Anatomy of Melancholy, by Robert Burton

The Third Partition,


The First Section.

The First Member.

The First Subsection.

The Preface.

There will not be wanting, I presume, one or other that will much discommend some part of this treatise of love-melancholy, and object (which 4414Erasmus in his preface to Sir Thomas More suspects of his) “that it is too light for a divine, too comical a subject to speak of love symptoms, too fantastical, and fit alone for a wanton poet, a feeling young lovesick gallant, an effeminate courtier, or some such idle person.” And 'tis true they say: for by the naughtiness of men it is so come to pass, as 4415 Caussinus observes, ut castis auribus vox amoris suspecta sit, et invisa, the very name of love is odious to chaster ears; and therefore some again, out of an affected gravity, will dislike all for the name's sake before they read a word; dissembling with him in 4416Petronius, and seem to be angry that their ears are violated with such obscene speeches, that so they may be admired for grave philosophers and staid carriage. They cannot abide to hear talk of love toys, or amorous discourses, vultu, gestu, oculis in their outward actions averse, and yet in their cogitations they are all out as bad, if not worse than others.

4417Erubuit, posuitque meum Lucretia librum

Sed coram Bruto, Brute recede, legit.

But let these cavillers and counterfeit Catos know, that as the Lord John answered the Queen in that Italian 4418Guazzo, an old, a grave discreet man is fittest to discourse of love matters, because he hath likely more experience, observed more, hath a more staid judgment, can better discern, resolve, discuss, advise, give better cautions, and more solid precepts, better inform his auditors in such a subject, and by reason of his riper years sooner divert. Besides, nihil in hac amoris voce subtimendum, there is nothing here to be excepted at; love is a species of melancholy, and a necessary part of this my treatise, which I may not omit; operi suscepto inserviendum fuit: so Jacobus Mysillius pleadeth for himself in his translation of Lucian's dialogues, and so do I; I must and will perform my task. And that short excuse of Mercerus, for his edition of Aristaenetus shall be mine, 4419“If I have spent my time ill to write, let not them be so idle as to read.” But I am persuaded it is not so ill spent, I ought not to excuse or repent myself of this subject; on which many grave and worthy men have written whole volumes, Plato, Plutarch, Plotinus, Maximus, Tyrius, Alcinous, Avicenna, Leon Hebreus in three large dialogues, Xenophon sympos. Theophrastus, if we may believe Athenaeus, lib. 13. cap. 9. Picus Mirandula, Marius, Aequicola, both in Italian, Kornmannus de linea Amoris, lib. 3. Petrus Godefridus hath handled in three books, P. Haedus, and which almost every physician, as Arnoldus, Villanovanus, Valleriola observat. med. lib. 2. observ. 7. Aelian Montaltus and Laurentius in their treatises of melancholy, Jason Pratensis de morb. cap. Valescus de Taranta, Gordonius, Hercules de Saxonia, Savanarola, Langius, &c., have treated of apart, and in their works. I excuse myself, therefore, with Peter Godefridus, Valleriola, Ficinus, and in 4420Langius' words. Cadmus Milesius writ fourteen books of love, “and why should I be ashamed to write an epistle in favour of young men, of this subject?” A company of stern readers dislike the second of the Aeneids, and Virgil's gravity, for inserting such amorous passions in an heroical subject; but 4421Servius, his commentator, justly vindicates the poet's worth, wisdom, and discretion in doing as he did. Castalio would not have young men read the 4422 Canticles, because to his thinking it was too light and amorous a tract, a ballad of ballads, as our old English translation hath it. He might as well forbid the reading of Genesis, because of the loves of Jacob and Rachael, the stories of Sichem and Dinah, Judah and Thamar; reject the Book of Numbers, for the fornications of the people of Israel with the Moabites; that of Judges for Samson and Dalilah's embracings; that of the Kings, for David and Bersheba's adulteries, the incest of Ammon and Thamar, Solomon's concubines, &c. The stories of Esther, Judith, Susanna, and many such. Dicearchus, and some other, carp at Plato's majesty, that he would vouchsafe to indite such love toys: amongst the rest, for that dalliance with Agatho,

Suavia dans Agathoni, animam ipse in labra tenebam;
Aegra etenim properans tanquam abitura fuit.

For my part, saith 4423Maximus Tyrius, a great Platonist himself, me non tantum admiratio habet, sed eliam stupor, I do not only admire, but stand amazed to read, that Plato and Socrates both should expel Homer from their city, because he writ of such light and wanton subjects, Quod Junonem cum Jove in Ida concumbentes inducit, ab immortali nube contectos, Vulcan's net. Mars and Venus' fopperies before all the gods, because Apollo fled, when he was persecuted by Achilles, the 4424gods were wounded and ran whining away, as Mars that roared louder than Stentor, and covered nine acres of ground with his fall; Vulcan was a summer's day falling down from heaven, and in Lemnos Isle brake his leg, &c., with such ridiculous passages; when, as both Socrates and Plato, by his testimony, writ lighter themselves: quid enim tam distat (as he follows it) quam amans a temperante, formarum admirator a demente, what can be more absurd than for grave philosophers to treat of such fooleries, to admire Autiloquus, Alcibiades, for their beauties as they did, to run after, to gaze, to dote on fair Phaedrus, delicate Agatho, young Lysis, fine Charmides, haeccine Philosophum decent? Doth this become grave philosophers? Thus peradventure Callias, Thrasimachus, Polus, Aristophanes, or some of his adversaries and emulators might object; but neither they nor 4425Anytus and Melitus his bitter enemies, that condemned him for teaching Critias to tyrannise, his impiety for swearing by dogs and plain trees, for his juggling sophistry, &c., never so much as upbraided him with impure love, writing or speaking of that subject; and therefore without question, as he concludes, both Socrates and Plato in this are justly to be excused. But suppose they had been a little overseen, should divine Plato be defamed? no, rather as he said of Cato's drunkenness, if Cato were drunk, it should be no vice at all to be drunk. They reprove Plato then, but without cause (as 4426Ficinus pleads) “for all love is honest and good, and they are worthy to be loved that speak well of love.” Being to speak of this admirable affection of love (saith 4427Valleriola) “there lies open a vast and philosophical field to my discourse, by which many lovers become mad; let me leave my more serious meditations, wander in these philosophical fields, and look into those pleasant groves of the Muses, where with unspeakable variety of flowers, we may make garlands to ourselves, not to adorn us only, but with their pleasant smell and juice to nourish our souls, and fill our minds desirous of knowledge,” &c. After a harsh and unpleasing discourse of melancholy, which hath hitherto molested your patience, and tired the author, give him leave with 4428Godefridus the lawyer, and Laurentius (cap. 5.) to recreate himself in this kind after his laborious studies, “since so many grave divines and worthy men have without offence to manners, to help themselves and others, voluntarily written of it.” Heliodorus, a bishop, penned a love story of Theagines and Chariclea, and when some Catos of his time reprehended him for it, chose rather, saith 4429Nicephorus, to leave his bishopric than his book. Aeneas Sylvius, an ancient divine, and past forty years of age, (as 4430he confesseth himself, after Pope Pius Secundus) indited that wanton history of Euryalus and Lucretia. And how many superintendents of learning could I reckon up that have written of light fantastical subjects? Beroaldus, Erasmus, Alpheratius, twenty-four times printed in Spanish, &c. Give me leave then to refresh my muse a little, and my weary readers, to expatiate in this delightsome field, hoc deliciarum campo, as Fonseca terms it, to 4431 season a surly discourse with a more pleasing aspersion of love matters: Edulcare vitam convenit, as the poet invites us, curas nugis, &c., 'tis good to sweeten our life with some pleasing toys to relish it, and as Pliny tells us, magna pars studiosorum amaenitates quaerimus, most of our students love such pleasant 4432subjects. Though Macrobius teach us otherwise, 4433“that those old sages banished all such light tracts from their studies, to nurse's cradles, to please only the ear;” yet out of Apuleius I will oppose as honourable patrons, Solon, Plato, 4434 Xenophon, Adrian, &c. that as highly approve of these treatises. On the other side methinks they are not to be disliked, they are not so unfit. I will not peremptorily say as one did 4435tam suavia dicam facinora, ut male sit ei qui talibus non delectetur, I will tell you such pretty stories, that foul befall him that is not pleased with them; Neque dicam ea quae vobis usui sit audivisse, et voluptati meminisse, with that confidence, as Beroaldus doth his enarrations on Propertius. I will not expert or hope for that approbation, which Lipsius gives to his Epictetus; pluris facio quum relego; semper ut novum, et quum repetivi, repetendum, the more I read, the more shall I covet to read. I will not press you with my pamphlets, or beg attention, but if you like them you may. Pliny holds it expedient, and most fit, severitatem jucunditate etiam in scriptis condire, to season our works with some pleasant discourse; Synesius approves it, licet in ludicris ludere, the 4436poet admires it, Omne tulit punctum qui miscuit utile dulci; and there be those, without question, that are more willing to read such toys, than 4437I am to write: “Let me not live,” saith Aretine's Antonia, “If I had not rather hear thy discourse, 4438than see a play?” No doubt but there be more of her mind, ever have been, ever will be, as 4439Hierome bears me witness. A far greater part had rather read Apuleius than Plato: Tully himself confesseth he could not understand Plato's Timaeus, and therefore cared less for it: but every schoolboy hath that famous testament of Grunnius Corocotta Porcellus at his fingers' ends. The comical poet,

4440 ——— Id sibi negoti credidit solum dari,

Populo ut placrent, quas fecissit fabulas,

made this his only care and sole study to please the people, tickle the ear, and to delight; but mine earnest intent is as much to profit as to please; non tam ut populo placerem, quam ut populum juvarem, and these my writings, I hope, shall take like gilded pills, which are so composed as well to tempt the appetite, and deceive the palate, as to help and medicinally work upon the whole body; my lines shall not only recreate, but rectify the mind. I think I have said enough; if not, let him that is otherwise minded, remember that of 4441Maudarensis, “he was in his life a philosopher” (as Ausonius apologiseth for him), “in his epigrams a lover, in his precepts most severe; in his epistle to Caerellia, a wanton.” Annianus, Sulpicius, Evemus, Menander, and many old poets besides, did in scriptis prurire, write Fescennines, Atellans, and lascivious songs; laetam materiam; yet they had in moribus censuram, et severitatem, they were chaste, severe, and upright livers.

4442Castum esse decet pium poetam

Ipsum, versiculos nihil necesse est,

Qui tum denique habent salem et leporem.

I am of Catullus' opinion, and make the same apology in mine own behalf; Hoc etiam quod scribo, pendet plerumque ex aliorum sententia et auctoritate; nec ipse forsan insanio, sed insanientes sequor. Atqui detur hoc insanire me; Semel insanivimus omnes, et tute ipse opinor insanis aliquando, et is, et ille, et ego, scilicet.4443 Homo sum, humani a me nihil alienum puto:4444 And which he urgeth for himself, accused of the like fault, I as justly plead, 4445lasciva est nobis pagina, vita proba est. Howsoever my lines err, my life is honest, 4446vita verecunda est, musa jocosa mihi. But I presume I need no such apologies, I need not, as Socrates in Plato, cover his face when he spake of love, or blush and hide mine eyes, as Pallas did in her hood, when she was consulted by Jupiter about Mercury's marriage, quod, super nuptiis virgo consulitur, it is no such lascivious, obscene, or wanton discourse; I have not offended your chaster ears with anything that is here written, as many French and Italian authors in their modern language of late have done, nay some of our Latin pontificial writers, Zanches, Asorius, Abulensis, Burchardus, &c., whom 4447Rivet accuseth to be more lascivious than Virgil in Priapeiis, Petronius in Catalectis, Aristophanes in Lycistratae, Martialis, or any other pagan profane writer, qui tam atrociter (4448one notes) hoc genere peccarunt ut multa ingeniosissime scripta obscaenitatum gratia castae mentes abhorreant. 'Tis not scurrile this, but chaste, honest, most part serious, and even of religion itself. 4449“Incensed” (as he said) “with the love of finding love, we have sought it, and found it.” More yet, I have augmented and added something to this light treatise (if light) which was not in the former editions, I am not ashamed to confess it, with a good 4450author, quod extendi et locupletari hoc subjectum plerique postulabant, et eorum importunitate victus, animum utcunque renitentem eo adegi, ut jam sexta vice calamum in manum sumerem, scriptionique longe et a studiis et professione mea alienae, me accingerem, horas aliquas a seriis meis occupationibus interim suffuratus, easque veluti ludo cuidam ac recreationi destinans;

4451Cogor ——— retrorsum

Vela dare, atque literare cursus

Olim relictos ———

etsi non ignorarem novos fortasse detractores novis hisce interpolationibus meis minime defuturos. 4452

And thus much I have thought good to say by way of preface, lest any man (which 4453Godefridus feared in his book) should blame in me lightness, wantonness, rashness, in speaking of love's causes, enticements, symptoms, remedies, lawful and unlawful loves, and lust itself, 4454I speak it only to tax and deter others from it, not to teach, but to show the vanities and fopperies of this heroical or Herculean love,4455and to apply remedies unto it. I will treat of this with like liberty as of the rest.

4456Sed dicam vobis, vos porro dicite multis

Millibus, et facite haec charta loquatur anus.

Condemn me not good reader then, or censure me hardly, if some part of this treatise to thy thinking as yet be too light; but consider better of it; Omnia munda mundis, 4457a naked man to a modest woman is no otherwise than a picture, as Augusta Livia truly said, and 4458mala mens, malus animus, 'tis as 'tis taken. If in thy censure it be too light, I advise thee as Lipsius did his reader for some places of Plautus, istos quasi Sirenum scopulos praetervehare, if they like thee not, let them pass; or oppose that which is good to that which is bad, and reject not therefore all. For to invert that verse of Martial, and with Hierom Wolfius to apply it to my present purpose, sunt mala, sunt quaedam mediocria, sunt bona plura; some is good, some bad, some is indifferent. I say further with him yet, I have inserted (4459levicula quaedam et ridicula ascribere non sum gravatus, circumforanea quaedam e theatris, e plateis, etiam e popinis) some things more homely, light, or comical, litans gratiis, &c. which I would request every man to interpret to the best, and as Julius Caesar Scaliger besought Cardan (si quid urbaniuscule lusum a nobis, per deos immortales te oro Hieronyme Cardane ne me male capias). I beseech thee, good reader, not to mistake me, or misconstrue what is here written; Per Musas et Charites, et omnia Poetarum numina, benigne lector, oro te ne me male capias. 'Tis a comical subject; in sober sadness I crave pardon of what is amiss, and desire thee to suspend thy judgment, wink at small faults, or to be silent at least; but if thou likest, speak well of it, and wish me good success. Extremum hunc Arethusa mihi concede laborem.4460

I am resolved howsoever, velis, nolis, audacter stadium intrare, in the Olympics, with those Aeliensian wrestlers in Philostratus, boldly to show myself in this common stage, and in this tragicomedy of love, to act several parts, some satirically, some comically, some in a mixed tone, as the subject I have in hand gives occasion, and present scene shall require, or offer itself.

4414. Encom. Moriae leviores esse nugas quam ut Theologum deceant.

4415. Lib. 8. Eloquent, cap 14. de affectibus mortalium vitio fit qui praeclara quaeque in pravos usus vertunt.

4416. Quoties de amatoriis mentio facta est, tam vehementer excandui; tam severa tristitia violari aures meas obsceno sermone nolui, ut me tanquam unam ex Philosophis intuerentur.

4417. Martial. “In Brutus' presence Lucretia blushed and laid my book aside; when he retired, she took it up again and read.”

4418. Lib. 4. of civil conversation.

4419. Si male locata est opera scribendo, ne ipsi locent in legendo.

4420. Med. epist. l. 1. ep. 14. Cadmus Milesius teste Suida. de hoc Erotico Amore. 14. libros scripsit nec me pigebit in gratiam adolescentum hanc scribere epistolam.

4421. Comment. in 2. Aeneid.

4422. Meros amores meram impudicitiam sonare videtur nisi, &c.

4423. Ser. 8.

4424. Quod risum et eorum amores commemoret.

4425. Quum multa ei objecissent quod Critiam tyrannidem docuisset, quod Platonem juraret loquacem sophistem, &c. accusationem amoris nullam fecerunt. Ideoque honestus amor, &c.

4426. Carpunt alii Platonicam majestatem quod amori nimium indulserit, Dicearchus et alii; sed male. Omnis amor honestus et bonus, et amore digni qui bene dicunt de Amore.

4427. Med. obser. lib. 2. cap. 7. de admirando amoris affectu dicturus; ingens patet campus ei philosophicus, quo saepe homines ducuntur ad insaniam, libeat modo vagari, &c. Quae non ornent modo, sed fragrantia et succulentia jucunda plenius alant, &c.

4428. Lib. 1. praefat. de amoribus agens relaxandi animi causa laboriosissimis studiis fatigati; quando et Theologi se his juvari et juvare illaesis moribus volunt?

4429. Hist. lib. 12. cap. 34.

4430. Praefat. quid quadragenario convenit cum amore? Ego vero agnosco amatorium scriptum mihi non convenire: qui jam meridiem praetergressus in vesperem feror. Aeneas Sylvius praefat.

4431. Ut severiora studia iis amaenitatibus lector condire possit. Accius.

4432. Discum quam philosophum audire malunt.

4433. In Som. Sip. e sacrario suo tum ad cunas nutricum sapientes eliminarunt, solas aurium delitias profitentes.

4434. Babylonius et Ephesius, qui de Amore scripserunt, uterque amores Myrrhae, Cyrenes, et Adonidis. Suidas.

4435. Pet. Aretine dial. Ital.

4436. Hor. “He has accomplished every point who has joined the useful to the agreeable.”

4437. Legendi cupidiores, quam ego scribendi, saith Lucian.

4438. Plus capio voluptatis inde, quam spectandis in theatro ludis.

4439. Prooemio in Isaim. Multo major pars Milesias fabulas revolventium quam Platonis libros.

4440. “This he took to be his only business, that the plays which he wrote should please the people.”

4441. In vita philosophus, in Epigram, amator, in Epistolis petulanus, in praeceptis severus.

4442. “The poet himself should be chaste and pious, but his verses need not imitate him in these respects; they may therefore contain wit and humour.”

4443. “This that I write depends sometimes upon the opinion and authority of others: nor perhaps am I frantic, I only follow madmen: But thus far I may be deranged: we have all been so at some one time, and yourself, I think, art sometimes insane, and this man, and that man, and I also.”

4444. “I am mortal, and think no humane action unsuited to me.”

4445. Mart.

4446. Ovid.

4447. Isago. ad sac. scrip. cap. 13.

4448. Barthius notis in Coelestinam, ludum Hisp.

4449. Ficinus Comment. c. 17. Amore incensi inveniendi amoris, aniorem quaesivimus et invenimus.

4450. Author Coelestinae Barth. interprete. “That, overcome by the solicitations of friends, who requested me to enlarge and improve my volumes, I have devoted my otherwise reluctant mind to the labour; and now for the sixth time have I taken up my pen, and applied myself to literature very foreign indeed to my studies and professional occupations, stealing a few hours from serious pursuits, and devoting them, as it were, to recreation.”

4451. Hor. lib. 1. Ode 34. “I am compelled to reverse my sails, and retrace my former course.”

4452. “Although I was by no means ignorant that new calumniators would not be wanting to censure my new introductions.”

4453. Haec praedixi ne quis temere nos putaret scripsisse de amorum lenociniis, de praxi, fornicationibus, adulteriis, &c.

4454. Taxando et ab his deterrendo humanam lasciviam et insaniam, sed et remedia docendo: non igitur candidus lector nobis succenseat, &c. Commonitio erit juvenibus haec, hisce ut abstineant magis, et omissa lascivia quae homines reddit insanos, virtutis incumbant studiis (Aeneas Sylv.) et curam amoris si quis nescit hinc poterit scire.

4455. Martianus Capella lib. 1. de nupt. philol. virginali suffusa rubore oculos peplo obnubens, &c.

4456. Catullus. “What I tell you, do you tell to the multitude, and make this treatise gossip like an old woman.”

4457. Viros nudos castae feminae nihil a statuis distare.

4458. Hony soit qui mal y pense.

4459. Praef. Suid.

4460. “O Arethusa smile on this my last labour.”

Subsect. ii.

Love's Beginning, Object, Definition, Division.

“Love's limits are ample and great, and a spacious walk it hath, beset with thorns,” and for that cause, which 4461Scaliger reprehends in Cardan, “not lightly to be passed over.” Lest I incur the same censure, 1 will examine all the kinds of love, his nature, beginning, difference, objects, how it is honest or dishonest, a virtue or vice, a natural passion, or a disease, his power and effects, how far it extends: of which, although something has been said in the first partition, in those sections of perturbations (4462 “for love and hatred are the first and most common passions, from which all the rest arise, and are attendant,” as Picolomineus holds, or as Nich. Caussinus, the primum mobile of all other affections, which carry them all about them) I will now more copiously dilate, through all his parts and several branches, that so it may better appear what love is, and how it varies with the objects, how in defect, or (which is most ordinary and common) immoderate, and in excess, causeth melancholy.

Love universally taken, is defined to be a desire, as a word of more ample signification: and though Leon Hebreus, the most copious writer of this subject, in his third dialogue make no difference, yet in his first he distinguisheth them again, and defines love by desire. 4463“Love is a voluntary affection, and desire to enjoy that which is good. 4464Desire wisheth, love enjoys; the end of the one is the beginning of the other; that which we love is present; that which we desire is absent.” 4465“It is worth the labour,” saith Plotinus, “to consider well of love, whether it be a god or a devil, or passion of the mind, or partly god, partly devil, partly passion.” He concludes love to participate of all three, to arise from desire of that which is beautiful and fair, and defines it to be “an action of the mind desiring that which is good.” 4466Plato calls it the great devil, for its vehemency, and sovereignty over all other passions, and defines it an appetite, 4467“by which we desire some good to be present.” Ficinus in his comment adds the word fair to this definition. Love is a desire of enjoying that which is good and fair. Austin dilates this common definition, and will have love to be a delectation of the heart, 4468“for something which we seek to win, or joy to have, coveting by desire, resting in joy.” 4469Scaliger exerc. 301. taxeth these former definitions, and will not have love to be defined by desire or appetite; “for when we enjoy the things we desire, there remains no more appetite:” as he defines it, “Love is an affection by which we are either united to the thing we love, or perpetuate our union;” which agrees in part with Leon Hebreus.

Now this love varies as its object varies, which is always good, amiable, fair, gracious, and pleasant. 4470“All things desire that which is good,” as we are taught in the Ethics, or at least that which to them seems to be good; quid enim vis mali (as Austin well infers) dic mihi? puto nihil in omnibus actionibus; thou wilt wish no harm, I suppose, no ill in all thine actions, thoughts or desires, nihil mali vis; 4471thou wilt not have bad corn, bad soil, a naughty tree, but all good; a good servant, a good horse, a good son, a good friend, a good neighbour, a good wife. From this goodness comes beauty; from beauty, grace, and comeliness, which result as so many rays from their good parts, make us to love, and so to covet it: for were it not pleasing and gracious in our eyes, we should not seek. 4472“No man loves” (saith Aristotle 9. mor. cap. 5.) “but he that was first delighted with comeliness and beauty.” As this fair object varies, so doth our love; for as Proclus holds, Omne pulchrum amabile, every fair thing is amiable, and what we love is fair and gracious in our eyes, or at least we do so apprehend and still esteem of it. 4473 “Amiableness is the object of love, the scope and end is to obtain it, for whose sake we love, and which our mind covets to enjoy.” And it seems to us especially fair and good; for good, fair, and unity, cannot be separated. Beauty shines, Plato saith, and by reason of its splendour and shining causeth admiration; and the fairer the object is, the more eagerly it is sought. For as the same Plato defines it, 4474“Beauty is a lively, shining or glittering brightness, resulting from effused good, by ideas, seeds, reasons, shadows, stirring up our minds, that by this good they may be united and made one.” Others will have beauty to be the perfection of the whole composition, 4475“caused out of the congruous symmetry, measure, order and manner of parts, and that comeliness which proceeds from this beauty is called grace, and from thence all fair things are gracious.” For grace and beauty are so wonderfully annexed, 4476“so sweetly and gently win our souls, and strongly allure, that they confound our judgment and cannot be distinguished. Beauty and grace are like those beams and shinings that come from the glorious and divine sun,” which are diverse, as they proceed from the diverse objects, to please and affect our several senses. 4477“As the species of beauty are taken at our eyes, ears, or conceived in our inner soul,” as Plato disputes at large in his Dialogue de pulchro, Phaedro, Hyppias, and after many sophistical errors confuted, concludes that beauty is a grace in all things, delighting the eyes, ears, and soul itself; so that, as Valesius infers hence, whatsoever pleaseth our ears, eyes, and soul, must needs be beautiful, fair, and delightsome to us. 4478“And nothing can more please our ears than music, or pacify our minds.” Fair houses, pictures, orchards, gardens, fields, a fair hawk, a fair horse is most acceptable unto us; whatsoever pleaseth our eyes and ears, we call beautiful and fair; 4479“Pleasure belongeth to the rest of the senses, but grace and beauty to these two alone.” As the objects vary and are diverse, so they diversely affect our eyes, ears, and soul itself. Which gives occasion to some to make so many several kinds of love as there be objects. One beauty ariseth from God, of which and divine love S. Dionysius, 4480with many fathers and neoterics, have written just volumes, De amore Dei, as they term it, many paraenetical discourses; another from his creatures; there is a beauty of the body, a beauty of the soul, a beauty from virtue, formam martyrum, Austin calls it, quam videmus oculis animi, which we see with the eyes of our mind; which beauty, as Tully saith, if we could discern with these corporeal eyes, admirabili sui amores excitaret, would cause admirable affections, and ravish our souls. This other beauty which ariseth from those extreme parts, and graces which proceed from gestures, speeches, several motions, and proportions of creatures, men and women (especially from women, which made those old poets put the three graces still in Venus' company, as attending on her, and holding up her train) are infinite almost, and vary their names with their objects, as love of money, covetousness, love of beauty, lust, immoderate desire of any pleasure, concupiscence, friendship, love, goodwill, &c. and is either virtue or vice, honest, dishonest, in excess, defect, as shall be showed in his place. Heroical love, religious love, &c. which may be reduced to a twofold division, according to the principal parts which are affected, the brain and liver. Amor et amicitia, which Scaliger exercitat. 301. Valesius and Melancthon warrant out of Plato Φιλεῖν and ἐρᾶν from that speech of Pausanias belike, that makes two Veneres and two loves. 4481“One Venus is ancient without a mother, and descended from heaven, whom we call celestial; the younger, begotten of Jupiter and Dione, whom commonly we call Venus.” Ficinus, in his comment upon this place, cap. 8. following Plato, calls these two loves, two devils, 4482or good and bad angels according to us, which are still hovering about our souls. 4483“The one rears to heaven, the other depresseth us to hell; the one good, which stirs us up to the contemplation of that divine beauty for whose sake we perform justice and all godly offices, study philosophy, &c.; the other base, and though bad yet to be respected; for indeed both are good in their own natures: procreation of children is as necessary as that finding out of truth, but therefore called bad, because it is abused, and withdraws our souls from the speculation of that other to viler objects,” so far Ficinus. S. Austin, lib. 15. de civ. Dei et sup. Psal. lxiv., hath delivered as much in effect. 4484“Every creature is good, and may be loved well or ill:” and 4485“Two cities make two loves, Jerusalem and Babylon, the love of God the one, the love of the world the other; of these two cities we all are citizens, as by examination of ourselves we may soon find, and of which.” The one love is the root of all mischief, the other of all good. So, in his 15. cap. lib. de amor. Ecclesiae, he will have those four cardinal virtues to be nought else but love rightly composed; in his 15. book de civ. Dei, cap. 22. he calls virtue the order of love, whom Thomas following 1. part. 2. quaest. 55. art. 1. and quaest. 56. 3. quaest. 62. art. 2. confirms as much, and amplifies in many words. 4486Lucian, to the same purpose, hath a division of his own, “One love was born in the sea, which is as various and raging in young men's breasts as the sea itself, and causeth burning lust: the other is that golden chain which was let down from heaven, and with a divine fury ravisheth our souls, made to the image of God, and stirs us up to comprehend the innate and incorruptible beauty to which we were once created.” Beroaldus hath expressed all this in an epigram of his:

Dogmata divini memorant si vera Platonis,

Sunt geminae Veneres, et geminatus amor.

Coelestis Venus est nullo generata parente,

Quae casto sanctos nectit amore viros.

Altera sed Venus est totum vulgata per orbem,

Quae divum mentes alligat, atque hominum;

Improba, seductrix, petulans, &c.

If divine Plato's tenets they be true,

Two Veneres, two loves there be,

The one from heaven, unbegotten still,

Which knits our souls in unity.

The other famous over all the world,

Binding the hearts of gods and men;

Dishonest, wanton, and seducing she,

Rules whom she will, both where and when.

This twofold division of love, Origen likewise follows, in his Comment on the Canticles, one from God, the other from the devil, as he holds (understanding it in the worse sense) which many others repeat and imitate. Both which (to omit all subdivisions) in excess or defect, as they are abused, or degenerate, cause melancholy in a particular kind, as shall be shown in his place. Austin, in another Tract, makes a threefold division of this love, which we may use well or ill: 4487“God, our neighbour, and the world: God above us, our neighbour next us, the world beneath us. In the course of our desires, God hath three things, the world one, our neighbour two. Our desire to God, is either from God, with God, or to God, and ordinarily so runs. From God, when it receives from him, whence, and for which it should love him: with God, when it contradicts his will in nothing: to God, when it seeks to him, and rests itself in him. Our love to our neighbour may proceed from him, and run with him, not to him: from him, as when we rejoice of his good safety, and well doing: with him, when we desire to have him a fellow and companion of our journey in the way of the Lord: not in him, because there is no aid, hope, or confidence in man. From the world our love comes, when we begin to admire the Creator in his works, and glorify God in his creatures: with the world it should run, if, according to the mutability of all temporalities, it should be dejected in adversity, or over elevated in prosperity: to the world, if it would settle itself in its vain delights and studies.” Many such partitions of love I could repeat, and subdivisions, but least (which Scaliger objects to Cardan, Exercitat. 501.) 4488“I confound filthy burning lust with pure and divine love,” I will follow that accurate division of Leon Hebreus, dial. 2. betwixt Sophia and Philo, where he speaks of natural, sensible, and rational love, and handleth each apart. Natural love or hatred, is that sympathy or antipathy which is to be seen in animate and inanimate creatures, in the four elements, metals, stones, gravia tendunt deorsum, as a stone to his centre, fire upward, and rivers to the sea. The sun, moon, and stars go still around, 4489Amantes naturae, debita exercere, for love of perfection. This love is manifest, I say, in inanimate creatures. How comes a loadstone to draw iron to it? jet chaff? the ground to covet showers, but for love? No creature, S. Hierom concludes, is to be found, quod non aliquid amat, no stock, no stone, that hath not some feeling of love, 'Tis more eminent in plants, herbs, and is especially observed in vegetables; as between the vine and elm a great sympathy, between the vine and the cabbage, between the vine and the olive, 4490 Virgo fugit Bromium, between the vine and bays a great antipathy, the vine loves not the bay, 4491“nor his smell, and will kill him, if he grow near him;” the bur and the lentil cannot endure one another, the olive 4492and the myrtle embrace each other, in roots and branches if they grow near. Read more of this in Picolomineus grad. 7. cap. 1. Crescentius lib. 5. de agric. Baptista Porta de mag. lib. 1. cap. de plant. dodio et element. sym. Fracastorius de sym. et antip. of the love and hatred of planets, consult with every astrologer. Leon Hebreus gives many fabulous reasons, and moraliseth them withal.

Sensible love is that of brute beasts, of which the same Leon Hebreus dial. 2. assigns these causes. First for the pleasure they take in the act of generation, male and female love one another. Secondly, for the preservation of the species, and desire of young brood. Thirdly, for the mutual agreement, as being of the same kind: Sus sui, canis cani, bos bovi, et asinus asino pulcherrimus videtur, as Epicharmus held, and according to that adage of Diogenianus, Adsidet usque graculus apud graculum, they much delight in one another's company, 4493Formicae grata est formica, cicada cicadae, and birds of a feather will gather together. Fourthly, for custom, use, and familiarity, as if a dog be trained up with a lion and a bear, contrary to their natures, they will love each other. Hawks, dogs, horses, love their masters and keepers: many stories I could relate in this kind, but see Gillius de hist. anim. lib. 3. cap. 14. those two Epistles of Lipsius, of dogs and horses, Agellius, &c. Fifthly, for bringing up, as if a bitch bring up a kid, a hen ducklings, a hedge-sparrow a cuckoo, &c.

The third kind is Amor cognitionis, as Leon calls it, rational love, Intellectivus amor, and is proper to men, on which I must insist. This appears in God, angels, men. God is love itself, the fountain of love, the disciple of love, as Plato styles him; the servant of peace, the God of love and peace; have peace with all men and God is with you.

4494 ——— Quisquis veneratur Olympum,

Ipse sibi mundum subjicit atque Deum.

4495“By this love” (saith Gerson) “we purchase heaven,” and buy the kingdom of God. This 4496love is either in the Trinity itself (for the Holy Ghost is the love of the Father and the Son, &c. John iii. 35, and v. 20, and xiv. 31), or towards us his creatures, as in making the world. Amor mundum fecit, love built cities, mundi anima, invented arts, sciences, and all 4497good things, incites us to virtue and humanity, combines and quickens; keeps peace on earth, quietness by sea, mirth in the winds and elements, expels all fear, anger, and rusticity; Circulus a bono in bonum, a round circle still from good to good; for love is the beginner and end of all our actions, the efficient and instrumental cause, as our poets in their symbols, impresses, 4498emblems of rings, squares, &c., shadow unto us,

Si rerum quaeris fuerit quis finis et ortus,

Desine; nam causa est unica solus amor.

If first and last of anything you wit,

Cease; love's the sole and only cause of it.

Love, saith 4499Leo, made the world, and afterwards in redeeming of it, “God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten son for it,” John iii. 16. “Behold what love the Father hath showed on us, that we should be called the sons of God,” 1 John iii. 1. Or by His sweet Providence, in protecting of it; either all in general, or His saints elect and church in particular, whom He keeps as the apple of His eye, whom He loves freely, as Hosea xiv. 5. speaks, and dearly respects, 4500Charior est ipsis homo quam sibi. Not that we are fair, nor for any merit or grace of ours, for we are most vile and base; but out of His incomparable love and goodness, out of His Divine Nature. And this is that Homer's golden chain, which reacheth down from heaven to earth, by which every creature is annexed, and depends on his Creator. He made all, saith 4501Moses, “and it was good;” He loves it as good.

The love of angels and living souls is mutual amongst themselves, towards us militant in the church, and all such as love God; as the sunbeams irradiate the earth from those celestial thrones, they by their well wishes reflect on us, 4502in salute hominum promovenda alacres, et constantes administri, there is joy in heaven for every sinner that repenteth; they pray for us, are solicitous for our good, 4503Casti genii.

4504Ubi regnat charitas, suave desiderium,

Laetitiaque et amor Deo conjunctus.

Love proper to mortal men is the third member of this subdivision, and the subject of my following discourse.

4461. Exerc. 301. Campus amoris maximus et spinis obsitus, nec levissimo pede transvolandus.

4462. Grad. 1. cap. 29. Ex Platone, primae et communissimae perturbationes ex quibus ceterae oriuntur et earum sunt pedissequae.

4463. Amor est voluntarius affectus et desiderium re bona fruendi.

4464. Desiderium optantis, amor eorum quibus fruimur; amoris principium, desiderii finis, amatum adest.

4465. Principio l. de amore. Operae pretium est de amore considerare, utrum Deus, an Daemon, an passio quaedam animae, an partim Deus, partim Daemon, passio partim, &c. Amor est aetus animi bonum desiderans.

4466. Magnus Daemon convivio.

4467. Boni pulchrique fruendi desiderium.

4468. Godefridus, l. 1. cap. 2 Amor est delectatio cordis, alicujus ad aliquid, propter aliquod desiderium in appertendo, et gaudium perfruendo per desiderium currens, requiescens per gaudium.

4469. Non est amor desiderium aut appetitus ut ab omnibus hactenus traditim; nam cum potimur amata re, non manet appetitus; est igitur affectus quo cum re amata aut unimur, aut unionem perpetuamus.

4470. Omnia appetunt bonum.

4471. Terram non vis malam, malam segetem, sed bonam arborem, equum bonum, &c.

4472. Nemo amore capitur nisi qui fuerit ante forma specieque delectatus.

4473. Amabile objectum amoris et scopus, cujus adeptio est finis, cujus gratia amamus. Animus enim aspirat ut eo fruator, et formam boni habet et praecipue videtur et placet. Picolomineus, grad. 7. cap. 2. et grad. 8. cap. 35.

4474. Forma est vitalis fulgor ex ipso bono manans per ideas, semina, rationes, umbras effusus, animos excitans ut per bonum in unum redigantur.

4475. Pulchritudo est perfectio compositi ex congruente ordine, mensura et ratione partium consurgens, et venustas inde prodiens gratia dicitur et res omnes pulchrae gratiosae.

4476. Gratia et pulchritudo ita suaviter animos demulcent, ita vehementer alluciunt, et admirabiliter connectuntur, ut in inum confundant et distingui non possunt et sunt tanquam radii et splendores divini solis in rebus variis vario modo fulgentes.

4477. Species pulchrituninis hauriuntur oculis, auribus, aut concipiuntur interna mente.

4478. Nihil hine magis animos conciliat quam musica, pulchrae, aedes, &c.

4479. In reliquis sensibus voluptas, in his pulchritudo et gratia.

4480. Lib. 4. de divinis. Convivio Platonis.

4481. Duae Veneres duo amores; quarum una antiquior et sine matre, coelo nata, quam coelestem Venerem nuncupamus; altera vero junior a Jove et Dione prognata, quam vulgarem Venerem vocamus.

4482. Alter ad superna erigit, alter deprimit ad inferna.

4483. Alter excitat hominem ad divinam pulchritudinem lustrandam, cujus causa philosophiae studia et justitiae, &c.

4484. Omnis creatura cum bona sit, et bene amari potest et male.

4485. Duas civitates duo faciunt amores; Jerusalem facit amor Dei, Babylonem amor saeculi; unusquisque se quid amet interroget, et inveniet unde sit civis.

4486. Alter mari ortus, ferox, varius, fluctuans, inanis, juvenum, mare referens, &c. Alter aurea catena coelo demissa bonum furorem mentibus mittens, &c.

4487. Tria sunt, quae amari a nobis bene vel male possunt; Deus, proximus, mundus; Deus supra nos; juxta nos proximus; infra nos mundus. Tria Deus, duo proximus, unum mundus habet, &c.

4488. Ne confundam vesanos et foedos amores beatis, sceleratum cum puro divino et vero, &c.

4489. Fonseca cap. 1. Amor ex Augustini forsan lib. 11. de Civit. Dei. Amore inconcussus stat mundus, &c.

4490. Alciat.

4491. Porta Vitis laurum non amat, nec ejus odorem; si prope crescat, enecat. Lappus lenti adversatur.

4492. Sympathia olei et myrti ramorum et radicum se complectentium. Mizaldus secret. cent. l. 47.

4493. Theocritus. eidyll. 9.

4494. Mantuan.

4495. Charitas munifica, qua mercamur de Deo regnum Dei.

4496. Polanus partit. Zanchius de natura Dei, c. 3. copiose de hoc amore Dei agit.

4497. Nich. Bellus, discurs. 28. de amatoribus, virtutem provocat, conservat pacem in terra, tranquillitatem in aere, ventis laetitiam, &c.

4498. Camerarius Emb. 100. cen. 2.

4499. Dial. 3.

4500. Juven.

4501. Gen. 1.

4502. Caussinus.

4503. Theodoret e Plotino.

4504. “Where charity prevails, sweet desire, joy, and love towards God are also present.”

Last updated Sunday, March 27, 2016 at 11:52