Causes of Heroical Love, Temperature, full Diet, Idleness, Place, Climate, &c.
Of all causes the remotest are stars. 4761Ficinus cap. 19. saith they are most prone to this burning lust, that have Venus in Leo in their horoscope, when the Moon and Venus be mutually aspected, or such as be of Venus' complexion. 4762Plutarch interprets astrologically that tale of Mars and Venus, “in whose genitures ♂ and ♂ are in conjunction,” they are commonly lascivious, and if women queans; as the good wife of Bath confessed in Chaucer;
But of all those astrological aphorisms which I have ever read, that of Cardan is most memorable, for which howsoever he is bitterly censured by 4763Marinus Marcennus, a malapert friar, and some others (which 4764 he himself suspected) yet methinks it is free, downright, plain and ingenious. In his 4765eighth Geniture, or example, he hath these words of himself, ♂ ♂ and ☿ in ☿ dignitatibus assiduam mihi Venereorum cogitationem praestabunt, ita ut nunquam quiescam. Et paulo post, Cogitatio Venereorum me torquet perpetuo, et quam facto implere non licuit, aut fecisse potentem puduit, cogitatione assidua mentitus sum voluptatem. Et alibi, ob ☾ et ☿ dominium et radiorum mixtionem, profundum fuit ingenium, sed lascivum, egoque turpi libidini deditus et obscaenus. So far Cardan of himself, quod de se fatetur ideo 4766ut utilitatem adferat studiosis hujusce disciplinae, and for this he is traduced by Marcennus, when as in effect he saith no more than what Gregory Nazianzen of old, to Chilo his scholar, offerebant se mihi visendae mulieres, quarum praecellenti elegantia et decore spectabili tentabatur meae. integritas pudicitiae. Et quidem flagitium vitavi fornicationis, at munditiae virginalis florem arcana cordis cogitatione foedavi. Sed ad rem. Aptiores ad masculinam venerem sunt quorum genesi Venus est in signo masculino, et in Saturni finibus aut oppositione, &c. Ptolomeus in quadripart. plura de his et specialia habet aphorismata, longo proculdubio usu confirmata, et ab experientia multa perfecta, inquit commentator ejus Cardanus. Tho. Campanella Astrologiae lib. 4. cap. 8. articulis 4 and 5. insaniam amatoriam remonstrantia, multa prae caeteris accumulat aphorismata, quae qui volet, consulat. Chiromantici ex cingulo Veneris plerumque conjecturam faciunt, et monte Veneris, de quorum decretis, Taisnerum, Johan. de Indagine, Goclenium, ceterosque si lubet, inspicias. Physicians divine wholly from the temperature and complexion; phlegmatic persons are seldom taken, according to Ficinus Comment, cap. 9; naturally melancholy less than they, but once taken they are never freed; though many are of opinion flatuous or hypochondriacal melancholy are most subject of all others to this infirmity. Valescus assigns their strong imagination for a cause, Bodine abundance of wind, Gordonius of seed, and spirits, or atomi in the seed, which cause their violent and furious passions. Sanguine thence are soon caught, young folks most apt to love, and by their good wills, saith 4767Lucian, “would have a bout with every one they see:” the colt's evil is common to all complexions. Theomestus a young and lusty gallant acknowledgeth (in the said author) all this to be verified in him, “I am so amorously given, 4768you may sooner number the sea-sands, and snow falling from the skies, than my several loves. Cupid had shot all his arrows at me, I am deluded with various desires, one love succeeds another, and that so soon, that before one is ended, I begin with a second; she that is last is still fairest, and she that is present pleaseth me most: as an hydra's head my loves increase, no Iolaus can help me. Mine eyes are so moist a refuge and sanctuary of love, that they draw all beauties to them, and are never satisfied. I am in a doubt what fury of Venus this should be: alas, how have I offended her so to vex me, what Hippolitus am I!” What Telchine is my genius? or is it a natural imperfection, an hereditary passion? Another in 4769Anacreon confesseth that he had twenty sweethearts in Athens at once, fifteen at Corinth, as many at Thebes, at Lesbos, and at Rhodes, twice as many in Ionia, thrice in Caria, twenty thousand in all: or in a word, ἐί φύλλα, πάντα, &c.
Folia arborum omnium si
Nosti referre cuncta,
Aut computare arenas
In aequore universas,
Solum meorum amorum
Te fecero logistam?
Canst count the leaves in May,
Or sands i' th' ocean sea?
Then count my loves I pray.
His eyes are like a balance, apt to propend each way, and to be weighed down with every wench's looks, his heart a weathercock, his affection tinder, or naphtha itself, which every fair object, sweet smile, or mistress's favour sets on fire. Guianerius tract 15. cap. 14. refers all this 4770to “the hot temperature of the testicles,” Ferandus a Frenchman in his Erotique Mel. (which 4771book came first to my hands after the third edition) to certain atomi in the seed, “such as are very spermatic and full of seed.” I find the same in Aristot. sect. 4. prob. 17. si non secernatur semen, cessare tentigines non possunt, as Gaustavinius his commentator translates it: for which cause these young men that be strong set, of able bodies, are so subject to it. Hercules de Saxonia hath the same words in effect. But most part I say, such as are aptest to love that are young and lusty, live at ease, stall-fed, free from cares, like cattle in a rank pasture, idle and solitary persons, they must needs hirquitullire, as Guastavinius recites out of Censorinus.
4772Mens erit apta capi tum quum laetissima rerum.
Ut seges in pingui luxuriabit humo.
The mind is apt to lust, and hot or cold,
As corn luxuriates in a better mould.
The place itself makes much wherein we live, the clime, air, and discipline if they concur. In our Misnia, saith Galen, near to Pergamus, thou shalt scarce find an adulterer, but many at Rome, by reason of the delights of the seat. It was that plenty of all things, which made 4773Corinth so infamous of old, and the opportunity of the place to entertain those foreign comers; every day strangers came in, at each gate, from all quarters. In that one temple of Venus a thousand whores did prostitute themselves, as Strabo writes, besides Lais and the rest of better note: all nations resorted thither, as to a school of Venus. Your hot and southern countries are prone to lust, and far more incontinent than those that live in the north, as Bodine discourseth at large, Method, hist. cap. 5. Molles Asiatici, so are Turks, Greeks, Spaniards, Italians, even all that latitude; and in those tracts, such as are more fruitful, plentiful, and delicious, as Valence in Spain, Capua in Italy, domicilium luxus Tully terms it, and (which Hannibal's soldiers can witness) Canopus in Egypt, Sybaris, Phoeacia, Baiae, 4774Cyprus, Lampsacus. In 4775Naples the fruit of the soil and pleasant air enervate their bodies, and alter constitutions: insomuch that Florus calls it Certamen Bacchi et Veneris, but 4776Foliot admires it. In Italy and Spain they have their stews in every great city, as in Rome, Venice, Florence, wherein, some say, dwell ninety thousand inhabitants, of which ten thousand are courtesans; and yet for all this, every gentleman almost hath a peculiar mistress; fornications, adulteries, are nowhere so common: urbs est jam tota lupanar; how should a man live honest amongst so many provocations? now if vigour of youth, greatness, liberty I mean, and that impunity of sin which grandees take unto themselves in this kind shall meet, what a gap must it needs open to all manner of vice, with what fury will it rage? For, as Maximus Tyrius the Platonist observes, libido consequuta quum fuerit materiam improbam et praeruptam licentiam, et effrenatam audaciam, &c., what will not lust effect in such persons? For commonly princes and great men make no scruple at all of such matters, but with that whore in Spartian, quicquid libet licet, they think they may do what they list, profess it publicly, and rather brag with Proculus (that writ to a friend of his in Rome, 4777what famous exploits he had done in that kind) than any way be abashed at it. 4778Nicholas Sanders relates of Henry VIII. (I know not how truly) Quod paucas vidit pulchriores quas non concupierit, et paucissimas non concupierit quas non violarit, “He saw very few maids that he did not desire, and desired fewer whom he did not enjoy:” nothing so familiar amongst them, 'tis most of their business: Sardanapalus, Messalina, and Joan of Naples, are not comparable to 4779meaner men and women; Solomon of old had a thousand concubines; Ahasuerus his eunuchs and keepers; Nero his Tigillinus panders, and bawds; the Turks, 4780 Muscovites, Mogors, Xeriffs of Barbary, and Persian Sophies, are no whit inferior to them in our times. Delectus fit omnium puellarum toto regno forma praestantiorum (saith Jovius) pro imperatore; et quas ille linquit, nobiles habent; they press and muster up wenches as we do soldiers, and have their choice of the rarest beauties their countries can afford, and yet all this cannot keep them from adultery, incest, sodomy, buggery, and such prodigious lusts. We may conclude, that if they be young, fortunate, rich, high-fed, and idle withal, it is almost impossible that they should live honest, not rage, and precipitate themselves into these inconveniences of burning lust.
4781Otium et reges prius et beatas
4761. Comment. in convivium Platonis. Irretiuntur cito quibus nascentibus Venus fuerit in Leone, vel Luna venerem vehementer aspexerit, et qui eadem complexione sunt praediti.
4762. Plerumque amatores sunt, et si foeminae meretrices, 1. de audiend.
4763. Comment, in Genes, cap. 3.
4764. Et si in hoc parum a praeclara infamia stultitiaque abero, vincit tamen amor veritatis.
4765. Edit. Basil. 1553. Cum Commentar. in Ptolomaei quadripartitum.
4766. Fol. 445. Basil. Edit.
4767. Dial, amorum.
4768. Citius maris fluctus et nives coelo delabentes numeraris quam amores meos; alii amores aliis succedunt, ac priusquam desinant priores, incipiunt sequentes. Adeo humidis oculis meus inhabitat Asylus omnem formam ad se rapiens, ut nulla satietate expleatur. Quaenam haec ira Veneris, &c.
4769. Num. xxxii.
4770. Qui calidum testiculorum crisin habent, &c.
4771. Printed at Paris 1624, seven years after my first edition.
4772. Ovid de art.
4773. Gerbelius, descript. Graeciae. Rerum omnium affluentia et loci mira opportunitas, nullo non die hospites in portas advertebant. Templo Veneris mille meretrices se prostituebant.
4774. Tota Cypri insula delitiis incumbit, et ob id tantum luxuriae dedita ut sit olim Veneri sacrata. Ortelius, Lampsacus, olim Priapo sacer ob vinum generosum, et loci delicias. Idem.
4775. Agri Neapolitani delectatio, elegantia, amoenitas, vix intra modum humanum consistere videtur; unde, &c. Leand, Alber. in Campania.
4776. Lib. de laud. urb. Neap. Disputat. de morbis animi. Reinoldo Interpret.
4777. Lampridius, Quod decem noctibus centum virgines fecisset mulieres.
4778. Vita ejus.
4779. If they contain themselves, many times it is not virtutis amore; non deest voluntas sed facultas.
4780. In Muscov.
4781. Catullus ad Lesbiam.
Idleness overthrows all, Vacuo pectore regnat amor, love tyranniseth in an idle person. Amore abundas Antiphio. If thou hast nothing to do,4782 Invidia vel amore miser torquebere — Thou shalt be haled in pieces with envy, lust, some passion or other. Homines nihil agendo male agere discunt; 'tis Aristotle's simile, 4783“as match or touchwood takes fire, so doth an idle person love.” Quaeritur Aegistus quare sit factus adulter, &c., why was Aegistus a whoremaster? You need not ask a reason of it. Ismenedora stole Baccho, a woman forced a man, as 4784Aurora did Cephalus: no marvel, saith 4785Plutarch, Luxurians opibus more hominum mulier agit: she was rich, fortunate and jolly, and doth but as men do in that case, as Jupiter did by Europa, Neptune by Amymone. The poets therefore did well to feign all shepherds lovers, to give themselves to songs and dalliances, because they lived such idle lives. For love, as 4786Theophrastus defines it, is otiosi animi affectus, an affection of an idle mind, or as 4787Seneca describes it, Juventa gignitur, juxu nutritur, feriis alitur, otioque inter laeta fortunae bonae; youth begets it, riot maintains it, idleness nourisheth it, &c. which makes 4788 Gordonius the physician cap. 20. part. 2. call this disease the proper passion of nobility. Now if a weak judgment and a strong apprehension do concur, how, saith Hercules de Saxonia, shall they resist? Savanarola appropriates it almost to 4789“monks, friars, and religious persons, because they live solitarily, fair daintily, and do nothing:” and well he may, for how should they otherwise choose?
Diet alone is able to cause it: a rare thing to see a young man or a woman that lives idly and fares well, of what condition soever, not to be in love. 4790Alcibiades was still dallying with wanton young women, immoderate in his expenses, effeminate in his apparel, ever in love, but why? he was over-delicate in his diet, too frequent and excessive in banquets, Ubicunque securitas, ibi libido dominatur; lust and security domineer together, as St. Hierome averreth. All which the wife of Bath in Chaucer freely justifies,
Especially if they shall further it by choice diet, as many times those Sybarites and Phaeaces do, feed liberally, and by their good will eat nothing else but lascivious meats. 4791Vinum imprimis generosum, legumen, fabas, radices omnium generum bene conditas, et largo pipere aspersas, carduos hortulanos, lactucas, 4792erucas, rapas, porros, caepas, nucem piceam, amygdalas dulces, electuaria, syrupos, succos, cochleas, conchas, pisces optime praeparatos, aviculas, testiculos animalium, ova, condimenta diversorum generum, molles lectos, pulvinaria, &c. Et quicquid fere medici impotentia rei venereae laboranti praescribunt, hoc quasi diasatyrion habent in delitiis, et his dapes multo delicatiores; mulsum, exquisitas et exoticas fruges, aromata, placentas, expressos succos multis ferculis variatos, ipsumque vinum suavitate vincentes, et quicquid culina, pharmacopaea, aut quaeque fere officina subministrare possit. Et hoc plerumque victu quum se ganeones infarciant, 4793ut ille ob Chreseida suam, se bulbis et cochleis curavit; etiam ad Venerem se parent, et ad hanc palestram se exerceant, qui fieri possit, ut non misere depereant, 4794ut non penitus insaniant? Aestuans venter cito despuit in libidinem, Hieronymus ait. 4795Post prandia, Callyroenda. Quis enim continere se potest? 4796Luxuriosa res vinum, fomentum libidinis vocat Augustinus, blandum daemonem, Bernardus; lac veneris, Aristophanes. Non Aetna, non Vesuvius tantis ardoribus aestuant, ac juveniles medullae vino plenae, addit 4797Hieronymus: unde ob optimum vinum Lamsacus olim Priapo sacer: et venerandi Bacchi socia apud 4798 Orpheum Venus audit. Haec si vinum simplex, et per se sumptum praestare possit, nam — 4799quo me Bacche rapis tui plenum? quam non insaniam, quem non furorem a caeteris expectemus? 4800Gomesius salem enumerat inter ea quae intempstivam libidinem provocare solent, et salatiores fieri foeminas ob esum salis contendit: Venerem ideo dicunt ab Oceano ortam.
4801Unde tot in Veneta scortorum millia cur stint?
In promptu causa est, est Venus orta mari.
Et hinc foeta mater Salacea Oceani conjux, verbumque fortasse salax a sale effluxit. Mala Bacchica tantum olim in amoribus praevaluerunt, ut coronae ex illis statuae Bacchi ponerentur. 4802Cubebis in vino maceratis utuntur Indi Orientales ad Venerem excitandum, et 4803Surax radice Africani. Chinae radix eosdem effectus habet, talisque herbae meminit mag. nat. lib. 2. cap. 16. 4804Baptista Porta ex India allatae, cujus mentionem facit et Theophrastus. Sed infinita his similia apud Rhasin, Matthiolum, Mizaldum, caeterosque medicos occurrunt, quorum ideo mentionem feci, ne quis imperitior in hos scopulas impingat, sed pro virili tanquam syrtes et cautes consulto effugiat.
4783. Polit. 8. num. 28. ut naptha, ad ignem, sic amor ad illos qui torpescunt ocio.
4784. Pausanias Attic, lib. 1. Cephalus egregiae formae juvenis ab aurora raptus quod ejus amore capta esset.
4785. In amatorio.
4786. E. Stobaeo ser. 62.
4787. Amor otiosae cura est sollicitudinus.
4788. Principes plerumque ob licentiam et adfluentiam divitiarum istam passionem solent incurrere.
4789. Ardenter appetit qui otiosam vitam agit, et communiter incurrit haec passio solitarios delitiose viventes, incontinentes, religiosos, &c.
4790. Plutarch. vit. ejus.
4791. Vina parant animos veneri.
4792. Sed nihil erucae faciunt bulbique salaces; Improba nec prosit jam satureia tibi. Ovid.
4794. Uti ille apud Skenkium, qui post potionem, uxorem et quatuor ancillas proximo cubiculo cubantes, compressit.
4795. Pers. Sat. 3.
4796. Siracides. Nox, et amor vinumque nihil moderabile suadent.
4797. Lip. ad Olympiam.
4799. Hor. l. 3. Od. 25.
4800. De sale lib. cap. 21.
4801. Kornmannus lib. de virginitate.
4802. Garcias ab horto aromatum, lib. 1. cap. 28.
4803. Surax radix ad coitum summe facit si quis comedat, aut infusionem bibat, membrum subito erigitur. Leo Afer. lib. 9. cap. ult.
4804. Quae non solum edentibus sed et genitale tangentibus tantum valet, ut coire summe desiderent; quoties fere velint, possint; alios duodecies profecisse, alios ad 60 vices pervenisse refert.
Other causes of Love-Melancholy, Sight, Being from the Face, Eyes, other parts, and how it pierceth.
Many such causes may be reckoned up, but they cannot avail, except opportunity be offered of time, place, and those other beautiful objects, or artificial enticements, as kissing, conference, discourse, gestures concur, with such like lascivious provocations. Kornmannus, in his book de linea amoris, makes five degrees of lust, out of 4805Lucian belike, which he handles in five chapters, Visus, Colloquium, Convictus, Oscula, Tactus. 4806Sight, of all other, is the first step of this unruly love, though sometime it be prevented by relation or hearing, or rather incensed. For there be those so apt, credulous, and facile to love, that if they hear of a proper man, or woman, they are in love before they see them, and that merely by relation, as Achilles Tatius observes. 4807“Such is their intemperance and lust, that they are as much maimed by report, as if they saw them. Callisthenes a rich young gentleman of Byzance in Thrace, hearing of 4808Leucippe, Sostratus' fair daughter, was far in love with her, and, out of fame and common rumour, so much incensed, that he would needs have her to be his wife.” And sometimes by reading they are so affected, as he in 4809Lucian confesseth of himself, “I never read that place of Panthea in Xenophon, but I am as much affected as if I were present with her.” Such persons commonly 4810feign a kind of beauty to themselves; and so did those three gentlewomen in 4811Balthazar Castilio fall in love with a young man whom they never knew, but only heard him commended: or by reading of a letter; for there is a grace cometh from hearing, 4812 as a moral philosopher informeth us, “as well from sight; and the species of love are received into the fantasy by relation alone:” 4813ut cupere ab aspectu, sic velle ab auditu, both senses affect. Interdum et absentes amamus, sometimes we love those that are absent, saith Philostratus, and gives instance in his friend Athenodorus, that loved a maid at Corinth whom he never saw; non oculi sed mens videt, we see with the eyes of our understanding.
But the most familiar and usual cause of love is that which comes by sight, which conveys those admirable rays of beauty and pleasing graces to the heart. Plotinus derives love from sight, ἔρος quasi ὅρασις. 4814Si nescis, oculi sunt in amore duces, “the eyes are the harbingers of love,” and the first step of love is sight, as 4815Lilius Giraldus proves at large, hist. deor. syntag. 13. they as two sluices let in the influences of that divine, powerful, soul-ravishing, and captivating beauty, which, as 4816one saith, “is sharper than any dart or needle, wounds deeper into the heart; and opens a gap through our eyes to that lovely wound, which pierceth the soul itself” (Ecclus. 18.) Through it love is kindled like a fire. This amazing, confounding, admirable, amiable beauty, 4817“than which in all nature's treasure (saith Isocrates) there is nothing so majestical and sacred, nothing so divine, lovely, precious,” 'tis nature's crown, gold and glory; bonum si non summum, de summis tamen non infrequenter triumphans, whose power hence may be discerned; we contemn and abhor generally such things as are foul and ugly to behold, account them filthy, but love and covet that which is fair. 'Tis 4818 beauty in all things which pleaseth and allureth us, a fair hawk, a fine garment, a goodly building, a fair house, &c. That Persian Xerxes when he destroyed all those temples of the gods in Greece, caused that of Diana, in integrum servari, to be spared alone for that excellent beauty and magnificence of it. Inanimate beauty can so command. 'Tis that which painters, artificers, orators, all aim at, as Eriximachus the physician, in Plato contends, 4819“It was beauty first that ministered occasion to art, to find out the knowledge of carving, painting, building, to find out models, perspectives, rich furnitures, and so many rare inventions.” Whiteness in the lily, red in the rose, purple in the violet, a lustre in all things without life, the clear light of the moon, the bright beams of the sun, splendour of gold, purple, sparkling diamond, the excellent feature of the horse, the majesty of the lion, the colour of birds, peacock's tails, the silver scales of fish, we behold with singular delight and admiration. 4820“And which is rich in plants, delightful in flowers, wonderful in beasts, but most glorious in men,” doth make us affect and earnestly desire it, as when we hear any sweet harmony, an eloquent tongue, see any excellent quality, curious work of man, elaborate art, or aught that is exquisite, there ariseth instantly in us a longing for the same. We love such men, but most part for comeliness of person, we call them gods and goddesses, divine, serene, happy, &c. And of all mortal men they alone (4821Calcagninus holds) are free from calumny; qui divitiis, magistratu et gloria florent, injuria lacessimus, we backbite, wrong, hate renowned, rich, and happy men, we repine at their felicity, they are undeserving we think, fortune is a stepmother to us, a parent to them. “We envy” (saith 4822Isocrates) “wise, just, honest men, except with mutual offices and kindnesses, some good turn or other, they extort this love from us; only fair persons we love at first sight, desire their acquaintance, and adore them as so many gods: we had rather serve them than command others, and account ourselves the more beholding to them, the more service they enjoin us:” though they be otherwise vicious, dishonest, we love them, favour them, and are ready to do them any good office for their 4823beauty's sake, though they have no other good quality beside. Dic igitur o fomose, adolescens (as that eloquent Phavorinus breaks out in 4824Stobeus) dic Autiloque, suavius nectare loqueris; dic o Telemache, vehementius Ulysse dicis; dic Alcibiades utcunque ebrius, libentius tibi licet ebrio auscultabimus. “Speak, fair youth, speak Autiloquus, thy words are sweeter than nectar, speak O Telemachus, thou art more powerful than Ulysses, speak Alcibiades though drunk, we will willingly hear thee as thou art.” Faults in such are no faults: for when the said Alcibiades had stolen Anytus his gold and silver plate, he was so far from prosecuting so foul a fact (though every man else condemned his impudence and insolency) that he wished it had been more, and much better (he loved him dearly) for his sweet sake. “No worth is eminent in such lovely persons, all imperfections hid;” non enim facile de his quos plurimum diligimus, turpitudinem suspicamur, for hearing, sight, touch, &c., our mind and all our senses are captivated, omnes sensus formosus delectat. Many men have been preferred for their person alone, chosen kings, as amongst the Indians, Persians, Ethiopians of old; the properest man of person the country could afford, was elected their sovereign lord; Gratior est pulchro veniens e corpore virtus, 4825and so have many other nations thought and done, as 4826Curtius observes: Ingens enim in corporis majestate veneratio est, “for there is a majestical presence in such men;” and so far was beauty adored amongst them, that no man was thought fit to reign, that was not in all parts complete and supereminent. Agis, king of Lacedaemon, had like to have been deposed, because he married a little wife, they would not have their royal issue degenerate. Who would ever have thought that Adrian' the Fourth, an English monk's bastard (as 4827Papirius Massovius writes in his life), inops a suis relectus, squalidus et miser, a poor forsaken child, should ever come to be pope of Rome? But why was it? Erat acri ingenio, facundia expedita eleganti corpore, facieque laeta ac hilari, (as he follows it out of 4828Nubrigensis, for he ploughs with his heifer,) “he was wise, learned, eloquent, of a pleasant, a promising countenance, a goodly, proper man; he had, in a word, a winning look of his own,” and that carried it, for that he was especially advanced. So “Saul was a goodly person and a fair.” Maximinus elected emperor, &c. Branchus the son of Apollo, whom he begot of Jance, Succron's daughter (saith Lactantius), when he kept King Admetus' herds in Thessaly, now grown a man, was an earnest suitor to his mother to know his father; the nymph denied him, because Apollo had conjured her to the contrary; yet overcome by his importunity at last she sent him to his father; when he came into Apollo's presence, malas Dei reverenter osculatus, he carried himself so well, and was so fair a young man, that Apollo was infinitely taken with the beauty of his person, he could scarce look off him, and said he was worthy of such parents, gave him a crown of gold, the spirit of divination, and in conclusion made him a demigod. O vis superba formae, a goddess beauty is, whom the very gods adore, nam pulchros dii amant; she is Amoris domina, love's harbinger, love's loadstone, a witch, a charm, &c. Beauty is a dower of itself, a sufficient patrimony, an ample commendation, an accurate epistle, as 4829Lucian, 4830Apuleius, Tiraquellus, and some others conclude. Imperio digna forma, beauty deserves a kingdom, saith Abulensis, paradox. 2. cap. 110. immortality; and 4831“more have got this honour and eternity for their beauty, than for all other virtues besides:” and such as are fair, “are worthy to be honoured of God and men.” That Idalian Ganymede was therefore fetched by Jupiter into heaven, Hephaestion dear to Alexander, Antinous to Adrian. Plato calls beauty for that cause a privilege of nature, Naturae gaudentis opus, nature's masterpiece, a dumb comment; Theophrastus, a silent fraud; still rhetoric Carneades, that persuades without speech, a kingdom without a guard, because beautiful persons command as so many captains; Socrates, a tyranny, “which tyranniseth over tyrants themselves;” which made Diogenes belike call proper women queens, quod facerent homines quae praeciperent, because men were so obedient to their commands. They will adore, cringe, compliment, and bow to a common wench (if she be fair) as if she were a noble woman, a countess, a queen, or a goddess. Those intemperate young men of Greece erected at Delphos a golden image with infinite cost, to the eternal memory of Phryne the courtesan, as Aelian relates, for she was a most beautiful woman, insomuch, saith 4832Athenaeus, that Apelles and Praxiteles drew Venus's picture from her. Thus young men will adore and honour beauty; nay kings themselves I say will do it, and voluntarily submit their sovereignty to a lovely woman. “Wine is strong, kings are strong, but a woman strongest,” 1 Esd. iv. 10. as Zerobabel proved at large to King Darius, his princes and noblemen. “Kings sit still and command sea and land, &c., all pay tribute to the king; but women make kings pay tribute, and have dominion over them. When they have got gold and silver, they submit all to a beautiful woman, give themselves wholly to her, gape and gaze on her, and all men desire her more than gold or silver, or any precious thing: they will leave father and mother, and venture their lives for her, labour and travel to get, and bring all their gains to women, steal, fight, and spoil for their mistress's sake. And no king so strong, but a fair woman is stronger than he is. All things” (as 4833he proceeds) “fear to touch the king; yet I saw him and Apame his concubine, the daughter of the famous Bartacus, sitting on the right hand of the king, and she took the crown off his head, and put it on her own, and stroke him with her left hand; yet the king gaped and gazed on her, and when she laughed he laughed, and when she was angry he flattered to be reconciled to her.” So beauty commands even kings themselves; nay whole armies and kingdoms are captivated together with their kings: 4834Forma vincit armatos, ferrum pulchritudo captivat; vincentur specie, qui non vincentur proelio. And 'tis a great matter saith 4835Xenophon, “and of which all fair persons may worthily brag, that a strong man must labour for his living if he will have aught, a valiant man must fight and endanger himself for it, a wise man speak, show himself, and toil; but a fair and beautiful person doth all with ease, he compasseth his desire without any pains-taking:” God and men, heaven and earth conspire to honour him; every one pities him above other, if he be in need, 4836and all the world is willing to do him good. 4837Chariclea fell into the hand of pirates, but when all the rest were put to the edge of the sword, she alone was preserved for her person. 4838When Constantinople was sacked by the Turk, Irene escaped, and was so far from being made a captive, that she even captivated the Grand Signior himself. So did Rosamond insult over King Henry the Second.
4839 ——— I was so fair an object;
Whom fortune made my king, my love made subject;
He found by proof the privilege of beauty,
That it had power to countermand all duty.
It captivates the very gods themselves, Morosiora numina,
4840 ——— Deus ipse deorum
Factus ob hanc formam bos, equus imber olor.
And those mali genii are taken with it, as 4841I have already proved. Formosam Barbari verentur, et ad spectum pulchrum immanis animus mansuescit. (Heliodor. lib. 5.) The barbarians stand in awe of a fair woman, and at a beautiful aspect a fierce spirit is pacified. For when as Troy was taken, and the wars ended (as Clemens 4842Alexandrinus quotes out of Euripides) angry Menelaus with rage and fury armed, came with his sword drawn, to have killed Helen, with his own hands, as being the sole cause of all those wars and miseries: but when he saw her fair face, as one amazed at her divine beauty, he let his weapon fall, and embraced her besides, he had no power to strike so sweet a creature. Ergo habetantur enses pulchritudine, the edge of a sharp sword (as the saying is) is dulled with a beautiful aspect, and severity itself is overcome. Hiperides the orator, when Phryne his client was accused at Athens for her lewdness, used no other defence in her cause, but tearing her upper garment, disclosed her naked breast to the judges, with which comeliness of her body and amiable gesture they were so moved and astonished, that they did acquit her forthwith, and let her go. O noble piece of justice! mine author exclaims: and who is he that would not rather lose his seat and robes, forfeit his office, than give sentence against the majesty of beauty? Such prerogatives have fair persons, and they alone are free from danger. Parthenopaeus was so lovely and fair, that when he fought in the Theban wars, if his face had been by chance bare, no enemy would offer to strike at or hurt him, such immunities hath beauty. Beasts themselves are moved with it. Sinalda was a woman of such excellent feature, 4843and a queen, that when she was to be trodden on by wild horses for a punishment, “the wild beasts stood in admiration of her person,” (Saxo Grammaticus lib. 8. Dan. hist.) “and would not hurt her.” Wherefore did that royal virgin in 4844Apuleius, when she fled from the thieves' den, in a desert, make such an apostrophe to her ass on whom she rode; (for what knew she to the contrary, but that he was an ass?) Si me parentibus et proco formoso reddideris, quas, tibi gratias, quos honores habebo, quos cibos exhibebo? 4845She would comb him, dress him, feed him, and trick him every day herself, and he should work no more, toil no more, but rest and play, &c. And besides she would have a dainty picture drawn, in perpetual remembrance, a virgin riding upon an ass's back with this motto, Asino vectore regia virgo fugiens captivitatem; why said she all this? why did she make such promises to a dumb beast? but that she perceived the poor ass to be taken with her beauty, for he did often obliquo collo pedes puellae decoros basiare, kiss her feet as she rode, et ad delicatulas voculas tentabat adhinnire, offer to give consent as much as in him was to her delicate speeches, and besides he had some feeling, as she conceived of her misery. And why did Theogine's horse in Heliodorus 4846curvet, prance, and go so proudly, exultans alacriter et superbiens, &c., but that such as mine author supposeth, he was in love with his master? dixisses ipsum equum pulchrum intelligere pulchram domini fomam? A fly lighted on 4847 Malthius' cheek as he lay asleep; but why? Not to hurt him, as a parasite of his, standing by, well perceived, non ut pungeret, sed ut oscularetur, but certainly to kiss him, as ravished with his divine looks. Inanimate creatures, I suppose, have a touch of this. When a drop of 4848Psyche's candle fell on Cupid's shoulder, I think sure it was to kiss it. When Venus ran to meet her rose-cheeked Adonis, as an elegant 4849poet of our's sets her out,
——— the bushes in the way
Some catch her neck, some kiss her face,
Some twine about her legs to make her stay,
And all did covet her for to embrace.
Aer ipse amore inficitur, as Heliodorus holds, the air itself is in love: for when Hero plaid upon her lute,
4850The wanton air in twenty sweet forms danc't
After her fingers ———
and those lascivious winds stayed Daphne when she fled from Apollo;
4851 ——— nudabant corpora venti,
Obviaque adversas vibrabant flamina vestes.
Boreas Ventus loved Hyacinthus, and Orithya Ericthons's daughter of Athens: vi rapuit, &c. he took her away by force, as she was playing with other wenches at Ilissus, and begat Zetes and Galias his two sons of her. That seas and waters are enamoured with this our beauty, is all out as likely as that of the air and winds; for when Leander swam in the Hellespont, Neptune with his trident did beat down the waves, but
They still mounted up intending to have kiss'd him.
And fell in drops like tears because they missed him.
The 4852river Alpheus was in love with Arethusa, as she tells the tale herself,
4853 ——— viridesque manu siccata capillos,
Fluminis Alphei veteres recitavit amores;
Pars ego Nympharum, &c.
When our Thame and Isis meet
4854Oscula mille sonant, connexu brachia pallent,
Mutuaque explicitis connectunt colla lacertis.
Inachus and Pineus, and how many loving rivers can I reckon up, whom beauty hath enthralled! I say nothing all this while of idols themselves that have committed idolatry in this kind, of looking-glasses, that have been rapt in love (if you will believe 4855poets), when their ladies and mistresses looked on to dress them.
Et si non habeo sensum, tua gratia sensum
Exhibet, et calidi sentio amoris onus.
Dirigis huc quoties spectantia lumina, flamma
Succendunt inopi saucia membra mihi.
Though I no sense at all of feeling have.
Yet your sweet looks do animate and save;
And when your speaking eyes do this way turn,
Methinks my wounded members live and burn.
I could tell you such another story of a spindle that was fired by a fair lady's 4856looks, or fingers, some say, I know not well whether, but fired it was by report, and of a cold bath that suddenly smoked, and was very hot when naked Coelia came into it, Miramur quis sit tantus et unde vapor, 4857&c. But of all the tales in this kind, that is the most memorable of 4858Death himself, when he should have strucken a sweet young virgin with his dart, he fell in love with the object. Many more such could I relate which are to be believed with a poetical faith. So dumb and dead creatures dote, but men are mad, stupefied many times at the first sight of beauty, amazed, 4859as that fisherman in Aristaenetus that spied a maid bathing herself by the seaside,
4860Soluta mihi sunt omnia membra —
A capite ad calcem. sensusque omnis periit
De pectore, tam immensus stupor animam invasit mihi.
And as 4861Lucian, in his images, confesses of himself, that he was at his mistress's presence void of all sense, immovable, as if he had seen a Gorgon's head: which was no such cruel monster (as 4862Coelius interprets it, lib. 3. cap. 9.), “but the very quintessence of beauty,” some fair creature, as without doubt the poet understood in the first fiction of it, at which the spectators were amazed. 4863Miseri quibus intentata nites, poor wretches are compelled at the very sight of her ravishing looks to run mad, or make away with themselves.
4864They wait the sentence of her scornful eyes;
And whom she favours lives, the other dies.
4865Heliodorus, lib. 1. brings in Thyamis almost besides himself, when he saw Chariclia first, and not daring to look upon her a second time, “for he thought it impossible for any man living to see her and contain himself.” The very fame of beauty will fetch them to it many miles off (such an attractive power this loadstone hath), and they will seem but short, they will undertake any toil or trouble, 4866long journeys. Penia or Atalanta shall not overgo them, through seas, deserts, mountains, and dangerous places, as they did to gaze on Psyche: “many mortal men came far and near to see that glorious object of her age,” Paris for Helena, Corebus to Troja.
——— Illis Trojam qui forte diebus
Venerat insano Cassandrae insensus amore.
“who inflamed with a violent passion for Cassandra, happened then to be in Troy.” King John of France, once prisoner in England, came to visit his old friends again, crossing the seas; but the truth is, his coming was to see the Countess of Salisbury, the nonpareil of those times, and his dear mistress. That infernal God Pluto came from hell itself, to steal Proserpine; Achilles left all his friends for Polixena's sake, his enemy's daughter; and all the 4867Graecian gods forsook their heavenly mansions for that fair lady, Philo Dioneus daughter's sake, the paragon of Greece in those days; ea enim venustate fuit, ut eam certatim omnes dii conjugem expeterent: “for she was of such surpassing beauty, that all the gods contended for her love.” 4868Formosa divis imperat puella. “The beautiful maid commands the gods.” They will not only come to see, but as a falcon makes a hungry hawk hover about, follow, give attendance and service, spend goods, lives, and all their fortunes to attain;
Were beauty under twenty locks kept fast,
Yet love breaks through, and picks them all at last.
When fair 4869Hero came abroad, the eyes, hearts, and affections of her spectators were still attendant on her.
4870Et medios inter vultus supereminet omnes,
Perque urbem aspiciunt venientem numinis instar.
4871So far above the rest fair Hero shined.
And stole away the enchanted gazer's mind.
4872When Peter Aretine's Lucretia came first to Rome, and that the fame of her beauty, ad urbanarum deliciarum sectatores venerat, nemo non ad videndam eam, &c. was spread abroad, they came in (as they say) thick and threefold to see her, and hovered about her gates, as they did of old to Lais of Corinth, and Phryne of Thebes, 4873Ad cujus jacuit Graecia tota fores, “at whose gates lay all Greece.” 4874“Every man sought to get her love, some with gallant and costly apparel, some with an affected pace, some with music, others with rich gifts, pleasant discourse, multitude of followers; others with letters, vows, and promises, to commend themselves, and to be gracious in her eyes.” Happy was he that could see her, thrice happy that enjoyed her company. Charmides 4875in Plato was a proper young man in comeliness of person, “and all good qualities, far exceeding others; whensoever fair Charmides came abroad, they seemed all to be in love with him” (as Critias describes their carriage), “and were troubled at the very sight of him; many came near him, many followed him wheresoever he went,” as those 4876formarum spectatores did Acontius, if at any time he walked abroad: the Athenian lasses stared on Alcibiades; Sappho and the Mitilenean women on Phaon the fair. Such lovely sights do not only please, entice, but ravish and amaze. Cleonimus, a delicate and tender youth, present at a feast which Androcles his uncle made in Piraeo at Athens, when he sacrificed to Mercury, so stupefied the guests, Dineas, Aristippus, Agasthenes, and the rest (as Charidemus in 4877Lucian relates it), that they could not eat their meat, they sat all supper time gazing, glancing at him, stealing looks, and admiring of his beauty. Many will condemn these men that are so enamoured, for fools; but some again commend them for it; many reject Paris's judgment, and yet Lucian approves of it, admiring Paris for his choice; he would have done as much himself, and by good desert in his mind: beauty is to be preferred 4878“before wealth or wisdom.” 4879Athenaeus Deipnosophist, lib. 13. cap. 7, holds it not such indignity for the Trojans and Greeks to contend ten years, to spend so much labour, lose so many men's lives for Helen's sake, 4880for so fair a lady's sake,
Ob talem uxorem cui praestantissima forma,
Nil mortale refert.
That one woman was worth a kingdom, a hundred thousand other women, a world itself. Well might 4881Sterpsichores be blind for carping at so fair a creature, and a just punishment it was. The same testimony gives Homer of the old men of Troy, that were spectators of that single combat between Paris and Menelaus at the Seian gate, when Helen stood in presence; they said all, the war was worthily prolonged and undertaken 4882for her sake. The very gods themselves (as Homer and 4883Isocrates record) fought more for Helen, than they did against the giants. When 4884Venus lost her son Cupid, she made proclamation by Mercury, that he that could bring tidings of him should have seven kisses; a noble reward some say, and much better than so many golden talents; seven such kisses to many men were more precious than seven cities, or so many provinces. One such a kiss alone would recover a man if he were a dying, 4885Suaviolum Stygia sic te de valle reducet, &c. Great Alexander married Roxanne, a poor man's child, only for her person. 4886'Twas well done of Alexander, and heroically done; I admire him for it. Orlando was mad for Angelica, and who doth not condole his mishap? Thisbe died for Pyramus, Dido for Aeneas; who doth not weep, as (before his conversion) 4887Austin did in commiseration of her estate! she died for him; “methinks” (as he said) “I could die for her.”
But this is not the matter in hand; what prerogative this beauty hath, of what power and sovereignty it is, and how far such persons that so much admire, and dote upon it, are to be justified; no man doubts of these matters; the question is, how and by what means beauty produceth this effect? By sight: the eye betrays the soul, and is both active and passive in this business; it wounds and is wounded, is an especial cause and instrument, both in the subject and in the object. 4888“As tears, it begins in the eyes, descends to the breast;” it conveys these beauteous rays, as I have said, unto the heart. Ut vidi ut perii. 4889Mars videt hanc, visamque cupit. Schechem saw Dinah the daughter of Leah, and defiled her, Gen. xxxiv. 3. Jacob, Rachel, xxix. 17, “for she was beautiful and fair.” David spied Bathsheba afar off, 2 Sam. xi. 2. The Elders, Susanna, 4890as that Orthomenian Strato saw fair Aristoclea daughter of Theophanes, bathing herself at that Hercyne well in Lebadea, and were captivated in an instant. Viderunt oculi, rapuerunt pectora flammae; Ammon fell sick for Thamar's sake, 2 Sam. xiii. 2. The beauty of Esther was such, that she found favour not only in the sight of Ahasuerus, “but of all those that looked upon her.” Gerson, Origen, and some others, contended that Christ himself was the fairest of the sons of men, and Joseph next unto him, speciosus prae filiis hominum, and they will have it literally taken; his very person was such, that he found grace and favour of all those that looked upon him. Joseph was so fair, that, as the ordinary gloss hath it, filiae decurrerent per murum, et ad fenestras, they ran to the top of the walls and to the windows to gaze on him, as we do commonly to see some great personage go by: and so Matthew Paris describes Matilda the Empress going through Cullen. 4891P. Morales the Jesuit saith as much of the Virgin Mary. Antony no sooner saw Cleopatra, but, saith Appian, lib. 1, he was enamoured of her. 4892Theseus at the first sight of Helen was so besotted, that he esteemed himself the happiest man in the world if he might enjoy her, and to that purpose kneeled down, and made his pathetical prayers unto the gods. 4893Charicles, by chance, espying that curious picture of smiling Venus naked in her temple, stood a great while gazing, as one amazed; at length, he brake into that mad passionate speech, “O fortunate god Mars, that wast bound in chains, and made ridiculous for her sake!” He could not contain himself, but kissed her picture, I know not how oft, and heartily desired to be so disgraced as Mars was. And what did he that his betters had not done before him?
4894 ——— atque aliquis de diis non tristibus optat
Sic fieri turpis ———
When Venus came first to heaven, her comeliness was such, that (as mine author saith) 4895“all the gods came flocking about, and saluted her, each of them went to Jupiter, and desired he might have her to be his wife.” When fair 4896Antilochus came in presence, as a candle in the dark his beauty shined, all men's eyes (as Xenophon describes the manner of it) “were instantly fixed on him, and moved at the sight, insomuch that they could not conceal themselves, but in gesture or looks it was discerned and expressed.” Those other senses, hearing, touching, may much penetrate and affect, but none so much, none so forcible as sight. Forma Briseis mediis in armis movit Achillem, Achilles was moved in the midst of a battle by fair Briseis, Ajax by Tecmessa; Judith captivated that great Captain Holofernes: Dalilah, Samson; Rosamund, 4897Henry the Second; Roxolana, Suleiman the Magnificent, &c.
“A fair woman overcomes fire and sword.”
4899Nought under heaven so strongly doth allure
The sense of man and all his mind possess,
As beauty's loveliest bait, that doth procure
Great warriors erst their rigour to suppress,
And mighty hands forget their manliness,
Driven with the power of an heart-burning eye,
And lapt in flowers of a golden tress.
That can with melting pleasure mollify
Their harden'd hearts inur'd to cruelty.
4904Sola haec inflexit sensus, animumque labentem
I could hold out no longer. Such another mishap, but worse, had Stratocles the physician, that blear-eyed old man, muco plenus (so 4905Prodromus describes him); he was a severe woman's-hater all his life, foeda et contumeliosa semper in faeminas profatus, a bitter persecutor of the whole sex, humanas aspides et viperas appellabat, he forswore them all still, and mocked them wheresoever he came, in such vile terms, ut matrem et sorores odisses, that if thou hadst heard him, thou wouldst have loathed thine own mother and sisters for his word's sake. Yet this old doting fool was taken at last with that celestial and divine look of Myrilla, the daughter of Anticles the gardener, that smirking wench, that he shaved off his bushy beard, painted his face, 4906curled his hair, wore a laurel crown to cover his bald pate, and for her love besides was ready to run mad. For the very day that he married he was so furious, ut solis occasum minus expectare posset (a terrible, a monstrous long day), he could not stay till it was night, sed omnibus insalutatis in thalamum festinans irrupit, the meat scarce out of his mouth, without any leave taking, he would needs go presently to bed. What young man, therefore, if old men be so intemperate, can secure himself? Who can say I will not be taken with a beautiful object? I can, I will contain. No, saith 4907Lucian of his mistress, she is so fair, that if thou dost but see her, she will stupefy thee, kill thee straight, and, Medusa like, turn thee to a stone; thou canst not pull thine eyes from her, but, as an adamant doth iron, she will carry thee bound headlong whither she will herself, infect thee like a basilisk. It holds both in men and women. Dido was amazed at Aeneas' presence; Obstupuit primo aspectu Sidonia Dido; and as he feelingly verified out of his experience;
4908Quam ego postquam vidi, non ita amavi ut sani solent
Homines, sed eodem pacto ut insani solent.
I lov'd her not as others soberly,
But as a madman rageth, so did I.
So Museus of Leander, nusquam lumen detorquet ab illa; and 4909Chaucer of Palamon,
If you desire to know more particularly what this beauty is, how it doth Influere, how it doth fascinate (for, as all hold, love is a fascination), thus in brief. 4910“This comeliness or beauty ariseth from the due proportion of the whole, or from each several part.” For an exact delineation of which, I refer you to poets, historiographers, and those amorous writers, to Lucian's Images, and Charidemus, Xenophon's description of Panthea, Petronius Catalectes, Heliodorus Chariclia, Tacius Leucippe, Longus Sophista's Daphnis and Chloe, Theodorus Prodromus his Rhodanthes, Aristaenetus and Philostratus Epistles, Balthazar Castilio, lib. 4. de aulico. Laurentius, cap. 10, de melan. Aeneas Sylvius his Lucretia, and every poet almost, which have most accurately described a perfect beauty, an absolute feature, and that through every member, both in men and women. Each part must concur to the perfection of it; for as Seneca saith, Ep. 33. lib. 4. Non est formosa mulier cujus crus laudatur et brachium, sed illa cujus simul universa facies admirationem singulis partibus dedit; “she is no fair woman, whose arm, thigh, &c. are commended, except the face and all the other parts be correspondent.” And the face especially gives a lustre to the rest: the face is it that commonly denominates a fair or foul: arx formae facies, the face is beauty's tower; and though the other parts be deformed, yet a good face carries it (facies non uxor amatur) that alone is most part respected, principally valued, deliciis suis ferox, and of itself able to captivate.
4911Urit te Glycerae nitor,
Urit grata protervitas,
Et vultus nimium lubricus aspici.
“Glycera's too fair a face was it that set him on fire, too fine to be beheld.” When 4912Chaerea saw the singing wench's sweet looks, he was so taken, that he cried out, O faciem pulchram, deleo omnes dehinc ex animo mulieres, taedet quotidianarum harum formarum! “O fair face, I'll never love any but her, look on any other hereafter but her; I am weary of these ordinary beauties, away with them.” The more he sees her, the worse he is — uritque videndo, as in a burning-glass, the sunbeams are re-collected to a centre, the rays of love are projected from her eyes. It was Aeneas's countenance ravished Queen Dido, Os humerosque Deo similis, he had an angelical face.
4913O sacros vultus Baccho vel Apolline dignos,
Quos vir, quos tuto foemina nulla videt!
——— O sacred looks, befitting majesty,
Which never mortal wight could safely see.
Although for the greater part this beauty be most eminent in the face, yet many times those other members yield a most pleasing grace, and are alone sufficient to enamour. A high brow like unto the bright heavens, coeli pulcherrima plaga, Frons ubi vivit honor, frons ubi ludit amor, white and smooth like the polished alabaster, a pair of cheeks of vermilion colour, in which love lodgeth; 4914Amor qui mollibus genis puellae pernoctas: a coral lip, suaviorum delubrum, in which Basia mille patent, basia mille latent, “A thousand appear, as many are concealed;” gratiarum sedes gratissima; a sweet-smelling flower, from which bees may gather honey, 4915Mellilegae volucres quid adhuc cava thyma rosasque, &c.
Omnes ad dominae labra venite meae,
Illa rosas spirat, &c.
A white and round neck, that via lactea, dimple in the chin, black eyebrows, Cupidinis arcus, sweet breath, white and even teeth, which some call the salepiece, a fine soft round pap, gives an excellent grace, 4916Quale decus tumidis Pario de marmore mammis! 4917and make a pleasant valley lacteum sinum, between two chalky hills, Sororiantes papillulas, et ad pruritum frigidos amatores solo aspectu excitantes. Unde is, 4918Forma papillarum quam fuit apta premi! — Again Urebant oculos durae stantesque mamillae. A flaxen hair; golden hair was even in great account, for which Virgil commends Dido, Nondum sustulerat flavum Proserpinina crinem, Et crines nodantur in aurum. Apollonius (Argonaut. lib. 4. Jasonis flava coma incendit cor Medeae) will have Jason's golden hair to be the main cause of Medea's dotage on him. Castor and Pollux were both yellow haired. Paris, Menelaus, and most amorous young men, have been such in all ages, molles ac suaves, as Baptista Porta infers, 4919 Physiog. lib. 2. lovely to behold. Homer so commends Helen, makes Patroclus and Achilles both yellow haired: Pulchricoma Venus, and Cupid himself was yellow haired, in aurum coruscante et crispante capillo, like that neat picture of Narcissus in Callistratus; for so 4920Psyche spied him asleep, Briseis, Polixena, &c. flavicomae omnes,
——— and Hero the fair,
Whom young Apollo courted for her hair.
Leland commends Guithera, king Arthur's wife, for a flaxen hair: so Paulus Aemilius sets out Clodeveus, that lovely king of France. 4921Synesius holds every effeminate fellow or adulterer is fair haired: and Apuleius adds that Venus herself, goddess of love, cannot delight, 4922“though she come accompanied with the graces, and all Cupid's train to attend upon her, girt with her own girdle, and smell of cinnamon and balm, yet if she be bald or badhaired, she cannot please her Vulcan.” Which belike makes our Venetian ladies at this day to counterfeit yellow hair so much, great women to calamistrate and curl it up, vibrantes ad gratiam crines, et tot orbibus in captivitatem flexos, to adorn their heads with spangles, pearls, and made-flowers; and all courtiers to effect a pleasing grace in this kind. In a word, 4923“the hairs are Cupid's nets, to catch all comers, a brushy wood, in which Cupid builds his nest, and under whose shadow all loves a thousand several ways sport themselves.”
A little soft hand, pretty little mouth, small, fine, long fingers, Gratiae quae digitis —'tis that which Apollo did admire in Daphne — laudat digitosque manusque; a straight and slender body, a small foot, and well-proportioned leg, hath an excellent lustre, 4924Cui totum incumbit corpus uti fundamento aedes. Clearchus vowed to his friend Amyander in 4925Aristaenetus, that the most attractive part in his mistress, to make him love and like her first, was her pretty leg and foot: a soft and white skin, &c. have their peculiar graces, 4926Nebula haud est mollior ac hujus cutis est, aedipol papillam bellulam. Though in men these parts are not so much respected; a grim Saracen sometimes — nudus membra Pyracmon, a martial hirsute face pleaseth best; a black man is a pearl in a fair woman's eye, and is as acceptable as 4927lame Vulcan was to Venus; for he being a sweaty fuliginous blacksmith, was dearly beloved of her, when fair Apollo, nimble Mercury were rejected, and the rest of the sweet-faced gods forsaken. Many women (as Petronius 4928observes) sordibus calent (as many men are more moved with kitchen wenches, and a poor market maid, than all these illustrious court and city dames) will sooner dote upon a slave, a servant, a dirt dauber, a brontes, a cook, a player, if they see his naked legs or arms, thorosaque brachia, 4929&c., like that huntsman Meleager in Philostratus, though he be all in rags, obscene and dirty, besmeared like a ruddleman, a gipsy, or a chimney-sweeper, than upon a noble gallant, Nireus, Ephestion, Alcibiades, or those embroidered courtiers full of silk and gold. 4930Justine's wife, a citizen of Rome, fell in love with Pylades a player, and was ready to run mad for him, had not Galen himself helped her by chance. Faustina the empress doted on a fencer.
Not one of a thousand falls in love, but there is some peculiar part or other which pleaseth most, and inflames him above the rest. 4931A company of young philosophers on a time fell at variance, which part of a woman was most desirable and pleased best? some said the forehead, some the teeth, some the eyes, cheeks, lips, neck, chin, &c., the controversy was referred to Lais of Corinth to decide; but she, smiling, said, they were a company of fools; for suppose they had her where they wished, what would they 4932first seek? Yet this notwithstanding I do easily grant, neque quis vestrum negaverit opinor, all parts are attractive, but especially 4933the eyes, 4934
——— videt igne micantes,
Sideribus similes oculos ———
which are love's fowlers; 4935aucupium amoris, the shoeing horns, “the hooks of love” (as Arandus will) “the guides, touchstone, judges, that in a moment cure mad men, and make sound folks mad, the watchmen of the body; what do they not?” How vex they not? All this is true, and (which Athaeneus lib. 13. dip. cap. 5. and Tatius hold) they are the chief seats of love, and James Lernutius 4936hath facetely expressed in an elegant ode of his,
Amorem ocellis flammeolis herae
Vidi insidentem, credite posteri,
Fratresque circum ludibundos
Cum pharetra volitare et arcu, &c.
I saw Love sitting in my mistress' eyes
Sparkling, believe it all posterity,
And his attendants playing round about
With bow and arrows ready for to fly.
——— aemula lumina stellis,
Lumina quae possent sollicitare deos.
Eyes emulating stars in light,
Enticing gods at the first sight;
Love's orators, Petronius.
O blandos oculos, et o facetos,
Et quadam propria nota loquaces
Illic est Venus, et leves amores,
Atque ipsa in medio sedet voluptas.
O sweet and pretty speaking eyes,
Where Venus, love, and pleasure lies.
Love's torches, touch-box, naphtha and matches, 4939Tibullus.
Illius ex oculis quum vult exurere divos,
Accendit geminas lampades acer amor.
Tart Love when he will set the gods on fire,
Lightens the eyes as torches to desire.
Leander, at the first sight of Hero's eyes, was incensed, saith Musaeus.
Simul in 4940oculorum radiis crescebat fax amorum,
Et cor fervebat invecti ignis impetu;
Pulchritudo enim Celebris immaculatae foeminae,
Acutior hominibus est veloci sagitta.
Oculos vero via est, ab oculi ictibus
Vulnus dilabitur, et in praecordia viri manat.
Love's torches 'gan to burn first in her eyes.
And set his heart on fire which never dies:
For the fair beauty of a virgin pure
Is sharper than a dart, and doth inure
A deeper wound, which pierceth to the heart
By the eyes, and causeth such a cruel smart.
4941A modern poet brings in Amnon complaining of Thamar,
——— et me fascino
Occidit ille risus et formae lepos,
Ille nitor, illa gratia, et verus decor,
Illae aemulantes purpuram, et 4942rosas genae,
Oculique vinctaeque aureo nodo comae. ———
It was thy beauty, 'twas thy pleasing smile,
Thy grace and comeliness did me beguile;
Thy rose-like cheeks, and unto purple fair
Thy lovely eyes and golden knotted hair.
4943Philostratus Lemnius cries out on his mistress's basilisk eyes, ardentes faces, those two burning-glasses, they had so inflamed his soul, that no water could quench it. “What a tyranny” (saith he), “what a penetration of bodies is this! thou drawest with violence, and swallowest me up, as Charybdis doth sailors with thy rocky eyes: he that falls into this gulf of love, can never get out.” Let this be the corollary then, the strongest beams of beauty are still darted from the eyes.
4944Nam quis lumina tanta, tanta
Posset luminibus suis tueri,
Non statim trepidansque, palpitansque,
Prae desiderii aestuantis aura? &c.
For who such eyes with his can see,
And not forthwith enamour'd be!
And as men catch dotterels by putting out a leg or an arm, with those mutual glances of the eyes they first inveigle one another. 4945Cynthia prima suis miserum me, cepit ocellis. Of all eyes (by the way) black are most amiable, enticing and fairer, which the poet observes in commending of his mistress. 4946Spectandum nigris oculis, nigroque capillo, which Hesiod admires in his Alemena,
4947Cujus a vertice ac nigricantibus oculis,
Tale quiddam spiral ac ab aurea Venere.
From her black eyes, and from her golden face
As if from Venus came a lovely grace.
and 4948Triton in his Milaene — nigra oculos formosa mihi. 4949Homer useth that epithet of ox-eyed, in describing Juno, because a round black eye is the best, the son of beauty, and farthest from black the worse: which 4950Polydore Virgil taxeth in our nation: Angli ut plurimum caesiis oculis, we have grey eyes for the most part. Baptisma Porta, Physiognom. lib. 3. puts grey colour upon children, they be childish eyes, dull and heavy. Many commend on the other side Spanish ladies, and those 4951Greek dames at this day, for the blackness of their eyes, as Porta doth his Neapolitan young wives. Suetonius describes Julius Caesar to have been nigris vegetisque oculis micantibus, of a black quick sparkling eye: and although Averroes in his Colliget will have such persons timorous, yet without question they are most amorous.
Now last of all, I will show you by what means beauty doth fascinate, bewitch, as some hold, and work upon the soul of a man by the eye. For certainly I am of the poet's mind, love doth bewitch and strangely change us.
4952Ludit amor sensus, oculos perstringit, et aufert
Libertatem animi, mira nos fascinat arte.
Credo aliquis daemon subiens praecordia flammam
Concitat, et raptam tollit de cardine mentem.
Love mocks our senses, curbs our liberties,
And doth bewitch us with his art and rings,
I think some devil gets into our entrails,
And kindles coals, and heaves our souls from th'hinges.
Heliodorus lib. 3. proves at large, 4953that love is witchcraft, “it gets in at our eyes, pores, nostrils, engenders the same qualities and affections in us, as were in the party whence it came.” The manner of the fascination, as Ficinus 10. cap. com. in Plat. declares it, is thus: “Mortal men are then especially bewitched, when as by often gazing one on the other, they direct sight to sight, join eye to eye, and so drink and suck in love between them; for the beginning of this disease is the eye. And therefore he that hath a clear eye, though he be otherwise deformed, by often looking upon him, will make one mad, and tie him fast to him by the eye.” Leonard. Varius, lib. 1. cap. 2. de fascinat. telleth us, that by this interview, 4954“the purer spirits are infected,” the one eye pierceth through the other with his rays, which he sends forth, and many men have those excellent piercing eyes, that, which Suetonius relates of Augustus, their brightness is such, they compel their spectators to look off, and can no more endure them than the sunbeams. 4955Barradius, lib. 6. cap. 10. de Harmonia Evangel. reports as much of our Saviour Christ, and 4956Peter Morales of the Virgin Mary, whom Nicephorus describes likewise to have been yellow-haired, of a wheat colour, but of a most amiable and piercing eye. The rays, as some think, sent from the eyes, carry certain spiritual vapours with them, and so infect the other party, and that in a moment. I know, they that hold visio fit intra mittendo, will make a doubt of this; but Ficinus proves it from blear-eyes, 4957 “That by sight alone, make others blear-eyed; and it is more than manifest, that the vapour of the corrupt blood doth get in together with the rays, and so by the contagion the spectators' eyes are infected.” Other arguments there are of a basilisk, that kills afar off by sight, as that Ephesian did of whom 4958Philostratus speaks, of so pernicious an eye, he poisoned all he looked steadily on: and that other argument, menstruae faminae, out of Aristotle's Problems, morbosae Capivaccius adds, and 4959Septalius the commentator, that contaminate a looking-glass with beholding it. 4960 “So the beams that come from the agent's heart, by the eyes, infect the spirits about the patients, inwardly wound, and thence the spirits infect the blood.” To this effect she complained in 4961Apuleius, “Thou art the cause of my grief, thy eyes piercing through mine eyes to mine inner parts, have set my bowels on fire, and therefore pity me that am now ready to die for thy sake.” Ficinus illustrates this with a familiar example of that Marrhusian Phaedrus and Theban Lycias, 4962“Lycias he stares on Phaedrus' face, and Phaedrus fastens the balls of his eyes upon Lycias, and with those sparkling rays sends out his spirits. The beams of Phaedrus' eyes are easily mingled with the beams of Lycias, and spirits are joined to spirits. This vapour begot in Phaedrus' heart, enters into Lycias' bowels; and that which is a greater wonder, Phaedrus' blood is in Lycias' heart, and thence come those ordinary love-speeches, my sweetheart Phaedrus, and mine own self, my dear bowels. And Phaedrus again to Lycias, O my light, my joy, my soul, my life. Phaedrus follows Lycias, because his heart would have his spirits, and Lycias follows Phaedrus, because he loves the seat of his spirits; both follow; but Lycias the earnester of the two: the river hath more need of the fountain, than the fountain of the river; as iron is drawn to that which is touched with a loadstone, but draws not it again; so Lycias draws Phaedrus.” But how comes it to pass then, that the blind man loves, that never saw? We read in the Lives of the Fathers, a story of a child that was brought up in the wilderness, from his infancy, by an old hermit: now come to man's estate, he saw by chance two comely women wandering in the woods: he asked the old man what creatures they were, he told him fairies; after a while talking obiter, the hermit demanded of him, which was the pleasantest sight that ever he saw in his life? He readily replied, the two 4963fairies he spied in the wilderness. So that, without doubt, there is some secret loadstone in a beautiful woman, a magnetic power, a natural inbred affection, which moves our concupiscence, and as he sings,
Methinks I have a mistress yet to come,
And still I seek, I love, I know not whom.
'Tis true indeed of natural and chaste love, but not of this heroical passion, or rather brutish burning lust of which we treat; we speak of wandering, wanton, adulterous eyes, which, as 4964he saith, “lie still in wait as so many soldiers, and when they spy an innocent spectator fixed on them, shoot him through, and presently bewitch him: especially when they shall gaze and gloat, as wanton lovers do one upon another, and with a pleasant eye-conflict participate each other's souls.” Hence you may perceive how easily and how quickly we may be taken in love; since at the twinkling of an eye, Phaedrus' spirits may so perniciously infect Lycias' blood. 4965“Neither is it any wonder, if we but consider how many other diseases closely, and as suddenly are caught by infection, plague, itch, scabs, flux,” &c. The spirits taken in, will not let him rest that hath received them, but egg him on. 4966Idque petit corpus mens unde est saucia amore; and we may manifestly perceive a strange eduction of spirits, by such as bleed at nose after they be dead, at the presence of the murderer; but read more of this in Lemnius, lib. 2. de occult. nat. mir. cap. 7. Valleriola lib. 2. observ. cap. 7. Valesius controv. Ficinus, Cardan, Libavius de cruentis cadaveribus, &c.
4805. Lucian. Tom. 4. Dial. amorum.
4806. “Sight, conference, association, kisses, touch.”
4807. Ea enim hominum intemperantium libido est ut etiam fama ad amandum impellantur, et audientes aeque afficiuntur ac videntes.
4808. Formosam Sostrato filiam audiens, uxorem cupit, et sola illius, auditione ardet.
4809. Quoties de Panthea Xenophontis locum perlego, ita animo affectus ac si coram intuerer.
4810. Pulchritudinem sibi ipsis configunt, Imagines.
4811. De aulico lib. 2. fol. 116.'tis a pleasant story, and related at large by him.
4812. Gratia venit ab auditu aeque ac visu et species amoris in phantasiam recipiunt sola relatione. Picolomineus grad. 8. c. 38.
4813. Lips. cent. 2. epist. 22. Beautie's Encomions.
4815. Amoris primum gradum visus habet, ut aspiciat rem amatam.
4816. Achilles Tatius lib. 1. Forma telo quovis acutior ad inferendum vulnus, perque oculos amatorio vulneri aditum patefaciens in animum penetrat.
4817. In tota rerum natura nihil forma divinius, nihil augustius, nihil pretiosius, cujus vires hinc facile intelliguntur, &c.
4818. Christ. Fonseca.
4819. S. L.
4820. Bruys prob. 11. de forma e Lucianos.
4821. Lib. de calumnia. Formosi Calumninia vacant; dolemus alios meliore loco positos, fortunam nobis novercam illis, &c.
4822. Invidemus sapientibus, justis, nisi beneficiis assidue amorem extorquent; solos formosos amamus et primo velut aspectu benevolentia conjungimur, et eos tanquam Deos colimus, libentius iis servimus quam aliis imperamus, majoremque, &c.
4823. Formae majestatem Barbari verentur, nec alii majores quam quos eximia forma natura donata est, Herod, lib. 5. Curtius G. Arist. Polit.
4824. Serm. 63. Plutarch, vit. ejus. Brisonius Strabo.
4825. “Virtue appears more gracefully in a lovely personage.”
4826. Lib. 5. magnorumque; operum non alios capaces putant quam quos eximia specie natura donavit.
4827. Lib. de vitis Pontificum. Rom.
4828. Lib. 2. cap. 6.
4829. Dial. amorum. c. 2. de magia. Lib. 2. connub. cap. 27. Virgo formosa et si oppido pauper, abunde est dotata.
4830. Isocrates plures ob formam immortalitatem adepti sunt quam ob reliquas omnes virtutes.
4831. Lucian Tom. 4. Charidaemon. Qui pulchri, merito apud Deos et apud homines honore affecti. Muta commentatio, quavis epistola ad commendandum efficacior.
4832. Lib. 9. Var. hist, tanta formae elegantia ut ab ea nuda, &c.
4833. Esdras, iv. 29.
4834. Origen hom. 23. in Numb. In ipsos tyrannos tyrannidem exercet.
4835. Illud certe magnum ob quod gloriari possunt formosi, quod robustis necessarium sit laborare, fortem periculis se objicere, sapientem, &c.
4836. Majorem vim habet ad commendandam forma, quam accurate scripta epistola. Arist.
4837. Heliodor. lib. I.
4838. Knowles. hist. Turcica.
4839. Daniel in complaint of Rosamond.
4840. Stroza filius Epig. “The king of the gods on account of this beauty became a bull, a shower, a swan.”
4841. Sect. 2. Mem. 1. Sub. 1.
4842. Stromatum l. post captam Trojam cum impetu ferretur, ad occidendam Helenam, stupore adeo pulchritudinis correptus ut ferrum excideret, &c.
4843. Tantae formae fuit ut cum vincta loris, feris exposita foret, equorum calcibus obterenda, ipsis jumentis admiratione fuit; laedere noluerunt.
4844. Lib. 8. mules.
4845. “If you will restore me to my parents, and my beautiful lover, what thanks, what honour shall I owe you, what provender shall I not supply you?”
4846. Aethiop. l. 3.
4847. Atheneus, lib. 8.
4848. Apuleius Aur. asino.
4851. Ov. Met. 1.
4852. Ovid. Met. lib. 5.
4853. “And with her hand wiping off the drops from her green tresses, thus began to relate the loves of Alpheus. I was formerly an Achaian nymph.”
4854. Leland. “Their lips resound with thousand kisses, their arms are pallid with the close embrace, and their necks are mutually entwined by their fond caresses.”
4856. Si longe aspiciens haec urit lumine divos atque homines prope, cur urere lina nequit? Angerianus.
4857. “We wonder how great the vapour, and whence it comes.”
4858. Idem Anger.
4859. Obstupuit mirabundas membrorum elegantiam, &c. Ep. 7.
4860. Stobaeus e graeco. “My limbs became relaxed, I was overcome from head to foot, all self-possession fled, so great a stupor overburdened my mind.”
4861. Parum abfuit quo minus saxum ex nomine factus sum, ipsis statuis immobiliorem me fecit.
4862. Veteres Gorgonis fabulam confinxerunt, eximium formae decus stupidos reddens.
4863. Hor. Ode 5.
4864. Marlos Hero.
4865. Aspectum virginis sponte fugit insanus fere, et impossibile existimans ut simul eam aspicere quis possit, et intra temperantiae metas se continere.
4866. Apuleius, l. 4. Multi mortales longis itineribus, &c.
4867. Nic. Gerbel. l. 5. Achaia.
4868. I. Secundus basiorum lib.
4869. Musaeus Illa autem bene morata, per aedem quocunque vagabatur, sequentem mentem habebat, e oculos, et corda virorum.
4872. Perno didascalo dial. Ital. Latin. donat. a Gasp. Barthio Germano.
4874. Vestium splendore et elegantia ambitione incessus, donis, cantilenis, &c. gratiam adipisci.
4875. Prae caeteris corporis proceritate et egregia indole mirandus apparebat, caeteri autem capti ejus amore videbantur, &c.
4876. Aristenaetus, ep. 10.
4877. Tom. 4. dial. meretr. respicientes et ad formam ejus obstupescentes.
4878. In Charidemo sapientiae merito pulchritudo praefertur et opibus.
4879. Indignum nihil est Troas fortes et Achivos tempore tam longo perpessos esse labore.
4880. Digna quidem facies pro qua vel obiret Achilles, vel Priamus, belli causa probanda fuit. Proper. lib. 2.
4881. Coecus qui Helenae formam carpserat.
4882. Those mutinous Turks that murmured at Mahomet, when they saw Irene, excused his absence. Knowls.
4883. In laudem Helenae erat.
4884. Apul. miles. lib. 4.
4885. Secun. bas. 13.
4886. Curtius, l. 1.
4888. Seneca. Amor in oculis oritur.
4889. Ovid Fast.
4891. Lib. de pulchrit. Jesu et Mariae.
4892. Lucian Charidemon supra omnes mortales felicissimum si hac frui possit.
4893. Lucian amor. Insanum quiddam ac furibundum exclamans. O fortunatissime deorum Mars qui propter hanc vinctus fuisti.
4894. Ov. Met. l. 3.
4895. Omnes dii complexi sunt, et in uxorem sibi petierunt, Nat. Comes de Venere.
4896. Ut cum lux noctis affulget, omnium oculos incurrit: sic Antiloquus &c.
4897. Dolovit omnes ex animo mulieres.
4898. Nam vincit et vel ignem, ferrumque si qua pulchra est. Anacreon, 2.
4899. Spenser in his Faerie Queene.
4900. Achilles Tatius, lib. 1.
4901. Statim ac eam contemplatus sum, occidi; oculos a virgine avertere conatus sum, sed illi repugnabant.
4902. Pudet dicere, non celabo tamen. Memphim veniens me vicit, et continentiam expugnavit, quam ad senectutem usque servarum, oculis corporis, &c.
4903. Nunc primum circa hanc anxius animi haereo. Aristaenetus, ep. 17.
4904. Virg. Aen. 4. “She alone hath captivated my feelings, and fixed my wavering mind.”
4905. Amaranto dial.
4906. Comasque ad speculum disposuit.
4907. Imag. Polystrato. Si illam saltem intuearis, statuis immobiliorem te faciet: si conspexeris eam, non relinquetur facultas oculos ab ea amovendi; abducet te alligatum quocunque voluerit, ut ferrum ad se trahere ferunt adamantem.
4908. Plaut. Merc.
4909. In the Knight's Tale.
4910. Ex debita totius proportione aptaque partium compositione. Picolomineus.
4911. Hor. Od. 19. lib. 1.
4912. Ter. Eunuch. Act. 2. Scen. 3.
4913. Petronius Catall.
4914. Sophocles. Antigone.
4915. Jo. Secundus bas. 19.
4917. Arandus. Vallis amoenissima e duobus montibus composita niveis.
4919. Fol. 77. Dapsiles hilares amatores, &c.
4920. When Cupid slept. Caesariem auream habentem, ubi Psyche vidit, mollemque ex ambrosia cervicem inspexit, crines crispos, purpureas genas candidasque, &c. Apuleius.
4921. In laudem calvi; splendida coma quisque adulter est; allicit aurea coma.
4922. Venus ipsa non placeret comis nudata, capite spoliata, si qualis ipsa Venus cum fuit virgo omni gratiarum choro stipata, et toto cupidinun populo concinnata, baltheo suo cincta, cinnama fragrans, et balsama, si calva processerit, placere non potest Vulcano suo.
4923. Arandus. Capilli retia Cupidinis, sylva caedua, in qua nidificat Cupido, sub cujus umbra amores mille modis se exercent.
4924. Theod. Prodromus Amor. lib. 1.
4925. Epist. 72. Ubi pulchram tibiam, bene compactum tenuemque pedem vidi.
4926. Plaut. Cas.
4927. Claudus optime rem agit.
4928. Fol. 5. Si servum viderint, aut flatorem altius cinctum, aut pulvere perfusum, aut histrionem in scenam traductum, &c.
4929. Me pulchra fateor carere forma, verum luculenta — nostra est. Petronius Catal. de Priapo.
4931. Calcagninus Apologis. Quae pars maxime desiderabilis? Alius frontem, alius genas, &c.
4932. Inter foemineum.
4934. Sunt enim oculi, praecipuae pulchritudinis sedes. lib. 6.
4935. Amoris hami, duces, judices et indices qui momento insanos sanant, sanos insanire cogunt, oculatissimi corporis excubitores, quid non agunt? Quid non cogunt?
4936. Ocelli carna. 17. cujus et Lipsius epist. quaest. lib. 3. cap. 11. meminit ob elegantiam.
4937. Cynthia prima suis miserum me cepit ocellis, contactum nullis ante cupidinibus. Propert. l. 1.
4938. In catalect.
4939. De Sulpicio, lib. 4.
4940. Pulchritudo ipsa per occultos radios in pectus amantis dimanans amatae rei formam insculpsit, Tatius, l. 5.
4941. Jacob Cornelius Amnon Tragoed. Act. 1. sc. 1.
4942. Rosae formosaram oculis nascuntur, et hilaritas vultus elegantiae corona. Philostratus deliciis.
4943. Epist. et in deliciis, abi et oppugnationem relinque, quam flamma non extinguit; nam ab amore ipsa flamma sentit incendium: quae corporum penetratio, quae tyrannis haec? &c.
4944. Loecheus Panthea.
4945. Propertius. “The wretched Cynthia first captivates with her sparkling eyes.”
4946. Ovid, amorum, lib. 2. eleg. 4.
4947. Scut. Hercul.
4948. Calcagninus dial.
4949. Iliad 1.
4950. Hist. lib. 1.
4951. Sands' relation, fol. 67.
4953. Amor per oculos, nares, poros influens, &c. Mortales tum summopere fascinantur quando frequentissimo intuitu aciem dirigentes, &c. Ideo si quis nitore polleat oculorum, &c.
4954. Spiritus puriores fascinantur, oculus a se radios emittit, &c.
4955. Lib. de pulch. Jes. et Mar.
4956. Lib. 2. c. 23. colore triticum referente, crine, flava, acribus oculis.
4957. Lippi solo intuitu alios lippos faciunt, et patet una cum radio vaporem corrupti sanguinis emanare, cujus contagione oculis spectantis inficitur.
4958. Vita Apollon.
4959. Comment. in Aristot. Probl.
4960. Sic radius a corde percutientis missus, regimen proprium repetit, cor vulnerat, per oculos et sanguinem inficit et spiritus, subtili quadam vi. Castil. lib. 3. de aulico.
4961. Lib. 10. Causa omnis et origo omnis prae sentis doloris tute es; isti enim tui oculi, per meos oculos ad intima delapsi praecordia, acerrimum meis medullis commovent incendium; ergo miserere tui causa pereuntis.
4962. Lycias in Phaedri vultum inhiat, Phaedrus in oculos Lyciae scintillas suorum defigit oculorum; cumque scintillis, &c. Sequitur Phaedrus Lyciam, quia cor suum petit spiritum; Phaedrum Lycias, quia spiritus propriam sedem postulat. Verum Lycias, &c.
4963. Daemonia inquit quae in hoc Eremo nuper occurebant.
4964. Castilio de aulico, l. 3. fol. 228. Oculi ut milites in insidiis semper recubant, et subito ad visum sagittas emittunt, &c.
4965. Nec mirum si reliquos morbos qui ex contagione nascuntur consideremus, pestem, pruritum, scabiem, &c.
4966. Lucretius. “And the body naturally seeks whence it is that the mind is so wounded by love.”
Artificial allurements of Love, Causes and Provocations to Lust; Gestures, Clothes, Dower, &c.
Natural beauty is a stronger loadstone of itself, as you have heard, a great temptation, and pierceth to the very heart; 4967forma verecundae, nocuit mihi visa puellae; but much more when those artificial enticements and provocations of gestures, clothes, jewels, pigments, exornations, shall be annexed unto it; those other circumstances, opportunity of time and place shall concur, which of themselves alone were all sufficient, each one in particular to produce this effect. It is a question much controverted by some wise men, forma debeat plus arti an naturae? Whether natural or artificial objects be more powerful? but not decided: for my part I am of opinion, that though beauty itself be a great motive, and give an excellent lustre in sordibus, in beggary, as a jewel on a dunghill will shine and cast his rays, it cannot be suppressed, which Heliodorus feigns of Chariclia, though she were in beggar's weeds: yet as it is used, artificial is of more force, and much to be preferred.
4968Sic dentata sibi videtur Aegle,
Emptis ossibus Indicoque cornu;
Sic quae nigrior est cadente moro,
Cerussata sibi placet Lychoris.
So toothless Aegle seems a pretty one,
Set out with new-bought teeth of Indy bone:
So foul Lychoris blacker than berry
Herself admires, now finer than cherry.
John Lerius the Burgundian, cap. 8. hist. navigat. in Brazil. is altogether on my side. For whereas (saith he) at our coming to Brazil, we found both men and women naked as they were born, without any covering, so much as of their privities, and could not be persuaded, by our Frenchmen that lived a year with them, to wear any, 4969“Many will think that our so long commerce with naked women, must needs be a great provocation to lust;” but he concludes otherwise, that their nakedness did much less entice them to lasciviousness, than our women's clothes. “And I dare boldly affirm” (saith he) “that those glittering attires, counterfeit colours, headgears, curled hairs, plaited coats, cloaks, gowns, costly stomachers, guarded and loose garments, and all those other accoutrements, wherewith our countrywomen counterfeit a beauty, and so curiously set out themselves, cause more inconvenience in this kind, than that barbarian homeliness, although they be no whit inferior unto them in beauty. I could evince the truth of this by many other arguments, but I appeal” (saith he) “to my companions at that present, which were all of the same mind.” His countryman, Montague, in his essays, is of the same opinion, and so are many others; out of whose assertions thus much in brief we may conclude, that beauty is more beholden to art than nature, and stronger provocations proceed from outward ornaments, than such as nature hath provided. It is true that those fair sparkling eyes, white neck, coral lips, turgent paps, rose-coloured cheeks, &c., of themselves are potent enticers; but when a comely, artificial, well-composed look, pleasing gesture, an affected carriage shall be added, it must needs be far more forcible than it was, when those curious needleworks, variety of colours, purest dyes, jewels, spangles, pendants, lawn, lace, tiffanies, fair and fine linen, embroideries, calamistrations, ointments, etc. shall be added, they will make the veriest dowdy otherwise, a goddess, when nature shall be furthered by art. For it is not the eye of itself that enticeth to lust, but an “adulterous eye,” as Peter terms it, 2. ii. 14. a wanton, a rolling, lascivious eye: a wandering eye, which Isaiah taxeth, iii. 16. Christ himself, and the Virgin Mary, had most beautiful eyes, as amiable eyes as any persons, saith 4970Baradius, that ever lived, but withal so modest, so chaste, that whosoever looked on them was freed from that passion of burning lust, if we may believe 4971Gerson and 4972Bonaventure: there was no such antidote against it, as the Virgin Mary's face; 'tis not the eye, but carriage of it, as they use it, that causeth such effects. When Pallas, Juno, Venus, were to win Paris' favour for the golden apple, as it is elegantly described in that pleasant interlude of 4973Apuleius, Juno came with majesty upon the stage, Minerva gravity, but Venus dulce subridens, constitit amaene; et gratissimae, Graticae deam propitiantes, &c. came in smiling with her gracious graces and exquisite music, as if she had danced, et nonnunquam saltare solis oculis, and which was the main matter of all, she danced with her rolling eyes: they were the brokers and harbingers of her suite. So she makes her brags in a modern poet,
4974Soon could I make my brow to tyrannise,
And force the world do homage to mine eyes.
The eye is a secret orator, the first bawd, Amoris porta, and with private looks, winking, glances and smiles, as so many dialogues they make up the match many times, and understand one another's meanings, before they come to speak a word. 4975Euryalus and Lucretia were so mutually enamoured by the eye, and prepared to give each other entertainment, before ever they had conference: he asked her good will with his eyes; she did suffragari, and gave consent with a pleasant look. That 4976Thracian Rodophe was so excellent at this dumb rhetoric, “that if she had but looked upon any one almost” (saith Calisiris) “she would have bewitched him, and he could not possibly escape it.” For as 4977Salvianus observes, “the eyes are the windows of our souls, by which as so many channels, all dishonest concupiscence gets into our hearts.” They reveal our thoughts, and as they say, frons animi index, but the eye of the countenance, 4978Quid procacibus intuere ocellis? &c. I may say the same of smiling, gait, nakedness of parts, plausible gestures, &c. To laugh is the proper passion of a man, an ordinary thing to smile; but those counterfeit, composed, affected, artificial and reciprocal, those counter-smiles are the dumb shows and prognostics of greater matters, which they most part use, to inveigle and deceive; though many fond lovers again are so frequently mistaken, and led into a fool's paradise. For if they see but a fair maid laugh, or show a pleasant countenance, use some gracious words or gestures, they apply it all to themselves, as done in their favour; sure she loves them, she is willing, coming, &c.
Stultus quando videt quod pulchra puellula ridet,
Tum fatuus credit se quod amare velit:
When a fool sees a fair maid for to smile,
He thinks she loves him, 'tis but to beguile.
They make an art of it, as the poet telleth us,
4979Quis credat? discunt etiam ridere puellae,
Quaeritur atque illis hac quoque parte decor.
Who can believe? to laugh maids make an art,
And seek a pleasant grace to that same part.
And 'tis as great an enticement as any of the rest,
4980 ——— subrisit molle puella,
Cor tibi rite salit.
“She makes thine heart leap with 4981a pleasing gentle smile of hers.”
4982Dulce ridentem Lalagen amabo,
“I love Lalage as much for smiling, as for discoursing,” delectata illa risit tam blandum, as he said in Petronius of his mistress, being well pleased, she gave so sweet a smile. It won Ismenias, as he 4983 confesseth, Ismene subrisit amatorium, Ismene smiled so lovingly the second time I saw her, that I could not choose but admire her: and Galla's sweet smile quite overcame 4984Faustus the shepherd, Me aspiciens moils blande subrisit ocellis. All other gestures of the body will enforce as much. Daphnis in 4985Lucian was a poor tattered wench when I knew her first, said Corbile, pannosa et Zacera, but now she is a stately piece indeed, hath her maids to attend her, brave attires, money in her purse, &c., and will you know how this came to pass? “by setting out herself after the best fashion, by her pleasant carriage, affability, sweet smiling upon all,” &c. Many women dote upon a man for his compliment only, and good behaviour, they are won in an instant; too credulous to believe that every light wanton suitor, who sees or makes love to them, is instantly enamoured, he certainly dotes on, admires them, will surely marry, when as he means nothing less, 'tis his ordinary carriage in all such companies. So both delude each other by such outward shows; and amongst the rest, an upright, a comely grace, courtesies, gentle salutations, cringes, a mincing gait, a decent and an affected pace, are most powerful enticers, and which the prophet Isaiah, a courtier himself, and a great observer, objected to the daughters of Zion, iii. 16. “they minced as they went, and made a tinkling with their feet.” To say the truth, what can they not effect by such means?
Whilst nature decks them in their best attires
Of youth and beauty which the world admires.
4986Urit — voce, manu, gressu, pectore, fronte, oculis. When art shall be annexed to beauty, when wiles and guiles shall concur; for to speak as it is, love is a kind of legerdemain; mere juggling, a fascination. When they show their fair hand, fine foot and leg withal, magnum sui desiderium nobis relinquunt, saith 4987Balthazar Castilio, lib. 1. they set us a longing, “and so when they pull up their petticoats, and outward garments,” as usually they do to show their fine stockings, and those of purest silken dye, gold fringes, laces, embroiderings, (it shall go hard but when they go to church, or to any other place, all shall be seen) 'tis but a springe to catch woodcocks; and as 4988Chrysostom telleth them downright, “though they say nothing with their mouths, they speak in their gait, they speak with their eyes, they speak in the carriage of their bodies.” And what shall we say otherwise of that baring of their necks, shoulders, naked breasts, arms and wrists, to what end are they but only to tempt men to lust!
4989Nam quid lacteolus sinus, et ipsas
Prae te fers sine linteo papillas?
Hoc est dicere, posce, posce, trado;
Hoc est ad Venerem vocare amantes.
There needs no more, as 4990Fredericus Matenesius well observes, but a crier to go before them so dressed, to bid us look out, a trumpet to sound, or for defect a sow-gelder to blow,
4991Look out, look out and see
What object this may be
That doth perstringe mine eye;
A gallant lady goes
In rich and gaudy clothes,
But whither away God knows,
——— look out, &c., et quae sequuntur,
or to what end and purpose? But to leave all these fantastical raptures, I'll prosecute my intended theme. Nakedness, as I have said, is an odious thing of itself, remedium amoris; yet it may be so used, in part, and at set times, that there can be no such enticement as it is;
4992Nec mihi cincta Diana placet, nec nuda Cythere,
Illa voluptatis nil habet, haec nimium.
David so espied Bathsheba, the elders Susanna: 4993Apelles was enamoured with Campaspe, when he was to paint her naked. Tiberius in Suet. cap. 42. supped with Sestius Gallus an old lecher, libidinoso sene, ea lege ut nudae puellae administrarent; some say as much of Nero, and Pontus Huter of Carolus Pugnax. Amongst the Babylonians, it was the custom of some lascivious queans to dance frisking in that fashion, saith Curtius lib. 5. and Sardus de mor. gent. lib. 1. writes of others to that effect. The 4994Tuscans at some set banquets had naked women to attend upon them, which Leonicus de Varia hist. lib. 3. cap. 96. confirms of such other bawdy nations. Nero would have filthy pictures still hanging in his chamber, which is too commonly used in our times, and Heliogabalus, etiam coram agentes, ut ad venerem incitarent: So things may be abused. A servant maid in Aristaenetus spied her master and mistress through the key-hole 4995merrily disposed; upon the sight she fell in love with her master. 4996Antoninus Caracalla observed his mother-in-law with her breasts amorously laid open, he was so much moved, that he said, Ah si liceret, O that I might; which she by chance overhearing, replied as impudently, 4997Quicquid libet licet, thou mayst do what thou wilt: and upon that temptation he married her: this object was not in cause, not the thing itself, but that unseemly, indecent carriage of it.
When you have all done, veniunt a veste sagittae the greatest provocations of lust are from our apparel; God makes, they say, man shapes, and there is no motive like unto it;
4998Which doth even beauty beautify,
And most bewitch a wretched eye,
a filthy knave, a deformed quean, a crooked carcass, a mawkin, a witch, a rotten post, a hedgestake may be so set out and tricked up, that it shall make as fair a show, as much enamour as the rest: many a silly fellow is so taken. Primum luxuriae, aucupium, one calls it, the first snare of lust; 4999Bossus aucupium animarum, lethalem arundinem, a fatal reed, the greatest bawd, forte lenocinium, sanguineis lachrymis deplorandum, saith 5000Matenesius, and with tears of blood to be deplored. Not that comeliness of clothes is therefore to be condemned, and those usual ornaments: there is a decency and decorum in this as well as in other things, fit to be used, becoming several persons, and befitting their estates; he is only fantastical that is not in fashion, and like an old image in arras hangings, when a manner of attire is generally received; but when they are so new-fangled, so unstaid, so prodigious in their attires, beyond their means and fortunes, unbefitting their age, place, quality, condition, what should we otherwise think of them? Why do they adorn themselves with so many colours of herbs, fictitious flowers, curious needleworks, quaint devices, sweet-smelling odours, with those inestimable riches of precious stones, pearls, rubies, diamonds, emeralds, &c.? Why do they crown themselves with gold and silver, use coronets and tires of several fashions, deck themselves with pendants, bracelets, earrings, chains, girdles, rings, pins, spangles, embroideries, shadows, rebatoes, versicolour ribands? why do they make such glorious shows with their scarves, feathers, fans, masks, furs, laces, tiffanies, ruffs, falls, calls, cuffs, damasks, velvets, tinsels, cloth of gold, silver, tissue? with colours of heavens, stars, planets: the strength of metals, stones, odours, flowers, birds, beasts, fishes, and whatsoever Africa, Asia, America, sea, land, art, and industry of man can afford? Why do they use and covet such novelty of inventions; such new-fangled tires, and spend such inestimable sums on them? “To what end are those crisped, false hairs, painted faces,” as 5001the satirist observes, “such a composed gait, not a step awry?” Why are they like so many Sybarites, or Nero's Poppaea, Ahasuerus' concubines, so costly, so long a dressing, as Caesar was marshalling his army, or a hawk in pruning? 5002Dum moliuntur, dum comuntur annus est: a 5003gardener takes not so much delight and pains in his garden, a horseman to dress his horse, scour his armour, a mariner about his ship, a merchant his shop and shop-book, as they do about their faces, and all those other parts: such setting up with corks, straightening with whalebones; why is it, but as a day-net catcheth larks, to make young men stoop unto them? Philocharus, a gallant in Aristenaetus, advised his friend Poliaenus to take heed of such enticements, 5004“for it was the sweet sound and motion of his mistress's spangles and bracelets, the smell of her ointments, that captivated him first,” Illa fuit mentis prima ruina meae. Quid sibi vult pixidum turba, saith 5005Lucian, “to what use are pins, pots, glasses, ointments, irons, combs, bodkins, setting-sticks? why bestow they all their patrimonies and husbands' yearly revenues on such fooleries?” 5006bina patrimonia singulis auribus; “why use they dragons, wasps, snakes, for chains, enamelled jewels on their necks, ears?” dignum potius foret ferro manus istas religari, atque utinam monilia vere dracones essent; they had more need some of them be tied in bedlam with iron chains, have a whip for a fan, and hair-cloths next to their skins, and instead of wrought smocks, have their cheeks stigmatised with a hot iron: I say, some of our Jezebels, instead of painting, if they were well served. But why is all this labour, all this cost, preparation, riding, running, far-fetched, and dear bought stuff? 5007“Because forsooth they would be fair and fine, and where nature, is defective, supply it by art.” 5008Sanguine quae vero non rubet, arte rubet, (Ovid); and to that purpose they anoint and paint their faces, to make Helen of Hecuba — parvamque exortamque puellam — Europen.5009To this intent they crush in their feet and bodies, hurt and crucify themselves, sometimes in lax-clothes, a hundred yards I think in a gown, a sleeve; and sometimes again so close, ut nudos exprimant artus. 5010Now long tails and trains, and then short, up, down, high, low, thick, thin, &c.; now little or no bands, then as big as cart wheels; now loose bodies, then great farthingales and close girt, &c. Why is all this, but with the whore in the Proverbs, to intoxicate some or other? oculorum decipulam,5011one therefore calls it, et indicem libidinis, the trap of lust, and sure token, as an ivy-bush is to a tavern.
Quod pulchros Glycere sumas de pixide vultus,
Quod tibi compositae nec sine lege comae:
Quod niteat digitis adamas, Beryllus in aure,
Non sum divinus, sed scio quid cupias.
O Glycere, in that you paint so much,
Your hair is so bedeckt in order such.
With rings on fingers, bracelets in your ear,
Although no prophet, tell I can, I fear.
To be admired, to be gazed on, to circumvent some novice; as many times they do, that instead of a lady he loves a cap and a feather instead of a maid that should have verum colorem, corpus solidum et succi plenum (as Chaerea describes his mistress in the 5012poet), a painted face, a ruff-band, fair and fine linen, a coronet, a flower, (5013Naturaeque putat quod fuit artificis,) a wrought waistcoat he dotes on, or a pied petticoat, a pure dye instead of a proper woman. For generally, as with rich-furred conies, their cases are far better than their bodies, and like the bark of a cinnamon, tree, which is dearer than the whole bulk, their outward accoutrements are far more precious than their inward endowments. 'Tis too commonly so.
5014Auferimur cultu, et gemmis, auroque teguntur
Omnia; pars minima est ipsa puella sui.
With gold and jewels all is covered,
And with a strange tire we are won,
(Whilst she's the least part of herself)
And with such baubles quite undone.
Why do they keep in so long together, a whole winter sometimes, and will not be seen but by torch or candlelight, and come abroad with all the preparation may be, when they have no business, but only to show themselves? Spectatum veniunt, veniunt spectentur ut ipsae.
5015For what is beauty if it be not seen,
Or what is't to be seen if not admir'd,
And though admir'd, unless in love desir'd?
why do they go with such counterfeit gait, which 5016Philo Judeus reprehends them for, and use (I say it again) such gestures, apish, ridiculous, indecent attires, sybaritical tricks, fucos genis, purpurissam venis, cerussam fronti, leges occulis, &c. use those sweet perfumes, powders and ointments in public; flock to hear sermons so frequent, is it for devotion? or rather, as 5017Basil tells them, to meet their sweethearts, and see fashions; for, as he saith, commonly they come so provided to that place, with such curious compliments, with such gestures and tires, as if they should go to a dancing-school, a stage-play, or bawdy-house, fitter than a church.
When such a she-priest comes her mass to say,
Twenty to one they all forget to pray.
“They make those holy temples, consecrated to godly martyrs and religious uses, the shops of impudence, dens of whores and thieves, and little better than brothel houses.” When we shall see these things daily done, their husbands bankrupts, if not cornutos, their wives light housewives, daughters dishonest; and hear of such dissolute acts, as daily we do, how should we think otherwise? what is their end, but to deceive and inveigle young men? As tow takes fire, such enticing objects produce their effect, how can it be altered? When Venus stood before Anchises (as 5018Homer feigns in one of his hymns) in her costly robes, he was instantly taken,
Cum ante ipsum staret Jovis filia, videns eam
Anchises, admirabatur formam, et stupendas vestes;
Erat enim induta peplo, igneis radiis spiendidiore;
Habebat quoque torques fulgidos, flexiles haelices,
Tenerum collum ambiebant monilia pulchra,
Aurea, variegata. ———
When Venus stood before Anchises first,
He was amaz'd to see her in her tires;
For she had on a hood as red as fire,
And glittering chains, and ivy-twisted spires,
About her tender neck were costly brooches,
And necklaces of gold, enamell'd ouches.
So when Medea came in presence of Jason first, attended by her nymphs and ladies, as she is described by 5019Apollonius,
Cunctas vero ignis instar sequebatur splendor,
Tantum ab aureis fimbriis resplendebat jubar,
Accenditque in oculis dulce desiderium.
A lustre followed them like flaming fire,
And from their golden borders came such beams,
Which in his eyes provok'd a sweet desire.
Such a relation we have in 5020Plutarch, when the queens came and offered themselves to Antony, 5021“with diverse presents, and enticing ornaments, Asiatic allurements, with such wonderful joy and festivity, they did so inveigle the Romans, that no man could contain himself, all was turned to delight and pleasure. The women transformed themselves to Bacchus shapes, the men-children to Satyrs and Pans; but Antony himself was quite besotted with Cleopatra's sweet speeches, philters, beauty, pleasing tires: for when she sailed along the river Cydnus, with such incredible pomp in a gilded ship, herself dressed like Venus, her maids like the Graces, her pages like so many Cupids, Antony was amazed, and rapt beyond himself.” Heliodorus, lib. 1. brings in Dameneta, stepmother to Cnemon, “whom she 5022saw in his scarves, rings, robes, and coronet, quite mad for the love of him.” It was Judith's pantofles that ravished the eyes of Holofernes. And 5023Cardan is not ashamed to confess, that seeing his wife the first time all in white, he did admire and instantly love her. If these outward ornaments were not of such force, why doth 5024Naomi give Ruth counsel how to please Boaz? and 5025Judith, seeking to captivate Holofernes, washed and anointed herself with sweet ointments, dressed her hair, and put on costly attires. The riot in this kind hath been excessive in times past; no man almost came abroad, but curled and anointed,
5026Et matutino suadans Crispinus amomo.
Quantum vix redolent duo funera.
“one spent as much as two funerals at once, and with perfumed hairs,” 5027et rosa canos odorati capillos Assyriaque nardo. What strange thing doth 5028Sueton. relate in this matter of Caligula's riot? And Pliny, lib. 12. & 13. Read more in Dioscorides, Ulmus, Arnoldus, Randoletius de fuco et decoratione; for it is now an art, as it was of old, (so 5029Seneca records) officinae, sunt adores coquentium. Women are bad and men worse, no difference at all between their and our times; 5030“good manners” (as Seneca complains) “are extinct with wantonness, in tricking up themselves men go beyond women, they wear harlots' colours, and do not walk, but jet and dance,” hic mulier, haec vir, more like players, butterflies, baboons, apes, antics, than men. So ridiculous, moreover, we are in our attires, and for cost so excessive, that as Hierome said of old, Uno filio villarum insunt pretia, uno lino decies sestertium inseritur; 'tis an ordinary thing to put a thousand oaks and a hundred oxen into a suit of apparel, to wear a whole manor on his back. What with shoe-ties, hangers, points, caps and feathers, scarves, bands, curls, &c., in a short space their whole patrimonies are consumed. Heliogabalus is taxed by Lampridius, and admired in his age for wearing jewels in his shoes, a common thing in our times, not for emperors and princes, but almost for serving men and tailors; all the flowers, stars, constellations, gold and precious stones do condescend to set out their shoes. To repress the luxury of those Roman matrons, there was 5031Lex Valeria and Oppia, and a Cato to contradict; but no laws will serve to repress the pride and insolency of our days, the prodigious riot in this kind. Lucullus's wardrobe is put down by our ordinary citizens; and a cobbler's wife in Venice, a courtesan in Florence, is no whit inferior to a queen, if our geographers say true: and why is all this? “Why do they glory in their jewels” (as 5032he saith) “or exult and triumph in the beauty of clothes? why is all this cost? to incite men the sooner to burning lust.” They pretend decency and ornament; but let them take heed, that while they set out their bodies they do not damn their souls; 'tis 5033Bernard's counsel: “shine in jewels, stink in conditions; have purple robes, and a torn conscience.” Let them take heed of Isaiah's prophecy, that their slippers and attires be not taken from them, sweet balls, bracelets, earrings, veils, wimples, crisping-pins, glasses, fine linen, hoods, lawns, and sweet savours, they become not bald, burned, and stink upon a sudden. And let maids beware, as 5034Cyprian adviseth, “that while they wander too loosely abroad, they lose not their virginities:” and like Egyptian temples, seem fair without, but prove rotten carcases within. How much better were it for them to follow that good counsel of Tertullian? 5035“To have their eyes painted with chastity, the Word of God inserted into their ears, Christ's yoke tied to the hair, to subject themselves to their husbands. If they would do so, they should be comely enough, clothe themselves with the silk of sanctity, damask of devotion, purple of piety and chastity, and so painted, they shall have God himself to be a suitor: let whores and queans prank up themselves, 5036let them paint their faces with minion and ceruse, they are but fuels of lust, and signs of a corrupt soul: if ye be good, honest, virtuous, and religious matrons, let sobriety, modesty and chastity be your honour, and God himself your love and desire.” Mulier recte olet, ubi nihil olet, then a woman smells best, when she hath no perfume at all; no crown, chain, or jewel (Guivarra adds) is such an ornament to a virgin, or virtuous woman, quam virgini pudor, as chastity is: more credit in a wise man's eye and judgment they get by their plainness, and seem fairer than they that are set out with baubles, as a butcher's meat is with pricks, puffed up, and adorned like so many jays with variety of colours. It is reported of Cornelia, that virtuous Roman lady, great Scipio's daughter, Titus Sempronius' wife, and the mother of the Gracchi, that being by chance in company with a companion, a strange gentlewoman (some light housewife belike, that was dressed like a May lady, and, as most of our gentlewomen are, “was 5037more solicitous of her head-tire than of her health, that spent her time between a comb and a glass, and had rather be fair than honest” (as Cato said), “and have the commonwealth turned topsy-turvy than her tires marred;” and she did nought but brag of her fine robes and jewels, and provoked the Roman matron to show hers: Cornelia kept her in talk till her children came from school, and these, said she, are my jewels, and so deluded and put off a proud, vain, fantastical, housewife. How much better were it for our matrons to do as she did, to go civilly and decently, 5038Honestae mulieris instar quae utitur auro pro eo quod est, ad ea tantum quibus opus est, to use gold as it is gold, and for that use it serves, and when they need it, than to consume it in riot, beggar their husbands, prostitute themselves, inveigle others, and peradventure damn their own souls? How much more would it be for their honour and credit? Thus doing, as Hierom said of Blesilla, 5039“Furius did not so triumph over the Gauls, Papyrius of the Samnites, Scipio of Numantia, as she did by her temperance;” pulla semper veste, &c., they should insult and domineer over lust, folly, vainglory, all such inordinate, furious and unruly passions.
But I am over tedious, I confess, and whilst I stand gaping after fine clothes, there is another great allurement, (in the world's eye at least) which had like to have stolen out of sight, and that is money, veniunt a dote sagittae, money makes the match; 5040Μονὸν ἄργυρον βλέπουσιν: 'tis like sauce to their meat, cum carne condimentum, a good dowry with a wife. Many men if they do hear but of a great portion, a rich heir, are more mad than if they had all the beauteous ornaments, and those good parts art and nature can afford, they 5041care not for honesty, bringing up, birth, beauty, person, but for money.
5042Canes et equos (o Cyrne) quaerimus
Nobiles, et a bona progenie;
Malam vero uxorem, malique patris filiam
Ducere non curat vir bonus,
Modo ei magnam dotem afferat,
Our dogs and horses still from the best breed
We carefully seek, and well may they speed:
But for our wives, so they prove wealthy,
Fair or foul, we care not what they be.
If she be rich, then she is fair, fine, absolute and perfect, then they burn like fire, they love her dearly, like pig and pie, and are ready to hang themselves if they may not have her. Nothing so familiar in these days, as for a young man to marry an old wife, as they say, for a piece of gold; asinum auro onustum; and though she be an old crone, and have never a tooth in her head, neither good conditions, nor a good face, a natural fool, but only rich, she shall have twenty young gallants to be suitors in an instant. As she said in Suetonius, non me, sed mea ambiunt, 'tis not for her sake, but for her lands or money; and an excellent match it were (as he added) if she were away. So on the other side, many a young lovely maid will cast away herself upon an old, doting, decrepit dizzard,
5043Bis puer effoeto quamvis balbutiat ore,
Prima legit rarae tam culta roseta puellae,
that is rheumatic and gouty, hath some twenty diseases, perhaps but one eye, one leg, never a nose, no hair on his head, wit in his brains, nor honesty, if he have land or 5044money, she will have him before all other suitors, 5045Dummodo sit dives barbarus ille placet. “If he be rich, he is the man,” a fine man, and a proper man, she will go to Jacaktres or Tidore with him; Galesimus de monte aureo. Sir Giles Goosecap, Sir Amorous La-Fool, shall have her. And as Philemasium in 5046 Aristaenetus told Emmusus, absque argento omnia vana, hang him that hath no money, “'tis to no purpose to talk of marriage without means,” 5047 trouble me not with such motions; let others do as they will, “I'll be sure to have one shall maintain me fine and brave.” Most are of her mind, 5048 De moribus ultima fiet questio, for his conditions, she shall inquire after them another time, or when all is done, the match made, and everybody gone home. 5049Lucian's Lycia was a proper young maid, and had many fine gentlemen to her suitors; Ethecles, a senator's son, Melissus, a merchant, &c.; but she forsook them all for one Passius, a base, hirsute, bald-pated knave; but why was it? “His father lately died and left him sole heir of his goods and lands.” This is not amongst your dust-worms alone, poor snakes that will prostitute their souls for money, but with this bait you may catch our most potent, puissant, and illustrious princes. That proud upstart domineering Bishop of Ely, in the time of Richard the First, viceroy in his absence, as 5050Nubergensis relates it, to fortify himself, and maintain his greatness, propinquarum suarum connubiis, plurimos sibi potentes et nobiles devincire curavit, married his poor kinswomen (which came forth of Normandy by droves) to the chiefest nobles of the land, and they were glad to accept of such matches, fair or foul, for themselves, their sons, nephews, &c. Et quis tam praeclaram aflinitatem sub spe magnae promotionis non optaret? Who would not have done as much for money and preferment? as mine author 5051adds. Vortiger, King of Britain, married Rowena the daughter of Hengist the Saxon prince, his mortal enemy; but wherefore? she had Kent for her dowry. Iagello the great Duke of Lithuania, 1386, was mightily enamoured on Hedenga, insomuch that he turned Christian from a Pagan, and was baptised himself by the name of Uladislaus, and all his subjects for her sake: but why was it? she was daughter and heir of Poland, and his desire was to have both kingdoms incorporated into one. Charles the Great was an earnest suitor to Irene the Empress, but, saith 5052Zonarus, ob regnum, to annex the empire of the East to that of the West. Yet what is the event of all such matches, that are so made for money, goods, by deceit, or for burning lust, quos foeda libido conjunxit, what follows? they are almost mad at first, but 'tis a mere flash; as chaff and straw soon fired, burn vehemently for a while, yet out in a moment; so are all such matches made by those allurements of burning lust; where there is no respect of honesty, parentage, virtue, religion, education, and the like, they are extinguished in an instant, and instead of love comes hate; for joy, repentance and desperation itself. Franciscus Barbarus in his first book de re uxoria, c. 5, hath a story of one Philip of Padua that fell in love with a common whore, and was now ready to run mad for her; his father having no more sons let him enjoy her; 5053“but after a few days, the young man began to loath, could not so much as endure the sight of her, and from one madness fell into another.” Such event commonly have all these lovers; and he that so marries, or for such respects, let them look for no better success than Menelaus had with Helen, Vulcan with Venus, Theseus with Phaedra, Minos with Pasiphae, and Claudius with Messalina; shame, sorrow, misery, melancholy, discontent.
4967. In beauty, that of favour is preferred before that of colours, and decent motion is more than that of favour. Bacon's Essays.
4969. Multi tacit e opinantur commercium illud adeo frequens cum barbaris nudis, ac presertim cum foeminis ad libidinem provocare, at minus multo noxia illorum nuditas quam nostrarum foeminarum cultus. Ausim asseverare splendidum illum cultum, fucos, &c.
4970. Harmo. evangel. lib. 6. cap. 6.
4971. Serm. de concep. Virg. Physiognomia virginis omnes movet ad casitatem.
4972. 3. sent. d. 3. q. 3. mirum virgo formosissima, sed a nemine concupita.
4973. Met. 10.
4974. Rosamond's complaint, by Sam. Daniel.
4975. Aeneas Silv.
4976. Heliodor. l. 2. Rodolphe Thracia tam inevitabili fascino instructa, tam exacte oculis intuens attraxit, ni si in illam quis incidisset, fieri non posset quin capertur.
4977. Lib. 3. de providentia: Animi fenestrae oculi, et omnis improba cupiditas per ocellos tanquam canales introit.
4979. Ovid de arte amandi.
4980. Pers. 3. Sat.
4981. Vel centum Chariles ridere putaret. Museus of Hero.
4982. Hor. Od. 22 lib. 1.
4983. Eustathius, l. 5.
4985. Tom. 4. merit, dial. Exornando seipsam eleganter, facilem et hilarem se gerendo erga cunctos, ridendo suave ac blandum quid, &c.
4987. Vel si forte vestimentum de industria elevetur, ut pedum ac tibiarum pars aliqua conspiciatur, dum templum aut locum aliquem adierit.
4988. Sermone, quod non foeminae. viris cohabitent. Non loquuta es lingua, sed loquuta es gressu: non loquuta es voce, sed oculis loquuta es clarius quam voce.
4989. Jovianus Pontanus Baiar. lib. 1. ad Hermionem. “For why do you exhibit your 'milky way,' your uncovered bosoms? What else is it but to say plainly. Ask me, ask me, I will surrender; and what is that but love's call?”
4990. De luxu vestium discurs. 6. Nihil aliud deest nisi ut praeco vos praecedat, &c.
4991. If you can tell how, you may sing this to the tune a sow-gelder blows.
4992. Auson. epig. 28. “Neither draped Diana nor naked Venus pleases me. One has too much voluptuousness about her, the other none.”
4993. Plin. lib. 33. cap. 10. Gampaspen nudam picturus Apelles, amore ejus illaqueatus est.
4994. In Tyrrhenis conviviis nudae mulieres ministrabant.
4995. Amatoria miscentes vidit, et in ipsis complexibus audit, &c. emersit inde cupido in pectus virginis.
4996. Epist. 7. lib. 2.
4998. Sidney's Arcadia.
4999. De immod. mulier. cultu.
5000. Discurs. 6. de luxu vestium.
5001. Petronius fol. 95. quo spectant flexae comae? quo facies medicamine attrita et oculorum mollis petulantia? quo incessus tam compositus, &c.
5002. Ter. “They take a year to deck and comb themselves.”
5003. P. Aretine. Hortulanus non ita exercetur visendis hortis, eques equis, armis, nauta navibus, &c.
5004. Epist. 4. Sonus armillarum bene sonantium, odor unguentorm, &c.
5005. Tom. 4. dial. Amor. vascula plena multae infelicitatis omnem mariotorum opulentiam in haec inpendunt, dracones pro monilibus habent, qui utinam vere dracones essent. Lucian.
5007. Castilio de aulic. lib. I. Mulieribus omnibus hoc imprimis in votis est, ut formosae sint, aut si reipsa non sint, videantur tamen esse; et si qua parte natura defuit, artis supetias adjungunt: unde illae faciei unctiones, dolor et cruciatus in arctandis corporibus, &c.
5008. Ovid. epist. Med. Jasoni.
5009. “A distorted dwarf, an Europa.”
5010. Modo caudatas tunicas, &c. Bossus.
5011. Scribanius philos. Christ. cap. 6.
5012. Ter. Eunuc. Act. 2. scen. 3.
5013. Stroza fil.
5015. S. Daniel.
5016. Lib. de victimis. Fracto incessu obtuitu lascivo, calamistrata, cincinnata, fucata, recens lota, purpurissata, pretioso que amicta palliolo, spirans unguenta, ut juvenum animos circumveniat.
5017. Orat. in ebrios. Impudenter so masculorum aspectibus exponunt, insolenter comas jactantes, trahunt tunicas pedibus collidentes, oculoque petulanti, risu effuso, ad tripudium insanientes, omnem adolescentum intemperantiam in se provocantes, inque in templis memoriae martyrum consecratis; pomoerium civitatis officinam fecerunt impudentiae.
5018. Hymno Veneri dicato.
5019. Argonaut. l. 4.
5020. Vit. Anton.
5021. Regia domo ornatuque certantes, sese ac formam suam Antonio offerentes, &c. Cum ornatu et incredibili pompa per Cydnum fluvium navigarent aurata puppi, ipsa ad similitudinem Veneris ornata, puellae Gratiis similes, pueri Cupidinibus, Antonius ad visum stupefactus.
5022. Amictum Chlamyde et coronis, quum primum aspexit Cnemonem, ex potestate mentis excidit.
5023. Lib. de lib. prop.
5024. Ruth, iii. 3.
5025. Cap. ix. 5.
5026. Juv. Sat. 6.
5027. Hor. lib. 2. Od. 11.
5028. Cap. 27.
5029. Epist. 90.
5030. Quicquid est boni moris levitate extinguitur, et politura corporis muliebres munditias antecessimus colores meretricios viri sumimus, tenero et molli gradu suspendimus gradum, non ambulamus, nat. quaest. lib. 7. cap. 31.
5031. Liv. lib. 4. dec. 4.
5032. Quid exultas in pulchritudine panni? Quid gloriaris in gemmis ut facilius invites ad libidiniosum incendium? Mat. Bossus de immoder. mulie. cultu.
5033. Epist. 113. fulgent monilibus, moribus sordent, purpurata vestis, conscientia pannosa, cap. 3. 17.
5034. De virginali habitu: dum ornari cultius, dum evagari virgines volunt, desinunt esse virgines. Clemens Alexandrinus, lib. de pulchr. animae, ibid.
5035. Lib. 2. de cultu mulierum, oculos depictos verecundia, inferentes in aures sermonem dei, annectentes crinibus jugum Christi, caput maritis subjicientes, sic facile et satis eritis ornatae: vestite vos serico probitatis, byssino sanctitatis, purpura pudicitiae; taliter pigmentatae deum habebitis amatorem.
5036. Suas habeant Romanae? lascivias; purpurissa, ac cerussa ora perungant, fomenta libidinum, et corruptae mentis indicia; vestrum ornamentum deus sit, pudicitia, virtutis studium. Rossus Plautus.
5037. Sollicitiores de capitis sui decore quam de salute, inter pectinem et speculum diem perdunt, concinniores esse malunt quam honestiores, et rempub. minus turbari curant quam comam. Seneca.
5039. Non sic Furius de Gallis, not Papyrius de Samnitibus, Scipio de Numantia triumphavit, ac illa se vincendo in hac parte.
5040. Anacreon. 4. solum intuemur aurum.
5041. Asser tecum si vis vivere mecum.
5043. Chaloner, l. 9. de Repub. Ang.
5044. Uxorem ducat Danaen, &c.
5046. Epist. 14 formam spectant alii per gratias, ego pecuniam, &c. ne mihi negotium facesse.
5047. Qui caret argento, frustra utitur argumento.
5049. Tom. 4. merit. dial. multos amatores rejecit, quia pater ejus nuper mortuus, ac dominus ipse factus bonorum omnium.
5050. Lib. 3. cap. 14. quis nobilium eo tempore, sibi aut filio aut nepoti uxorem accipere cupiens, oblatam sibi aliquam propinquarum ejus non acciperet obviis manibus? Quarum turbam acciverat e Normannia in Angliam ejus rei gratia.
5051. Alexander Gaguinus Sarmat. Europ. descript.
5052. Tom. 3. Annal.
5053. Libido statim deferbuit, fastidium caepit, et quod in ea tantopere adamavit aspernatur, et ab aegritudine liberatus in angorem incidit.
Importunity and Opportunity of Time, Place, Conference, Discourse, Singing, Dancing, Music, Amorous Tales, Objects, Kissing, Familiarity, Tokens, Presents, Bribes, Promises, Protestations, Tears, &c.
All these allurements hitherto are afar off, and at a distance; I will come nearer to those other degrees of love, which are conference, kissing, dalliance, discourse, singing, dancing, amorous tales, objects, presents, &c., which as so many sirens steal away the hearts of men and women. For, as Tacitus observes, l. 2, 5054“It is no sufficient trial of a maid's affection by her eyes alone, but you must say something that shall be more available, and use such other forcible engines; therefore take her by the hand, wring her fingers hard, and sigh withal; if she accept this in good part, and seem not to be much averse, then call her mistress, take her about the neck and kiss her, &c.” But this cannot be done except they first get opportunity of living, or coming together, ingress, egress, and regress; letters and commendations may do much, outward gestures and actions: but when they come to live near one another, in the same street, village, or together in a house, love is kindled on a sudden. Many a serving-man by reason of this opportunity and importunity inveigles his master's daughter, many a gallant loves a dowdy, many a gentleman runs upon his wife's maids; many ladies dote upon their men, as the queen in Ariosto did upon the dwarf, many matches are so made in haste, and they are compelled as it were by 5055necessity so to love, which had they been free, come in company of others, seen that variety which many places afford, or compared them to a third, would never have looked one upon another. Or had not that opportunity of discourse and familiarity been offered, they would have loathed and contemned those whom, for want of better choice and other objects, they are fatally driven on, and by reason of their hot blood, idle life, full diet, &c., are forced to dote upon them that come next. And many times those which at the first sight cannot fancy or affect each other, but are harsh and ready to disagree, offended with each other's carriage, like Benedict and Beatrice in the 5056comedy, and in whom they find many faults, by this living together in a house, conference, kissing, colling, and such like allurements, begin at last to dote insensibly one upon another.
It was the greatest motive that Potiphar's wife had to dote upon Joseph, and 5057Clitiphon upon Leucippe his uncle's daughter, because the plague being at Bizance, it was his fortune for a time to sojourn with her, to sit next her at the table, as he tells the tale himself in Tatius, lib. 2. (which, though it be but a fiction, is grounded upon good observation, and doth well express the passions of lovers), he had opportunity to take her by the hand, and after a while to kiss, and handle her paps, &c., 5058 which made him almost mad. Ismenias the orator makes the like confession in Eustathius, lib. 1, when he came first to Sosthene's house, and sat at table with Cratistes his friend, Ismene, Sosthene's daughter, waiting on them “with her breasts open, arms half bare,” 5059Nuda pedem, discincta sinum, spoliata lacertos; after the Greek fashion in those times — 5060 nudos media plus parte lacertos, as Daphne was when she fled from Phoebus (which moved him much), was ever ready to give attendance on him, to fill him drink, her eyes were never off him, rogabundi oculi, those speaking eyes, courting eyes, enchanting eyes; but she was still smiling on him, and when they were risen, that she had got a little opportunity, 5061“she came and drank to him, and withal trod upon his toes, and would come and go, and when she could not speak for the company, she would wring his hand,” and blush when she met him: and by this means first she overcame him (bibens amorem hauriebam simul), she would kiss the cup and drink to him, and smile, “and drink where he drank on that side of the cup,” by which mutual compressions, kissings, wringing of hands, treading of feet, &c. Ipsam mihi videbar sorbillare virginem, I sipped and sipped so long, till at length I was drunk in love upon a sudden. Philocharinus, in 5062 Aristaenetus, met a fair maid by chance, a mere stranger to him, he looked back at her, she looked back at him again, and smiled withal.
5063Ille dies lethi primus, primusque malorum
Causa fuit. ———
It was the sole cause of his farther acquaintance, and love that undid him. 5064O nullis tutum credere blanditiis.
This opportunity of time and place, with their circumstances, are so forcible motives, that it is impossible almost for two young folks equal in years to live together, and not be in love, especially in great houses, princes' courts, where they are idle in summo gradu, fare well, live at ease, and cannot tell otherwise how to spend their time. 5065Illic Hippolitum pone, Priapus erit. Achilles was sent by his mother Thetis to the island of Scyros in the Aegean sea (where Lycomedes then reigned) in his nonage to be brought up; to avoid that hard destiny of the oracle (he should be slain at the siege of Troy): and for that cause was nurtured in Genesco, amongst the king's children in a woman's habit; but see the event: he compressed Deidamia, the king's fair daughter, and had a fine son, called Pyrrhus by her. Peter Abelard the philosopher, as he tells the tale himself, being set by Fulbertus her uncle to teach Heloise his lovely niece, and to that purpose sojourned in his house, and had committed agnam tenellam famelico lupo, I use his own words, he soon got her good will, plura erant oscula quam sententiae and he read more of love than any other lecture; such pretty feats can opportunity plea; primum domo conjuncti, inde animis, &c. But when as I say, nox, vinum, et adolescentia, youth, wine, and night, shall concur, nox amoris et quietis conscia, 'tis a wonder they be not all plunged over head and ears in love; for youth is benigna in amorem, et prona materies, a very combustible matter, naphtha itself, the fuel of love's fire, and most apt to kindle it. If there be seven servants in an ordinary house, you shall have three couple in some good liking at least, and amongst idle persons how should it be otherwise? “Living at 5066Rome,” saith Aretine's Lucretia, “in the flower of my fortunes, rich, fair, young, and so well brought up, my conversation, age, beauty, fortune, made all the world admire and love me.” Night alone, that one occasion, is enough to set all on fire, and they are so cunning in great houses, that they make their best advantage of it: Many a gentlewoman, that is guilty to herself of her imperfections, paintings, impostures, will not willingly be seen by day, but as 5067Castilio noteth, in the night, Diem ut glis odit, taedarum lucem super omnia mavult, she hateth the day like a dormouse, and above all things loves torches and candlelight, and if she must come abroad in the day, she covets, as 5068in a mercer's shop, a very obfuscate and obscure sight. And good reason she hath for it: Nocte latent mendae, and many an amorous gull is fetched over by that means. Gomesius lib. 3. de sale gen. c. 22. gives instance in a Florentine gentleman, that was so deceived with a wife, she was so radiantly set out with rings and jewels, lawns, scarves, laces, gold, spangles, and gaudy devices, that the young man took her to be a goddess (for he never saw her but by torchlight); but after the wedding solemnities, when as he viewed her the next morning without her tires, and in a clear day, she was so deformed, a lean, yellow, shrivelled, &c., such a beastly creature in his eyes, that he could not endure to look upon her. Such matches are frequently made in Italy, where they have no other opportunity to woo but when they go to church, or, as 5069in Turkey, see them at a distance, they must interchange few or no words, till such time they come to be married, and then as Sardus lib. 1. cap. 3. de morb. gent. and 5070Bohemus relate of those old Lacedaemonians, “the bride is brought into the chamber, with her hair girt about her, the bridegroom comes in and unties the knot, and must not see her at all by daylight, till such time as he is made a father by her.” In those hotter countries these are ordinary practices at this day; but in our northern parts, amongst Germans, Danes, French, and Britons, the continent of Scandia and the rest, we assume more liberty in such cases; we allow them, as Bohemus saith, to kiss coming and going, et modo absit lascivia, in cauponem ducere, to talk merrily, sport, play, sing, and dance so that it be modestly done, go to the alehouse and tavern together. And 'tis not amiss, though 5071 Chrysostom, Cyprian, Hierome, and some other of the fathers speak bitterly against it: but that is the abuse which is commonly seen at some drunken matches, dissolute meetings, or great unruly feasts. 5072“A young, pickedevanted, trim-bearded fellow,” saith Hierome, “will come with a company of compliments, and hold you up by the arm as you go, and wringing your fingers, will so be enticed, or entice: one drinks to you, another embraceth, a third kisseth, and all this while the fiddler plays or sings a lascivious song; a fourth singles you out to dance, 5073one speaks by beck and signs, and that which he dares not say, signifies by passions; amongst so many and so great provocations of pleasure, lust conquers the most hard and crabbed minds, and scarce can a man live honest amongst feastings, and sports, or at such great meetings.” For as he goes on, 5074“she walks along and with the ruffling of her clothes, makes men look at her, her shoes creak, her paps tied up, her waist pulled in to make her look small, she is straight girded, her hairs hang loose about her ears, her upper garment sometimes falls, and sometimes tarries to show her naked shoulders, and as if she would not be seen, she covers that in all haste, which voluntarily she showed.” And not at feasts, plays, pageants, and such assemblies, 5075but as Chrysostom objects, these tricks are put in practice “at service time in churches, and at the communion itself.” If such dumb shows, signs, and more obscure significations of love can so move, what shall they do that have full liberty to sing, dance, kiss, coll, to use all manner of discourse and dalliance! What shall he do that is beleaguered of all sides?
5076Quem tot, tam roseae petunt puellae,
Quem cultae cupiunt nurus, amorque
Omnis undique et undecunque et usque,
Omnis ambit Amor, Venusque Hymenque.
After whom so many rosy maids inquire,
Whom dainty dames and loving wights desire,
In every place, still, and at all times sue,
Whom gods and gentle goddesses do woo.
How shall he contain? The very tone of some of their voices, a pretty pleasing speech, an affected tone they use, is able of itself to captivate a young man; but when a good wit shall concur, art and eloquence, fascinating speech, pleasant discourse, sweet gestures, the Sirens themselves cannot so enchant. 5077P. Jovius commends his Italian countrywomen, to have an excellent faculty in this kind, above all other nations, and amongst them the Florentine ladies: some prefer Roman and Venetian courtesans, they have such pleasing tongues, and such 5078 elegancy of speech, that they are able to overcome a saint, Pro facie multis vox sua lena fuit. Tanta gratia vocis famam conciliabat, saith Petronius 5079in his fragment of pure impurities, I mean his Satyricon, tam dulcis sonus permulcebat aera, ut putares inter auras cantare Syrenum concordiam; she sang so sweetly that she charmed the air, and thou wouldst have thought thou hadst heard a concert of Sirens. “O good God, when Lais speaks, how sweet it is!” Philocolus exclaims in Aristenaetus, to hear a fair young gentlewoman play upon the virginals, lute, viol, and sing to it, which as Gellius observes, lib. 1. cap. 11. are lascivientium delicicae, the chief delight of lovers, must needs be a great enticement. Parthenis was so taken. 5080Mi vox ista avida haurit ab aure animam: O sister Harpedona (she laments) I am undone, 5081“how sweetly he sings, I'll speak a bold word, he is the properest man that ever I saw in my life: O how sweetly he sings, I die for his sake, O that he would love me again!” If thou didst but hear her sing, saith 5082Lucian, “thou wouldst forget father and mother, forsake all thy friends, and follow her.” Helena is highly commended by 5083Theocritus the poet for her sweet voice and music; none could play so well as she, and Daphnis in the same Edyllion,
Quam tibi os dulce est, et vox amabilis o Daphni,
Jucundius est audire te canentem, quam mel lingere!
How sweet a face hath Daphne, how lovely a voice!
Honey itself is not so pleasant in my choice.
A sweet voice and music are powerful enticers. Those Samian singing wenches, Aristonica, Onanthe and Agathocleia, regiis diadematibus insultarunt, insulted over kings themselves, as 5084Plutarch contends. Centum luminibus cinctum caput Argus habebat, Argus had a hundred eyes, all so charmed by one silly pipe, that he lost his head. Clitiphon complains in 5085Tatius of Leucippe's sweet tunes, “he heard her play by chance upon the lute, and sing a pretty song to it in commendations of a rose,” out of old Anacreon belike;
Rosa honor decusque florum,
Rosa flos odorque divum,
Hominum rosa est voluptas,
Decus illa Gratiarum,
Florente amoris hora,
Rosa suavium Diones, &c.
Rose the fairest of all flowers.
Rose delight of higher powers,
Rose the joy of mortal men,
Rose the pleasure of fine women,
Rose the Graces' ornament,
Rose Dione's sweet content.
To this effect the lovely virgin with a melodious air upon her golden wired harp or lute, I know not well whether, played and sang, and that transported him beyond himself, “and that ravished his heart.” It was Jason's discourse as much as his beauty, or any other of his good parts, which delighted Medea so much.
5086 ——— Delectabatur enim
Animus simul forma dulcibusque verbis.
It was Cleopatra's sweet voice and pleasant speech which inveigled Antony, above the rest of her enticements. Verba ligant hominem, ut taurorum cornua funes, “as bulls' horns are bound with ropes, so are men's hearts with pleasant words.” “Her words burn as fire,” Eccles. ix. 10. Roxalana bewitched Suleiman the Magnificent, and Shore's wife by this engine overcame Edward the Fourth, 5087Omnibus una omnes surripuit Veneres. The wife of Bath in Chaucer confesseth all this out of her experience.
5088Peter Aretine's Lucretia telleth as much and more of herself, “I counterfeited honesty, as if I had been virgo virginissima, more than a vestal virgin, I looked like a wife, I was so demure and chaste, I did add such gestures, tunes, speeches, signs and motions upon all occasions, that my spectators and auditors were stupefied, enchanted, fastened all to their places, like so many stocks and stones.” Many silly gentlewomen are fetched over in like sort, by a company of gulls and swaggering companions, that frequently belie noblemen's favours, rhyming Coribantiasmi, Thrasonean Rhadomantes or Bombomachides, that have nothing in them but a few player's ends and compliments, vain braggadocians, impudent intruders, that can discourse at table of knights and lords' combats, like 5089Lucian's Leonitiscus, of other men's travels, brave adventures, and such common trivial news, ride, dance, sing old ballad tunes, and wear their clothes in fashion, with a good grace; a fine sweet gentleman, a proper man, who could not love him! She will have him though all her friends say no, though she beg with him. Some again are incensed by reading amorous toys, Amadis de Gaul, Palmerin de Oliva, the Knight of the Sun, &c., or hearing such tales of 5090lovers, descriptions of their persons, lascivious discourses, such as Astyanassa, Helen's waiting-woman, by the report of Suidas, writ of old, de variis concubitus modis, and after her Philenis and Elephantine; or those light tracts of5091Aristides Milesius (mentioned by Plutarch) and found by the Persians in Crassus' army amongst the spoils, Aretine's dialogues, with ditties, love songs, &c., must needs set them on fire, with such like pictures, as those of Aretine, or wanton objects of what kind soever; “no stronger engine than to hear or read of love toys, fables and discourses” (5092one saith) “and many by this means are quite mad.” At Abdera in Thrace (Andromeda one of Euripides' tragedies being played) the spectators were so much moved with the object, and those pathetical love speeches of Perseus, amongst the rest, “O Cupid, Prince of Gods and men,” &c. that every man almost a good while after spake pure iambics, and raved still on Perseus' speech, “O Cupid, Prince of Gods and men.” As carmen, boys and apprentices, when a new song is published with us, go singing that new tune still in the streets, they continually acted that tragical part of Perseus, and in every man's mouth was “O Cupid,” in every street, “O Cupid,” in every house almost, “O Cupid, Prince of Gods and men,” pronouncing still like stage-players, “O Cupid;” they were so possessed all with that rapture, and thought of that pathetical love speech, they could not a long time after forget, or drive it out of their minds, but “O Cupid, Prince of Gods and men,” was ever in their mouths. This belike made Aristotle, Polit. lib. 7. cap. 18. forbid young men to see comedies, or to hear amorous tales.
5093Haec igitur juvenes nequam facilesque puellae
“let not young folks meddle at all with such matters.” And this made the Romans, as 5094Vitruvius relates, put Venus' temple in the suburbs, extra murum, ne adolescentes venereis insuescant, to avoid all occasions and objects. For what will not such an object do? Ismenias, as he walked in Sosthene's garden, being now in love, when he saw so many 5095lascivious pictures, Thetis' marriage, and I know not what, was almost beside himself. And to say truth, with a lascivious object who is not moved, to see others dally, kiss, dance? And much more when he shall come to be an actor himself.
To kiss and be kissed, which, amongst other lascivious provocations, is as a burden in a song, and a most forcible battery, as infectious, 5096 Xenophon thinks, as the poison of a spider; a great allurement, a fire itself, prooemium aut anticoenium, the prologue of burning lust (as Apuleius adds), lust itself, 5097Venus quinta parte sui nectaris imbuit, a strong assault, that conquers captains, and those all commanding forces, (5098Domasque ferro sed domaris osculo). 5099Aretine's Lucretia, when she would in kindness overcome a suitor of hers, and have her desire of him, “took him about the neck, and kissed him again and again,” and to that, which she could not otherwise effect, she made him so speedily and willingly condescend. And 'tis a continual assault — 5100hoc non deficit incipitque semper, always fresh, and ready to 5101begin as at first, basium nullo fine terminatur, sed semper recens est, and hath a fiery touch with it.
5102 ——— Tenta modo tangere corpus,
Jam tua mellifluo membra calore fluent.
Dum semiulco suavio
Meam puellam suavior,
Anima tunc aegra et saucia
Concurrit ad labia mihi.
The soul and all is moved; 5106Jam pluribus osculis labra crepitabant, animarum quoque mixturam facientes, inter mutuos complexus animas anhelantes,
Et transfudimus hinc et hinc labellis
Errantes animas, valete curae.
“They breathe out their souls and spirits together with their kisses,” saith 5108Balthazar Castilio, “change hearts and spirits, and mingle affections as they do kisses, and it is rather a connection of the mind than of the body.” And although these kisses be delightsome and pleasant, Ambrosial kisses, 5109Suaviolum dulci dulcius Ambrosia, such as 5110 Ganymede gave Jupiter, Nectare suavius, sweeter than 5111nectar, balsam, honey, 5112Oscula merum amorem stillantia, love-dropping kisses; for
The gilliflower, the rose is not so sweet,
As sugared kisses be when lovers meet;
Yet they leave an irksome impression, like that of aloes or gall,
5113Ut mi ex Ambrosia, mutatum jam foret illud
Suaviolum tristi tristius helleboro.
At first Ambrose itself was not sweeter,
At last black hellebore was not so bitter.
They are deceitful kisses,
5114Quid me mollibus implicas lacertis?
Quid fallacibus osculis inescas?&c.
Why dost within thine arms me lap,
And with false kisses me entrap.
They are destructive, and the more the worse: 5115Et quae me perdunt, oscula mille dabat, they are the bane of these miserable lovers. There be honest kisses, I deny not, osculum charitatis, friendly kisses, modest kisses, vestal-virgin kisses, officious and ceremonial kisses, &c. Osculi sensus, brachiorum amplexus, kissing and embracing are proper gifts of Nature to a man; but these are too lascivious kisses, 5116Implicuitque suos circum meet colla lacertos, &c. too continuate and too violent, 5117Brachia non hederae, non vincunt oscula conchae; they cling like ivy, close as an oyster, bill as doves, meretricious kisses, biting of lips, cum additamento: Tam impresso ore (saith 5118Lucian) ut vix labia detrahant, inter deosculandum mordicantes, tum et os aperientes quoque et mammas attrectantes, &c. such kisses as she gave to Gyton, innumera oscula dedit non repugnanti puero, cervicem invadens, innumerable kisses, &c. More than kisses, or too homely kisses: as those that 5119he spake of, Accepturus ab ipsa venere 7, suavia, &c. with such other obscenities that vain lovers use, which are abominable and pernicious. If, as Peter de Ledesmo cas. cons. holds, every kiss a man gives his wife after marriage, be mortale peccatum, a mortal sin, or that of 5120Hierome, Adulter est quisquis in uxorem suam ardentior est amator; or that of Thomas Secund. quaest. 154. artic. 4. contactus et osculum sit mortale peccatum, or that of Durand. Rational. lib. 1. cap. 10. abstinere debent conjuges a complexu, toto tempore quo solennitas nuptiarum interdicitur, what shall become of all such 5121immodest kisses and obscene actions, the forerunners of brutish lust, if not lust itself! What shall become of them that often abuse their own wives? But what have I to do with this?
That which I aim at, is to show you the progress of this burning lust; to epitomise therefore all this which I have hitherto said, with a familiar example out of that elegant Musaeus, observe but with me those amorous proceedings of Leander and Hero: they began first to look one on another with a lascivious look,
Oblique intuens inde nutibus —
Nutibus mutuis inducens in errorem mentem puellae.
Et illa e contra nutibus mutuis juvenis
Leandri quod amorem non renuit, &c. Inde
Adibat in tenebris tacite quidem stringens
Roseos puellae digitos, ex imo suspirabat
Vehementer ——— Inde
Virginis autem bene olens collum osculatus.
Tale verbum ait amoris ictus stimulo,
Preces audi et amoris miserere mei, &c.
Sic fatus recusantis persuasit mentem puellae.
With becks and nods he first began
To try the wench's mind.
With becks and nods and smiles again
An answer he did find.
And in the dark he took her by the hand,
And wrung it hard, and sighed grievously,
And kiss'd her too, and woo'd her as he might,
With pity me, sweetheart, or else I die,
And with such words and gestures as there past,
He won his mistress' favour at the last.
The same proceeding is elegantly described by Apollonius in his Argonautics, between Jason and Medea, by Eustathius in the ten books of the loves of Ismenias and Ismene, Achilles Tatius between his Clitophon and Leucippe, Chaucer's neat poem of Troilus and Cresseide; and in that notable tale in Petronius of a soldier and a gentlewoman of Ephesus, that was so famous all over Asia for her chastity, and that mourned for her husband: the soldier wooed her with such rhetoric as lovers use to do — placitone etiam pugnabis amori? &c. at last, frangi pertinaciam passa est, he got her good will, not only to satisfy his lust, 5122but to hang her dead husband's body on the cross (which he watched instead of the thief's that was newly stolen away), whilst he wooed her in her cabin. These are tales, you will say, but they have most significant morals, and do well express those ordinary proceedings of doting lovers.
Many such allurements there are, nods, jests, winks, smiles, wrestlings, tokens, favours, symbols, letters, valentines, &c. For which cause belike, Godfridus lib. 2. de amor. would not have women learn to write. Many such provocations are used when they come in presence, 512310 they will and will not,
Malo me Galatea petit lasciva puella,
Et fugit ad salices, et se cupit ante videri.
My mistress with an apple woos me,
And hastily to covert goes
To hide herself, but would be seen
With all her heart before, God knows.
Hero so tripped away from Leander as one displeased,
5124Yet as she went full often look'd behind,
And many poor excuses did she find
To linger by the way ———
but if he chance to overtake her, she is most averse, nice and coy,
Denegat et pugnat, sed vult super omnia vinci.
She seems not won, but won she is at length,
In such wars women use but half their strength.
Sometimes they lie open and are most tractable and coming, apt, yielding, and willing to embrace, to take a green gown, with that shepherdess in Theocritus, Edyl. 27. to let their coats, &c., to play and dally, at such seasons, and to some, as they spy their advantage; and then coy, close again, so nice, so surly, so demure, you had much better tame a colt, catch or ride a wild horse, than get her favour, or win her love, not a look, not a smile, not a kiss for a kingdom. 5125Aretine's Lucretia was an excellent artisan in this kind, as she tells her own tale, “Though I was by nature and art most beautiful and fair, yet by these tricks I seemed to be far more amiable than I was, for that which men earnestly seek and cannot attain, draws on their affection with a most furious desire. I had a suitor loved me dearly” (said she), “and the 5126more he gave me, the more eagerly he wooed me, the more I seemed to neglect, to scorn him, and which I commonly gave others, I would not let him see me, converse with me, no, not have a kiss.” To gull him the more, and fetch him over (for him only I aimed at) I personated mine own servant to bring in a present from a Spanish count, whilst he was in my company, as if he had been the count's servant, which he did excellently well perform: 5127Comes de monte Turco, “my lord and master hath sent your ladyship a small present, and part of his hunting, a piece of venison, a pheasant, a few partridges, &c. (all which she bought with her own money), commends his love and service to you, desiring you to accept of it in good part, and he means very shortly to come and see you.” Withal she showed him rings, gloves, scarves, coronets which others had sent her, when there was no such matter, but only to circumvent him. 5128By these means (as she concludes) “I made the poor gentleman so mad, that he was ready to spend himself, and venture his dearest blood for my sake.” Philinna, in 5129Lucian, practised all this long before, as it shall appear unto you by her discourse; for when Diphilus her sweetheart came to see her (as his daily custom was) she frowned upon him, would not vouchsafe him her company, but kissed Lamprius his co-rival, at the same time 5130before his face: but why was it? To make him (as she telleth her mother that chid her for it) more jealous; to whet his love, to come with a greater appetite, and to know that her favour was not so easy to be had. Many other tricks she used besides this (as she there confesseth), for she would fall out with, and anger him of set purpose, pick quarrels upon no occasion, because she would be reconciled to him again. Amantium irae amoris redintegratio, as the old saying is, the falling out of lovers is the renewing of love; and according to that of Aristenaetis, jucundiores amorum post injurias deliciae, love is increased by injuries, as the sunbeams are more gracious after a cloud. And surely this aphorism is most true; for as Ampelis informs Crisis in the said Lucian, 5131“If a lover be not jealous, angry, waspish, apt to fall out, sigh and swear, he is no true lover.” To kiss and coll, hang about her neck, protest, swear and wish, are but ordinary symptoms, incipientis adhuc et crescentis amoris signa; but if he be jealous, angry, apt to mistake, &c., bene speres licet, sweet sister he is thine own; yet if you let him alone, humour him, please him, &c., and that he perceive once he hath you sure, without any co-rival, his love will languish, and he will not care so much for you. Hitherto (saith she) can I speak out of experience; Demophantus a rich fellow was a suitor of mine, I seemed to neglect him, and gave better entertainment to Calliades the painter before his face, principio abiit, verbis me insectatus, at first he went away all in a chafe, cursing and swearing, but at last he came submitting himself, vowing and protesting he loved me most dearly, I should have all he had, and that he would kill himself for my sake. Therefore I advise thee (dear sister Crisis) and all maids, not to use your suitors over kindly; insolentes enim sunt hoc cum sentiunt, 'twill make them proud and insolent; but now and then reject them, estrange thyself, et si me audies semel atque iterum exclude, shut him out of doors once or twice, let him dance attendance; follow my counsel, and by this means 5132you shall make him mad, come off roundly, stand to any conditions, and do whatsoever you will have him. These are the ordinary practices; yet in the said Lucian, Melissa methinks had a trick beyond all this; for when her suitor came coldly on, to stir him up, she writ one of his co-rival's names and her own in a paper, Melissa amat Hermotimum, Hermotimus Mellissam, causing it to be stuck upon a post, for all gazers to behold, and lost it in the way where he used to walk; which when the silly novice perceived, statim ut legit credidit, instantly apprehended it was so, came raving to me, &c. 5133“and so when I was in despair of his love, four months after I recovered him again.” Eugenia drew Timocles for her valentine, and wore his name a long time after in her bosom: Camaena singled out Pamphilus to dance, at Myson's wedding (some say), for there she saw him first; Felicianus overtook Caelia by the highway side, offered his service, thence came further acquaintance, and thence came love. But who can repeat half their devices? What Aretine experienced, what conceited Lucian, or wanton Aristenaetus? They will deny and take, stiffly refuse, and yet earnestly seek the same, repel to make them come with more eagerness, fly from if you follow, but if averse, as a shadow they will follow you again, fugientem sequitur, sequentem fugit; with a regaining retreat, a gentle reluctancy, a smiling threat, a pretty pleasant peevishness they will put you off, and have a thousand such several enticements. For as he saith,
5134Non est forma satis, nec quae vult bella videri,
Debet vulgari more placere suis.
Dicta, sales, lusus, sermones, gratia, risus,
Vincunt naturae candidioris opus.
5135For this cause belike Philostratus, in his images, makes diverse loves, “some young, some of one age, some of another, some winged, some of one sex, some of another, some with torches, some with golden apples, some with darts, gins, snares, and other engines in their hands,” as Propertius hath prettily painted them out, lib. 2. et 29. and which some interpret, diverse enticements, or diverse affections of lovers, which if not alone, yet jointly may batter and overcome the strongest constitutions.
It is reported of Decius, and Valerianus, those two notorious persecutors of the church, that when they could enforce a young Christian by no means (as 5136Hierome records) to sacrifice to their idols, by no torments or promises, they took another course to tempt him: they put him into a fair garden, and set a young courtesan to dally with him, 5137“took him about the neck and kissed him, and that which is not to be named,” manibusque attrectare, &c., and all those enticements which might be used, that whom torments could not, love might batter and beleaguer. But such was his constancy, she could not overcome, and when this last engine would take no place, they left him to his own ways. At 5138Berkley in Gloucestershire, there was in times past a nunnery (saith Gualterus Mapes, an old historiographer, that lived 400 years since), “of which there was a noble and a fair lady abbess: Godwin, that subtile Earl of Kent, travelling that way, (seeking not her but hers) leaves a nephew of his, a proper young gallant (as if he had been sick) with her, till he came back again, and gives the young man charge so long to counterfeit, till he had deflowered the abbess, and as many besides of the nuns as he could, and leaves him withal rings, jewels, girdles, and such toys to give them still, when they came to visit him. The young man, willing to undergo such a business, played his part so well, that in short space he got up most of their bellies, and when he had done, told his lord how he had sped: 5139his lord made instantly to the court, tells the king how such a nunnery was become a bawdy-house, procures a visitation, gets them to be turned out, and begs the lands to his own use.” This story I do therefore repeat, that you may see of what force these enticements are, if they be opportunely used, and how hard it is even for the most averse and sanctified souls to resist such allurements. John Major in the life of John the monk, that lived in the days of Theodosius, commends the hermit to have been a man of singular continency, and of a most austere life; but one night by chance the devil came to his cell in the habit of a young market wench that had lost her way, and desired for God's sake some lodging with him. 5140“The old man let her in, and after some common conference of her mishap, she began to inveigle him with lascivious talk and jests, to play with his beard, to kiss him, and do worse, till at last she overcame him. As he went to address himself to that business, she vanished on a sudden, and the devils in the air laughed him to scorn.” Whether this be a true story, or a tale, I will not much contend, it serves to illustrate this which I have said.
Yet were it so, that these of which I have hitherto spoken, and such like enticing baits, be not sufficient, there be many others, which will of themselves intend this passion of burning lust, amongst which, dancing is none of the least; and it is an engine of such force, I may not omit it. Incitamentum libidinis, Petrarch calls it, the spur of lust. “A 5141 circle of which the devil himself is the centre. 5142Many women that use it, have come dishonest home, most indifferent, none better.” 5143 Another terms it “the companion of all filthy delights and enticements, and 'tis not easily told what inconveniences come by it, what scurrile talk, obscene actions,” and many times such monstrous gestures, such lascivious motions, such wanton tunes, meretricious kisses, homely embracings.
5144 ———(ut Gaditana canoro
Incipiat prurire choro, plausuque probatae
Ad terram tremula descendant clune puellae,
Irritamentum Veneris languentis)———
that it will make the spectators mad. When that epitomiser of 5145Trogus had to the full described and set out King Ptolemy's riot as a chief engine and instrument of his overthrow, he adds, tympanum et tripudium, fiddling and dancing: “the king was not a spectator only, but a principal actor himself.” A thing nevertheless frequently used, and part of a gentlewoman's bringing up, to sing, dance, and play on the lute, or some such instrument, before she can say her paternoster, or ten commandments. 'Tis the next way their parents think to get them husbands, they are compelled to learn, and by that means, 5146Incoestos amores de tenero meditantur ungue; 'tis a great allurement as it is often used, and many are undone by it. Thais, in Lucian, inveigled Lamprias in a dance, Herodias so far pleased Herod, that she made him swear to give her what she would ask, John Baptist's head in a platter. 5147Robert, Duke of Normandy, riding by Falais, spied Arlette, a fair maid, as she danced on a green, and was so much enamoured with the object, that 5148she must needs lie with her that night. Owen Tudor won Queen Catherine's affection in. a dance, falling by chance with his head in her lap. Who cannot parallel these stories out of his experience? Speusippas a noble gallant in 5149that Greek Aristenaetus, seeing Panareta a fair young gentlewoman dancing by accident, was so far in love with her, that for a long time after he could think of nothing but Panareta: he came raving home full of Panareta: “Who would not admire her, who would not love her, that should but see her dance as I did? O admirable, O divine Panareta! I have seen old and new Rome, many fair cities, many proper women, but never any like to Panareta, they are dross, dowdies all to Panareta! O how she danced, how she tripped, how she turned, with what a grace! happy is that man that shall enjoy her. O most incomparable, only, Panareta!” When Xenophon, in Symposio, or Banquet, had discoursed of love, and used all the engines that might be devised, to move Socrates, amongst the rest, to stir him the more, he shuts up all with a pleasant interlude or dance of Dionysius and Ariadne. 5150“First Ariadne dressed like a bride came in and took her place; by and by Dionysius entered, dancing to the music. The spectators did all admire the young man's carriage; and Ariadne herself was so much affected with the sight, that she could scarce sit. After a while Dionysius beholding Ariadne, and incensed with love, bowing to her knees, embraced her first, and kissed her with a grace; she embraced him again, and kissed him with like affection, &c., as the dance required; but they that stood by, and saw this, did much applaud and commend them both for it. And when Dionysius rose up, he raised her up with him, and many pretty gestures, embraces, kisses, and love compliments passed between them: which when they saw fair Bacchus and beautiful Ariadne so sweetly and so unfeignedly kissing each other, so really embracing, they swore they loved indeed, and were so inflamed with the object, that they began to rouse up themselves, as if they would have flown. At the last when they saw them still, so willingly embracing, and now ready to go to the bride-chamber, they were so ravished, with it, that they that were unmarried, swore they would forthwith marry, and those that were married called instantly for their horses, and galloped home to their wives.” What greater motive can there be than this burning lust? what so violent an oppugner? Not without good cause therefore so many general councils condemn it, so many fathers abhor it, so many grave men speak against it; “Use not the company of a woman,” saith Siracides, 8. 4. “that is a singer, or a dancer; neither hear, lest thou be taken in her craftiness.” In circo non tam cernitur quam discitur libido. 5151Haedus holds, lust in theatres is not seen, but learned. Gregory Nazianzen that eloquent divine, (5152as he relates the story himself,) when a noble friend of his solemnly invited him with other bishops, to his daughter Olympia's wedding, refused to come: 5153“For it is absurd to see an old gouty bishop sit amongst dancers;” he held it unfit to be a spectator, much less an actor. Nemo saltat sobrius, Tully writes, he is not a sober man that danceth; for some such reason (belike) Domitian forbade the Roman senators to dance, and for that fact removed many of them from the senate. But these, you will say, are lascivious and Pagan dances, 'tis the abuse that causeth such inconvenience, and I do not well therefore to condemn, speak against, or “innocently to accuse the best and pleasantest thing (so 5154Lucian calls it) that belongs to mortal men.” You misinterpret, I condemn it not; I hold it notwithstanding an honest disport, a lawful recreation, if it be opportune, moderately and soberly used: I am of Plutarch's mind, 5155“that which respects pleasure alone, honest recreation, or bodily exercise, ought not to be rejected and contemned:” I subscribe to 5156Lucian, “'tis an elegant thing, which cheereth up the mind, exerciseth the body, delights the spectators, which teacheth many comely gestures, equally affecting the ears, eyes, and soul itself.” Sallust discommends singing and dancing in Sempronia, not that she did sing or dance, but that she did it in excess, 'tis the abuse of it; and Gregory's refusal doth not simply condemn it, but in some folks. Many will not allow men and women to dance together, because it is a provocation to lust: they may as well, with Lycurgus and Mahomet, cut down all vines, forbid the drinking of wine, for that it makes some men drunk.
5157Nihil prodest quod non laedere posset idem;
Igne quid utilius? ———
I say of this as of all other honest recreations, they are like fire, good and bad, and I see no such inconvenience, but that they may so dance, if it be done at due times, and by fit persons: and conclude with Wolfungus 5158Hider, and most of our modern divines: Si decorae, graves, verecundae, plena luce bonorum virorum et matronarum honestarum, tempestive fiant, probari possunt, et debent. “There is a time to mourn, a time to dance,” Eccles. iii. 4. Let them take their pleasures then, and as 5159 he said of old, “young men and maids flourishing in their age, fair and lovely to behold, well attired, and of comely carriage, dancing a Greek galliard, and as their dance required, kept their time, now turning, now tracing, now apart now altogether, now a courtesy then a caper,” &c., and it was a pleasant sight to see those pretty knots, and swimming figures. The sun and moon (some say) dance about the earth, the three upper planets about the sun as their centre, now stationary, now direct, now retrograde, now in apogee, then in perigee, now swift then slow, occidental, oriental, they turn round, jump and trace, ♂ and ☿ about the sun with those thirty-three Maculae or Bourbonian planet, circa Solem saltantes Cytharedum, saith Fromundus. Four Medicean stars dance about Jupiter, two Austrian about Saturn, &c., and all (belike) to the music of the spheres. Our greatest counsellors, and staid senators, at some times dance, as David before the ark, 2 Sam. vi. 14. Miriam, Exod. xv. 20. Judith, xv. 13. (though the devil hence perhaps hath brought in those bawdy bacchanals), and well may they do it. The greatest soldiers, as 5160 Quintilianus, 5161Aemilius Probus, 5162Coelius Rhodiginus, have proved at large, still use it in Greece, Rome, and the most worthy senators, cantare, saltare. Lucian, Macrobius, Libanus, Plutarch, Julius, Pollux, Athenaeus, have written just tracts in commendation of it. In this our age it is in much request in those countries, as in all civil commonwealths, as Alexander ab Alexandro, lib. 4. cap. 10. et lib. 2. cap. 25. hath proved at large, 5163amongst the barbarians themselves none so precious; all the world allows it.
5164Divitias contemno tuas, rex Craese, tuamque
Vendo Asiam, unguentis, flore, mero, choreis.
5165Plato, in his Commonwealth, will have dancing-schools to be maintained, “that young folks might meet, be acquainted, see one another, and be seen;” nay more, he would have them dance naked; and scoffs at them that laugh at it. But Eusebius praepar. Evangel. lib. 1. cap. 11. and Theodoret lib. 9. curat. graec. affect. worthily lash him for it; and well they might: for as one saith, 5166“the very sight of naked parts causeth enormous, exceeding concupiscences, and stirs up both men and women to burning lust.” There is a mean in all things: this is my censure in brief; dancing is a pleasant recreation of body and mind, if sober and modest (such as our Christian dances are); if tempestively used, a furious motive to burning lust; if as by Pagans heretofore, unchastely abused. But I proceed.
If these allurements do not take place, for 5167Simierus, that great master of dalliance, shall not behave himself better, the more effectually to move others, and satisfy their lust, they will swear and lie, promise, protest, forge, counterfeit, brag, bribe, flatter and dissemble of all sides. 'Twas Lucretia's counsel in Aretine, Si vis amica frui, promitte, finge, jura, perjura, jacta, simula, mentire; and they put it well in practice, as Apollo to Daphne,
5168 ——— mihi Delphica tellus
Et Claros et Tenedos, patareaque regia servit,
Jupiter est genitor ———
Delphos, Claros, and Tenedos serve me,
And Jupiter is known my sire to be.
5171 ——— Tibi nos, tibi nostra supellex,
Ruraque servierint ———
“house, land, goods, are at her service,” as he is himself. Dinomachus, a senator's son in 5172Lucian, in love with a wench inferior to him in birth and fortunes, the sooner to accomplish his desire, wept unto her, and swore he loved her with all his heart, and her alone, and that as soon as ever his father died (a very rich man and almost decrepit) he would make her his wife. The maid by chance made her mother acquainted with the business, who being an old fox, well experienced in such matters, told her daughter, now ready to yield to his desire, that he meant nothing less, for dost thou think he will ever care for thee, being a poor wench, 5173that may have his choice of all the beauties in the city, one noble by birth, with so many talents, as young, better qualified, and fairer than thyself? daughter believe him not: the maid was abashed, and so the matter broke off. When Jupiter wooed Juno first (Lilius Giraldus relates it out of an old comment on Theocritus) the better to effect his suit, he turned himself into a cuckoo, and spying her one day walking alone, separated from the other goddesses, caused a tempest suddenly to arise, for fear of which she fled to shelter; Jupiter to avoid the storm likewise flew into her lap, in virginis Junonis gremium devolavit, whom Juno for pity covered in her 5174apron. But he turned himself forthwith into his own shape, began to embrace and offer violence unto her, sed illa matris metu abnuebat, but she by no means would yield, donec pollicitus connubium obtinuit, till he vowed and swore to marry her, and then she gave consent. This fact was done at Thornax hill, which ever after was called Cuckoo hill, and in perpetual remembrance there was a temple erected to Telia Juno in the same place. So powerful are fair promises, vows, oaths and protestations. It is an ordinary thing too in this case to belie their age, which widows usually do, that mean to marry again, and bachelors too sometimes,
5175Cujus octavum trepidavit aetas,
to say they are younger than they are. Carmides in the said Lucian loved Philematium, an old maid of forty-five years; 5176she swore to him she was but thirty-two next December. But to dissemble in this kind, is familiar of all sides, and often it takes. 5177Fallere credentem res est operosa puellam, 'tis soon done, no such great mastery, Egregiam vero laudem, et spolia ampla — and nothing so frequent as to belie their estates, to prefer their suits, and to advance themselves. Many men to fetch over a young woman, widows, or whom they love, will not stick to crack, forge and feign any thing comes next, bid his boy fetch his cloak, rapier, gloves, jewels, &c. in such a chest, scarlet-golden-tissue breeches, &c. when there is no such matter; or make any scruple to give out, as he did in Petronius, that he was master of a ship, kept so many servants, and to personate their part the better take upon them to be gentlemen of good houses, well descended and allied, hire apparel at brokers, some scavenger or prick-louse tailors to attend upon them for the time, swear they have great possessions, 5178bribe, lie, cog, and foist how dearly they love, how bravely they will maintain her, like any lady, countess, duchess, or queen; they shall have gowns, tiers, jewels, coaches, and caroches, choice diet,
The heads of parrots, tongues of nightingales,
The brains of peacocks, and of ostriches,
Their bath shall be the juice of gilliflowers,
Spirit of roses and of violets,
The milk of unicorns, &c.
as old Volpone courted Celia in the 5179comedy, when as they are no such men, not worth a groat, but mere sharkers, to make a fortune, to get their desire, or else pretend love to spend their idle hours, to be more welcome, and for better entertainment. The conclusion is, they mean nothing less,
5180Nil metuunt jurare, nihil promittere curant:
Sed simul accupidae mentis satiata libido est,
Dicta nihil metuere, nihil perjuria curant;
Oaths, vows, promises, are much protested;
But when their mind and lust is satisfied,
Oaths, vows, promises, are quite neglected;
though he solemnly swear by the genius of Caesar, by Venus' shrine, Hymen's deity, by Jupiter, and all the other gods, give no credit to his words. For when lovers swear, Venus laughs, Venus haec perjuria ridet, 5181Jupiter himself smiles, and pardons it withal, as grave 5182Plato gives out; of all perjury, that alone for love matters is forgiven by the gods. If promises, lies, oaths, and protestations will not avail, they fall to bribes, tokens, gifts, and such like feats. 5183Plurimus auro conciliatur amor: as Jupiter corrupted Danae with a golden shower, and Liber Ariadne with a lovely crown, (which was afterwards translated into the heavens, and there for ever shines;) they will rain chickens, florins, crowns, angels, all manner of coins and stamps in her lap. And so must he certainly do that will speed, make many feasts, banquets, invitations, send her some present or other every foot. Summo studio parentur epulae (saith 5184Haedus) et crebrae fiant largitiones, he must be very bountiful and liberal, seek and sue, not to her only, but to all her followers, friends, familiars, fiddlers, panders, parasites, and household servants; he must insinuate himself, and surely will, to all, of all sorts, messengers, porters, carriers; no man must be unrewarded, or unrespected. I had a suitor (saith 5185Aretine's Lucretia) that when he came to my house, flung gold and silver about, as if it had been chaff. Another suitor I had was a very choleric fellow; but I so handled him, that for all his fuming, I brought him upon his knees. If there had been an excellent bit in the market, any novelty, fish, fruit, or fowl, muscatel, or malmsey, or a cup of neat wine in all the city, it was presented presently to me; though never so dear, hard to come by, yet I had it: the poor fellow was so fond at last, that I think if I would I might have had one of his eyes out of his head. A third suitor was a merchant of Rome, and his manner of wooing was with 5186exquisite music, costly banquets, poems, &c. I held him off till at length he protested, promised, and swore pro virginitate regno me donaturum, I should have all he had, house, goods, and lauds, pro concubitu solo; 5187neither was there ever any conjuror, I think, to charm his spirits that used such attention, or mighty words, as he did exquisite phrases, or general of any army so many stratagems to win a city, as he did tricks and devices to get the love of me. Thus men are active and passive, and women not far behind them in this kind: Audax ad omnia foemina, quae vel amat, vel odit.
5189They will crack, counterfeit, and collogue as well as the best, with handkerchiefs, and wrought nightcaps, purses, posies, and such toys: as he justly complained,
5190Cur mittis violas? nempe ut violentius uret;
Quid violas violis me violenta tuis? &c.
Why dost thou send me violets, my dear?
To make me burn more violent, I fear,
With violets too violent thou art,
To violate and wound my gentle heart.
When nothing else will serve, the last refuge is their tears. Haec scripsi (testor amorem) mixta lachrymis et suspiriis, 'twixt tears and sighs, I write this (I take love to witness), saith 5191Chelidonia to Philonius. Lumina quae modo fulmina, jam flumina lachrymarum, those burning torches are now turned to floods of tears. Aretine's Lucretia, when her sweetheart came to town, 5192wept in his bosom, “that he might be persuaded those tears were shed for joy of his return.” Quartilla in Petronius, when nought would move, fell a weeping, and as Balthazar Castilio paints them out, 5193“To these crocodile's tears they will add sobs, fiery sighs, and sorrowful countenance, pale colour, leanness, and if you do but stir abroad, these fiends are ready to meet you at every turn, with such a sluttish neglected habit, dejected look, as if they were now ready to die for your sake; and how, saith he, shall a young novice thus beset, escape?” But believe them not.
5194 ——— animam ne crede puellis,
Namque est foeminea tutior unda fide.
Thou thinkest, peradventure, because of her vows, tears, smiles, and protestations, she is solely thine, thou hast her heart, hand, and affection, when as indeed there is no such matter, as the 5195Spanish bawd said, gaudet illa habere unum in lecto, alterum in porta, tertium qui domi suspiret, she will have one sweetheart in bed, another in the gate, a third sighing at home, a fourth, &c. Every young man she sees and likes hath as much interest, and shall as soon enjoy her as thyself. On the other side, which I have said, men are as false, let them swear, protest, and lie; 5196Quod vobis dicunt, dixerunt mille puellis. They love some of them those eleven thousand virgins at once, and make them believe, each particular, he is besotted on her, or love one till they see another, and then her alone; like Milo's wife in Apuleius, lib. 2. Si quem conspexerit speciosae formae invenem, venustate ejus sumitur, et in eum animum intorquet. 'Tis their common compliment in that case, they care not what they swear, say or do: One while they slight them, care not for them, rail downright and scoff at them, and then again they will run mad, hang themselves, stab and kill, if they may not enjoy them. Henceforth, therefore — nulla viro juranti foemina credat, let not maids believe them. These tricks and counterfeit passions are more familiar with women, 5197finem hic dolori faciet aut vitae dies, miserere amantis, quoth Phaedra to Hippolitus. Joessa, in 5198Lucian, told Pythias, a young man, to move him the more, that if he would not have her, she was resolved to make away herself. “There is a Nemesis, and it cannot choose but grieve and trouble thee, to hear that I have either strangled or drowned myself for thy sake.” Nothing so common to this sex as oaths, vows, and protestations, and as I have already said, tears, which they have at command; for they can so weep, that one would think their very hearts were dissolved within them, and would come out in tears; their eyes are like rocks, which still drop water, diariae lachrymae et sudoris in modum lurgeri promptae, saith 5199 Aristaenetus, they wipe away their tears like sweat, weep with one eye, laugh with the other; or as children 5200weep and cry, they can both together.
5201Neve puellarum lachrymis moveare memento,
Ut flerent oculos erudiere suos.
Care not for women's tears, I counsel thee,
They teach their eyes as much to weep as see.
And as much pity is to be taken of a woman weeping, as of a goose going barefoot. When Venus lost her son Cupid, she sent a crier about, to bid every one that met him take heed.
5202Si fleatam aspicias, ne mox fallare, caveto;
Sin arridebit, magis effuge; et oscula si fors
Ferre volet, fugito; sunt oscula noxia, in ipsis
Suntque venena labris &c.
Take heed of Cupid's tears, if cautious.
And of his smiles and kisses I thee tell,
If that he offer't, for they be noxious,
And very poison in his lips doth dwell.
5203A thousand years, as Castilio conceives, “will scarce serve to reckon up those allurements and guiles, that men and women use to deceive one another with.”
5054. De puellae voluntate periculum facere solis oculis non est satis, sed efficacius aliquid agere oportet, ibique etiam machinam alteram ahibere: itaque manus tange, digitos constringe, atque inter stringendum suspira; si haec agentem aequo se animo feret, neque facta hujusmodi aspernabitur, tum vero dominam appella, ejusque collum suaviare.
5055. Hungry dogs will eat dirty puddings.
5057. Tatius, lib. 1.
5058. In mammarum attractu, non aspernanda inest jucunditas, et attrectatus, &c.
5060. Ovid. 1. Met.
5061. Manus ad cubitum nuda, coram astans, fortius intuita, tenuem de pectore spiritum ducens, digitum meum pressit, et bibens pedem pressit; mutuae compressiones corporum, labiorum commixtiones, pedum connexiones, &c. Et bibit eodem loco, &c.
5062. Epist. 4. Respexi, respexit et, illa subridens, &c.
5063. Vir. Aen. 4. “That was the first hour of destruction, and the first beginning of my miseries.”
5065. Ovid. amor. lib. 2. eleg. 2. “Place modesty itself in such a situation, desire will intrude.”
5066. Romae vivens flore fortunae, et opulentiae meae, aetas, forma, gratia conversationis, maxime me fecerunt expetibilem, &c.
5067. De Aulic. lib. 1. fol. 63.
5068. Ut adulterini mercatorum panni.
5069. Busbeq. epist.
5070. Paranympha in cubiculum adducta capillos ad cutem referebat; sponsus inde ad eam ingressus cingulum solvebat, nec prius sponsam aspexit interdiu quam ex illa factus esset pater.
5071. Serm. cont. concub.
5072. Lib. 2. epist. ad filium, et virginem et matrem viduam epist. 10. dabit tibi barbatulus quispiam manum, sustentabit lassam, et pressis digitis aut tentabitur aut tentabit, &c.
5073. Loquetur alius nutibus, et quicquid metuit dicere, significabit affectibus. Inter bas tantas voluptatum illecebras etiam ferreas mentes libido domat. Difficile inter epulas servatur pudicitia.
5074. Clamore vestium ad se juvenes vocat; capilli fasciolis comprimuntur crispati, cingulo pectus arctatur, capilii vel in frontem, vel in aures defluunt: palliolum interdum cadit, ut nudet humeros, et quasi videri noluerit, festinans celat, quod volens detexerit.
5075. Serm. cont. concub. In sancto et reverendo sacramentorum tempore multas occasiones, ut illis placeant qui eas vident, praebent.
5076. Pont. Baia. l. 1.
5077. Descr. Brit.
5078. Res est blanda canor, discant cantare puellae pro facie, &c. Ovid. 3. de art. amandi.
5079. Epist. l. 1. Cum loquitur Lais, quanta, O dii boni, vocis ejus dulcedo!
5080. “The sweet sound of his voice reanimates my soul through my covetous ears.”
5081. Aristenaetus, lib. 2. epist. 5. Quam suave canit! verbum audax dixi, omnium quos vidi formosissimus, utinam amare me dignetur!
5082. Imagines, si cantantem audieris, ita demulcebere, ut parentum et patriae statim obliviscaris.
5083. Edyll. 18. neque sane ulla sic Cytharam pulsare novit.
5084. Amatorio Dialogo.
5085. Puellam Cythara canentem vidimus.
5086. Apollonius, Argonaut. l. 3. “The mind is delighted as much by eloquence as beauty.”
5088. Parnodidascalo dial. Ital. Latin. interp. Jasper. Barthio. Germ. Fingebam honestatem plusquam virginis vestalis, intuebar oculis uxoris, addebam gestus, &c.
5089. Tom. 4. dial. merit.
5090. Amatorius sermo vehemens vehementis cupiditatis incitatio est, Tatius l. 1.
5091. De luxuria et deliciis compositi.
5092. Aeneas Sylvius. Nulla machina validior quam lecto lascivae historiae: saepe etiam hujusmodi fabulis ad furorem incenduntur.
5093. Martial. l. 4.
5094. Lib. 1. c. 7.
5095. Eustathius, l. 1. Pictures parant animum ad Venerem, &c. Horatius ed res venereas intemperantior traditur; nam cubiculo suo sic specula dicitur habuisse disposita, ut quocunque respexisset imaginem coitus referrent. Suetonius vit. ejus.
5096. Osculum ut phylangium inficit.
5097. Hor. “Venus hath imbued with the quintessence of her nectar.”
5098. Heinsius. “You may conquer with the sword, but you are conquered by a kiss.”
5099. Applico me illi proximius et spisse deosculata sagum peto.
5100. Petronius catalect.
5101. Catullus ad Lesbiam: da mihi basia mille, deinde centum, &c.
5102. Petronius. “Only attempt to touch her person, and immediately your members will be filled with a glow of delicious warmth.”
5103. Apuleius, l. 30. et Catalect.
5106. Petronius Proselios ad Circen.
5108. Animus conjungitur, et spiritus etiam noster per osculum effluit; alternatim se in utriusque corpus infundentes commiscent; animae potius quam corporis connectio.
5110. Lucian. Tom. 4.
5111. Non dat basia, dat Nera nectar, dat rores animae suaveolentes, dat nardum, thymumque, cinnamumque et mel, &c. Secundus bas. 4.
5112. Eustathius lib. 4.
5115. Ovid. art. am. Eleg. 18.
5116. Ovid. “She folded her arms around my neck.”
5117. Cum capita liment solitis morsiunculis, et cum mammillarum pressiunculis. Lip. od. ant. lec. lib. 3.
5118. Tom. 4. dial. meretr.
5119. Apuleius Miles. 6. Et unum blandientis linguae admulsum longe mellitum: et post lib. 11. Arctius eam complexus caepi suaviari jamque pariter patentis oris inhalitu cinnameo et occursantis linguae illisu nectareo, &c.
5120. Lib. 1 advers. Jovin. cap. 30.
5121. Oscula qui sumpsit, si non et cetera sumpsit, &c.
5122. Corpus Placuit mariti sui tolli ex arca, atque illi quae vacabat cruci adfigi.
5123. Novi ingenium mulierum, nolunt, ubi velis, ubi nolis capiunt ultro. Ter. Eunuc. act. 4. sc. 7.
5125. Pornodidascolo dial. Ital. Latin. donat. a Gasp. Barthio Germano. Quanquam natura, et arte eram formosissima, isto tamen astu tanto speciosior videbar, quod enim oculis cupitum aegre praebetur, multo magis affectus humanos incendit.
5126. Quo majoribus me donis probatiabat, eo pejoribus illum modis tractabam, ne basium impetravis, &c.
5127. Comes de monte Turco Hispanus has de venatione sua partes misit, jussitque peramanter orare, ut hoc qualecunque donum suo nomine accipias.
5128. His artibus hominem ita excantabam, ut pro me ille ad omnia parutas, &c.
5129. Tom. 4. dial, merit.
5130. Relicto illo, aegre ipsi interim faciens, et omnino difficilis.
5131. Si quis enim nec Zelotypus irascitur, nec pugnat aliquando amator, nec perjurat, non est habendus amator, &c. Totus hic ignis Zelotypia constat, &c. maxime amores inde nascuntur. Sed si persuasum illi fuerit te solum habere, elanguescit illico amor suus.
5132. Venientem videbis ipsum denuo inflammatum et prorsus insanientem.
5133. Et sic cum fere de illo desperassem, post menses quatuor ad me rediit.
5134. Petronius Catal.
5135. Imagines deorum. fol. 327. varios amores facit, quos aliqui interpretantur multiplices affectus et illecebras, alios puellos, puellas, alatos, alios poma aurea, alios sagittas, alios laqueos, &c.
5136. Epist. lib. 3. vita Pauli Eremitae.
5137. Meretrix speciosa cepit delicatius stringere colla complexibus, et corpora in libidinem concitato, &c.
5138. Camden in Gloucestershire, huic praefuit nobilis et formosa abbatissa, Godwinus comes indole subtilis, non ipsam, sed sua cupiens, reliquit nepotem suum forma elegantissimum, tanquam infirmum donec reverteretur, instruit, &c.
5139. Ille impiger regem adit, abatissam et suas praegnantes edocet, exploratoribus missis probat, et iis ejectis, a domino suo manerium accepit.
5140. Post sermones de casu suo suavitate sermones conciliat animum hominis, manumque inter colloquia et risus ad barbam protendit et palpare coepit cervicem suam et osculari; quid multa? Captivum ducit militem Christi. Complexura evanescit, demones in aere monachum riserunt.
5141. Choraea circulus, cujus centrum diab.
5142. Multae inde impudicae domum rediere, plures ambiguae, melior nulla.
5143. Turpium deliciarum comes est externa saltatio; neque certe facile dictu quae mala hinc visus hauriat, et quae pariat, colloquia, monstrosus, inconditos gestus, &c.
5144. Juv. Sat. 11. “Perhaps you may expect that a Gaditanian with a tuneful company may begin to wanton, and girls approved with applause lower themselves to the ground in a lascivious manner, a provocative of languishing desire.”
5145. Justin. l. 10. Adduntur instrumenta luxuriae, tympana et tripudia; nec tam spectator rex, sed nequitiae magister, &c.
5146. Hor. l. 5. od. 6.
5147. Havarde vita ejus.
5148. Of whom he begat William the Conqueror; by the same token she tore her smock down, saying, &c.
5149. Epist. &c. Quis non miratus est saltantem? Quis non vidit et amavit? veterem et novam vidi Romam, sed tibi similem non vidi Panareta; felix qui Panareta fruitur, &c.
5150. Prinicipio Ariadne velut sponsa prodit, ac sola recedit; prodiens illico Dionysius ad numeros cantante tibia saltabat; admirati sunt omnes saltantem juvenem, ipsaque Ariadne, ut vix potuerit conquiescere; post ea vero cum Dionysius eam aspexit, &c. ut autem surrexit Dionysius, erexit simul Ariadnem, licebatque spectare gestus osculantium, et inter se complectentium; qui autem spectabant, &c. Ad extremum videntes eos mutuis amplexibus implicatos et jamjam ad thalamum ituros; qui non duxerant uxores jurabant uxores se ductoreos; qui autem duxerant conscensis equis et incitatis, ut iisdem fruerentur, domum festinarunt.
5151. Lib. 4. de contemnend. amoribus.
5152. Ad Anysium epist. 57.
5153. Intempestivum enim est, et a nuptiis abhorrens, inter saltantes podagricum videre senem, et episcopum.
5154. Rem omnium in mortalium vita optimam innocenter accusare.
5155. Quae honestam voluptatem respicit, aut corporis exercitium, contemni non debet.
5156. Elegantissima res est, quae et mentem acuit, corpus exerceat, et spectantes oblectet, multos gestus decoros docens, oculos, aures, animum ex aeque demulcens.
5158. System, moralis philosophiae.
5159. Apuleius. 10. Pueili, puellaeque virenti florentes aetatula, forma conspicui, veste nitidi, incessu gratiosi, Graecanicam saltantes Pyrrhicam, dispositis ordinationibus, decoros ambitus inerrabant, nunc in orbem flexi, nunc in obliquam seriem connexi, nunc in quadrum cuneati, nunc inde separati, &c.
5160. Lib. 1. cap. 11.
5161. Vit. Epaminondae.
5162. Lib. 5.
5163. Read P. Martyr Ocean Decad. Benzo, Lerius Hacluit, &c.
5164. Angerianus Erotopaedium.
5165. 10 Leg. τῆς γὰρ τοιαύτης σπεδῆς ἔνεκα, &c. hujus causa oportuit disciplinam constitui, ut tam pueri quam puellae choreas celebrent, spectenturque ac spectent, &c.
5166. Aspectus enim nudorum corporum tam mares quam feminas irritare solet ad enormes lasciviae appetitus.
5167. Camden Annal. anno 1578, fol. 276. Amatoriis facetiis et illecebris exquisitissimus.
5168. Met. 1. Ovid.
5169. Erasmus egl. mille mei siculis errant in montibus agni.
5171. 58 Lecheus.
5172. Tom. 4. merit. dial. amare se jurat et lachrimatur dicitque uxorem me ducere velle, quum pater oculos claussisset.
5173. Quum dotem alibi multo majorem aspiciet, &c.
5174. Or upper garment. Quem Juno miserata veste contexit.
5176. Dejeravit illa secundum supra trigesimum ad proximum Decembrem completuram se esse.
5178. Nam donis vincitur omnis amor. Catullus 1. el. 5.
5179. Fox, act. 3. sc. 3.
5181. Perjuria ridet amantum Jupiter, et ventos irrita ferre jubet Tibul. lib. 3. et 6.
5182. In Philebo. pejerantibus, nis dii soli ignoscunt.
5184. Lib. 1. de contemnendis amoribus.
5185. Dial. Ital. argentum ut paleas projiciebat. Biliosum habui amatorem qui supplex flexis genibus, &c. Nullus recens allatus terrae fructus, nullum cupediarum genus tam carum erat, nullum vinum Creticum pretiosum, quin ad me ferret illico; credo alterum oculum pignori daturus, &c.
5186. Post musicam opiperas epulas, et tantis juramentis, donis, &c.
5187. Nunquam aliquis umbrarum conjurator tanta attentione, tamque potentibus verbis usus est, quam ille exquisitis mihi dictis, &c.
5189. Ah crudele genas nec tutum foemina nomen! Tibul. l. 3. eleg. 4.
5190. Jovianus Pon.
5191. Aristaenetus, lib. 2. epist. 13.
5192. Suaviter flebam, ut persuasum habeat lachrymas prae gaudio illius reditus mihi emanare.
5193. Lib. 3. his accedunt, vultus subtristis, color pallidus, gemebunda vox, ignita suspiria, lachrymae prope innumerabiles. Istae se statim umbrae offerunt tanto squalore et in omni fere diverticulo tanta macie, ut illas jamjam moribundas putes.
5194. Petronius. “Trust not your heart to women, for the wave is less treacherous than their fidelity.”
5195. Coelestina, act 7. Barthio interpret omnibus arridet, et a singulis amari se solam dicit.
5196. Ovid. “They have made the same promises to a thousand girls that they make to you.”
5197. Seneca Hippol.
5198. Tom. 4. dial. merit. tu vero aliquando maerore afficieris ubi andieris me a meipsa laqueo tui causa suffocatam aut in puteum praecipitatam.
5199. Epist. 20. l. 2.
5200. Matronae flent duobus oculis, moniales quatuor, virgines uno, meretrices nullo.
5202. Imagines deorum, fol. 332. e Moschi amore fugitive, quem Politianus Latinum fecit.
5203. Lib. 3. mille vix anni sufficerent ad omnes illas machinationes, dolosque commemorandos, quos viri et mulieres ut se invicem circumveniant, excogitare solent.
Bawds, Philters, Causes.
When all other engines fail, that they can proceed no farther of themselves, their last refuge is to fly to bawds, panders, magical philters, and receipts; rather than fail, to the devil himself. Flectere si nequeunt superos, Acheronta movebunt. And by those indirect means many a man is overcome, and precipitated into this malady, if he take not good heed. For these bawds, first, they are everywhere so common, and so many, that, as he said of old 5204Croton, omnes hic aut captantur, aut captant, either inveigle or be inveigled, we may say of most of our cities, there be so many professed, cunning bawds in them. Besides, bawdry is become an art, or a liberal science, as Lucian calls it; and there be such tricks and subtleties, so many nurses, old women, panders, letter carriers, beggars, physicians, friars, confessors, employed about it, that nullus tradere stilus sufficiat, one saith,
5205 ——— trecentis versibus
Suas impuritias traloqui nemo potest.
Such occult notes, stenography, polygraphy, Nuntius animatus, or magnetical telling of their minds, which 5206Cabeus the Jesuit, by the way, counts fabulous and false; cunning conveyances in this kind, that neither Juno's jealousy, nor Danae's custody, nor Argo's vigilancy can keep them safe. 'Tis the last and common refuge to use an assistant, such as that Catanean Philippa was to Joan Queen of Naples, a 5207bawd's help, an old woman in the business, as 5208Myrrha did when she doted on Cyniras, and could not compass her desire, the old jade her nurse was ready at a pinch, dic inquit, opemque me sine ferre tibi — et in hac mea (pone timorem) Sedulitas erit apta libi, fear it not, if it be possible to be done, I will effect it: non est mulieri mulier insuperabilis, 5209Caelestina said, let him or her be never so honest, watched and reserved, 'tis hard but one of these old women will get access: and scarce shall you find, as 5210Austin observes, in a nunnery a maid alone, “if she cannot have egress, before her window you shall have an old woman, or some prating gossip, tell her some tales of this clerk, and that monk, describing or commending some young gentleman or other unto her.” “As I was walking in the street” (saith a good fellow in Petronius) “to see the town served one evening, 5211I spied an old woman in a corner selling of cabbages and roots” (as our hucksters do plums, apples, and such like fruits); “mother” (quoth he) “can you tell where I can dwell? she, being well pleased with my foolish urbanity, replied, and why, sir, should I not tell? With that she rose up and went before me. I took her for a wise woman, and by-and-by she led me into a by-lane, and told me there I should dwell. I replied again, I knew not the house; but I perceived, on a sudden, by the naked queans, that I was now come into a bawdy-house, and then too late I began to curse the treachery of this old jade.” Such tricks you shall have in many places, and amongst the rest it is ordinary in Venice, and in the island of Zante, for a man to be bawd to his own wife. No sooner shall you land or come on shore, but, as the Comical Poet hath it,
5212Morem hunc meretrices habent,
Ad portum mittunt servulos, ancillulas,
Si qua peregrina navis in portum aderit,
Rogant cujatis sit, quod ei nomen siet,
Post illae extemplo sese adplicent.
These white devils have their panders, bawds, and factors in every place to seek about, and bring in customers, to tempt and waylay novices, and silly travellers. And when they have them once within their clutches, as Aegidius Mascrius in his comment upon Valerius Flaccus describes them, 5213“with promises and pleasant discourse, with gifts, tokens, and taking their opportunities, they lay nets which Lucretia cannot avoid, and baits that Hippolitus himself would swallow; they make such strong assaults and batteries, that the goddess of virginity cannot withstand them: give gifts and bribes to move Penelope, and with threats able to terrify Susanna. How many Proserpinas, with those catchpoles, doth Pluto take? These are the sleepy rods with which their souls touched descend to hell; this the glue or lime with which the wings of the mind once taken cannot fly away; the devil's ministers to allure, entice,” &c. Many young men and maids, without all question, are inveigled by these Eumenides and their associates. But these are trivial and well known. The most sly, dangerous, and cunning bawds, are your knavish physicians, empirics, mass-priests, monks, 5214 Jesuits, and friars. Though it be against Hippocrates' oath, some of them will give a dram, promise to restore maidenheads, and do it without danger, make an abortion if need be, keep down their paps, hinder conception, procure lust, make them able with Satyrions, and now and then step in themselves. No monastery so close, house so private, or prison so well kept, but these honest men are admitted to censure and ask questions, to feel their pulse beat at their bedside, and all under pretence of giving physic. Now as for monks, confessors, and friars, as he said,
5215Non audet Stygius Pluto tentare quod audet
Effrenis monachus, plenaque fraudis anus;
That Stygian Pluto dares not tempt or do,
What an old hag or monk will undergo;
either for himself to satisfy his own lust; for another, if he be hired thereto, or both at once, having such excellent means. For under colour of visitation, auricular confession, comfort and penance, they have free egress and regress, and corrupt, God knows, how many. They can such trades, some of them, practise physic, use exorcisms, &c.
5217In the mountains between Dauphine and Savoy, the friars persuaded the good wives to counterfeit themselves possessed, that their husbands might give them free access, and were so familiar in those days with some of them, that, as one5218observes, “wenches could not sleep in their beds for necromantic friars:” and the good abbess in Boccaccio may in some sort witness, that rising betimes, mistook and put on the friar's breeches instead of her veil or hat. You have heard the story, I presume, of 5219 Paulina, a chaste matron in Aegesippus, whom one of Isis's priests did prostitute to Mundus, a young knight, and made her believe it was their god Anubis. Many such pranks are played by our Jesuits, sometimes in their own habits, sometimes in others, like soldiers, courtiers, citizens, scholars, gallants, and women themselves. Proteus-like, in all forms and disguises, that go abroad in the night, to inescate and beguile young women, or to have their pleasure of other men's wives; and, if we may believe 5220 some relations, they have wardrobes of several suits in the colleges for that purpose. Howsoever in public they pretend much zeal, seem to be very holy men, and bitterly preach against adultery, fornication, there are no verier bawds or whoremasters in a country; 5221“whose soul they should gain to God, they sacrifice to the devil.” But I spare these men for the present.
The last battering engines are philters, amulets, spells, charms, images, and such unlawful means: if they cannot prevail of themselves by the help of bawds, panders, and their adherents, they will fly for succour to the devil himself. I know there be those that deny the devil can do any such thing (Crato epist. 2. lib. med.), and many divines, there is no other fascination than that which comes by the eyes, of which I have formerly spoken, and if you desire to be better informed, read Camerarius, oper subcis. cent. 2. c. 5. It was given out of old, that a Thessalian wench had bewitched King Philip to dote upon her, and by philters enforced his love; but when Olympia, the Queen, saw the maid of an excellent beauty, well brought up, and qualified — these, quoth she, were the philters which inveigled King Philip; those the true charms, as Henry to Rosamond,
5222One accent from thy lips the blood more warms,
Than all their philters, exorcisms, and charms.
With this alone Lucretia brags 5223in Aretine, she could do more than all philosophers, astrologers, alchemists, necromancers, witches, and the rest of the crew. As for herbs and philters, I could never skill of them, “The sole philter that ever I used was kissing and embracing, by which alone I made men rave like beasts stupefied, and compelled them to worship me like an idol.” In our times it is a common thing, saith Erastus, in his book de Lamiis, for witches to take upon them the making of these philters, 5224“to force men and women to love and hate whom they will, to cause tempests, diseases,” &c., by charms, spells, characters, knots. — 5225hic Thessala vendit Philtra. St. Hierome proves that they can do it (as in Hilarius' life, epist. lib. 3); he hath a story of a young man, that with a philter made a maid mad for the love of him, which maid was after cured by Hilarion. Such instances I find in John Nider, Formicar. lib. 5. cap. 5. Plutarch records of Lucullus that he died of a philter; and that Cleopatra used philters to inveigle Antony, amongst other allurements. Eusebius reports as much of Lucretia the poet. Panormitan, lib. 4. de gest. Aphonsi, hath a story of one Stephan, a Neapolitan knight, that by a philter was forced to run mad for love. But of all others, that which 5226Petrarch, epist. famil. lib. 1. ep. 5, relates of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) is most memorable. He foolishly doted upon a woman of mean favour and condition, many years together, wholly delighting in her company, to the great grief and indignation of his friends and followers. When she was dead, he did embrace her corpse, as Apollo did the bay-tree for his Daphne, and caused her coffin (richly embalmed and decked with jewels) to be carried about with him, over which he still lamented. At last a venerable bishop, that followed his court, prayed earnestly to God (commiserating his lord and master's case) to know the true cause of this mad passion, and whence it proceeded; it was revealed to him, in fine, “that the cause of the emperor's mad love lay under the dead woman's tongue.” The bishop went hastily to the carcass, and took a small ring thence; upon the removal the emperor abhorred the corpse, and, instead 5227of it, fell as furiously in love with the bishop, he would not suffer him to be out of his presence; which when the bishop perceived, he flung the ring into the midst of a great lake, where the king then was. From that hour the emperor neglected all his other houses, dwelt at 5228Ache, built a fair house in the midst of the marsh, to his infinite expense, and a 5229temple by it, where after he was buried, and in which city all his posterity ever since use to be crowned. Marcus the heretic is accused by Irenaeus, to have inveigled a young maid by this means; and some writers speak hardly of the Lady Katharine Cobham, that by the same art she circumvented Humphrey Duke of Gloucester to be her husband. Sycinius Aemilianus summoned 5230Apuleius to come before Cneius Maximus, proconsul of Africa, that he being a poor fellow, “had bewitched by philters Pudentilla, an ancient rich matron, to love him,” and, being worth so many thousand sesterces, to be his wife. Agrippa, lib. 1. cap. 48. occult. philos. attributes much in this kind to philters, amulets, images: and Salmutz com. in Pancirol. Tit. 10. de Horol. Leo Afer, lib. 3, saith, 'tis an ordinary practice at Fez in Africa, Praestigiatores ibi plures, qui cogunt amores et concubitus: as skilful all out as that hyperborean magician, of whom Cleodemus, in 5231 Lucian, tells so many fine feats performed in this kind. But Erastus, Wierus, and others are against it; they grant indeed such things may be done, but (as Wierus discourseth, lib. 3. de Lamiis. cap. 37.) not by charms, incantations, philters, but the devil himself; lib. 5. cap. 2. he contends as much; so doth Freitagius, noc. med. cap. 74. Andreas Cisalpinus, cap. 5; and so much Sigismundus Scheretzius, cap. 9. de hirco nocturno, proves at large. 5232“Unchaste women by the help of these witches, the devil's kitchen maids, have their loves brought to them in the night, and carried back again by a phantasm flying in the air in the likeness of a goat. I have heard” (saith he) “divers confess, that they have been so carried on a goat's back to their sweethearts, many miles in a night.” Others are of opinion that these feats, which most suppose to be done by charms and philters, are merely effected by natural causes, as by man's blood chemically prepared, which much avails, saith Ernestus Burgravius, in Lucerna vitae et mortis Indice, ad amorem conciliandum et odium, (so huntsmen make their dogs love them, and farmers their pullen,) 'tis an excellent philter, as he holds, sed vulgo prodere grande nefas, but not fit to be made common: and so be Mala insana, mandrake roots, mandrake 5233apples, precious stones, dead men's clothes, candles, mala Bacchica, panis porcinus, Hyppomanes, a certain hair in a 5234wolf's tail, &c., of which Rhasis, Dioscorides, Porta, Wecker, Rubeus, Mizaldus, Albertus, treat: a swallow's heart, dust of a dove's heart, multum valent linguae viperarum, cerebella asinorum, tela equina, palliola quibus infantes obvoluti nascuntur, funis strangulati hominis, lapis de nido Aquilae, &c. See more in Sckenkius observat. medicinal, lib. 4. &c., which are as forcible and of as much virtue as that fountain Salmacis in 5235 Vitruvius, Ovid, Strabo, that made all such mad for love that drank of it, or that hot bath at 5236Aix in Germany, wherein Cupid once dipped his arrows, which ever since hath a peculiar virtue to make them lovers all that wash in it. But hear the poet's own description of it,
5237Unde hic fervor aquis terra erumpentibus uda?
Tela olim hic ludens ignea tinxit amor;
Et gaudens stridore novo, fervete perennes
Inquit, et haec pharetrae sint monumenta meae.
Ex illo fervet, rarusque hic mergitur hospes,
Cui non titillet pectora blandus amor.
These above-named remedies have happily as much power as that bath of Aix, or Venus' enchanted girdle, in which, saith Natales Comes, “Love toys and dalliance, pleasantness, sweetness, persuasions, subtleties, gentle speeches, and all witchcraft to enforce love, was contained.” Read more of these in Agrippa de occult. Philos. lib. 1. cap. 50. et 45. Malleus malefic. part. 1. quaest. 7. Delrio tom. 2. quest. 3. lib. 3. Wierus, Pomponatis, cap. 8. de incantat. Ficinus, lib. 13. Theol. Plat. Calcagninus, &c.
5205. Plautus Tritemius. “Three hundred verses would not comprise their indecencies.”
5206. De Magnet. Philos. lib. 4. cap. 10.
5207. Catul. eleg. 5. lib. 1. Venit in exitium callida lena meum.
5208. Ovid. 10. met.
5209. Parabosc. Barthii.
5210. De vit. Erem c. 3. ad sororem vix aliquam reclusarum hujus temporis solam invenies, ante cujus fenestram non anus garrula, vel nugigerula mulier sedet, quae eam fabulis occupet, rumoribus pascat, hujus vel illius monachi, &c.
5211. Agreste olus anus vendebat, et rogo inquam, mater, nunquid scis ubi ego habitem? delectata illa urbanitate tam stulta, et quid nesciam inquit? consurrexitque et cepit me praecedere; divinam ego putabam, &c. nudas video meretrices et in lupanar me adductum, sero execrutus aniculae insidias.
5212. Plautus Menech. “These harlots send little maidens down to the quays to ascertain the name and nation of every ship that arrives, after which they themselves hasten to address the new-comers.”
5213. Promissis everberant, molliunt dulciloquiis, et opportunum tempus aucupantes laqueos ingerunt quos vix Lucretia vitare; escam parant quam vel satur Hippolitus sumeret, &c. Hae sane sunt virgae soporiferae quibus contactae animae ad Orcum descendunt; hoc gluten quo compactae mentium alae evolare nequeunt, daemonis ancillae, quae sollicitant, &c.
5214. See the practices of the Jesuits, Anglice, edit. 1630.
5215. Aen. Sylv.
5216. Chaucer, in the wife of Bath's tale.
5217. H. Stephanus Apol. Herod, lib. 1. cap. 21.
5218. Bale. Puellae in lectis dormire non poterant.
5219. Idem Josephus, lib. 18. cap. 4.
5220. Lib credit. Augustae Vindelicorum, An. 1608.
5221. Quarum animas lucrari debent Deo, sacrificant diabolo.
5222. M. Drayton, Her. epist.
5223. Pornodidascolo dial. Ital. Latin, fact. a Gasp. Barthio. Plus possum quam omnes philosophi, astrologi, necromantici, &c. sola saliva inungens, 1. amplexu et basiis tam furiose furere, tam bestialiter obstupesieri coegi, ut instar idoli me adorarint.
5224. Sagae omnes sibi arrogant notitiam, et facultatem in amorem alliciendi quos velint; odia inter conjuges serendi, tempestates excitandi, morbos infligendi, &c.
5225. Juvenalis Sat.
5226. Idem refert Hen. Kormannus de mir. mort. lib. 1 cap. 14. Perdite amavit mulierculam quandam, illius amplexibus acquiescens, summa cum indignatione suorum et dolore.
5227. Et inde totus in Episcopum furere, illum colere.
5228. Aquisgranum, vulgo Aixe.
5229. Immenso sumptu templum et aedes, &c.
5230. Apolog. quod Pudentillam viduam ditem et provectioris aetatis foeminam cantaminibus in amorem sui pellexisset.
5231. Philopseude, tom. 3.
5232. Impudicae mulieres opera veneficarum, diaboli coquarum, amatores suos ad se nuctu ducunt et reducunt, ministerio hirci in aere volantis: multos novi qui hoc fassi sunt, &c.
5233. Mandrake apples, Lemnius lib. herb. bib. c. 3.
5234. Of which read Plin. lib. 8. cap. 22. et lib. 13. c. 25. et Quintilianum, lib. 7.
5235. Lib. 11. c. 8. Venere implicat eos, qui ex eo bibunt. Idem Ov. Met. 4. Strabo. Geog. l. 14.
5236. Lod. Guicciardine's descript. Ger. in Aquisgrano.
5237. Baltheus Veneris, in quo suavitas, et dulcia colloquia, benevolentiae, et blanditiae, suasiones, fraudes et veneficia includebantur. “Whence that heat to waters bubbling from the cold moist earth? Cupid, once upon a time, playfully dipped herein his arrows of steel, and delighted with the hissing sound, he said, boil on for ever, and retain the memory of my quiver. From that time it is a thermal spring, in which few venture to bathe, but whosoever does, his heart is instantly touched with love.”
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