of the Robertines, was the son of one Flower, who was twice Mayor of York; * * Legend of the life and death of S. Robert.where he was born, and forsaking his fair Lands, betook himself to a solitary life among the Rocks here, where he dy’d about the year 1216.⌉liquorice licorice mohammed marle

In the adjacent fields, Liquorish grows plentifully, and they find a yellow soft marl, which proves an excellent rich manure. The office of Ranger of the Forest here, belong’d formerly to one Gamellus, whose posterity took the name of Screven, from Screven the place of their habitation. From them are descended the Slingsbeys,Slingsbey. who were made Rangers of this Forest by King Edward the first, and live here to this day in a very flourishing condition. ⌈Of this family was the Loyal Sir Henry Slingesby, who was beheaded for his Fidelity to King Charles the second. Upon the Forest, was lately found a large stately † † In Mr. Thoresby’s Musæum.Medal, inscrib’d, JO. KENDAL. RHODI TVRCVPELLERIVS. Rev. TEMPORE OBSIDIONIS TVRCHORVM. MCCCCLXXX.1480 museum Musaeum Maltese cross. Which is the more remarkable, because it expresseth the presence of our Country-man Kendall (with his image and arms) in that famous siege of Rhodes, when the great Mahomet was worsted.

East from Knaresbrough stands Ribston-hall,Ribston-hall. the pleasant Seat of the Goodricks; of whom, Sir Henry was Ambassadour from King Charles the second to the King of Spain, and also Privy-Councellor, and Lieutenant of the Ordnance of the Tower of London; and dying without issue, was succeeded by his Nephew, of both his names. At Copgrave,Copgrave. to the north, is a memorable Epitaph of John Wincupp Rector thereof for 54 years, pious, charitable and peaceable, never su’d any, nor was su’d, liv’d 52 years with his wife, had six children and a numerous family (boarding and teaching many of the Gentry) out of which not one dy’d in all that time; himself was the first, the 8th of July, A.D. 1637, in the 86th year of his age. Northward from Knaresbrough, is a most noble Hall built by Sir Edward Blacket, with delicate Gardens adorn’d with Statues.⌉ The Nid, having pass’d these places, runs but a little way, before it falls into the Ouse, not far from Allerton,Allerton. the Seat of an ancient and famous family the Malliverers, Knights, who in old writings are call’d Mali-Leporarii, ⌈and whose name occurs in the List of the Sheriffs of the County, since the 8th year of Henry the fifth.⌉

Out of these Western Mountains springs likewise the river Ure,Ure, riv. but in another part of the Country (namely in the North-riding:) which still retaining this name, and watering the North part of the County, a little before it reaches Rippon,Rippon. becomes the boundary between the North and the West-riding. This Rippon, in Saxon Saxon hrippun, is situated between the Ure and the little river Skell, and owes it’s greatness to Religion; especially to a Monastery built by Wilfred Archbishop of York, in the infancy of the English Church; which was wonderful, says Malmesbury, for its arched vaults, its fine pavements, and winding Entries. But this was entirely demolish’d (together with the whole town) by the Danes, whose outrage and cruelty knew no distinction between things sacred and prophane. After that, it was rebuilt by Odo Archbishop of Canterbury, who being a most religious observer of holy Rites, transferred the Reliques of St. Wilfrid from hence to Canterbury. ⌈But before the time that Wilfrid came hither, there was a Monastery of Scots at Rippon, as † † Eccl. Hist. l.3. c.25.
l.5. c.20.
Bede acknowledgeth; and ¦ ¦ Life of S. Cuthbert, cap.7, 8.he tells us also, who those Scots were, namely, Eata Abbot of Mailros, and his Monks.⌉ However, this Town was never so considerable as since the Norman Conquest, when, as one tells us, greater plenty of Monasteries began to be built. Then, this Monastery also began to encrease and flourish under the patronage of the Archbishops of York; and the Town too, under it’s Governour, call’d in Saxon Wakeman,Wakeman. that is to say Watchman, and by their diligence in the Woollen Manufacture, which is now slackened. The Town is adorn’d with a very neat Church, built by the contributions of the Gentry hereabouts, and of the Treasurer of the Town; having three Spire-steeples, which welcome Strangers at a distance, and vie with the rich Abbey of Fountain, built within sight of it, by Thurstin Archbishop of York, ⌈and favourably valued at the Dissolution, at 1173 l. 0 s. 7 d. ob. In the Minster-yard, is this modest Inscription for a two thousand-pound-Benefactor; Hic jacet Zacharias Jepson, cujus ætas fuit 49. Perpaucos tantum annos vixit.⌉ On one side of the Church, stands a little College † Cantorum.for Singing-men, founded by * * So in the Text.Henry Both Archbishop of York; on the other side, a great earthen Mount, call’d Hilshaw, cast up, as they say, by the Danes. Within the Church, Wilfrid’s NeedleSt. Wilfrid’s Needle. was mighty famous in the last age. The business was this; there was a strait passage into a room close and vaulted, under ground, whereby trial was made of any woman’s chastity: if she was chast, she pass’d with ease, but if otherwise, she was, by I know not what miracle, stop’d, and detain’d there. ⌈At this Town, in, the year 1695. was found a considerable number of Saxon Coins, namely, of their brass Sticca’s, whereof there were eight to a Penny. They were of the later race of the Kings of Deira, or rather the Subreguli, after Egbert had reduc’d it to be part of his Monarchy.⌉

The Monastery of FountainFountain. is delicately situated, in a fruitful soil, wherein are veins of Lead; and had its original from twelve Monks of York, who affecting a more rigid and strict course of life, left their Cloisters, and, after a great deal of trouble and hardship, were settled here by Thurstin Archbishop of York, who founded it for that purpose. However, I should scarce have taken notice of them, but that St. Bernard in his Epistles has so much commended their Order and Discipline.

Not much lower, upon the river Ure, is Burrowbridge,Burrowbridge. a little Town so call’d from the bridge there, which is made of stone, and is very high and stately; but in Edward the second’s time it seems to have been only a wooden one. For we read, that while the Barons harrass’d that King and the whole Kingdom, Humphrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford, in passing over it, was run up the groin quite through the body by a Soldier who lay under the bridge, and took the advantage of pushing through a chink. Just by the bridge, in three little fields to the Westward, I saw * * Now 3.
four huge Stones, of a pyramidal form, very rough and unpolish’d, and placed as it were in a streight line one from another. The two middle Stones (one of which was lately displaced in hopes of finding Money), almost touch’d one another; the outer ones standing at some small and equal distance from them. As for the design or meaning of them, I have nothing to say, but that my Opinion is agreeable with some others in this point, That it was a Roman Trophy rais’d by the high-way, which runs along here.concrete cement As for the silly stories of their being those bolts which the DevilDevils bolts. shot at some Cities hereabouts, and so destroy’d them; I think it not worth while to mention them. Thus much however is observable, that many, and these learned men, are of opinion, that the Stones are not natural, but an artificial compound of fine Sand, Lime, and Vitriol (for of this they fansy it has some grains,) as also of an oily unctuous matter. Much like those Cisterns at Rome, which Pliny tells us were made of Sand and hot Lime; so very compact and firm, that one would have taken them for real stone. ⌈This Opinion, that they are artificial, may seem to receive support from the like Stones in Oxfordshire, called the Devils-coits, which Dr. PlotHist. Oxford. p.343. affirms to be made of a small kind of stones cemented together, whereof there are great numbers in the fields thereabouts. Philosoph. Collect. N.4. p.90, 91. But others think it evident, that they are natural, and not fictitious, and that they are made of one of the most common sort of Stone, viz. a coarse Rag or Milstone grit; alledging, that the remains of the Gates at York, and a Roman Head, and two Roman Altars, in Yorkshire, are plainly of that kind of Stone, and the same with these. And against the imagined impossibility of bringing Stones of that bigness from any considerable distance, they alledge, the vast pile at Stonehenge, supposed to have been brought from Rockley, twenty miles from the place; whereas above Ilkley, a Roman Station within sixteen miles of Burrowbridge, is a solid bed of Stone, that would yield Obelisks thirty foot long.Phoenicians

Whether the foregoing conjecture of their being set up as Trophies by the Romans, may be allow’d, is not so certain. A * * Hist. Staff. p.398.later Antiquary seems inclin’d to conclude them to be a British work; supposing, that they might be erected in memory of some battel fought there: but he is rather of opinion, that they were British Deities, agreeing with the Learned Dr. Stillingfleet, and grounding upon the custom of the Phœnicians and Greeks (Nations undoubtedly acquainted with Britain, before the arrival of the Romans) who set up unpolish’d stones instead of images, to the honour of their Gods. And another, * * Gale, Itinerar. p.17.yet later, thinks they are those Mercuries, describ’d by the Ancients, which were usually placed where four ways met (as they did here;) and that the head of the Mercury on the top of the stones, and the Inscriptions, may be worn off by Time.

In the Garden-wall of Sir William Tancred’s house at Burrowbridge, is an imperfect Inscription, which seems to have been sepulchral:

Inscription in a garden wall

Somewhat Eastward from the bridge before-mention’d, stands Isurium Brigantum,Isurium. an ancient city, which took its name from the Ure running by it; but has been entirely demolish’d many ages since. There is still a village upon the same spot, which carries antiquity in its name, being call’d Ealdburg and Aldborrow,Aldborrow. that is to say, an old Burrough; where are now few or no signs remaining of a City, the plot thereof being converted into arable and pasture grounds. So that the evidence of History it self would be suspected, in testifying this to be the old Isurium, if the name of the river Ure, the Roman coins continually dug-up, and the distance between it and York, according to Antoninus ⌈viz. sixteen miles⌉ were not convincing and undeniable Proofs.

⌈But to be somewhat more particular in the description of this Place, and the remains of Antiquity they meet with:Letters from Mr. Moris Minister there. The ancient Town (as appear’d by a late Survey) contain’d within the walls, sixty Acres; being almost a direct square, upon a declining hill towards Ure on the north-side: Road-gate, leading to the old Cataractonium, went through it to Milby; and the way through the meadows may yet be discover’d, bearing the name of Brig-gates, near half a mile east of the present Bridge. Under the South-wall, there seems to have been an old Camp, of about two acres, the only place, on the outside, where Coins are found. The old Walls were about four yards thick, founded upon large pebles laid on a bed of blue Clay, four or five yards deep. Aquaeduct Aquaduct tile caesar The soil is black; which makes the tradition probable, that it was burnt by the Danes when York was almost destroy’d by them; and also, upon opening the ground, Bones are seen half-burnt, with other black Ashes. Here have been found also fragments of Aquæducts cut in great stones, and cover’d with Roman tyle; and in the late Civil wars, as they were digging a Cellar, they met with a sort of Vault, leading, as it is said, to the river: if it was of Roman work (for it has not yet met with any one curious enough to search it) it might probably be a Repository for the Dead. The Coins (generally of brass, but some few of silver) are rarely elder than Claudius, yet some there are of Augustus Cæsar, and so down to the Antonines, with Carausius and Alectus, and two of the thirty Tyrants, viz. Postumus and Tetricus; but those of Constantine are most common. They meet also with little Roman heads of brass; and have formerly found coin’d pieces of gold, with chains of the same metal; but none of late. Here have likewise been found, within the circuit of the old walls, about twenty little polish’d Signet-stones, of divers kinds and cuts; particularly one had a horse upon it, and a stamp of Laurel shooting out five branches: another, a Roman sitting, with a sacrificing dish in one hand, and resting his other on a spear: a third, a Roman (if not Pallas) with a spear in one hand, wearing a helmet, and a shield on the back, or on the other arm; and under that something like a quiver hanging to the knee: a fourth (of a purple colour) has a Roman head like Severus or Antonine: a fifth, hath the head of Jupiter Ammon; a sixth, an Eagle, with a Civick Crown in its Bill; a seventh, a winged Victory crowning a Trophy. Several Pavements have been found about a foot under-ground, and compass’d with stones of about an inch square; but within are little stones of a quarter that bigness, wrought into knots and flowers, after the Mosaick-fashion. No Altars are met with; but pieces of Urns and old Glass are common: and they have also found several Vessels of red earth, wrought with knots, flowers, heads, birds, and beasts; and lately, a lamp of earth, and a Cothon or Poculum Laconicum, which the Soldiers did use, in their marches, for clearing of water, by passing it into several Concavities made therein. In the Vestry-Wall of the Church, is plac’d a figure of Pan or Silvanus, in one rough stone nyched.⌉

By that time the Ure (which from henceforward the Saxons call’d Ouse, because the Ouseburne, a little brook, falls into it here) has run sixteen Italian miles further, it arrives at the City EboracumEboracum.
or Eburacum, which † † Lib.2. Mag. Construct.Ptolemy calls Brigantium, * * Gale, Itinerar. p.19.if the Book be not faulty, and that mistake have not risen from its being the Metropolis of the Brigantes; ⌈Spartian, simply and by way of excellency, Civitas, a City;⌉ Ninnius, Caer-Ebrauc, the Britains Caer-Effroc, the Saxons Saxon euor-wic, and Saxon eofor-wic, ⌈ Saxon eoforwic-ceastre, and sometimes simply Saxon Ceastre,⌉ and we at this day, York. The British History derives the name from the first founder, King Ebraucus. But with submission to better judgments, my opinion is, that the word Eburacum comes from the river Ure; implying its situation to be upon that river. Thus the Eburovices in France were seated by the river Ure, near Eureux in Normandy; the Eburones in the Netherlands, near the river Ourt, in the Diocese of Liege; and Eb-lana in Ireland, by the river Lefny. York is the second city in England, the finest in this County, and the great defence and ornament to those northern parts. It is pleasant, large, and strong, adorn’d with fine buildings (publick and private,) populous, rich, and an Archbishop’s See. The river Ure, which now has the name of Ouse, runs gently (as I said) from north to south, quite through the City, and divides it into two parts, joyn’d by a Stone-bridge, which, among others, has one of the largest Arches I ever saw. The west-part of the City, is less populous, and lies in a square form, enclos’d with stately walls, and with the river, and has but one way to it, namely by Mikell-barr, which signifies a great Gate. From whence a long fair-built street on both sides, leads to the very bridge, with fine Gardens behind them, and the fields, for Exercises, extended to the very walls. In the south-angle of which, form’d by them and by the river, I saw a mount that has probably been cast up for some Castle to be built there, now call’d the old Bale, which William Melton the Archbishop (as we find it in the Lives of the Archbishops) fortify’d first with thick planks eighteen foot long, and afterwards with a stone wall; of which nothing now remains.

The east-part of the City (where the buildings are thick, and the streets but narrow) is shap’d like a lentil, and strongly wall’d. On the south-east it is defended by a FossFoss river. or Ditch, very deep and muddy, which runs by obscure ways into the very heart of the City, and has a bridge over it so set with buildings on both sides, that a stranger would mistake it for a street: after which, it falls into the Ouse. At the confluence, over-against the Mount before-mention’d, William the Conqueror built a very strong Castle, to awe the Citizens. But this, without any care, has been left to the mercy of time, ever since fortify’d places have grown into disrepute among us, as only fit for those who want courage to face an enemy in the field. On this side also, to the north-east, stands the Cathedral, dedicated to St. Peter, a magnificent and curious fabrick; near which, without the walls, was a noble Monastery, surrounded with the river and its own walls, nam’d St. Mary’s. This was founded by Alan the third, Earl of Bretaign in Armorica and of Richmond here in England; and plentifully endow’d by him; ⌈being valu’d at the Dissolution at above two thousand Pounds.⌉ But, † † Now it is, C.after that, it was converted into a Royal Palace, and is commonly call’d the Manour;The Manour. ⌈and it is now divided into lesser Houses.⌉

As for the original of York; I cannot tell whence to derive it, but from the Romans, seeing the British towns before the coming-in of the Romans were only woods fortify’d with a ditch and rampire, as Cæsar and Strabo (who are Evidences beyond exception) assure us. caesar Not to mention the story of King Ebraucus (a word form’d from the name Eboracum) who is grossly feign’d and believ’d to be the founder of it; this is certain, that the sixth Legion, call’d Victrix, and sent out of Germany into Britain by Hadrian, was in garrison here: and, that this was a Roman Colony, we are assur’d both by Antoninus and Ptolemy, and by an old Inscription, which I my self have seen in the house of a certain Alderman of this City:


And also from Severus the Emperor’s Coins, which have this Inscription on the reverse;


⌈It seems also plain, that the ninth Legion resided here; from an Inscription upon a funeral Monument for the Standard-bearer thereof, which was found in Trinity-yard in Mickle-gate, under his Statue in bass-relieve, and is now in the Gardens at Ribston, the seat of the Goodricks.

Philosoph. Trans. N.305. Inscription

That this ninth Legion was in Britain in Galba’s time, and that it was also call’d Hispaniensis, appears from the notes of the Learned Sir Henry Savil at the end of his Edition of Tacitus; but that it was stil’d Victrix, as well as the sixth and twentieth, and that its station was at York, hath not been observ’d before; and yet both are evident from this Inscription upon a Roman brick found there:

Philosoph. Trans. N.305. Inscription on brick

Other remains of Roman Antiquity have been also discover’d from time to time in this place. For (not to mention the old Arch in the Bar leading to Micklestreet, and several parts of the City-walls, and a multangular tower in Coningstreet, all of Roman work,) there was lately found, in digging a Cellar in Coningstreet, a Monument dedicated to the Genius, or tutelar Deity of the place, which is thus inscrib’d,

Philosoph. Trans. N.303. Inscription on monument

Also, a little without Boutham-Bar, was the Roman burying-place; where have been found considerable numbers of their Urns, with their burnt Bones and Ashes; bouth, or boetham, being so call’d, probably, from these burnings of the Romans, for boeth in British signifies what is burnt with fire:Philosoph. Trans. N.244. 296. Here was also dug-up an old Roman Coffin, of red Clay, above fourteen inches long; and a Lead-Coffin, seven foot long, inclos’d in a prodigious strong one of Oak-Plants; within which, the Bones were entire, though probably inter’d near fifteen hundred years ago, after the Antonines had introduc’d the Custom of Burying the dead, instead of Burning.

In the year 1638. in a house near Bishop-hill, was found this Altar, which is, or lately was, at the Duke of Buckingham’s house in York:

I. O. m.
dis. Deabvsqve
hospitalibvs pe
natibvsq. Ob. Con
servatam salvtem
svam: Svorvmq.
p. Ael. Marcian
vs. Præf. Coh.
aram. Sac. F. ncd.

In the Church-wall,Philosoph. Trans. N.145. in All-Saints-street, is this Monument of Conjugal Affection,


Not many years since, in digging for the foundation of a new house, † † Phil. Trans. n.303.were discover’d a great number of Norman Coins, mostly of William the Conqueror.⌉caesars Praenestines

The same Victor that was lately publish’d by Andr. Scottus. Upon what grounds, Victor, in his History of the Cæsars, calls York a Municipium, when it was a Colony, I cannot readily tell; unless the Inhabitants might desire, as the Prænestines did, to be chang’d from a Colony to a Municipium.Municipium. For ColoniesColonia. were more obnoxious and servile; being not left to their own Liberty, as Agellius tells us, but govern’d by the Roman Laws and Customs. Whereas, the Municipia were allow’d the free use of their own Constitutions, and enjoy’d those honourable offices which the Citizens of Rome did, without being ty’d to any other duties; and therefore it is not strange that a Colony should be converted into a Municipium. But to what purpose is this nicety? For the difference between those two words is not always precisely observ’d in the History of the Emperors, but sometimes both Colonia and Municipium are promiscuously apply’d to one and the same place. Yet, from the Coins before-mention’d, I dare hardly affirm this Colony to have been planted here by Severus, seeing Ptolemy tells us, that in the time of the Antonines, this was the station of the sixth Legion. Severus. However, we read that Severus had his Palace here, and that he dy’d in this city, uttering these words with his last breath, The Commonwealth was disorder’d in all the parts when I receiv’d it; yet leave I it in peace, even to the Britains. His Corps was also brought out after the Roman manner by the Soldiers, and committed to the flames; and the day was solemniz’d with races by his sons and soldiers, at a certain place below the town, to the west, near Ackham; where stands a huge mount, which Radulphus Niger tells us, was, in his time, call’d Sivers (as it is also by some at this day) from Severus. His ashes were preserv’d in a golden Urn, or a vessel of Porphyrite-stone; which was carry’d to Rome, and laid in the monument of the Antonines. I must not forget to take notice, that there was in this City a Temple dedicated to Bellona;Bellona’s Temple. for Spartian speaking of the City, says, That Severus coming into it, and intending to offer sacrifice, was first conducted to the Temple of Bellona by the mistake of an ignorant Augur. AEmilius And, that it was then so happy, as to have justice administer’d in it by that great Oracle of the Law, Æmilius Paulus Papinianus, Forcatulus has told us. From this City, the Emperors Severus and Antoninus, upon a question arising about the sense of the Law, dated their Rescript de Rei Vindicatione. About a hundred years after the death of Severus, Fla. Val. Constantius,Constantius Chlorus. sirnam’d Chlorus, an Emperor endow’d with all moral and Christian Virtues, came to this City (as the Panegyrist speaks,) the Gods calling him hither, as to the remotest part of the world. Here he dy’d likewise, and was afterwards deify’d, as appears by the old Coins. And though Florilegus tells us, that his Tomb was found in Wales, as I have already observ’d; yet I have been inform’d by credible persons, that at the suppression of Monasteries in the † † So said, ann. 1607.last age, there was found a Lamp burning in the vault of that little Chapel, wherein Constantius was thought to be bury’d. Lazius tells us, that the ancients had an art of dissolving gold into a fat liquor, and of preparing it so, that it would continue burning in the Sepulchres for many ages. Romanae Reipublicae Constantius, by his first wife Helena, had issue Constantinus Maximus,Constantine the Great. stiled in Inscriptions Romanæ Urbis Liberator, Quietis fundaor, and Reipublicæ instaurator; who here receiv’d the last breath of his dying father, and was immediately declar’d Emperor. The soldiers (as the Panegyrist says) regarding rather the benefit of the State, than their own private interests, cast the Robes upon him, whilst he wept and spur’d his horse, to avoid the importunity of the army, attempting at that instant to make him Emperor; but at last his modesty gave way to the Happiness of the State. And therefore he exclaims at last; O fortunate Britain, now bless’d above all Nations for having first seen Constantine Emperor. Again— Liberavit ille Britannias servitute, tu etiam Nobiles illic oriendo fecisti: i.e. He rescu’d the Britains from slavery, but thou hast ennobled them by being born there. Which passage, in the judgment of the learned Baronius and others, refers to the native Country of Constantine. But I will not here repeat, what I have † † Pag.xciii.already said.

From all this it may be infer’d, what figure Eboracum then made in the world; seeing it was the Seat of the Roman Emperors. Our own Historians tell us †† The truth of this is question’d. See Full. Hist. ann.305., that it was made an Episcopal See by Constantius. But that Taurinus the Martyr, Bishop of the Eburovices or Eureux, presided in this See, I am not inclin’d, with others, to believe; since Vincentius,Vincentii Speculum Historiale. by whom they were led into this error, would confute me with his own words. When the Romans withdrew themselves, and left Britain a prey to the barbarous Nations; such a large share of those miseries fell upon this City, that towards the end of the Scotch and Saxon wars, it was nothing but the Shadow and Echo of what it had been. For when Paulinus preach’d Christianity to the Saxons of this Province, it was reduc’d so low, that the whole City could not afford so much as a small Church wherein to baptize King Edwin, who, in the year 627, rais’d ¦ ¦ Oratorium.a fabrick of wood for Divine Service; and, intending after that to build another of stone, he had scarce laid the foundation, but he dy’d, leaving the work to be finish’d by his successor King Oswald. From this time, the City began to be great in Ecclesiastical Dignity. Pope Honorius sent it a Pall, and it was made a Metropolitan City;Scotland formerly subject to the Archbishop of York. with the Primacy, not only over twelve Sees here in England, but over all the Bishopricks of Scotland. See in Scotland. But Scotland hath disown’d its Prerogative many years since, and it self hath swallow’d up several small inconsiderable Bishopricks hereabouts, so that the whole Province is now reduc’d to the four Sees of Durham, Chester, Carlisle, and Man (or Sodor) in the Isle of Man. Egbert, Archbishop of this See, who liv’d about the year 740,The Library. founded a noble Library here (these are the words of Malmsbury;) a Treasury and Cabinet, if I may so express my self, enrich’d with all Arts and Sciences. Of which also, Alcuinus of York (who was Tutor to Charles the great, and the first Founder of an Academy at Paris, and also the great gloryFlaccus Alcuinus or Albinus, flourish’d about 780. of this City) makes mention in his Epistle to the same Charles the great: Give me such excellent and learned Books of Scholastick Divinity, as I have seen in my own Country, collected by the useful and pious industry of Egbert, Archbishop. And if it seem good to your Wisdom, I will send some of your own servants, who may copy out of them such things as be necessary, and so transplant the flowers of Britain into France, that this garden may no longer be confin’d to York, but something of that Paradise may be brought to Tours; Bale.⌈where, by the way, Alcuinus dy’d anno 780, and was bury’d in a small Convent appendant to the Monastery of St. Martin, of which he was Abbot.⌉ The Church of York was by the Princes of that time endow’d with many large possessions, especially by Ulphus the son of Toraldus: which I the rather note from an old book, that a strange way of Endowing heretofore, may be observ’d: This Ulphus govern’d in the west parts of Deira, and by reason of a difference like to happen between his eldest son and his youngest, aboutDominiis.his Estate after his death, he presently took this course to make them equal. Without delay he went to York, and taking with him the horn, wherein he was wont to drink, he fill’d it with wine, and kneeling upon his knees before the Altar, bestow’d upon God and the blessed St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, all his Lands and Revenues. This Horn was kept there to the * * So said, ann. 1607.last age, as I have been inform’d; ⌈and having been lost or stol’n, for a long time, was recover’d by Henry Lord Fairfax, and remains in the Minster at this day.⌉

It would seem to reflect upon the Clergy, if I should relate the secret emulations and open quarrels which ambition has rais’d between the two Sees of York and Canterbury, whilst, with great expence of money, but more of reputation, they warmly contended for Pre-eminence. For (as one relates it)T. Stobbes. the See of York was equal in dignity, though it was the younger, and poorer sister; and this being rais’d to the same power that the See of Canterbury was, and having its Privileges confirm’d by the same Apostolical Authority, took it very heinously to be made subject by the decree of Pope Alexander; which declares, that the Archbishoprick of York ought to yield to that of Canterbury, and pay an obedience to her Archbishop, as Primate of all Britain, in all matters relating to Religion. ⌈Which Controversy was determin’d in the time of Archbishop Thoresby, anno 1353,Angl. Sacr. Par.1. p.74. at the special sollicitation of King Edward the third (who earnestly excited the two Archbishops to Peace and Concord;) so as the Archbishops of York might legally write themselves Primates of England.⌉ It falls not within the compass of my design, to treat of the Archbishops of this See, though many of them have been persons of great virtue and piety. It is enough for me to observe, that from the year 625, when Paulinus the first Archbishop was consecrated, there † † Have succeeded, C.succeeded in it threescore and five Archbishops, to the year 1606. in which Dr. Tobias Matthews, Venerable for his virtue and piety, for his learned eloquence, and for his indefatigable Preaching, was translated hither, from the Bishoprick of Durham; ⌈(since which, ten others having been added, raise the number of Archbishops of York to seventy-five.) The wife of the foresaid Archbishop Matthews, a prudent Matron, daughter of Bishop Barlow (a Confessor in Queen Mary’s time) was a great Benefactress to this Church, bestowing upon it the Library of her husband, which consisted of above three thousand Books. She is memorable likewise for having a Bishop to her father, an Archbishop (Matthew Parker of Canterbury) to her father-in-law, four Bishops to her brethren, and an Archbishop to her husband.⌉

This City flourish’d very much for some time under the Saxon Government, till those Danish storms came from the North, and spoil’d its beauty again, by great ruins and most dismal slaughter. Which Alcuin in his Epistle to Egelred King of the Northumbrians seems to have foretold. What (says he) can be the meaning of that shower of blood, which in Lent we saw at York, the Metropolis of the Kingdom, near St. Peter’s Church, descending with great horror from the roof of the north-part of the House in a clear day? May not we imagine that this forebodes destruction and blood among us from that quarter? For in the following age, when the Danes laid every thing waste, this City was involv’d in very great and very terrible Calamities. In the year 867. the walls of it were so shaken by the many assaults made upon them, that Osbright and Ella, Kings of Northumberland, as they pursu’d the Danes in these parts, easily broke into the City, and after a bloody conflict in the midst of it, were both slain, leaving the victory to the Danes, who had retir’d hither. Hence, that of William of Malmesbury; York, ever most obnoxious to the fury of the northern nations, hath sustain’d the barbarous assaults of the Danes, and groan’d deeply under the miseries which it hath suffer’d. But, as the same Author informs us, King Athelstan took it from the Danes, and demolish’d that castle with which they had fortify’d it. Nor in after-ages was it quite deliver’d from the calamities of War; in that age especially, which was so noted for the subversion of Cities.

But the Normans, as they put an end to these miseries, so they almost brought destruction to York. Alfred of Beverley, in the Library of the Lord Burleigh, Treasurer of England. For when the sons of Sueno the Dane arriv’d here with a fleet of two hundred and forty sail, and landed hard by; the Normans, who kept garrison in two castles in the City, fearing lest the houses in the suburbs might be serviceable to the enemy in filling up the trenches, set them on fire; which was so encreas’d and dispers’d by the wind, that it presently spread over the whole City, and set it all on fire. In this distraction, the Danes took the town, putting many of the People to the sword, and reserving William Mallet and Gilbert Gant, two principal men, to beA Decimation. Decimated among the soldiers afterwards. For every tenth prisoner of the Normans on whom the lot fell, was executed. Which so exasperated William the Conqueror, that (as if the Citizens had sided with the Danes) he cut them all off, and set the City again on fire: and (as Malmesbury says) so spoil’d all the adjacent territory, that a fruitful Province was become a prey, and the country for sixty miles together lay so much neglected, that a stranger would have lamented the sight (considering its once fine cities, high towers, and rich pastures;) and no former inhabitant could so much as know it. The ancient grandeur of the place may appear from Domesday-book. In the time of Edward the Confessor, the City of York contain’d six Shires or Divisions, besides the Shire of the Archbishop. One was wasted for the castles; in the five remaining Shires there were one thousand four hundred and twenty-eight houses, inhabited, and in the Shire of the Archbishop two hundred houses inhabited. After all these Overthrows, Necham sings thus of it:

Visito quam fœlix Ebraucus condidit urbem,
Petro se debet Pontificalis apex,
Civibus hæc toties viduata, novisque repleta,
Diruta prospexit mœnia sæpe sua.
Quid manus hostilis queat, est experta frequenter,
Sed quid? nunc pacis otia longa fovent.

There happy Ebrauk’s lofty towers appear,
Which owe their mitre to St. Peter’s care.
How oft in dust the hapless town hath lain?
How oft its walls hath chang’d? how oft it’s men?
How oft the rage of sword and flames hath mourn’d?
But now long peace, and lasting joy’s return’d.

For in his days, these troublesome times being follow’d with a long and happy peace, it began to revive, and continu’d flourishing, tho’ often marked-out for destruction by our own Rebels, and the Scots. Yet in King Stephen’s time, it suffer’d extremely by a casual fire, which burnt down the Cathedral, St. Mary’s Monastery, and other Religious houses; and also, as it is suppos’d, that excellent Library which Alcuin tells us was founded by his Master Archbishop Egbert. The Monastery of St. Mary did not lie long, till it rose again to its former splendor; but the Cathedral lay neglected till King Edward the first’s time, and then it was begun by John Roman, Treasurer of this Church, and brought to that beautiful Fabrick we now see it, by his son John, William Melton, and John Thoresby, all Archbishops, together with the contributions of the Gentry thereabouts: Especially of the Percies and the Vavasors, as the Arms of those families in the Church, and their portraictures in the gate, do shew; the Percies with a piece of timber, and the Vavasors with a stone, in their hands; in memory of the one’s having contributed stone, and the other timber, to this new Fabrick. ⌈Archbishop Thoresby was a very great benefactor to it; and on the 29th of July 1361. laid the first stone of the new Quire, to which, at sixteen payments, he gave so many hundred pounds, besides many other less sums for particular uses, towards carrying on that work. As he was Archbishop of York, so was he alsoSpelm. Glos. in Cancellarius. Lord Chancellor of England, and Cardinal (which I the rather take notice of here, because he is omitted by Onuphrius,) as the Inscription of his seal testifies. S. Johis tit. Sci P.¯ ad vincula Presbyteri Cardinalis.⌉AEneas

This Church Comment. Pii P.P. lib.1.(as we are told by the Author of the Life of Æneas Silvius, Pope Pius the second, as he had it from the Pope’s own mouth) is famous for its wonderful magnificence and workmanship, and for a lightsome Chapel with glaz’d walls united by small thin-wasted pillars. This is the beautiful Chapter-house, where the following verse is written in golden Letters:

Ut Rosa flos florum, sic est Domus ista Domorum.

The chief of Houses, as the Rose of flowers.

⌈The dimensions of this Cathedral were exactly taken by an Ingenious Architect, and are as follows:

Length beside the buttresses 524½
breadth of the east-end 105
breadth of the west-end 109
breadth of the Cross from north to south 222
breadth of the Chapter-house 58½
height of the Chapter-house to the Canopy  86½
height of the body of the Minster 99
height of the Lanthorn to the Vault 188
height to the top-leads 213⌉

About the same time, the Citizens began to fortify themselves with new walls, adding many towers for their further security; and made excellent laws for the government of the City. King Richard the second made it a County incorporate, and Richard the third began to raise a new Castle in it, from the ground; ⌈(near which, stands the shell of Clifford’s tower, blown up in the year 1648 ** Apr. 24.:)⌉ and that nothing might be wanting, King Henry the eighth in the † † So said, ann. 1607.
The Council establish’d in the North.
last age establish’d a Council or Senate here, not unlike the Parliaments in France, who were to judge of all Causes arising in these northern parts, and to decide them by the rules of Equity. The Court ¦ ¦ Consists, C.consisted of a President, and what number of Counsellors the King * * Pleases, C.pleas’d, with a Secretary and Under-officers; ⌈but it is now taken away, and entirely abolish’d.

This ancient and noble City might, e’re this time, have stood in a more clear and agreeable light; if Sir Thomas Widdrington, a person accomplish’d in all Arts, as well as his own Profession of the Laws, after he had written an entire History of it, had not, upon some disgust, prohibited the publication. The original Manuscript of this History, is, or was lately, in the possession of Thomas Fairfax of Menston Esquire.⌉

Our Mathematicians have settled the Longitude of York to be 22 degr. and 25 scr. the Latitude 54 degr. and 10 scr.

Thus far we have been describing the west part of this County, and the City of York, which neither belongs to this nor any other part of the Shire, but enjoys its own Liberties, and a jurisdiction over the neighbourhood on the west-side, call’d the Liberty of Ansty:Ansty. which some derive from Ancienty, to denote its Antiquity; and others more probably from the German word Anstossen, implying a bound or limit. I will conclude what I have said of this City with these Verses written * * So said, ann. 1607.some time since by J. Jonston of Aberdeen.

Præsidet extremis Artoæ finibus oræ
Urbs vetus in veteri facta subinde nova,
Romanis Aquilis quondam Ducibusque superba,
Quam pòst barbaricæ diripuere manus.
Pictus atrox, Scotus, Danus, Normannus, & Anglus,
Fulmina in hanc Martis detonuere sui.
Post diras rerum clades, totque aspera fata,
Blandius aspirans aura serena subit
Londinum caput est, & regni urbs prima Britanni;
Eboracum à primâ jure secunda venit.

O’er the last Borders of the Northern land,
York’s ancient Towers (tho’ oft made new) command
Of Rome’s great Princes once the lofty seat,
Till barbarous foes o’erwhelm’d the sinking state. The Picts, the Scots, Danes, Normans, Saxons, here
Discharg’d the loudest thunder of the War.
But this once ceas’d, and every storm o’erblown,
A happier gale refresh’d the rising Town.
Let London still the just precedence claim,
York ever shall be proud to be the next in fame.

East Riding of York Shire map, left East Riding of York Shire map, right

East Riding of York Shire

The Ouse leaving York, begins here and there to be disturb’d with eddies (that whirl of waters, call’d Higra,) and so marches by Bishops-Thorp,Bishop’s-Thorp. that is, the Bishop’s Village; formerly called S. Andrew’s Thorpe, till Walter Grey Archbishop of York purchased it, and (to prevent the mischief usually done to Bishop’s Lands and Goods by the King’s Officers, as oft as any See is vacant,) gave it to the Dean and Chapter of York, upon condition that they should always yield it up to his Successors. Of whom, Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York (a hot furious man, and a lover of Innovations) was in this very place found guilty of High Treason by King Henry the fourth,1405. for raising a Rebellion.

⌈Southward from York, is Nun-Apleton,Nun-Apleton. so call’d from a Nunnery founded there by the Ancestors of the Earls of Northumberland; afterwards it was remarkable for being the seat of Thomas Lord Fairfax, General of the Parliament-Army, who merits a memorial here upon account of the peculiar respect he had for Antiquities. As an instance whereof, he allow’d a considerable pension to that industrious Antiquary Mr. Dodsworth, to collect those of this County, which else had irrecoverably perish’d in the late wars. For he had but just finish’d the transcript of the Charters and other Manuscripts then lying in St. Mary’s tower in York, before the same was blown up, and all those sacred remains mix’d with common dust. He preserved the Cathedral at York, when that Garrison was surrender’d to the Parliament; and when * Fasti. Oxon. part 2. p.768.Oxford was in the like state, he took great care for the preservation of the Publick Library, and bequeathed to it many Manuscripts, with the Collections aforesaid, which of themselves † † Ibid. p.699.amounted to one hundred twenty two Volumes at least.⌉

Upon the same river Ouse, stands Cawood,Cawood. a Castle of the Archbishops, which King Athelstan gave to the Church, as I have been informed. Over-against it, on the other side the river, is seated Rical,Rical. where Harold Haardread landed with a numerous Fleet of the Danes. From hence the Ouse runs to Selby,Selby. a pretty populous little Town, and famous for the birth of Henry the first. Here, William the first, his father, built a Church in memory of St. German, who extirpated the Pelagian Heresie in Britain; notwithstanding that, Hydra-like, it had frequently reviv’d. The Abbots of this, and of St. Maries at York, were the only Abbots of these northern parts who had places in Parliament. ⌈Part of the ancient and beautiful Church here, with half of the Steeple, fell down suddenly, in the year † † March 30.1690, about six a Clock on the Sunday-morning, but is since rebuilt.⌉ At last the Ouse runs to the Humber, ⌈leaving Escricke,Baron of Escricke. which gave the title of Baron to Sir Thomas Knivet. He was Gentleman of the Privy-Chamber to King James the first, and the Person intrusted to search the Vaults under the Parliament-house, where he discover’d the thirty six barrels of Gun-powder, with the person who was to have fir’d the train; which Sir Thomas dying without issue, the title of Lord Howard of Escrick was conferred upon Sir Edward Howard, son of Thomas Howard Earl of Suffolk, who had married the eldest daughter and coheir of Sir Henry Knivet; and having been enjoy’d successively by his two sons, descended from them to Charles his grandson, the present Lord. Then it runs⌉ by Drax,Drax. a little Village, formerly famous for a Monastery, where Philip de Tollevilla (William Newbrigensis is my Author) had a Castle, strongly situated, in the midst of rivers, woods, and marshes; which he, relying on the courage of his men, and the great store of arms and provisions in the place, held against King Stephen; but it was quickly taken and reduced by the King. ⌈Here, the benefaction of Charles Read Esq; (a native of the place, and a Judge in Ireland) ought not to be omitted; he having erected an Hospital, as also a School-house, and endow’d them with one hundred Pounds per Ann.⌉

Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:52