Archimedes, c. 287 – c. 212 BCE
Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Among his advances in physics are the foundations of hydrostatics, statics and the explanation of the principle of the lever. He is credited with designing innovative machines, including siege engines and the screw pump that bears his name.
- Geometrical Solutions Derived from Mechanics: A Treatise of Archimedes / translated from the Greek by Dr. J. L. Heiberg; with an introduction by David Eugene Smith
- The works of Archimedes / edited in modern notation,
with introductory chapters, by T.L. Heath 
- Introduction: I. Archimedes. II. Manuscripts and principal editions, order of composition, dialect, lost works. III. Relation of Archimedes to his predecessors. IV. Arithmetic in Archimedes. V. On the problems known as [neuseis] VI. Cubic equations. VII. Anticipations by Archimedes of the integral calculus. VIII. The terminology of Archimedes.
- Works: On the sphere and cylinder, books I-II. Measurement of a circle. On conoids and spheroids. On spirals. On the equilibrium of planes, books I-II. The sand-reckoner. Quadrature of the parabola. On floating bodies, books I-II. Book of lemmas. The cattle-problem