The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo

Appendices.

List of Mss. Of Marco Polo’s Book So Far as They are Known.21

21 See The Book of Ser Marco Polo, Vol. II., pp. 530 seq.

II., p. 533.

GLASGOW, Hunterian Museum.22 No. 84, vellum, 4to, Cent. XV.: 1. Guido de Colonna’s Destruction of Troy. 2. Julius Valerius’ History of Alexander the Great. 3. Archbishop Turpin’s Itinerary. 4. Marco Polo.

Begins (25, 5 [f. 191 (197) r’o, lines 1–3): ¶ [blue] Incipit liber domini marci Pauli de Venecijs | de condicionibus et consuetudinibus orientalium regionum [rubric] L [small illuminated initial] Ibrum prudentis honorabilis ac fidelissimi domini marci.

Ends (33, 3 [f. 253 (259) r’o, lines 8–12): girfalci et herodij qui inde postmodum ad diuersas prouincias | et regiones deferuntur et cetera. ¶ [blue] Explicit liber domini marci Pauli | de Venecijs de diuisionibus et consue — | tudinibus orientalium regionum [Pipino’s Version].

5. Frater Odoricus Forojuliensis.

6. Iohannis Mandeville, De Mirabilibus.

22 Pages 89, 90 of A Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of the Hunterian Museum in the University of Glasgow planned and begun by the late John Young . . . continued and completed under the direction of the Young Memorial Committee by P. Henderson Aitken. . . . Glasgow, James Maclehose and Sons, 1908, gr. in — 4.

II., p. 533.

GLASGOW, Hunterian Museum, Cent. XIV.23 No. 458, vellum, 4to. 1. Marci Pavli Veneti, De Orientalibus Regionibus.

Begins — after a preface by “Frater Franciscus Pipinus de Bononia” beginning (I, 1 r’o, lines 1–4): Incipit liber primus domini marci pauli de venecijs de orien [rubric] | L [gilt historiated initial with gestures forming a floreated border.] Ibrum prudentis talibus regionibus. Prolo [last three words rubric] | honorabilis ac fidelissimi domini gus. [last word rubric] | marci pauli de venetijs de conditio | and ending (i, 2 r’o, line 3): nostri ihesu christi cunctorum uisibilium et inuisibilium creatoris, after which comes a list of the chapters, titles and numbers (the latter rubricated) which concludes (i, 7 r’o, line i): D (small blue initial with red ornament) e prouincia ruthenorum, xlix. —(i, 7 r’o, lines 2–5): Capitulum primum primi libri. Qualiter et quare dominus | nicholaus pauli de venetijs, et dominus marchus [rubric] | T [blue and red illuminated initial with minute spread eagle in centre] Empore quo transierunt ad partes [last three words rubric] | balduinus princeps orientales. [last words rubric.]

Ends (14, 1 r’o, lines 26, 27): et diuersas prouincias deferuntur. Explicit liber domini | marci pauli de venetis de diuisionibus et consuetudinibus orientalium.

2. Odoric.

23 Cf. Young’s Catalogue, p. 378.

II., p. 534.

PARIS, see No. 18 — Bibliothèque Nationale Département des Manuscrits — Livre des Merveilles, Odoric de Pordenone, Mandeville, Hayton, etc. — Reproduction des 265 miniatures du Manuscrit français 2810 de la Bibliothèque Nationale. Paris, Imprimerie Berthaud frères, 31, rue de Bellefond, 2 vol. in 8.

Marco Polo, Planches, 1–84.

II., p. 539.

ANTWERP, Museum Plantin–Moretus. Exhibited in Room III., No. 61: Extraits du Livre de Marco Polo de Venise et d’un livre sur l’origine de quelques villes belges.

132 leaves; 185 × 270 millimeters, XVth Century. Adorned initials, alternately blue and red. Headings of chapters underlined in red. Leather binding XVIth century, with small flowers de luce; copper clasps and ten nails. On the last leaf, in a running hand: Este liber partinet Nicholao le buqueteur; the name of Abraham Vander Veken (Abra Vander Veque), and the date 1600, 3/22, on the first and on the last but one leaves.

Fol. 2 recto. Extracta de libro dni Pauli de Venecijs de diver sis provincijs et regnis maior[um] et de diversis moribus habitantiu[m] et de multis mirabilibus in hijs locis et Asije. Eleven lines further: Quomodo iverunt at Berchaman. Fol. 95 r: De Sancto Thoma apto ubi jacet et qno mortu(us) est. Fol. 106 r: Epilogatio de maiori Yndia. F. 117 v, last chapter: De dissentione orta inter Alandum Tartaror[um] et Bcha regem. Ends, f. 118 r: Hii tamen reges proximi parentis erant et ambo ex Chinchini imperialis progenie descendentes. Explicit.

The end of the MS. (f. 118–132) has for object the origin of Belgian villages.

I owe this information to M.J. DENUCÉ.

II., p. 542.

FLORENCE, Riccardian Library, Catalan.

This manuscript has been discovered by Prof. Giovanni Vacca who has kindly sent me the following information regarding this curious document not mentioned by Yule, Amat di S. Filippo, or Uzielli: MS., 2048 cartac. sec. XV. (?), bearing the following faulty title: Storia del Catay in lingua spagnuola; 66 leaves, the last of which with a note by Piero Vaglienti. Writing is pretty clear, much like that of the Catalan Map of 1375.

The text begins with the description of the city of Lop, and ends with Georgia,

Fol. 65 v: “anaquesta provencia sisfa molta de seda evy ciutatz e viles e castels assaiz e ay moltz bons azcos. Calre no se queus pusca dir er perque fas vos si anaquest libre veus na sra benefit.”

Somewhat similar to the end of MS. 2207, Ottob., sec. XIV., membr. of the Vatican Library (reproduced by Amat di S. Filippo):

“En ycelle province fait on moult de soyt. Et si y a moult de villes, cites et chasteaux, moult bons et beau. Autre chose ne vous en scay dire par quoi je vous fais fins en ce livre.”

Generally the text is correct; one does not find the great errors contained in the Italian text given by Bartoli; it seems to follow very closely the French text of the Société de Géographie edited in 1824.

Here is a description of the city of Gambalech (fol. 20 r-20 v) reproducing very closely a legend of the Catalan Map of 1375.

“Les ver que costa la ciutat de Camalech avia una grant Ciutat antichament qui avi a nom garimbalu qui vol dir la Ciut del seyor e lo gran cham troba per los strologians que aquesta ciutat se devia revelar contra el axi que feila desabitar a feu fer la ciutat de Sambaleth e axi.|. flum al miq evay fer venir poblar tota la jent que y staba, e ha entorn a questa ciutat de Gambalech. XXIIIJ. legues e es ben murada e es acayre sique ha de cascun cayre. VI. legues e a dalt lo mur XX. paces e es de terre e ha. X. paces de gros e son totz los murs tant blanchs con a neu e a en cascun cayre. IIJ. portes & en cascuna porta ha.|. palau dela semblansa de les XII. que ditz vos aven e en cascun palau ha de beles cambres e sales plenes darmatures ops da quells qui garden la ciutat los carres son amples e lonchs e ayi que anant de la.|. porta alantre troba hom de bells alberchs e de bels palaus qui son de gran seyors ayi que ela es abitada de bells alberchs E en miss loch de la ciutat a 1. gran palau en que ha 1’n. gran torra enquesta.|. gran seny | sona ho abans axique pus que ha sonat no gosa anar ne gun per la vila si dons gran ops non ha e ab lum e a cascuna porta garden. M. homes no per temensa que nayen mes per honor del seyor e per latres e malfeitos.

“Per gardar la granea del seyor alo poder ell se fa gardar a XIJ’m homes a Caval e ape-lense casitans, qui vol dir leyals cavalers a son seyor a quests. XIJ’m. homes an. IIIJ. capitans . . . ”

The words underlined are included almost verbatim in the Catalan Map. Cf. H. CORDIER, L’Extrême Orient dans l’Atlas Catalan, p. 14.

The manuscript begins, fol. I recto: “Aci comensa lo libre de les provincies et de les encontrades que sont sotz la seyoria del gran Emperador del Catay | lo qual ha la seyoria del Gamballech et seyor de los Tartres ayi com ho reconta o messer March Pollo ciutada noble de Venecia. Et primerament diun ay de la provincia de Tangut hon el stech XXVI. anys per saber la veritat de les coses daval scrites.”

Cf. Un manoscritto inedito del viaggi di Marco Polo. Di Giovanni Vacca (Riv. Geog. Ital., XIV., 1907, pp. 107–108).

II., p. 546.

ESCURIAL, Latin, Pipino’s (?). See No. 60. This is probably the MS. mentioned by the second Viscount of Santarem, p. 574, in his volume, Ineditos (Miscellanea) Lisboa, 1914, large 8vo: “Un Ms. de Marc Polo du XV’e. siècle qui est mal indiqué par le titre suivant: Consuetudines et condiciones orientalium regionum descripto per mestrum Paulum de Venetiis scripto chartis vix saeculo XV. incipiente, Q-ij — 13.”

My late friend, Prof. H. Derenbourg, gives me a few notes regarding this Latin MS., paper, small 4to, ff. 1–95 v; contains 187 chapters with a special title in red ink. Begins: Librum prudentis honorabilis ac fidelissimi viri Domini Marci Pauli De Venetiis de conditionibus orientalium ab me vulgari edictum et scriptum.

II., p. 548.

NUREMBERG. Latin MS. containing Marco Polo, St. Brandan, Mandeville, Odoric, Schildtberger; bad handwriting. See French edition of Odoric, p. LXXXII.

Bibliography of Marco Polo’s Book.25

25 See II., pp. 554 seq.

Bibliography of Printed Editions.

1. — Die Reisen des Venezianers Marco Polo im 13. Jahrhundert Bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Dr. Hans Lemke Mit einem Bilde Marco Polos. Hamburg, Ernst Schultze, 1908, 8vo, pp. 573.

Bibliothek wertvoller Memoiren.

Lebensdokumente hervorragender Menschen aller Zeiten und Völker Herausgegeben von Dr. Ernst Schultze. 1 Band.

Revised edition of Bürck’s translation of Ramusio’s Italian text published in 1845.

2. — Marco Polo: Abenteuerliche Fahrten. Neu herausgegeben von Dr. Otto St. Brandt. Mit 3 Spezialkarten. Druck und Verlag von August Scherl in Berlin, small 8vo, pp. 319.

Notices: Mitt. K.K. Geogr. Ges. Wien, Bd. LVI., 1913, pp. 258–259. Von E.G. — Geog. Zeitschft. Leipzig, XIX., 1913, pp. 531. By K. Kretschmer.

3. — Marco Polo Il Milione secondo il testo della “Crusca” reintegrato con gli altri codici italiani a cura di Dante Olivieri. Bari, Gius. Laterza & figli, 1912, in-8, 2 ff. n. ch. + pp. 317.

Scrittori d’Italia.

4. — Cosmographia breue introductoria en el libro d’Marco Polo. Seville, 1518. — See II., p. 566.

The bookseller Karl W. Hiersemann, of Leipzig, has in his catalogue America, no. 336, in 1907, no. 2323, quoted M.11.000 a copy of the Cosmographia with the colophon: Elql se emprimio por Juan varela | d’salamaca en la muy noble y muy | leal ciudad de Seuilla. Año de | mill y q°nientos y diez y ocho | año a. XVI. dias de mayo.-Fol., 4 ff. not numbered + ff. 31 numbered on 2 columns.

5. — YULE-CORDIER. — The Book of Ser Marco Polo . . . Third Edition. . . . London, John Murray, 1903, 2 vols., 8vo.

Notices: Glasgow Herald, 11 June, 1903. — Scotsman, 11 June, 1903. — Outlook, 13 June, 1903. — Morning Post, 18 June, 1903. — Bulletin Comité Asie française, Juin, 1903. — Standard, 17 June, 1903. — Daily Chronicle, 20 June, 1903. — Manchester Guardian, 23 June, 1903. — Pall Mall Gazette, 15 July, 1903. — Bombay Gazette, 11 July, 1903. — The Spectator, 15 Aug., 1903. — The Guardian (by C. Raymond Beazley), 2 Sept., 1903. — Times (by H.J. Mackinder), 2 Oct., 1903. — Blackwood’s Mag. (by Charles Whibley), Oct., 1903. — Illustrated Evening News, Chicago, 26 Sept., 1903. — The Sun, New York, 4 Oct., 1903 (by M.W. H.). — Hongkong Daily Press, 10 and 11 Sept., 1903. — The Athenaeum, 17 Oct., 1903. — Outlook, 14 Nov., 1903. — Some new Facts about Marco Polo’s Book, by E.H. Parker (Imp. & Asiat. Quart. Review, Jan., 1904, pp. 125–149). — Saturday Review, 27 Feb., 1904. — T’oung Pao, Oct., 1903, pp. 357–366, from The Athenaeum. — Geographical Journal, March, 1904, pp. 379–380, by C.R.B. [eazley]. — Bul. Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, IV, Juillet–Sept., 1904, pp. 768–772, by Paul Pelliot. — Marco Polo and his Followers in Central Asia, by Archibald R. Colquhoun (Quarterly Review, April, 1904, pp. 553–575).

6. — The most noble and famous Travels of Marco Polo one of the Nobility of the State of Venice, into the east Parts of the World, as Armenia, Persia, Arabia, Tartary, with many other Kingdoms and Provinces. The translation of Marsden revised by Thomas Wright, F.S.A. — London: George Newnes; New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1904, 16mo, pp. xxxix-461, Portrait and maps.

7. — Voyages and Travels of Marco Polo, With an Introduction by Henry Morley. Cassell and Company, London, Paris, New York and Melbourne, MCMIV, 16mo, pp. 192, front.

8. — Everyman’s Library, edited by Ernest Rhys — Travel and Topography — Marco Polo’s Travels with an Introduction by John Masefield.

The Travels of Marco Polo the Venetian. London: Published by J.M. Dent & Co., and in New York by E.P. Dutton & Co., 16mo, pp. xvi-461, n. d. [1907]

9. —[Russian: Shemyakin’, A.N. — Puteshestviya Venetsiantsa Marko Polo v’ XIII stod’tii, natsegatann’iya v’ perv’iy raz’ vpodi’ na n’metskom’ po duchshim’ ietsaniyam’ i s’ ob’yasneniyami Avg. Byurkom’ S’ dopodneniyami i popravkami K.F. Nenmanna. Perevots’ C’ n’mstskago. Moskva, 1863.]

Had been published in [Russian: ‘Iteniyakh’ v’ Nmn. Obsch. Istorii i Drevnostey Rossiiskikh’ nri Mosk. Universitet’]

Mentioned by Barthold in Minaev’s Marco Polo.

10. — Marco Polo’s Resa i Asien ([Folkskrifter] allm. hist. No. 32) Stockholm, 1859, P.G. Berg.

11. — Venetianaren Marco Polos Resor i det XIII. århundraded Översättning samt inledning och anmärkningar av Bengt Thordeman. — Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Förlag, n. d. [1917], 2 vol. 8vo, pp. xx-248, 249 to 490, genealogical table of the Tartars, Map.

Pages 345–480 are devoted to notes.

12. — There is a Japanese piratical edition of the second edition of Yule’s Marco Polo brought out by the firm Kyoyekishosha in 1900 and costing 8 yen. Cf. Bulletin Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, IV, p. 769, note.

Titles of Sundry Books and Papers which Treat of Marco Polo and His Book.

1. — Histoire des Établissements européens aux Indes orientales par A. CHARDIN, suivie d’un extrait de l’article sur Marco Polo, de M. WALKENAER, Membre de l’Institut; d’un extrait de la vie de Jonh [sic] Mandeville, par Washington Irving; et d’une notice sur le Camoens, par Mme de Stael. — Paris, Rue et Place Saint–André des Arts, no. 30 — 1832, 12mo, pp. 104.

Marco Polo, p. 87. — John Mandeville, p. 94.

Marco Polo, after la Biographie universelle; Mandeville, after l’Histoire de Christophe Colomb., de W. Irving.

Fait partie de la Bibliothèque populaire ou l’Instruction mise à la portée de toutes les classes et de toutes les intelligences par MM. ARAGO . . . et AJASSON de GRANDSAGNE, chargé de la Direction.

2. — MAYERS, W.F. — Marco Polo’s Legend concerning Bayan. (Notes and Queries on China and Japan, Nov., 1868, p. 162.)

3. — PALLADIUS’ Elucidations. See II., p. 579, No. 63.

Notice in Magazin für die Litteratur des Auslandes, 1876, p. 345.

4. — Marco Polo und die Anianstrasse. Von Prof. S. RUGE, Dresden. (Globus, LXIX., 1896, pp. 133–137.)

5. — Un capitaine du règne de Philippe le Bel Thibaut de Chepoy par Joseph PETIT. (Le Moyen Age, Paris, 1897, pp. 224–239).

6. —[Russian: Kommentarii Arkhimandrita Paddadiya Katharova na putemestvie Marko Polo no s’vernomu Kitayu s’ tsrsdisloviem’ N.I. Besedobskago. Sankpeterburg’, Tip. Imp. Akad. Nauk’] 1902, 8vo, pp. 47, portrait.

7. — MOULE, Rev. G.E. — Notes on Col. YULE’S Edition of Marco Polo’s “Quinsay.” (Jour. North–China Br. R. As. Soc., N. S., IX., 1875, pp. 1–24.)

8. — The Tarikh-i-Rashidi of MIRZA MUHAMMAD HAIDAR, DUGHLÁT A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia, An English Version Edited, with Commentary, Notes, and Map by N. ELIAS. The Translation by E. Denison Ross . . . London, Sampson Low, 1895, 8vo.

9. — A. Slieptsov. —[Russian: Mark’ Polo i ego stranstbobaniya no tsarstvu Mongol’skomu, po Kitayu i Indii.]— small 8vo, pp. 83, fig. [St. Petersb., 1901.]

[Russian: “Knizhka za knizhkoi,” ki. 108-aya.]

10. — STEIN, Sir Aurel. — Preliminary Report of a Journey of Archaeological and Topographical Exploration in Chinese Turkestan. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1901, 4to.

—— Sand-buried Ruins of Khotan. London, T. Fisher Unwin, 1903, 8vo, pp. xliii-524.

—— Ancient Khotan. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1907, 2 vols., 4to.

—— Ruins of Desert Cathay. Personal Narrative of Explorations in Central Asia and Westernmost China. With numerous Illustrations, Colour Plates, Panoramas, and Maps from Original Surveys. Macmillan and Co., 1912, 2 vols. 8vo.

—— Les Documents chinois découverts par Aurel STEIN dans les sables du Turkestan oriental publiés et traduits par Edouard CHAVANNES. Oxford, Imprimerie de l’Université, 1913, 4to.

—— Explorations in Central Asia (1906–1908). (Geographical Journal, July and Sept., 1909.)

—— Expedition in Central Asia. (Geog. Journ., May, 1915.)

—— Expedition in Central Asia. (Geog. Journ., Oct., 1915.)

—— Expedition in Central Asia. (Geog. Journ., May, 1916.)

—— A Third Journey of Exploration in Central Asia, 1913–16. (Geog. Journ., Aug. and Sept., 1916.)

—— Marco Polo’s Account of a Mongol Inroad into Kashmir. (Geog. Journ., Aug., 1919, pp. 92–103.)

11. — H.A. GILES’ Dictionary, Part III., pp. 1378–9.

List of Places mentioned by Marco Polo and identified by Yule.

12. — E.H. PARKER. — Some New Facts about Marco Polo’s Book.

(Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review, Jan., 1904, pp. 125–149.)

—— Notes on Yule. (Journ.N.C.B.R.A.Soc., XXXVII., 1906, pp. 195, 196.)

13. — Cesare–Augusto LEVI. — Il vero Segreto di Dante e Marco Polo. — Comunicazione al Comitato di Treviso della “Dante Alighieri” letta la sera del 17 Novembre, 1905 — Treviso, Zoppelli, 1905, 8vo, pp. 37.

14. — The Dry Sea and the Carrenare — John Livingstone LOWES. Printed at the University of Chicago Press, 8vo, pp. 46.

Reprinted from Modern Philology, Vol. III., No. 1, June, 1905.

15. — SYKES, Major P. Molesworth, H.B.M.‘s Consulate–General, Meshed. (Geog. Journ., XXVI., Oct., 1905, pp. 462–466.)

I. Did Marco Polo visit Baghdad? — II. Did Marco Polo visit the Tabas?

Henri Cordier’s reply, Ibid., Dec., 1905, pp. 686, 687.

16. — Noted Men who have helped China. — II. Marco Polo. By Dr. Gilbert REID. (North China Herald, April 6, 1906.)

17. — C. Raymond BEAZLEY. — The Dawn of Modern Geography. Vol. III. A History of Exploration and Geographical Science from the Middle of the Thirteenth to the early Years of the Fifteenth Century (c. A.D. 1260–1420). With reproductions of the Principal Maps of the Time. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906, 8vo, pp. xvi-638.

Chap. II. The Great Asiatic Travellers, 1260–1420. Part I. The Polos, 1260–1295, pp. 15–160.

18. — HALLBERG, Ivar. — l’Extrême Orient dans la Littérature et la Cartographie de l’Occident des XIII’e, XIV’e et XV’e siècles —Étude sur l’histoire de la géographie. — Göteborg, 1906, 8vo, pp. viii-573.

19. — A.V. JACKSON. — The Magi in Marco Polo and the Cities in Persia from which they came to worship the Infant Christ. (Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc., XXVI., I., pp. 79–83.)

—— Persia Past and Present. A Book of Travel and Research with more than two hundred illustrations and a map by A.V. Williams Jackson, Professor of Indo–Iranian Languages, and sometime adjunct Professor of the English Language and Literature in Columbia University. New York, The Macmillan Co., 1906, 8vo, pp. xxxi-471.

20. — Marco Polo’s Journey in Manzi. By John C. FERGUSON. (Journal North China Branch R. As. Soc., XXXVII., 1906, pp. 190, 191.)

21. — The Pulse of Asia: A Journey in Central Asia illustrating the Geographic Basis of History, by Ellsworth HUNTINGTON, Illustrated. Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1907, 8vo, pp. xxi-415.

22. — BRUCE, Major Clarence Dalrymple. — In the Footsteps of Marco Polo, Being the Account of a Journey Overland from Simla to Pekin. W. Blackwood, Edinburgh and London, 1907, 8vo, pp. xiv-379, ill., map.

23. — HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, A. — Marco Polo’s Travels; New editions; his “Arbre Sol” not “Sun-tree,” but Cypress of Zoroaster (Journal R. As. Soc., Jan., 1909, pp. 154–162.)

24. — SVEN HEDIN. — Overland to India, with 308 Illustrations from Photographs, Water-colour Sketches, and Drawings by the Author, and 2 Maps. Macmillan and Co., London, 1910, 2 vols., 8vo, pp. xix-416, xiv-357.

25. — L’itinéraire de Marco Polo en Perse, par M. Henri Cordier, membre de l’Académie. (Bull. Ac. Inscr. & Belles–Lettres, Ctes. rendus, Mai, 1911, pp. 298–309.)

26. — Hirth, Friedrich, and Rockhill, W.W. — Chau Ju-kua: His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelfth and thirteenth Centuries, entitled Chu-fan-chï, Translated from the Chinese and Annotated. St. Petersburg, Printing Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1912, large 8vo, pp. x-288.

Mr. Rockhill has edited the Chinese Text of Chau Ju-kua at Tokyo, in 1914.

27. — Rockhill, W.W. — Notes on the Relations and Trade of China with the Eastern Archipelago and the Coast of the Indian Ocean during the Fourteenth Century. (T’oung Pao, 1914, July; 1915, March, May, July, October, December.)

28. — Paul Pelliot. — Kao-tch’ang Qoco, Houo-tcheou et Qarâ-khodja, par M. Paul Pelliot, avec une note additionnelle de M. Robert Gauthiot. (Journal Asiatique, Mai–Juin, 1912, pp. 579–603.)

—— Les documents chinois trouvés par la Mission Kozlov à Khara–Khoto. Ext. du Journal Asiatique (Mai–Juin, 1914). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1914, 8vo, pp. 20.

—— Chrétiens d’Asie centrale et d’Extrême-Orient par Paul Pelliot. (T’oung Pao, December, 1914, pp. 623–644.)

29. — Ferrand, Gabriel. — Relations des voyages et textes géographiques arabes, persans et turks relatifs à l’Extrême-Orient du VIII’e au XVIII’e siècles, traduits, revus et annotés. Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1913–1914, 2 vols. 8vo.

Documents historiques et géographiques relatifs à l’Indo-chine publiés sous le direction de MM. Henri Cordier et Louis Finot.

—— La plus ancienne mention du nom de l’île de Sumatra. Ext. du Journal Asiatique (Mars–Avril, 1917). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1917, 8vo, pp. 7.

—— Malaka le Malayu et Malayur. Ext. du Journal Asiatique (Mai–Juin et Juillet–Août, 1918). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1918, 8vo, pp. 202.

—— Le nom de la girafe dans le Ying Yai Cheng Lan. Ext. du Journal Asiatique (Juillet–Août, 1918). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1918, 8vo, pp. 4.

30. — Yule–Cordier. — Cathay and the Way Thither being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China. New Edition. Vol. I. Preliminary Essay on the Intercourse between China and the Western Nations previous to the Discovery of the Cape Route. London, Hakluyt Society, 1915. — Vol. II. Odoric of Pordenone. — Ibid., 1913. — Vol. III. Missionary Friars — Rashíduddín — Pegolotti — Marignolli. — Ibid., 1914. — Vol. IV., Ibn Batuta. — Benedict Goës. — Index. Ibid., 1916; 4 vols., 8vo.

31. — Karajang, by B. LAUFER (Chicago). (Journ. Roy. As. Soc., Oct., 1915, pp. 781–784.)

Cf. Geographical Journal, Feb., 1916, p. 146.

32. — MOULE, Rev. A.C. — Notices of Christianity. Extracted from Marco Polo. (Journ. North China Br. R. As. Soc., XLVI., 1915, pp. 19–37.)

Facsimile of a page of French MS. 1116 in the Bibliothèque nationale.

—— Marco Polo’s Sinjumatu. (T’oung Pao, July, 1912, pp. 431–3.)

—— Hang-chou to Shang-tu, A.D. 1276. (T’oung Pas, July, 1915, pp. 393–419.)

—— Documents relating to the Mission of the Minor Friars to China in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. (Jour. Roy. As. Soc., July, 1914, pp. 533–599.)

—— A.C. M[OULE]. — A Note on the Chinese Atlas in the Magliabecchian Library, with reference to Kinsay in Marco Polo. (Jour. Roy. As. Soc., July, 1919, pp. 393–395.)

33. — Charles V. LANGLOIS. — Marco Polo Voyageur. (Histoire littéraire de la France, XXXV.)

34. — CORDIER, Henri. — Le Christianisme en Chine et en Asie sous les Mongols. (Ext. du T’oung Pao, 2’e Sér., XVIII., 1917). Leide, E.J. Brill, 1918, 8vo, pp. 67.

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE.

XII., pp. 307 seq.

Sir Richard C. TEMPLE, has kindly sent me the following valuable notes:—

ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS.

General Note.

Both the Andaman and Nicobar Islands have been very closely studied by Indian Government officials for about fifty years, and they and the people occupying them are now thoroughly understood. There is a considerable literature about them, ethnographical, historical, geographical, and so on.

I have myself been Chief Commissioner, i.e., Administrator, of both groups for the Government of India for ten years, 1894–1903, and went deeply into the subjects connected with them, publishing a good many papers about them in the Indian Antiquary, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, and elsewhere. A general survey of all information to that date concerning the islands will be found in the Census of India, 1901, vol. III., which I wrote; in this volume there is an extensive bibliography. I also wrote the Andaman and Nicobar volumes of the Provincial and District Gazetteers, published in 1909, in which current information about them was again summarised. The most complete and reliable book on the subject is E.H. MAN’S Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands, London, 1883. KLOSS, Andamans and Nicobars, 1902, is a good book. GERINI’S Researches on Ptolemy’s Geography of Eastern Asia, 1909, is valuable for the present purpose.

The best books on the Nicobars are MAN’S Nicobarese Vocabulary, published in 1888, and MAN’S Dictionary of the Central Nicobarese Language, published in 1889. I am still publishing Mr. MAN’S Dictionary of the South Andaman Language in the Indian Antiquary.

Recent information has so superseded old ideas about both groups of islands that I suggest several of the notes in the 1903 edition of Marco Polo be recast in reference to it.

With reference to the Census Report noted above, I may remark that this was the first Census Report ever made on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and according to the custom of the Government of India, such a report has to summarise all available information under headings called Descriptive, Ethnography, Languages. Under the heading Descriptive are sub-heads, Geography, Meteorology, Geography, History, so that practically my Census Report had to include in a summarised form all the available information there was about the islands at that time. It has a complete index, and I therefore suggest that it should be referred to for any point on which information is required.

NICOBARS.

P. 307. No king or chief. — This is incorrect. They have distinct village communities, governed each by its own chief, with definite rules of property and succession and marriage. See Census Report pp. 214, 212.

Pp. 307–308, Note 1. For Pulo Gomez, see BOWREY, Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, ed. Temple, Hakluyt Society, p. 287 and footnote 4. Bowrey (c. 1675) calls it Pullo Gomus, and a marine journal of 1675 calls it Polo Gomos.

Origin of the name Nicobars. — On this point I quote my paragraph thereon on p. 185, Census Report.

“The situation of the Nicobars along the line of a very ancient trade has caused them to be reported by traders and sea-farers through all historical times. Gerini has fixed on Maniola for Car–Nicobar and Agathodaimonos for Great Nicobar as the right ascription of Ptolemy’s island names for this region. This ascription agrees generally with the mediaeval editions of Ptolemy. Yule’s guess that Ptolemy’s Barussae is the Nicobars is corrected by Gerini’s statement that it refers to Nias. In the 1490 edition of Ptolemy, the Satyrorum Insulae placed to the south-east of the Malay Peninsula, where the Anamba islands east of Singapore, also on the line of the old route to China, really are, have opposite them the remark:— qui has inhabitant caudas habere dicuntur — no doubt in confusion with the Nicobars. They are without doubt the Lankhabalus of the Arab Relations (851 A.D.), which term may be safely taken as a misapprehension or mistranscription of some form of Nicobar (through Nakkavar, Nankhabar), thus affording the earliest reference to the modern term. But there is an earlier mention of them by I-Tsing, the Chinese Buddhist monk, in his travels, 672 A.D., under the name of the Land of the Naked People (Lo-jen-kuo), and this seems to have been the recognised name for them in China at that time. ‘Land of the Naked’ translates Nakkavaram, the name by which the islands appear in the great Tanjore inscription of 1050. This name reappears in Marco Polo’s Necuveran 1292, in Rashiduddin’s Nakwaram 1300, and in Friar Odoric’s Nicoveran 1322, which are the lineal ancestors of the 15th and 16th Century Portuguese Nacabar and Nicubar and the modern Nicobar. The name has been Nicobar since at least 1560. The fanciful story of the tails is repeated by the Swede Kjoeping as late as 1647.”

Nicobar clearly means the Land of the Naked, but that does not correctly describe the people. I have never seen either a naked man or woman in the Nicobars. The men are nearly naked, but they wear a string round the waist with a very small loincloth. The string is so tied as to leave two long streamers behind, which have very much the appearance of a tail as the man walks along, and no doubt this gave rise to the idea that they were tailed men. The women wear a petticoat coming below the knees, generally red.

The Nicobarese are not savages and live in well-built clean villages, are born traders, and can calculate accurately up to very high figures. They deliberately do not cultivate, because by using their cocoanuts as currency they can buy from Chinese, Malay, Burmese, Indian, and other traders all that they want in the way of food and comforts. They are good gardeners of fruit. They seem to have borne their present characteristics through all historical times.

Pp. 307–308, Note 1. — Nancowry is a native name for two adjacent islands, now known as Camorta and Nankauri, and I do not think it has anything to do with the name Nicobar. For a list of the geographical names of the islands, see Census Report, pp. 179–180.

Race and Dialect. — The Nicobarese are generally classed as Malays, i.e., they are “Wild Malays,” and probably in reality an overflow of Mon tribes from the mainland of the Malay Peninsula (Census Report, p. 250). They are a finely built race of people, but they have rendered their faces ugly by the habit of chewing betel with lime until they have destroyed their teeth by incrustations of lime, so that they cannot close their lips properly.

I think it is a mistake to class the Nicobarese as Rakshasas or demons, a term that would apply in Indian parlance more properly to the Andamanese.

The Nicobarese are all one race, including the Shom Pen, for long a mysterious tribe in the centre of Great Nicobar, but now well known. They speak dialects of one language, though the dialects as spoken are mutually unintelligible. There is no Negrito tribe in the Nicobars. A detailed grammar of the language will be found in the Census Report, pp. 255–284.

The Nicobarese have long been pirates, and one of the reasons for the occupation of their islands by the Indian Government was to put down the piracy which had become dangerous to general navigation, but which now no longer exists.

P. 309. — The great article of trade is the cocoanut, of which a detailed account will be found in the Census Report, pp. 169–174, 219–220, 243. I would suggest the recasting of the remarks on the products of the Nicobars in your note on p. 309 in view of the statements made in those pages of the Report, bearing in mind that the details of the Nicobar Islands are now practically as well known as those relating to any other part of the East.

P. 312. — The Nicobarese tradition is that they are descended from a man and a dog, but this is only one phase of the ordinary Far Eastern animal-descent story.

The projecting teeth mentioned by Colonel Man are common in the Nicobars in the case of adults only, usually confined to men and women advanced in life. They are not natural, but caused, as stated above, by the excessive use of betel and lime, which forms a dark unsightly incrustation on the teeth and finally destroys them. Children and youth of both sexes have good white normal teeth,

P. 312.

NARCONDAM.

Narcondam, an island I know well, has a separate bibliography of its own. It belongs to the Sunda group of volcanoes, but it has been so long extinct that there are no obvious signs now of its ever having been active. It has a species of hornbill which I have captured and shot that has differentiated itself from all others. I do not think, therefore, it can have been recognised as a volcano by mariners in historical times, and consequently the derivation of Narakakundam is to my mind doubtful. The obvious volcano in the neighbourhood is Barren Island, which is still alive.

ANDAMANS.

Pp. 309–310, Note 1. — The Andamanese are not an ill-looking race, and are not negroes in any sense, but it is true that they are Negritos in the lowest known state of barbarism, and that they are an isolated race. Reasons for the isolation will be found in the Census Report, p. 51, but I should not call their condition, mentally or physically, degraded. The mental characteristics of the race will be found on pp. 59–61 of the Census Report, and for your information I here extract from my remarks thereon the section on character.

“In childhood the Andamanese are possessed of a bright intelligence, which, however, soon reaches its climax, and the adult may be compared in this respect with the civilised child of ten or twelve. He has never had any sort of agriculture, nor until the English taught him the use of dogs did he ever domesticate any kind of animal or bird, nor did he teach himself to turn turtle or to use hook and line in fishing. He cannot count, and all his ideas are hazy, inaccurate, and ill-defined. He has never developed unaided any idea of drawing or making a tally or record for any purpose, but he readily understands a sketch or plan when shown him. He soon becomes mentally tired, and is apt to break down physically under mental training.

“He retains throughout life the main characteristics of the child: of very short but strong memory, suspicious of but hospitable to strangers, ungrateful, imitative and watchful of his companions and neighbours, vain, and under the spur of vanity industrious and persevering, teachable up to a quickly reached limit, fond of undefined games and practical jokes, too happy and careless to be affected in temperament by his superstitions, too careless indeed to store water even for a voyage, plucky but not courageous, reckless only from ignorance or from inappreciation of danger, selfish but not without generosity, chivalry or a sense of honour, petulant, hasty of temper, entirely irresponsible and childish in action in his wrath, and equally quick to forget, affectionate, lively in his movements, and exceedingly taking in his moments of good temper. At these times the Andamanese are gentle and pleasant to each other, considerate to the aged, the weakly or the helpless, and to captives, kind to their wives and proud of their children, whom they often over-pet; but when angered, cruel, jealous, treacherous and vindictive, and always unstable. They are bright and merry companions, talkative, inquisitive and restless, busy in their own pursuits, keen sportsmen and naturally independent, absorbed in the chase from sheer love of it and other physical occupations, and not lustful, indecent, or indecently abusive.

“As the years advance they are apt to become intractable, masterful, and quarrelsome. A people to like but not to trust. Exceedingly conservative and bound up in ancestral custom, not amenable to civilisation, all the teachings of years bestowed upon some of them having introduced no abstract ideas among the tribesmen, and changed no habit in practical matters affecting comfort, health, and mode of life. Irresponsibility is a characteristic, though instances of a keen sense of responsibility are not wanting. Several Andamanese can take charge of the steering of a large steam launch through dangerous channels, exercising then caution, daring, and skill though not to an European extent, and the present (1901) dynamo-man of the electric lighting on Ross Island is an Andamanese, while the wire-man is a Nicobarese, both of whom exhibit the liveliest sense of their responsibilities, though retaining a deep-rooted and unconquerable fear of the dynamo and wires when at work. The Nicobarese shows, as is to be expected, the higher order of intellect. Another Andamanese was used by Portman for years as an accountant and kept his accounts in English accurately and well.

“The intelligence of the women is good, though not as a rule equal to that of the men. In old age, however, they frequently exhibit a considerable mental capacity which is respected. Several women trained in a former local Mission Orphanage from early childhood have shown much mental aptitude and capacity, the ‘savagery’ in them, however, only dying down as they grew older. They can read and write well, understand and speak English correctly, have acquired European habits completely, and possess much shrewdness and common sense: one has herself taught her Andamanese husband, the dynamo-man above mentioned, to read and write English and induced him to join the Government House Press as a compositor. She writes a well-expressed and correctly-spelt letter in English, and has a shrewd notion of the value of money. Such women, when the instability of youth is past, make good ‘ayas,’ as their menkind make good waiters at table.

“The highest general type of intelligence yet noticed is in the Jarawa tribe.”

P. 310. The name Andaman. — To my mind the modern Andaman is the Malay Handuman = Hanuman, representing “monkey” or savage aboriginal antagonist of the Aryans = also the Rakshasa. Individuals of the race, when seen in the streets of Calcutta in 1883, were at once recognised as Rakshasas. It may amuse you to know that the Andamanese returned the compliment, and to them all Orientals are Chauga or Ancestral Ghosts, i.e., demons (see Census Report, pp. 44–45 for reasons). I agree with you that Angamanain is an Arabic dual, the Great and the Little Andaman. To a voyager who did not land, the North, Middle, and South Andaman would appear as one great island, whereas the strait separating these three islands from the Little Andaman would be quite distinctly seen.

P. 311. Cannibalism. — The charge of cannibalism is entirely untrue. I quote here my paragraph as to how it arose (Census Report, p. 48).

“The charge of cannibalism seems to have arisen from three observations of the old mariners. The Andamanese attacked and murdered without provocation every stranger they could on his landing; they burnt his body (as they did in fact that of every enemy); and they had weird all-night dances round fires. Combine these three observations with the unprovoked murder of one of themselves, and the fear aroused by such occurrences in a far land in ignorant mariners’ minds, century after century, and a persistent charge of cannibalism is almost certain to be the result.”

The real reason for the Andamanese taking and killing every stranger that they could was that for centuries the Malays had used the islands as one of their pirate bases, and had made a practice of capturing the inhabitants to sell as slaves in the Peninsula and Siam.

P. 311. Navigation. — It is true that they do not quit their own coasts in canoes, and I have always doubted the truth of the assertions that any of them ever found their way to any Nicobar island.

Andamanese men go naked, but the only Andamanese women that I have ever seen entirely naked in their own jungles are of the inland tribe of Jarawas.

R.C. TEMPLE.

Nov. 29, 1919.

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