The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo

Index

Aás, Asu, see Alans.
Abacan, a Tartar general.
Ábah, see Ávah.
Abaji, Kúblái’s son.
Abáka (Abaga), Khan of Persia.
Abano, Pietro of, his notice of Polo.
Abash (Habsh), see Abyssinia.
Abba Gregory.
Abbás, Sháh.
Abbott, Consul Keith E..
Abdul Kuri islands.
—— Mejid.
Abeskun (Baxon), on the Caspian.
Abher.
Abkashian forests, boxwood of the.
Abnús, ebony.
Abraha, ruler of Yemen.
Abraiaman, see Brahmans.
Abubakr, Atabeg of Fars.
—— Ibrahim, and Mahomed, engineers employed by Kúblái.
Abu’l Abbas Ahmed VII., Khalif of Baghdad.
—— Fázl
Abulfeda, his geography;
    at the siege of Acre.
Abulfiez Khan, king of Bokhara.
Abu Nasr Mohammed IX., Khalif of Baghdad.
—— Saïd.
Abyssinia (Abash),
    its king’s punishment of Soldan of Aden;
    dominion on the coast, mediaeval history and chronology;
    table of kings;
    wars with Mahomedan states.
Acbalec Manzi, “White City of the Manzi frontier”.
Acbalec or Acbaluc (Cheng-ting fu).
Accambale, king of Champa.
Achar.
Achin, Acheh, Achem,
    its gold and lign-aloes;
    conversion of;
    its great power at one time;
    elephants at.
—— Head.
Achmath, the Bailo, see Ahmad.
Acomat Soldan (Ahmad Sultan),
    seizes throne of Tabriz;
    goes to encounter Argon;
    rejects his remonstrance;
    defeats and takes him;
    hears of Argon’s escape, is taken and put to death;
    notes on the history.
Acorn bread.
Acqui, Friar Jacopo d’, his notice of Polo.
Acre,
    Broils at, between Venetians and Genoese;
    plan of;
    captured by Saracens;
    wickedness of;
    Polos at.
Adam, Bishop and Pope of China.
—— Seth, and the Tree of Life, legend of.
Adamodana, Castle of.
Adam’s Apple.
—— sepulchre on mountain (Adam’s Peak) in Ceylon,
    rubies;
    his teeth, hair, etc.;
    the footmark.
Adel, apparently confused with Aden.
Aden, Horse and other Trade with India,
    Soldan’s treatment of a bishop;
    Vengeance of King of Abyssinia on him;
    confused with Adel;
    account of Kingdom;
    the Sultan;
    intercourse and trade with China, tanks;
    view of.
Adoration of the Emperor.
Adulis,
    inscription of.
Aegae, Ayas on the site of ancient.
Aepyornis and its eggs.
Aëtius, his prescription of musk,
    of camphor.
Afghans, their use of the fat-tailed sheep.
Africa, Sea surrounding to the South.
Agassiz, Professor.
Agathocles, Coins of.
[Greek: Agathoû daímonos], island.
Agha Ali Sháh, present representative of the Old Man of the Mountain.
—— Khan Meheláti, late representative of the Old Man.
Aghrukji or Ukuruji, Kúblái’s son.
Agricola, Governor of Cappadocia, etc.
Aguil, Mongol general.
Ahmad (Achmath), the Bailo, of Fenaket, his power, oppressions, death,
        etc.
—— Sultan, Khan of Persia, see Acomat.
Ahwaz, province.
Aidhab.
Aidhej, or Mal–Amir.
Aijaruc, Kaidu’s daughter,
    her strength and prowess;
    her name.
Aikah Nowin, Engineer in Chief of Chinghiz.
Ai-lao (afterwards Nan-chao), ancient name of the Shans.
Aín Akbari (Ayeen Akbery).
Ajmir.
Akbar and Kúblái, a parallel.
Ak Bulák salt mines.
Akhaltziké (Western Georgia).
Akhtuba River.
Ak-khoja.
Aksarai, or Ghori River.
Aksu River.
Aktár.
Aktásh Valley.
Alabastri.
Alacou, see Hulákú.
Aladja, striped cotton cloth.
Alamút, Castle of the Ismailites.
Alan country, Alania.
Alans, or Aas, massacre at Chang-chau of,
    employed under Mongols.
Alaone, the name.
Alarm Tower, at Cambaluc,
    at Kinsay.
Alatcha, cotton stuff with blue and red stripes.
Alau, see Hulákú.
Alá‘uddin (Alaodin), see Old Man of the Mountain.
—— (Alawating of Mufali), an engineer in Kúblái’s service.
—— Khilji, Sultan of Delhi.
Albenigaras, Mt.
Al Biruni.
Alboquerque, see D’Alboquerque.
Alchemy, Kúblái’s.
Aleppo.
Alexander the Great, allusions to legends and romances about,
    his rampart (Iron Gate);
    the curtains at a banquet given by;
    and the ferrum candidum;
    site of his battle with Darius;
    his wife Roxana;
    kills a lion;
    Princes claiming descent from (Zulcarniain);
    his horse Bucephalus;
    fixes chains on Adam’s Peak;
    said to have colonised Socotra;
    his tower on the border of Darkness.
Alexander III., Pope.
Alexander IV., Pope.
Alexandria,
    trade from India to.
Alhinde, Alfinde, Alinde, Al-hint.
‘Ali and Aliites.
Alidada.
Alihaiya, Kúblái’s general.
Alinak.
Alligator, in Carajan,
    mode of killing;
    eaten;
    prophecy of Bhartpúr about.
Almalik.
Almanacs, Chinese (Tacuin).
Almonds.
Aloes, Socotrine.
—— wood, see Lign-aloes.
Alor, war cry.
Al–Ramni, Al–Ramin, see Sumatra.
Altai (Altay) Mountains,
    the Khan’s burial-place;
    used for the Khingan range.
Altun–Khan, Mountain.
—— sovereign.
Amazons, fable of.
Ambergris,
    how got.
Amber-rosolli.
Amda Zion, king of Abyssinia,
    his wars v. Mahomedans;
    not the king mentioned by Polo.
Ament, Rev. W.S.
Ameri, a kind of Brazil wood.
Amhara.
Amien, Mien (Burma).
Amita Buddha.
Ammianus Marcellinus.
Amoy,
    harbour;
    languages.
Amphora, Anfora.
Amu, Aniu, see Anin.
Amuki, devoted comrades of the king.
Anamis (Minao) River.
Ananda, Kúblái’s grandson.
Anár.
Anaurahta, king of Burma.
Ancestor Worship.
Anchors, Wooden.
Andaine, andena, andanicum, see Ondanique.
Andaman (Angamanain) island,
    described;
    people;
    form of the word.
Andan, andun, Wotiak for steel.
Andragiri.
Andreas, king of Abyssinia.
Andrew, Bishop of Zayton.
—— Grand Duke of Rostof and Susdal.
Andromeda ovalifolia, poisonous.
Angamanain, see Andaman.
Angan, or Hamjám.
’Angka, gryphon, see Ruc.
Angkor, ruins of.
Ani in Armenia.
Animal Patterns, see Patterns.
Anin, province.
Annals of the Indo–Chinese States.
‘An-nam, or Tong-king.
Anselmo, Friar.
Anthropoides Virgo, the demoiselle.
Antioch.
Antongil Bay, Madagascar.
Aotonomoff, Spasski, his ascent of Ararat.
Apostoille, word used for Pope.
Apples of Paradise (Konars).
Apricots.
’Apuhota (Kapukada?).
Apushka (Apusca), Tartar envoy from Persia.
Arababni.
Arab geography.
—— colonies in Madagascar.
—— horses, early literary recognition of.
    trade in, see Horses.
—— merchants, in Southern India.
—— Seamen’s Traditions about Java.
Arabi (Arabs).
Arabia.
Arabic character.
Arachosía,arachoti.
Araines.
Arakan.
Aram (Harám), Place of the.
Ararat, Mount,
    ascents of.
Arblasts, crossbows.
Arbre Sol, or Arbre Sec, Region of the (Khorasan),
    tree described — Chínár or Oriental plane;
    various readings;
    Arbre seul, a wrong reading;
    Tree of the Sun legend;
    Christian legend of the Dry Tree;
    engrafted on legends of Alexander;
    Trees of Grace in Persia;
    Dry Trees in Mahomedan legend;
    in Rabbinical and Buddhist stories, and legends of the Wood of the
        Cross;
    Polo’s Arbre Sec to be sought near Damghan;
    Sabaean apologue;
    clue to the term Arbre Sec.
Arcali, Arculin, see Erculin.
Architectural remains in Indo–China.
Ardeshír Bábekán, first Sassanian king.
Ardeshír, last sovereign of Shabánkára.
Areca.
Areng Saccharifera.
Arezzo.
Argaeus, Mount.
Argali.
Arghún, Khan of Persia (Polo’s Argon, Lord of the Levant),
    sends an embassy to Kúblái for a wife;
    is dead when she arrives;
    his unhappy use of the elixir vitae;
    advances against his uncle Ahmad;
    harangues his chiefs;
    sends Ahmad a remonstrance;
    is taken prisoner;
    released by certain chiefs;
    obtains sovereignty;
    his death;
    his beauty.
Argons (Arghún), half-breeds.
Arii, Ariana.
Arikbuga, Kúblái’s brother.
Arimaspia.
Arimaspian gold.
Ariora–Keshimur,
    meaning of Ariora.
Ariosto.
Aripo.
Aristotle.
Arjish (Arzizi).
Arkasun Noian.
Arkhaiun, applied to Oriental Christians or their Clergy.
Armenia, Greater.
Armenia (Hermenia), Lesser or Cilician.
Armenian Christians.
Armenians.
Armillary Zodiacal Sphere.
Armour of boiled leather, see Cuirbouly.
Arms of Kerman,
    of the Tartars.
Arredon River.
Arrow Divination.
Arrows, Tartar.
Artacki.
Arts, the Seven.
Aru, Cumaha.
Arucki.
Aruk.
Arulun Tsaghan Balghasun (Chagan–Nor).
Arya Chakravarti.
Aryavartta, the Holy Lands of Indian Buddhism.
Arzinga (Erzingan).
Arziron (Erzrum).
Arzizi (Arjísh).
Asbestos, and the Salamander.
Asceticism of the Sensin,
    of the Jogis.
Asedin Soldan (Ghaiassuddin Balban, Sultan of Delhi).
Ashar (Asciar), king of Cail.
Ashishin, see Assassins.
Ashod, founder of the Bagratid dynasty.
Ashurada.
Asikan, Mongol general.
Asoka.
Asper, or akché about a groat.
Assai River.
Assassins (Ashishin, Hashíshin), Ismailites,
    how the Old Man trained them;
    murders by;
    their destruction;
    survival and recent circumstances of the sect.
Asses, in Persia,
    in Mongolia;
    in Madagascar;
    in Abyssinia;
    in Far North.
Asterius, Bishop of Amasia in Pontus.
Astrakhan (Gittarchan).
Astrolabe.
Astrology, — ers, in Tangut,
    of Chinghiz;
    at Kúblái’s Court;
    at Cambaluc;
    of Tibet;
    at Kinsay;
    in Maabar;
    in Coilum.
Astronomical instruments, ancient Chinese.
Atabegs, of Mosul,
    of Lúr;
    of Fars;
    of Yezd;
    of Kerman.
Atjeh, see Achin.
Atkinson’s Narratives, and their credibility.
Atlas, Chinese, in Magliabecchian Library.
[Greek: Attagàs] (Black Partridge).
Attalus, King.
At–Thaibi family.
Auberoche, Siege of.
Audh (Oudh).
Aufat, Ifat.
Augury, see Omens.
Aung Khan (Unc Can), see Prester John.
Aurangzib.
Aurora, Ibn Fozlán’s account of.
Aussa.
‘Avah, Abah, Ava, one of the cities of the Magi.
Avarian, epithet of S. Thomas.
Avebury, Lord, on couvade.
Avicenna’s classification of Iron.
Avigi, ‘afçi (falco montanus).
Axum, Inscription,
    Church of;
    Court of.
Ayas (Layas, Aiazzo, etc.), port of Cilician Armenia,
    Sea fight at.
Ayuthia.
Azumiti.
Azure, Ultramarine (lapis armenus) Mines in Badakhshan,
    in Tenduc;
    ore.

Baba Buzurg, worshipped by the Lurs.
Baber, E. C, on Ch’êng-tú,
    on wild oxen of Tibet;
    Lolos;
    Gold River (Brius);
    the word Caindu;
    Talifu;
    Mekong River;
    Zardandan;
    site of battle between Kúblái and king of Mien;
    descent of Mien.
Baboons, etymology
Báb-ul-abwáh, “The Gate of Gates,” Pass of Derbend.
Babylon, Babylonia (Cairo or Egypt),
    Sultan of.
Babylonish garments.
Baccadeo, indigo.
Baccanor.
Bacon, Roger,
    as geographer.
Bacsi, see Bakhshi.
Bactria, its relation to Greece.
Bacu, Sea of (Caspian).
Badakhshan (Badashan),
    its population;
    capitals of;
    Mirs of;
    legend of Alexandrian pedigree of its kings;
    depopulation of;
    scenery;
    dialects;
    forms of the name;
    great river of (Upper Oxus).
Badáún.
Badger, Rev. Dr. G.P.
Badghís.
Badgír, Wind-catchers.
Badruddín Lú-lú, last Atabeg of Mosul.
Báfk (Báft).
Baghdad (Baudas), Baldac, taken by Alau, Hulákú,
    its Khalif;
    the miracle of the mountain.
—— Archbishop of.
—— its indigo (baccadeo).
Bagratidae, of Armenia,
    of Georgia.
Bagration–Mukransky, Prince.
Bahar.
Bahárak, plain.
Bahá-uddin Ayaz, Wazir of Kalháat.
Bahá-ul-hakh, the Saint of Multán.
Bahrámábád.
Bahránjird Village.
Bahrein.
Baiberdon.
Baiburt (Paipurth), Castle of.
Baidu Khan,
    seizes throne of Persia;
    displaced and killed by Gházán;
    alleged to be a Christian.
Bailo, the title,
    etymology of.
Bakhshi (Bacsi), Lamas,
    their enchantments;
    various meanings of the word.
Bakhtyáris of Luristán, the.
Baku, oil fields of,
    Sea of (Caspian).
Balad-ul-Falfal (Malabar).
Baladi.
Balalaika, a two-stringed Tartar instrument.
Balânjaríyah, devoted lieges.
Bala–Sagun.
Balas rubies.
Baldac, see Baghdad.
Baldacchini (Baudekins), brocades made at Baghdad.
Baldwin II. (de Courtenay), last Latin Emperor of Constantinople.
Bali, Island of.
—— in Abyssinia.
Balios.
Balish (a money of account).
Balista, always a crossbow in mediaeval times.
Balkh (Balc).
Balkhash Lake.
Ballads, Genoese, on sea-fights at Ayas and Curzola.
Ballard, Mr..
Balor, Balaur, Bilaur, Malaur, Bolor.
Bálos, Malacca boats with two rudders.
Balsamodendron Mukul.
Balthazar, of the Magi.
Bálti.
Balustrade, etymology of the word.
Bamboo (always called canes by Polo),
    its multifarious uses;
    Kúblái’s Chandu Palace made of;
    great, on banks of Caramoran river;
    explode loudly when burning;
    large in Tibet;
    ropes of;
    in Che kiang.
Bamian, caves at,
    huge recumbent image at.
Bám-i-Duniah, “Roof of the World”.
Bamm.
Bandar Abbás (Bandar–Abbási).
Bandith.
Bangala, see Bengal.
Banzaroff, Dorji, on Shamanism.
Baptism, accompanied by branding, in Abyssinia.
Bara.
Barac (Borrak), Khan of Chagatai,
    his war with Arghún.
Baradaeus, Jacob, or James Zanzale, Bishop of Edessa.
Barbaro, Josafat.
Barbarossa, Frederic.
Barberino, Francesco da.
Barda’at, saddle-cloths.
Bardesir.
Bardshír, Bardsír, Bard-i-Ardeshír.
Bargu (Barguchin Tugrum, or Barguti), plain.
Barguerlac, Syrrhaptes Pallasii, a kind of sand grouse,
    its migration into England.
Barguzinsk.
Barin, Mongol tribe.
Bark, money made from,
    fine clothes from.
Barka (Barca), Khan, ruler of Kipchak,
    his war with Hulákú.
Barkul.
Barkút, búrgút (bearcoote), eagle trained to the chase.
Barlaam and Josaphat, Story of Saints, from Legend of Buddha.
Barley, huskless.
Baroch.
Baron-tala, name applied by Mongols to Tibet.
Barons (Shieng or Sing), Kaan’s twelve.
Barozzi, Nicolo.
Barros, John de,
    geography of.
Barsauma (St. Barsamo).
Barskul (Barscol), “Leopard Lake”.
Bartizan, Kúblái’s wooden.
Barus, Barros (Sumatra), its camphor.
Barussae insulae.
Barygaza.
Bashai (Pashai).
Bashkirds, (Hungarians).
Bashpah, Lama, and the Mongol character called after him.
Basma, see Pasei.
Basmuls (Guasmuls), half-breeds.
Basra (Bastra), noted for its date-groves.
Bathang.
Baths, natural hot, near Hormuz,
    in Cathay;
    public at Kinsay.
Batigala, Batticalla.
Batochina.
Bats, large, in India.
Battas of Sumatra, and cannibalism.
Batthala, Bettelar (Patlam in Ceylon).
Battles, Kúblái v. Nayan,
    Tartars v. king of Mien;
    Caidu v. Khan’s forces;
    Borrak and Arghún;
    Arghún and Ahmad;
    Hulákú and Barka;
    Toktai and Nogai.
Bátú, Khan of Kipchak, founder of Sarai,
    invades Russia;
    made by Polo into two kings — Sain and Patu;
    his character and cruelty.
Baudas, see Baghdad.
Baudekins (baldacchini), brocades made at Baghdad.
Bauduin de Sebourc.
Bavaria, Duke Ernest of, a mediaeval Romance.
Bawárij, corsairs.
Bayan Chingsian, Kúblái’s greatest Captain,
    prophecy connected with his name;
    his conquest of Manzi or South China;
    his history and character;
    his exceptional cruelty at Chang-chau.
Bayan, Khagan of the Avars.
Bayan (Baian), Kúblái’s Master of the Hounds.
Bayan, son of Nasruddin.
Bayezid Ilderim.
Bdellium.
Beads, Hindu.
Bears,
    white in Far North.
Beast and bird patterns, see Patterns.
Beaten gold.
Beaujeu, William de, Master of the Temple.
Beauty of — Georgians,
    Khorasan women;
    Kashmir women;
    Sinju women;
    Argons, or half-breeds;
    the Ungrat or Kungurat tribe;
    people of Coloman;
    Kinsay women;
    Kaidu’s daughter;
    Arghún Khan;
    the Russians.
Beds, their arrangement in India.
Beef, not eaten in Maabar, except by the Govi,
    formerly eaten in India.
Bejas of the Red Sea Coast.
Belgutai, Chinghiz’s stepbrother.
“Belic” for “Melic”.
Bell at Cambaluc, great.
Bellal Rajas.
Belledi, balladi, ginger so called,
    Spanish use of the word.
Benares, brocades of.
Bendocquedar, see Bundúkdári, Bíbars.
Benedict XII., Pope.
Bengal (Bangala),
    king of Mien (Burma) and;
    why Polo couples these;
    relations between Burma and;
    claim asserted by king of Burma to;
    alleged Mongol invasion of;
    its distance from Caugigu;
    its currency;
    confused with Pegu by Polo.
Beni Búya dynasty.
Benjamin of Tudela, on Alexander’s Rampart,
    on the Gryphon.
Benzoin, etymology of.
Berard, Thos., Master of the Temple.
Berbera, Sea of.
Berchet, G.
Bereké, Bátu Khan’s brother.
Bernier, on Kashmir women’s beauty.
Berrie, the Arabic Baríya, a desert.
Bettelar, rendezvous of Pearl Fishers.
Beyamini, wild oxen of Tibet.
Bezant,
    value of.
Bhagavata.
Bhamó, and River of.
Bhartpúr, prophecy about.
Bhattis, the.
Bháwalpúr.
“Bhim’s Baby,” colossal idol at Dhamnár caves.
Bianco’s, Andrea, maps.
Biar.
Bibars Bundúkdári, see Bundúkdári.
Bielo Osero.
Bigoncio, a firkin.
Bilúchis,
    their robber raids;
    Lumri or Numri.
Binh Thuan (Champa).
Binkin.
Bintang (Pentam).
Birch-bark vessels,
    books.
Bír-dhúl, or Bujardawal, cap. of Ma’bar.
Bird-hunts.
Birdwood, Sir G.
Birhors of Chuta Nagpúr.
Bir–Pandi, or Pira–Bandi.
Birthday, celebration of Kúblái’s.
Bishbalik (Urumtsi).
Bishop, of Male Island,
    story of an Abyssinian.
Bitter bread.
—— water.
Blac, Blachia (Lac, Wallach).
Black-bone, Chinese name for Lolos.
Black Crane (Kará Togorü).
—— Saints, White Devils in India.
—— Sea, M. Maurum v. Nigrum.
—— Sect of Tibet.
Blacker, the more beautiful.
Blaeuw, map.
Blochmann, Professor H.
Block-books, supposed to have been introduced from China,.
Block-printing in Persia..
Blood-sucking, Tartar.
Blous, bloies.
Boar’s tusks, huge (Hipp.).
Boccassini.
Bode, Baron de.
Bodhisatva Avalok.
Bodleian MS. of Polo,
    list of miniatures in.
Boeach, mistake for Locac, and its supposed position.
Boemond, Prince of Antioch and Tripoli, letter of Bibar to.
Boga (Buka), a great Mongol officer, delivers Arghún.
Boghra Khan.
Bohea country.
Bohra, sect of W. India.
Boikoff, Russian Envoy.
Bokhara (Bocara).
Boleyn, Anne, her use of buckram.
Bolgana, Queen, see Bulughán.
Bolgarskoye (called also Uspenskoye).
Bolghar, borgal, borghal, Russia leather.
Bolghar (Bolgara), on the Volga,
    ruins of;
    court of.
Bolivar, Padre, S.J., his account of the Condor (Rukh) of Africa.
Bolor.
Bombay.
Bonaparte, Prince Roland, Recueil des Documents de l’Époque Mongole.
Bonga.
Bonheur, Rosa.
Boniface VIII., Pope.
Bonin, C.E.
Bonoccio di Mestro.
Bonpos, old Tibetan Sect.
Bonús, ebony.
Bonvalot.
Book of Marco Polo,
    its contents;
    original language, French;
    oldest Italian MS.;
    “Geographic Text,” in rude French;
    various types of Text —
        (1) “Geographic,”.
        (2) Pauthier’s MSS.
        (3) Pipino’s Latin,
                    Preface to;
                    Grynaeus’ Latin;
                    Müllers’ reprint.
        (4) Ramusio’s Italian edition,
                    its peculiarities;
                    probable truth about it;
                    bases of it.
    MS. and some of its peculiarities;
    general view of the relations of the texts;
    notice of an old Irish version;
    geographical data;
    how far influenced in form by Rustician;
    perhaps in description of battles;
    diffusion and number of MSS.;
    basis of present version;
    specimens of different recensions of text;
    distribution of MSS.;
    miniatures in;
    list of MSS.;
    Tabular view of the filiation of chief MSS.;
    Bibliography;
    titles of works cited;
    Spanish edition.
Bore in Hang-chau Estuary.
Borgal, see Bolghar.
Bormans, Stanislas.
Born, Bertram de.
Borneo, camphor, see Camphor.
—— tailed men of.
Boro Bodor, Buddhist Monument, Java.
Borrak, Amir, Prince of Kerman (Kutlugh Sultan?).
—— Khan of Chaghatai, see Barac.
Borùs, the.
Bostam.
Boswellia thurifera,
    serrata;
    Carterii;
    Bhauda-jiana;
    papyrifera;
    Frereana;
    glabra
.
Bouqueran, see Buckram.
Bourne, F.S.A.
Boxwood forests in Georgia.
Bozzí.
Bra, the word.
Bracelets, in Anin.
Bragadino, Marco, husband of Marco Polo’s daughter, Fantina.
—— Pietro.
Brahmanical thread.
Brahmans (Abraiaman),
    fish-charmers to the pearl fishery;
    their character and virtues;
    their king;
    their omens;
    longevity;
    Chughi;
    Palladian legend of.
Brahma’s temple, Hang-chau.
Brahuis.
Brakhimof, early capital of Bulgaria.
Brambanan, ruins at.
Bran (Tibetan tsamba), parched barley.
Brazil wood, in Locac,
    in Sumatra;
    manner of growth;
    in Ceylon;
    in Coilum (Coilumin);
    different kinds;
    vicissitudes of the word;
    its use prohibited by Painters’ Guild.
Bread, bitter.
Brephung monastery.
Bretesche.
Bretschneider, Dr. Emil (Medical Researches), ruins of Bolghar,
    the Uíghúr character;
    Caucasian Wall;
    use of muslin in Samarkand;
    on nakh and nachetti;
    Húlakú‘s expedition to West Asia;
    an extract from the Yüan Si;
    Badakhshan;
    Kashgar;
    Shachau;
    Kamul;
    Chingintalas;
    the Stipa inebrians;
    the Utiken Uígúrs;
    Erdenidso Monastery;
    Belasagun;
    death of Chinghiz;
    tung lo or kumiz;
    Kúblái’s death;
    Peking;
    verniques;
    clepsydra;
    the Bularguchi;
    Achmath’s biography;
    paper-money;
    post stations;
    Chinese intoxicating drinks;
    regulations for time of dearth;
    Lu–Ku-K’iao Bridge;
    introduction of plants from Asia into China;
    morus alba;
    Tibet;
    bamboo explosions;
    the Si-fans;
    Cara-jang and Chagan-jang;
    Nasr-uddin;
    the Alans;
    rhubarb in Tangut;
    Polo’s “large pears”;
    on galangal;
    on sugar;
    on Zayton;
    on wood-oil;
    on ostrich;
    on Si-la-ni;
    on frankincense;
    on Magyars;
    on Mongol invasion of Poland and Silesia.
Brichu (Brius, the Upper Kiang).
Bridges of Pulisanghin,
    Sindafu (Ch’êngtu);
    Suchau;
    Kinsay;
    Kien-ning fu;
    Fuchau;
    Zayton, or Chinchau.
Brine-wells, see Salt.
Brius River (Kin-sha Kiang, Gold River).
Brown, G.G.
—— Sir Thomas,
    on Polo.
Bruce’s Abyssinian Chronology.
Brunetto Latini’s Book, Li Tresor.
Brunhilda.
Bruun, Professor Ph., of Odessa.
Bucephala, of Alexander.
Bucephalus, breed of.
Buckrams, of Arzinga,
    described;
    etymology;
    at Mardin;
    in Tibet;
    at Mutfili;
    Malabar.
Buddha, see Sakya Muni.
Buddhism, Buddhists, see Idolatry, Idolaters.
Buddhist Decalogue.
Buffaloes in Anin.
Buffet and vessels of Kúblái’s table.
Bugaei.
Buka (Boga), a great Mongol chief.
Buka Bosha, 1st Mongolian Governor of Bokhara.
Búkú Khan, of the Hoei–Hu, or Uighúrs.
Bularguji (Bularguchi), “The Keeper of Lost Property”.
Bulgaria, Great.
Bulughán (Bolgana), Queen.
—— another.
Bundúkdár, Amír Aláuddín Aidekín (“The Arblaster”).
Bundúkdári, Malik Dáhir Ruknuddín Bíbars (Bendocquedar), Mameluke Sultan
        of Egypt,
    killed by kumiz.
Buraets, or Burgats, the.
Búrkán Káldún.
Burma (or Ava), King of (See also Mien.).
Burnell, Arthur.
Burning the Dead, see Cremation.
—— heretical books.
—— paper-money, etc., at funerals.
—— Widows in South India.
Burrough, Christopher.
Burton, Captain R.F.
Bushell, Dr. S.W., his visit to Shang-tu,
    on the Khitan Scripts;
    Tangut rulers;
    orders for post-horses.
Butchers, in Kashmir,
    Tibet;
    S. India.
Butiflis (Mutfili).
Butler, Hudibras.
Buyid dynasty.

Ca’ Polo, Ca’ Milion, Corte del Millioni, the house of the
        Polos at Venice.
Caaju, castle of.
Cabs, Peking.
Cacanfu (Hokiang-fu).
Cachanfu (P’uchau-fu, Ho-chung-fu).
Cachar Modun.
Cachilpatnam.
Cadmia.
Caesalpinia; and see Brazil.
Caesarea of Cappadocia (Casaria, Kaisaríya).
Caichu, castle of (Kiai-chau, or Hiai-chau?).
Caidu, see Kaidu.
Caiju, on the Hwang–Ho.
—— on the Kiang, Kwachau.
Cail (Káyal),
    a great port of Commerce;
    the king;
    identified;
    meaning of name;
    remains of.
Caindu (K’ien-ch’ang), a region of Eastern Tibet.
Caingan (Ciangan, Kiahing).
Cairo,
    museum at;
    ventilators at. (See Babylon.).
Caiton, see Zayton.
Cala Ataperistan (Kala’ Atishparastán), “Castle of the Fire Worshippers”.
Calachan (Kalaján).
Calaiate, Calatu, see Kalhat.
Calamanz, the word.
Calamina, city.
Caldwell, Rev. Dr. R., on devil-dancing among the Shanars,
    on name of Ceylon;
    on Shahr–Mandi and Sundara Pandi;
    on the Tower at Negapatam;
    etymology of Chilaw;
    on Pacauta;
    Govis;
    singular custom of arrest;
    rainy season;
    food of horses;
    Shanar devil-images;
    choiach;
    Cail, or Kayál city;
    Kolkhoi;
    King Ashar of Cail;
    Kollam;
    Pinati;
    etymology of Sapong;
    Cape Comorin.
Calendar, Ecclesiastical Buddhist,
    the Tartar;
    of Brahmans;
    of Documents relating to Marco Polo and his family.
Calicut,
    King of, and his costume.
Calif, see Khalif.
Caligine, Calizene (Khálij, a canal from Nile).
Camadi (City of Dakiánús) ruined.
Cambaluc (Khanbaligh, or Peking), capital of Cathay,
    Kúblái’s return thither after defeating Nayan;
    the palace;
    the city;
    its size, walls, gates, and streets, the Bell Tower, etc.;
    period of khan’s stay there;
    its suburbs and hostelries;
    cemeteries, women, patrols;
    its traffic;
    the Emperor’s Mint;
    palace of the Twelve Barons;
    roads radiating from;
    astrologers of.
Cambay (Cambaet, Cambeth, Kunbáyat), kingdom of.
Cambuscan, of Chaucer, corruption of Chinghiz.
Camel-bird, see Ostrich.
Camels, mange treated with oil,
    camlets from wool of;
    white;
    incensing;
    alleged to be eaten in Madagascar;
    really eaten in Magadoxo;
    ridden in war.
Camexu, Kamichu, see Campichu.
Camlets (cammellotti).
Camoens.
Camphor (Laurus Camphora) trees in Fo-kien.
—— of Sumatra,
    Fansuri;
    earliest mention of:
    superstitions regarding;
    description of the tree, Dryabalanops Camphora;
    value attached by Chinese to;
    recent prices of;
    its use with betel.
—— oil.
Campichu (Kanchau), city of.
Camul (Kamul), province.
Camut, fine shagreen leather.
Canal, Grand, of China.
    construction of.
Canale, Cristoforo, MS. by.
—— Martino da, French Chronicle of Venice by.
Cananor, kingdom.
Cananore.
Canara.
Cancamum.
Canela brava.
Canes, Polo’s name for bamboos.
Cannibalism,
    ascribed to Tibetans, Kashmiris, etc;
    to Hill-people in Fo-kien;
    to islanders in Seas of China and India;
    in Sumatra;
    regulations of the Battas;
    ascribed to Andaman islanders.
Cannibals, i.e. Caribs.
Canonical Hours.
Cansay, see Kinsay.
Canton.
Cape Comorin, see Comari; Temple at.
—— Corrientes (of Currents).
—— Delgado.
—— of Good Hope.
Capidoglio (Capdoille), sperm-whale.
Cappadocian horses.
Capus, G.
Caracoron (Kará Korum).
Carajan (Caraian, Karájang, or Yun-nan), province.
Caramoran River (Hwang–Ho).
Carans, or Scarans.
Caraonas (Karaunahs), a robber tribe.
Carats.
Carbine, etymology of.
Cardinal’s Wit.
Caribs, i.e. cannibals.
Carpets,
    of Turcomania (Turkey);
    Persian;
    Kerman.
Carriages,
    at Kinsay;
    Chinese.
Carrion, shot from engines.
Carta Catalana, Catalan Map of 1375.
Carte, à la.
Carts, Mongol.
Casan, see Gházán Khan.
Casaria (Caesarea of Cappadocia).
Cascar (Kashgar),
    Chaukans of.
Casem, see Kishm.
Caspian Sea (Sea of Ghel or Ghelan),
    ancient error about;
    its numerous names.
Cassay, see Kinsay.
Cassia.
—— buds.
—— fistula.
Castaldi, Panfilo, his alleged invention of movable types.
Castambol.
Castelli, P. Cristoforo di.
Casvin (Kazvín), a kingdom of Persia.
Catalan Navy.
Cathay (Northern China),
    origin of name;
    coal in;
    idols;
    Cambaluc, the capital of, see Cambaluc;
    Cathayans, v. Ahmad;
    their wine;
    astrologers;
    religion;
    politeness, filial duty, gaol deliveries, gambling.
Catholics,
    Catholicos, of Sis;
    of the Nestorians.
Cators (chakors), great partridges.
Cat’s Head Tablet.
Cats in China.
Caucasian Wall.
Caugigu, province.
Caulking, of Chinese ships.
Cauly, Kauli (Corea).
Causeway, south of the Yellow River.
Cauterising children’s heads.
Cave-houses.
Cavo de Eli.
—— de Diab, ii. 417n.
Cayu (Kao-yu).
Celtic Church.
Census, of houses in Kinsay,
    tickets.
Ceremonial of Mongol Court, see Etiquette.
Ceylon (Seilan),
    circuit of;
    etymology of;
    customs of natives;
    mountain of Adam’s (alias Sagamoni Borcan’s) Sepulchre;
    history of Buddha;
    origin of idolatry;
    subject to China.
Ceylon, King of, his pearl-ponds.
Chachan (Charchan, Charchand).
Chagatai (Sigatay), Kúblái’s uncle, son of Chinghiz.
Chaghán-Jáng.
Chaghan–Kuren.
Chaghan–Nor (“White Lake”), N.E. of Kamul.
—— (Chaghan, or Tsaghan Balghasun), site of Kúblái’s palace.
Chairs, silver.
Chakor (cator), great partridges.
Chalcedony and jasper.
Chalukya Malla kings.
Champa (Chamba), kingdom of,
    Kúblái’s expedition;
    the king and his wives;
    products;
    locality;
    invaded by king of Lukyn.
Chandra Banu.
Chandu (Shangtu), city of peace of Kúblái.
Changan.
Chang-chau (Chinginju).
—— in Fo-kien,
    Zayton (?);
    Christian remains at.
Ch’ang Ch’un, travels.
Changgan (Chang-ngan).
Chang-kia-Kau, the gate in the Great Wall.
Chang K’ien.
Chang-shan (Chanshan).
Ch’ang Te (the Chinese traveller), Si Shi Ki.
Chang Te-hui, a Chinese teacher.
Chang-y (Chenchu).
Chang Yao, Chinese general.
Cháo de Bux (Cavo di Bussi), boxwood.
Chaohien, Sung Prince.
Cháo-Khánahs, bank-note offices in Persia.
Cháo Naiman Sumé Khotan, or Shangtu, “city of the 108 temples”.
Cháo, paper-money.
Cháo, title of Siamese and Shan Princes.
Chaotong.
Chapu.
Characters, written, four acquired by Marco Polo,
    one in Manzi, but divers spoken dialects.
Charchan (Chachan of Johnson, Charchand).
Charcoal, store in Peking, palace garden of.
Charities, Kúblái’s,
    Buddhistic and Chinese;
    at Kinsay.
Charles VIII., of France.
Chau dynasty.
Chaucer, quoted.
Chaukans, temporary wives at Kashgar.
Chaul.
Cheapness in China.
Cheetas, or hunting leopards.
Cheh-kiang, cremation common during Sung dynasty in,
    roads into Fo-kien from.
Cheinan, Gulf of.
Chenchau, or Iching hien.
Chenching (Cochin–China).
Chenchu (Chang-y), conspires with Vanchu v. Ahmad.
Ch’eng-ting fu.
Ch’êng-Tsu (Yung-lo), Emperor.
Ch’êng-tu (Sze-ch’wan).
Ch’êngtu-fu (Sindafu).
Cheu, the Seven.
Chibai and Chiban.
Chichiklik Pass.
Chien-ch’ang (Caindu). (See K’ien ch’ang.).
Chihli, plain of.
Chilaw.
Chiliánwála, battlefield of.
Chilu-ku, last Karakhitai king.
Chin, Sea of.
China,
    Imperial Maritime Customs Returns for 1900;
    Dominicans in;
    paved roads in;
    relations with Korea and Japan;
    the name;
    king of Malacca at Court of;
    trade from Arabia to;
    from Sofala in Africa.
    (See also Cathay and Manzi.).
Chinangli (T’sinan-fu).
Chinár, Oriental planes.
Chinchau, Chincheo, Chinchew, Chwanchew, Tswanchau, see Zayton.
Chinese,
    Polo ignorant of the languages;
    epigrams;
    funeral and mourning customs;
    feeling towards Kúblái;
    religion and irreligion;
    their politeness and filial piety;
    gambling;
    character for integrity;
    written character and varieties of dialect;
    ships;
    pagodas at Negapatam and elsewhere;
    coins found in Southern India;
    pottery;
    trade and intercourse with Southern India.
Chinghian-fu (Chinkiang-fu).
Chinghiz Khan,
    reported to be a Christian;
    Aung Khan’s saying of;
    his use of Uíghúr character;
    Erzrum taken by;
    harries Balkh;
    captures Talikan;
    ravages Badakhshan;
    his respect for Christians;
    subjugates Kutchluk Khân;
    his campaigns in Tangut;
    Rubruquis’ account of;
    made king of the Tartars;
    his system of conquests;
    and Prester John;
    divining by twigs — presage of victory;
    defeats and slays Prester John;
    his death and burial-place;
    his aim at conquest of the world;
    his funeral;
    his army;
    defeats the Merkits;
    relations between Prester John’s and his families;
    the Horiad tribe;
    his prophecy about Kúblái;
    rewards his captains;
    captures Peking;
    defeats and slays Taiyang Khan;
    his alleged invasion of Tibet;
    his mechanical artillery;
    his cruelty;
    Table of Genealogy of his House.
Chinghiz Tora.
Ching-hoang tower at Hangchau-fu.
Chinginju (Chang-chau).
Chingintalas, province,
    its identification.
Chingkim, Chinkin, Chimkin, Kúblái’s favourite son and heir-apparent,
    his palace.
Chingsang, Ching-siang (Chinisan), title of a Chief Minister of State.
Chingting-fu (Acbaluc).
Chingtsu, or Yung-lo, Emperor.
Chíní, coarse sugar.
Chinju (Tinju).
Chin-tan, or Chínasthána, Chinese etymology of.
Chinuchi, Cunichi, Kúblái’s Masters of the Hounds.
Chipangu (Japan),
    account of Kúblái’s expedition v.;
    its disasters;
    history of expedition;
    relations with China and Korea.
Chitral.
Chloroxylon Dupada.
Cho-chau (Juju).
Choiach, the term.
Chola, or Sola-desam (Soli, Tanjore).
Chonka (Fo-kien), kingdom of,
    explanation of name.
Chonkwé
Chorcha, see Churchin
Christian, astrologers;
    churches in China, early;
    inscription of Singanfu;
    Alans in the Mongol service.
Christianity, attributed to Chinghizide princes,
    Kúblái’s views on.
—— former, of Socotra.
Christians, of the Greek rite, Georgians,
    and Russians;
    Jacobite and Nestorian, at Mosul;
    among the Kurds;
    and the Khalif of Baghdad — the miracle of the mountain and the
    one-eyed cobbler;
    Kashgar;
    in Samarkand;
    the miracle of the stone removed;
    Yarkand;
    Tangut;
    Chingintalas;
    Suh-chau;
    Kan-chau;
    in Chinghiz’s camp;
    Erguiul and Sinju;
    Egrigaia;
    Tenduc;
    Nayan and the Khan’s decision;
    at Kúblái’s Court;
    in Yun-nan;
    Cacanfu;
    Yang-chau;
    churches at Chin-kiang fu;
    at Kinsay;
    St. Thomas’;
    Coilum;
    Male and Female Islands;
    Socotra;
    Abyssinia and fire baptism;
    of the Girdle;
    in Lac (Wallachia).
Chrocho, the Rukh (q.v.).
Chronology and chronological data discussed,
    first journey of the Polos;
    war between Barka and Húlakú;
    Polos’ stay at Bokhara;
    their departure and their second journey from Acre;
    their return voyage and arrival in Persia;
    story of Nigudar;
    Hormuz princes;
    destruction of Ismailites;
    history of Chinghiz;
    Kúblái’s birth and accession;
    Nayan’ rebellion;
    visit to Yun-nan;
    battle with the king of Mien;
    wars between China and Burma;
    value of Indo–Chinese;
    conquest of S. China;
    capture of Siang-yang;
    Kúblái’s dealings with Japan;
    with Champa;
    Marco’s visit to Japan;
    Kúblái’s Java expedition;
    review of the Malay;
    events in Ma’bar;
    King Gondophares;
    cessation of Chinese navigation to India;
    Abyssinia;
    Kaidu’s wars;
    Mongol revolutions in Persia, notes from;
    wars of Toktai and Noghai.
    (see also Dates.)
Chrysostom.
Chuchu, in Kiang-si.
Chughis, see Jogis.
Chung–Kiang.
Chungkwé, “Middle Kingdom”.
Chung-tu, or Yen–King (Peking, see Cambaluc).
Ch’ura.
Churches, Christian, in Kashgar,
    Samarkand;
    Egrigaia;
    Tenduc;
    early, in China;
    Yang-chau;
    Chin-kiang fu;
    Kinsay;
    Zayton;
    St. Thomas’s;
    Coilum;
    Socotra.
Churchin, or Niuché, Churché, Chorcha (the Manchu Country).
Cielstan, Suolstan (Shúlistán).
Cinnamon, Tibet,
    Caindu;
    Ceylon;
    story in Herodotus of;
    Malabar.
Circumcision of Socotrans,
    forcible, of a bishop;
    of Abyssinians.
Cirophanes, or Syrophenes, story of.
Civet, of Sumatra.
Clement IV., Pope.
Clepsydra.
Cloves,
    in Caindu.
Coal (Polo’s blackstone),
    in Scotland in Middle Ages;
    in Kinsay.
Cobbler, the one-eyed, and the miracle of the mountain.
Cobinan (Koh–Banán).
Cocachin (Kúkáchin), the Lady.
Cochin–China, the mediaeval Champa (q.v.).
Coco-nut (Indian nut).
Coco Islands, of Hiuen T’sang.
Cocos Islands.
Coeur de Lion, his mangonels.
Coffins, Chinese, in Tangut.
Cogachin (Hukaji), Kúblái’s son, King of Carajan.
Cogatai.
Cogatal, a Tartar envoy to the Pope.
Coiganju (Hwaingan-fu).
Coilum (Kollam, Kaulam, Quilon), kingdom of,
    identity of meaning of name;
    Church of St. George at;
    modern state of;
    Kúblái’s intercourse with.
Coilumin, columbino, colomní, so-called Brazil-wood,
    ginger.
Coins of Cilician Armenia,
    of Mosul;
    Agathocles and Pantaleon;
    Seljukian with Lion and Sun;
    found at Siang–Yang;
    King Gondophares;
    Tartar heathen princes with Mahomedan and Christian formulae.
Coja (Koja), Tartar envoy from Persia to the Khan.
Cold, intense, in Kerman,
    in Russia.
“Cold Mountains”.
Coleridge, verses on Kúblái’s Paradise.
Coloman, province.
Colombino, see Coilumin.
Colon, see Coilum.
Colossal Buddhas, recumbent.
Columbum, see Coilum.
Columbus, Polo paralleled with,
    remarks on.
Comania, Comanians.
Comari, Comori (Cape Comorin, Travancore),
    temple at.
Combermere, Lord, prophecy applied to.
Comercque, Khan’s custom-house.
Compartments, in hulls of ships.
Compass, Mariner’s.
Competitive Examinations in beauty.
Conchi, King of the North.
Concubines, how the Khan selects.
Condor, its habits,
    Temple’s account of;
    Padre Bolivar’s of the African.
Condur and Sondur.
Condux, sable or beaver.
Conia, Coyne (Iconium).
Conjeveram.
Conjurers, the Kashmirian,
    weather-;
    Lamas’ ex-feats.
    (see also Sorcerers.).
Conosalmi (Kamasal).
Constantinople,
    Straits of.
Convents, see Monasteries.
Cookery, Tartar horse.
Cooper, T.T., traveller on Tibetan frontier.
Copper, token currency of Mahomed Tughlak,
    imported to Malabar;
    to Cambay.
Coral, valued in Kashmir, Tibet, etc.
Corea (Kauli).
Corn, Emperor’s store and distribution of.
Coromandel (Maabar), see Mabar.
Corsairs, see Pirates.
Corte del Milione, see Ca’ Polo.
—— Sabbionera at Venice.
Cosmography, mediaeval.
Costus.
Cotan, see Khotan.
Cotton, stuffs of,
    at Merdin;
    in Persia;
    at Kashgar;
    Yarkand;
    Khotan;
    Pein;
    Bengal;
    bushes of gigantic size.
Counts in Vokhan,
    at Dofar.
Courts of Justice, at Kinsay.
Couvade, custom of.
Cow-dung, its use in Maabar.
Cowell, Professor.
Cowries (porcelain shells, pig shells), used for money, etc.,
    procured from Locac.
Cralantur, its meaning (?).
Cramoisy (quermesis).
Cranes, five kinds of.
Crawford, John.
Cremation,
    in Middle Ages.
Cremesor, Hot Region (Garmsir).
Çribhõja (Çribhôdja), country.
Crocodiles, see Alligators.
Cross, legend of the Tree of the,
    gibes against, on Nayan’s defeat;
    on monument at Singanfu.
Crossbows.
Cruelties, Tartar.
Crusca MS. of Polo.
Cubeb pepper.
Cubits, astronomical altitude estimated by.
Cublay, see Kúblái.
Cucintana.
Cudgel, Tartars’ use of.
Cuiju (Kwei-chau), province.
Cuinet, Vital, on Turkman villages,
    on Mosul Kurds.
Cuirbouly.
Cuju.
Cuncun (Han–Chung) province.
Cunningham, General A.
Cups, flying.
Curds and Curdistan.
Currency, copper token, in India,
    salt;
    leather;
    Cowrie, see Cowries.
Currency, paper, in China,
    attempt to institute in Persia;
    alluded to.
Current, strong south along East Coast of Africa.
Currents, Cape of, or Corrientes.
Curtains, Persian.
Curzola Island, Genoese victory at,
    Polo’s galley at;
    map of.
Curzon, Lord,
    list of Pamirs.
—— Hon. R., on invention of printing.
Customs, Custom-houses.
Cutch pirates.
Cuxstac, Kuhestec.
Cuy Khan (Kuyuk).
Cycle, Chinese.
Cynocephali, the.
Cypresses, sacred, of the Magians.
Cyprus.
Cyrus, his use of camels in battle near Sardis.

Dabul.
Dadián, title of Georgian kings.
Da Gama.
Dagroian, kingdom of, in Sumatra,
    probable position of.
Dailiu (Tali).
Daïtu, Taidu, Tatu (Peking), Kúblái’s new city of Cambaluc.
Dakiánus, city of (Camadi).
Dalada, tooth relique of Buddha.
Dalai Lama, with four hands.
D’Alboquerque.
Dalivar, Dilivar, Diláwar (Lahore), a province of India.
Dalmian.
Damas.
Damascus,
    siege of.
Damasks, with cheetas in them,
    with giraffes.
    (see also Patterns.).
Damghan.
Dancing dervishes.
Dancing girls, in Hindu temples.
Dandolo, Andrea, Admiral of Venetian fleet at Curzola,
    his captivity and suicide;
    funeral at Venice.
D’Anghieria, Pietro Martire.
Dantapura.
Dante, number of MSS.,
    does not allude to Polo;
    Convito.
D’Anville’s Map.
Darábjird.
Darah.
Dárápur.
Dardas, stuff embroidered in gold.
Dariel, Pass of (Gate of the Alans).
Darius,
    the Golden King.
Dark Ocean of the South.
Darkness, magical.
—— land of,
    how the Tartars find their way out;
    the people and their peltry;
    Alexander’s legendary entrance into;
    Dumb trade of.
Darráj, black partridge, its peculiar call.
Darúná, salt mines.
Darwaz.
Dasht, or Plain, of Bahárak.
Dashtáb, hot springs.
Dasht-i-Lut (Desert of Lút).
Dashtistan tribe and district.
Dates (chronology) in Polo’s book, generally erroneous.
—— (trees or fruit),
    Basra;
    Bafk;
    Reobarles, province;
    Formosa Plain;
    Hormos;
    wine of;
    diet of fish, etc.
Daughters of Marco Polo.
D’Avezac, M.
David, king of Abyssinia.
David, king of Georgia (Dawith).
Davids, Professor T.W. Rhys, Buddhist Birth Stories.
Davis, Sir John F.
Dawaro.
Daya.
Dead, disposal of the, in Tangut,
    at Cambaluc;
    in Coloman;
    in China;
    in Dagroian;
    by the Battas.
—— burning of the, see Cremation.
    eating the, see Cannibalism.
De Barros,
    on Java;
    Singhapura;
    Janifs.
Debt, singular arrest for.
Decima, or Tithe on bequest.
Decimal organisation of Tartar armies.
Decius, Emperor.
Degháns, Dehgáns.
Dehánah, village.
Deh Bakri.
De la Croix, Pétis.
Delhi, Sultans of.
D’Ely, Mount, see Eli.
Demoiselle Crane, anthropoides virgo.
Deogir.
Derbend, Wall of (see also Iron Gate of.).
Deserts, haunted.
Deserts of Kerman or of Lút,
    of Khorasan;
    of Charchan;
    Lop (Gobi);
    Kharakorum.
Desgodins, Abbé.
Despina Khatun.
Devadási.
Devapattan.
Devéria, G.
Devil-dancing.
Devil trees.
Devils, White.
D’Evreux, Father Yves.
Dhafar (Dofar, Thafar),
    its incense;
    two places of the name.
Dhárani, mystic charms.
Dhúlkarnain (Alex.), see Zulkarnain.
Dialects, Chinese.
Diamonds in India, how found,
    mines of;
    diffusion of legend about.
“Diex Terrien”.
Diláwar, Polo’s Dihar.
Dimitri II., Thawdadebuli, king of Georgia.
Dínár, see Bezant.
Dinár of Red Gold.
Dinh Tiên-hwàng, king of An-nam.
Diocletian.
Dioscorides insula.
Dir, chief town of Panjkora.
Dirakht-i-Fazl.
Dirakht-i-Kush.
Diráwal, ancient capital of the Bhattis.
Dirhem–Kub, Shah Mahomed, founder of Hormuz dynasty.
Dish of Sakya or of Adam.
Diu City.
Diul–Sind, Lower Sind.
Divination by twigs or arrows.
Dixan, branding with cross at.
Dizabulus, pavilion of.
Dizful River.
Djao (Chao) Namian Sumé (Kaipingfu).
Djaya, turquoises.
Doctors at Kinsay.
Dofar, see Dhafar.
Dogana,
    conjectures as to.
Doghábah River.
Dog-headed races.
Dogs, the Khan’s mastiffs,
    of Tibet;
    fierce in Cuiju.
Dog-sledging in Far North,
    notes on dogs.
Dolfino, Ranuzzo, husband of Polo’s daughter, Moreta.
Dolonnúr.
Dominicans, sent with Polos but turn back.
D’ or plain, the expression.
Dorah Pass.
Doria, family at Meloria.
—— Lampa,
    Admiral of Genoese Fleet sent to Adriatic;
    his victory;
    his tomb and descendants;
    at Meloria with six sons.
—— Octaviano, death of.
—— Tedisio, exploring voyage of.
Dorjé.
D’Orléans, Prince Henri.
Douglas, Rev. Dr. C.
Doyley, Sir Fulke.
Dragoian (Ta-hua-Mien).
Draps entaillez.
Drawers, enormous, of Badakhshan women.
Dreams, notable.
Drums, sound of in certain sandy districts.
Dryabalanops Camphora.
Dua Khan.
Du Bose, Rev. H.C.
Ducat, or sequin.
Dudley, Arcano del Mare.
Duel, mode in S. India of.
Dufour, on mediaeval artillery.
Duhalde, Plan of Ki-chau,
    or T’si-ning chau.
Dukuz Khatun.
Dulcarnon (Zulkarnain).
Dulites.
Dumas, Alexander.
Dumb trade.
Duncan, Rev. Moir.
Dungen (Tungani), or converts.
Duplicates in geography.
Dupu.
Dürer’s Map of Venice, so-called.
Durga Temple.
Dursamand.
Dúsháb, sweet liquor or syrup.
Dust-storms.
Duties, on Great Kiang,
    on goods at Kinsay and Zayton;
    on horses;
    at Hormuz.
    (See also Customs.).
Dutthagamini, king of Ceylon.
Dwara Samudra.
Dzegun-tala, name applied to Mongolia.
Dzungaria.

Eagle mark on shoulder of Georgian kings.
Eagles, trained to kill large game.
—— white, in the Diamond Country.
Eagle-wood, origin of the name. (See Lign-aloes.).
Earth honoured.
East, its state, circa, 1260.
Ebony (bonus).
Edkins, Rev.
Edward I.
Edward II., correspondence with Tartar princes.
Effeminacy, in Chinese palaces.
Eggs of Ruc and Aepyornis.
Egrigaia, province.
Ela (cardamom).
Elchidai.
Elenovka.
Elephantiasis.
Elephants, Kúblái carried on a timber bartizan by four,
    Kúblái’s;
    the king of Mien’s;
    numbers of men alleged to be carried by;
    how the Tartars routed;
    wild
    in Caugigu;
    Champa;
    Locac;
    Sumatra;
    Madagascar and Zanghibar;
    trade in teeth of;
    carried off by the Ruc;
    in Zanghibar;
    used in war;
    an error;
    Nubian;
    fable about;
    not bred in Abyssinia;
    training of African;
    war of the.
Eli, Ely, Elly (Hili), kingdom of.
Elias, Ney.
Elixir vitae of the Jogis.
Elliot, Sir Walter.
Emad, Ed-din Abu Thaher, founder of the Kurd dynasty.
Embroidery of silk at Kerman,
    leather in Guzerat.
Empoli, Giovanni d’.
Empusa, the Arabian Nesnás.
Enchanters, at Socotra.
Enchantments, of the Caraonas.
    (See also Conjurers, Socerers.).
Engano Island, legend.
Engineering feat.
Engineers, their growing importance in Middle Ages.
England, Kúblái’s message to king of,
    correspondence of Tartar princes with kings of.
English trade and character in Asia.
Enlightenment, Land of.
Erba, poisonous plant or grass.
Erculin, Arculin (an animal).
Erdeni Tso (Erdenidsu), or Erdeni Chao Monastery.
Eremites (Rishis), of Kashmir.
Erguiul, province.
Erivan.
Erkeun, (Ye li ke un), Mongol for Christians.
Ermine.
Erzinjan, Erzinga, Eriza (Arzinga).
Erzrum (Arziron).
Eschiel, the word.
Esher (Shehr, Es-shehr),
    trade with India, incense, Ichthyophagi;
    singular sheep.
Essentemur (Isentimur), Kúblái’s grandson, king of Carajan.
Estimo, Venetian, or forced loan.
Etchmiadzin Monastery.
Ethiopia and India, confused.
Ethiopian sheep.
Etiquette of the Mongol Court.
Etymologies,
    Balustrade;
    buckram;
    Avigi;
    Geliz (Ghellé);
    Jatolic;
    muslin;
    baudekins;
    cramoisy;
    ondanique;
    zebu;
    carbine;
    Dulcarnon;
    balas;
    azure and lazuli;
    None;
    Mawmet and Mummery;
    salamander;
    berrie;
    barguerlac;
    S’ling;
    siclatoun;
    Argon;
    Tungani;
    Guasmul;
    chakór;
    Jádú and Yadah;
    Tafur;
    Bacsi;
    Sensin;
    P’ungyi;
    carquois;
    Keshikán;
    vernique;
    camut, borgal, shagreen;
    Chinuchi or Chunichi;
    Toscaol;
    Bularguchi;
    Fondaco;
    Bailo;
    comerque;
    porcelain;
    Sangon;
    Faghfur;
    Manjanik, mangonel, mangle, etc.;
    galingale;
    Chini and Misri;
    Satin;
    eagle-wood, aloes-wood;
    Bonús, Calamanz;
    benzoni;
    china pagoda;
    Pacauca;
    Balanjar, a-muck;
    Pariah;
    Govi;
    Avarian;
    Abraiaman;
    Choiach;
    proques;
    Tembul and Betel;
    Sappan and Brazil;
    Balladi;
    Belledi;
    Indigo baccadeo;
    Gatpaul, baboon;
    Salami cinnamon;
    [Greek: kómakon];
    rook (in chess);
    Aranie;
    Erculin and Vair;
    Miskál.
—— (of Proper Names),
    Curd;
    Dzungaria;
    Chingintalas;
    Cambuscan;
    Oirad;
    Kungurat;
    Manzi;
    Bayan;
    Kinsay;
    Japan;
    Sornau;
    Narkandam;
    Ceylon;
    Ma’bar;
    Chilaw;
    Mailapúr;
    Sônagarpattanam;
    Punnei-Káyal, Káyal;
    Kollam (Coilum);
    Hili (Ely);
    Cambaet;
    Mangla and Nebila;
    Socotra;
    Colesseeah;
    Caligine;
    Aijaruc;
    Nemej.
—— Chinese.
Etzina.
Eunuchs,
    procured from Bengal.
Euphrates,
    said to flow into the Caspian.
Euphratesia.
Euxine, see Black Sea.
Evelyn’s Diary.
Execution of Princes of the Blood, mode of.
Eyircayá.

Facen, Dr. J.
Faghfur (Facfur, Emperor of Southern China),
    meaning of title;
    his effeminate diversions;
    decay of his palace.
Faizabad in Badakhshan.
Fakanúr.
Fakata.
Fakhruddin Ahmad, Prince of Hormuz.
Falconers, Kúblái’s.
Falcons, of Kerman,
    Saker and Lanner;
    peregrine;
    Kúblái’s.
Famine, horrors.
Fanchán, P’ingchang, title of a second class Cabinet Minister.
Fanchan Lake.
Fan-ching, siege of.
Fandaraina.
Fang, see Squares.
Fansur, in Sumatra, kingdom of.
Fansuri camphor.
Fan Wen-hu, or Fan-bunko, a General in Japanese Expedition.
Fariab, or Pariab.
Faro of Constantinople.
Farriers, none in S. India.
Fars, province.
Fashiyah, Atabeg dynasty.
Fassa.
Fasting days, Buddhist.
Fattan, in Ma’bar.
Fatten, ‘Ali Sháh.
Fausto, Vettor, his Quinquereme.
Fazl, Ibn Hassan (Fazluïeh-Hasunïeh).
Feili, Lurs dynasty.
Female attendants on Chinese Emperors.
Ferlec, in Sumatra, kingdom of (Parlák),
    Hill people.
Fernandez, or Moravia, Valentine.
Ferrier, General.
Festivals, Order of the Kaan’s.
Fiag, or Pog River.
Ficus Vasta.
Fidáwí, Ismailite adepts.
Filial Piety in China.
Filippi, Professor F. de, Silk industry in Ghílán.
Finn.
Fiordelisa, daughter of younger Maffeo Polo.
—— supposed to be Nicolo Polo’s second wife.
—— wife of Felice Polo.
Firando Island.
Firdús, Ismailite Castle.
Firdúsí.
Fire, affected by height of Pamir Plain,
    regulations at Kinsay.
Fire-baptism, ascribed to Abyssinians.
Fire-Pao (cannon?).
Fire-worship, or rockets, in Persia,
    by the Sensin in Cathay.
Firishta, the historian.
Fish miracle in Georgia,
    in the Caspian;
    and date diet;
    supply at Kinsay;
    food for cattle;
    stored for man and beast.
Fish-oil, used for rubbing ships.
Florin, or ducat.
Flour (Sago), trees producing.
Flückiger, Dr.
Fog, dry.
Fo-kien, see Fu-chau.
Folin (Byzantine Empire).
Fondaco.
Foot-mark on Adam’s Peak, q.v..
Foot-posts in Cathay.
Forg.
Formosa, Plain (Harmuza).
Forsyth, Sir T. Douglas.
Fortune, R.
Foundlings, provision for.
Four-horned sheep.
Fowls with hair.
Foxes, black.
Fozlán, Ibn.
Fra terre (Interior).
Fracastoro, Jerome.
Franciscan converts,
    in Volga region
    at Yang-chau;
    Zayton.
Francolin (darráj of the Persians), black partridge.
Frankincense, see Incense.
Frederic II., Emperor,
    his account of the Tartars;
    story of implicit obedience;
    his cheetas;
    his leather money;
    his giraffe.
French,
    the original language of Polo’s Book;
    its large diffusion in that age.
French Expedition up the Kamboja River.
Frenchmen, riding long like.
French mission and missionaries in China.
Frère charnel.
Frere, Sir B.
Froissart.
Fu-chau (Fo-kien, Fuju),
    paper-money at;
    wild hill people of;
    its identity;
    language of;
    tooth relique at.
Fuen (Fen) ho River.
Funeral rites, Chinese,
    in Tangut;
    of the Kaans;
    at Kinsay.
    (See also Dead.).
Fungul, city of.
Furs, of the Northern Regions.
Fusang, Mexico (?).
Fuyang.
Fuzo, see Fu-chau.

Gabala, Bishop of.
Gagry, maritime defile of.

Gaisue, officer of Kúblái’s Mathematical Board.
Galeasse, Venetian gallery.
Galingale.
Galletti, Marco.
Galleys of the Middle Ages, war,
    arrangement of rowers;
    number of oars;
    dimensions;
    tactics in fight;
    toil in rowing;
    strength and cost of crew;
    staff of fleet;
    Joinville’s description of;
    customs of.
Galley-slaves not usual in Middle Ages.
Gambling, prohibited by Kúblái.
Game, see Sport.
Game Laws, Mongol.
Game, supplied to Court of Cambaluc.
Ganapati Kings.
Gandar, Father.
Gandhára,
    Buddhist name for Yun-nan.
Ganfu, port of Kinsay.
Ganja, gate of.
Gan-p’u.
Gantanpouhoa, Kúblái’s son.
Gantûr.
Gardenia, fruit and dyes.
Gardiner’s (misprinted Gardner’s) Travels.
Gardner, C.
Garmsir, Ghermseer (Cremesor), Hot Region.
Garnier, Lieut. Francis (journey to Talifu).
Garrisons, Mongol, in Cathay and Manzi,
    disliked by the people.
Garuda.
Gate of Iron, ascribed to Derbend.
Gates, of Kaan’s palace,
    of Cambaluc;
    of Somnath.
Gat-pauls, Gatopaul, Gatos-paulas.
Gatto maimone.
Gauenispola Island.
Gaur (Bos Gaurus, etc.).
Gauristan.
Gavraz villages.
Gazaria.
Gedrosi.
Gelath in Imeretia, Iron Gate at.
Geliz, Spanish for silk dealer.
Genealogy of Polos,
    errors as given by Barbaro, etc., in;
    tabular;
    of House of Chinghiz.
Genoa, Polo’s captivity at.
—— and Pisa, rivalry, and wars of.
—— and Venice, rivalry and wars of.
Genoese, their growth in skill and splendour,
    character as seamen by poet of their own;
    character by old Italian author;
    capture of Soldaia;
    their navigation of the Caspian;
    trade in box-wood;
    their merchants at Tabriz;
    in Fo-kien.
Gentile Plural names converted into local singulars.
Geographical Text of Polo’s Book constantly quoted,
    its language;
    proofs that it is the original;
    tautology;
    source of other texts.
George (Jirjis, Yurji, Gurgán), king of Tenduc,
    of the time of Prester John;
    a possible descendant of.
Georgia (Georgiana), beauty of,
    and its inhabitants;
    their kings.
Gerfalcons (Shonkár);
    tablets engraved with.
Gerini, Colonel.
German Follower of the Polos.
Ghaissuddin Balban (Asedin Soldan), Sultan of Delhi.
Gháran country, ruby mines in.
Gházán (Casan) Khan of Persia, son of Arghún,
    his regard for the Polos;
    marries the Lady Kukachin;
    his mosque at Tabriz;
    set to watch the Khorasan frontier;
    obtains the throne;
    his object and accomplishments.
Ghel, or Ghelan (Ghel-u-chelan), Sea of, Caspian Sea.
Ghellé (Gílí), silk of the Gíl province.
Ghes, or Kenn (formerly Kish or Kais).
Ghez tree.
Ghiuju.
Ghiyas ed-din, last Prince of Kurd dynasty.
Ghori, or Aksarai River.
Ghúls, goblins.
Ghúr.
Giglioli, Professor H.
Gíl, or Gílán, province.
Gilgit.
Gill, Captain (River of Golden Sand).
Ginao, Mt. and Hot Springs.
Gindanes of Herodotus.
Ginger,
    Shan-si;
    Caindu;
    alleged to grow in Kiangnan;
    Fuju;
    Coilum;
    different qualities and prices of;
    Ely;
    Malabar;
    Guzerat.
Giraffes,
    mediaeval notices of.
Girardo, Paul.
Girdkuh, an Ismailite fortress, its long defence.
Girls, consecrated to idols in India.
Gittarchan, see Astrakhan.
Glaza (Ayas, q.v.).
Gleemen and jugglers, conquer Mien.
Goa.
Gobernador, Straits of.
Goës, Benedict.
Gog and Magog (Ung and Mungul),
    legend of;
    rampart of;
    country of;
    name suggested by Wall of China.
Gogo.
Goître at Yarkand.
Golconda diamond mines.
Gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh, their mystic meaning.
Gold dust in Tibet,
    exchanged for salt in Caindu;
    Brius River;
    in Kin-shia-Kiang;
    and nuggets in Carajan;
    abundant in Yun-nan;
    Caugigu;
    Coloman;
    infinite in Chipangu;
    in Sea of Chin Islands;
    dust in Gulf of Cheinan Islands;
    not found in Java;
    in Locac;
    the Malayo–Siamese territories;
    Sumatra;
    vast accumulations in South India;
    imported into Malabar;
    and into Cambay;
    purchased in Socotra.
Gold and silver towers of Mien.
—— cloths of. (See Silk and Gold.).
—— of the Gryphons in Herodotus.
—— Teeth (Zardandan), Western Yun-nan.
—— to silver, relative value of.
Golden King and Prester John, tale of the.
—— Island.
—— Horde (kings of the Ponent).
Golfo, Indigo di.
Gomispola, Gomispoda, see Gauenispola.
Gomushtapah, Wall of.
Gomuti palm.
Gondophares, a king in the St. Thomas legends.
Gordon’s “Ever Victorious Army”.
Gordun Sháh.
Göring, F.
Goriosan.
Gor Khar, wild ass.
Goshawks,
    black.
Gothia (Crimean),
    its limit and language.
Govy, a low caste in Maabar.
Goza.
Gozurat, see Guzerat.
Grail, Buddhist parallel to the Holy.
Granaries, Imperial.
Grapes in Shan-si.
Grass-cloths.
Grasso, Donato.
Great Bear (Meistre),
    and Little, force of, and application of these epithets.
Great, or Greater Sea (Black Sea).
Greece, Bactria’s relation to.
Greek fire.
Greeks, in Turcomania,
    and Greek tongue in Socotra;
    possible relic of.
Green, Rev. D.D.
—— Island, legendary.
—— Islands.
—— Mount, Cambaluc.
—— R., see Tsien Tang.
Gregorieff, his excavations at Sarai.
Gregory X., Pope, see Theobald of Piacenza.
Grenard.
Grioni, Zanino.
Griut (kurut), sour-curd.
Groat, Venetian grosso.
Groot, Professor, J.J.M. de.
Grote, Arthur.
Grueber and Dorville, Jesuit travellers.
Grus, cinerea, antigone, leucogeranus, monachus.
Gryphon, see Rue.
Guasmul (Basmul), half-breeds.
Guchluk.
Gudar (village).
Gudderi, musk animals, Tibet.
Gudran.
Guebers, the.
Gujáh, Húlákú‘s chief secretary.
Gugal, bdellum.
Guilds of craftsmen at Kinsay.
—— Venetian.
Guinea-fowl.
Guions, a quasi-Tibetan tribe.
Gumish–Khának, silver mines.
Gunpowder.
Gurgan, a Tartar chief.
Gurgan, son-inlaw, a title.
Gur–Khan of Karacathay.
Gutturals, Mongol elision of.
Guz=100.
Guzerat (Gozurat),
    products, mediaeval architecture and dress;
    work.

Haast, Dr., discovers a fossil Rue.
Habíb-ullah of Khotan.
Habsh (Abash), see Abyssinia.
Hadhramaut (Sessania Adrumetorum).
Hadiah.
Haffer.
Hai-nan, Gulf of.
—— language of.
Hairy men in Sumatra.
Hajji Mahomed.
Hakeddin.
Half-breeds, see Argon.
Hamd Allah Mastaufi, the geographer.
Hamilton, Captain Alexander.
Hammer–Purgstall on Marco Polo.
Hamúm Arabs.
Hamza of Ispahan.
Hamza Pantsúri, or Fantsúri.
Hanbury, D.
Han-chung (Cuncun).
Hang-chau fu, see Kinsay.
Han dynasty.
—— River.
Hanjam.
Han-kau.
Hansi.
Han Yu.
Harám.
Harhaura, W. Panjáb.
Harlez, Mgr. de.
Hármozeia.
Harpagornis, fossil Ruc.
Harran.
Harshadeva, king of Kashmir.
Harsuddi, temple of.
Haru, or Aru.
Hashíshín, see Assassins.
Hasik.
Hassán Kalá, hot springs at.
Hassan, son of Sabah, founder of the Ismailites.
Hastings, Warren, letter of.
Hatan, rebellion of.
Haunted deserts.
Havret, Father H.
Hawáríy (Avarian), the term.
Hawks, hawking in Georgia,
    Yezd and Kerman;
    Badakhshan;
    Etzina;
    among the Tartars;
    on shores and islands of Northern Ocean
    Kúblái’s sport at Chagannor;
    in mew at Chandu;
    trained eagles;
    Kúblái’s establishment of;
    in Tibet;
    Sumatra;
    Maabar.
Hayton I. (Hethum), king of Lesser Armenia,
    his autograph.
Hazáras, the, Mongol origin of,
    lax custom ascribed to.
Hazbana, king of Abyssinia.
Heat, great at Hormuz,
    in India.
Heaven, City of (Kinsay).
Hedin, Dr. Sven.
Heibak, caves at.
Height, effects on fire of great.
Heikel, Professor Axel, on Buddhist monasteries in the Orkhon.
Hei-shui (Mongol Etsina) River.
Hel, Ela (Cardamom).
Helena, Empress.
Helli, see Eli.
He-lung Kiang.
Hemp of Kwei-chau.
Henry II., Duke of Silesia.
Henry III.
Heraclius, Emperor,
    said to have loosed the shut-up nations.
Herat.
Hereditary trades.
Hereford, Map.
Hermenia, see Armenia.
Hermits of Kashmir.
Herodotus.
Hethum, see Hayton.
Hiai — or Kiai-chau (Caichu?).
Hides (See Leather.).
Hili, Hili–Marawi, see Ely.
Hill-people of Fo-kien, wild.
Hinaur, see Hunáwar.
Hind.
Hindu character, remarks on frequent eulogy of.
—— Kush.
Hindus, their steel and iron.
—— in Java.
Hing-hwa, language of.
Hippopotamus’ teeth.
Hips, admiration of large.
Hirth, Dr. F.
Hiuan–Tsung, Emperor.
Hiuen Tsang, Dr., a Buddhist monk.
Hochau, in Sze-chwan, Mangku Khan’s death at.
—— in Kansuh.
Hochung-fu (Cachanfu).
Hodgson, Mr.
Hoernle, Dr.
Hojos.
Hokien-fu (Cacanfu).
Hokow, or Hokeu.
Holcombe, Rev. C.,
    on Hwai-lu;
    on Yellow River;
    on Pia-chau fu;
    on road from T’ung-kwan to Si-ngan fu.
Hollingworth, H.G.
Holy Sepulchre,
    oil from lamp of.
Homeritae.
Homi-cheu, or Ngo-ning.
Homme, its technical use.
Hondius map.
Ho-nhi, or Ngo-ning (Anin) tribe (See Homi-cheu.).
Hooker, Sir Joseph, on bamboo explosion.
Horiad (Oirad, or Uirad) tribe.
Hormuz (Hormos, Curmosa),
    trade with India;
    a sickly place;
    the people’s diet;
    ships;
    great heat and fatal wind;
    crops, mourning customs;
    the king of;
    another road to Kerman from;
    route from Kerman to;
    site of the old city;
    foundation of;
    history of;
    merchants;
    horses exported to India from;
    the Melik of.
—— Island, or Jerun,
    Organa of Arian.
Hormuzdia.
Horns of Ovis Poli.
Horoscopes, in China,
    in Maabar.
Horse-posts and Post-houses.
Horses, Turkish,
    Persian;
    of Badakhshan, strain of Bucephalus;
    sacrificed at Kaans’ tombs;
    Tartar;
    and white mares;
    presented to Kaan on New Year’s Day;
    of Carajan;
    their tails docked;
    of Anin;
    tracking by;
    decorated with Yaks’ tails;
    now bred in S. India.
—— great trade and prices in importing to India from Persia,
    modes of shipment;
    from Carajan;
    from Anin;
    from Kis, Hormuz, Dofar, Soer, and Aden;
    Esher;
    Dofar;
    Calatu.
—— duty on,
    captured by pirates;
    their extraordinary treatment and diet in India.
Horse-stealing, Tartar laws.
Hosie, A.,
    on Ch’êng-tu;
    brine-wells of Pai-yen-ching;
    on the Si-fan;
    on Caindu Lake.
Hospitals, Buddhist.
Hostelries, at Cambaluc,
    on the Cathay post-roads;
    at Kinsay.
Hot springs in Armenia,
    near Hormuz.
Hounds, Masters of Kaan’s.
Hours, struck from Cambaluc bell-tower,
    at Kinsay;
    unlucky;
    canonical.
Hsi Hsia dynasty.
Hsiang-chên, Hsiang, wood.
Hu-chau fu (Vuju).
Hui-hui, white and black capped, two Mohammedan sects.
Hukaji (Hogáchi, Cogachin), Kúblái’s son.
Hukwan-hien.
Húlakú Khan (Alau, Alacan), Kúblái’s brother, and founder of Mongol
        dynasty in Persia,
    war with Barka Khan;
    takes Baghdad and puts Khalif to death;
    the Ismailites and the Old Man.
—— his treachery,
    his descendants;
    battle with Barca;
    his followers.
Hullukluk, village, near Sivas.
Human fat, used for combustion in war.
—— sacrifices.
Humáyún, Emperor.
Humboldt.
Hunáwar (Onore, Hinaur).
Hundred Eyes, prophecy of the.
Hundwáníy (ondanique), Indian steel.
Hungary, Hungarians.
Hung Hao, Chinese author.
Hun-ho (Sanghin River).
Hunting equipment and Expedition, Kúblái’s,
    Kang-hi’s.
—— preserves. (See also Sport.).
Hutton, Captain.
Hwa-chau.
Hwai-lu, or Hwo-lu-h’ien (Khavailu), the Birmingham of N. Shansi.
Hwai-ngan-fu (Coiganju).
Hwai River.
Hwang-ho (Yellow River),
    changes in its courses;
    its embankments.
Hwan-ho.
Hyena.
Hyrcania, king of.

Iabadiu.
Ibn-al-Furát.
Ibn Batuta (Moorish traveller, circa A.D. 1330–1350),
    his account of Chinese juggling;
    his account of Khansa (Kinsay);
    of Zayton;
    in Sumatra;
    on Camphor;
    in Ceylon;
    at Kaulam;
    in Malabar;
    sees Rukh;
    his account of Maldives;
    dog-sledges;
    Market in Land of Darkness;
    on Silver Mines of Russia.
Ibn Fozlán, see Fozlán.
Ichin-hien.
Ichthyophagous cattle and people.
Icon Amlac, king of Abyssinia.
Iconium (Kuniyah, Conia).
Idolatry (Buddhism) and Idolaters,
    in Kashmir;
    their decalogue;
    Pashai;
    Tangut;
    Kamul;
    Kanchau;
    Chingintalas;
    Suhchau;
    Etzina, their fasting days;
    Tartars and Cathayans;
    Erguiul;
    Egrigaia;
    Tenduc;
    Chandu;
    at Kúblái’s birthday feast;
    Cachanfu;
    Kenjanfu;
    Acbalec Manzi;
    Sindafu;
    Tibet;
    Caindu;
    Yachi;
    Carajan;
    Zardandan;
    Mien;
    Caugigu;
    Coloman;
    Cuiju;
    Cacanfu;
    Chinangli;
    Sinjumatu;
    Coiganju;
    Paukin;
    Tiju;
    Nanghin;
    Chinghianfu;
    Tanpiju;
    Chipangu;
    Chamba;
    Sumatra;
    Nicobars;
    Mutfili;
    Coilum;
    Eli;
    Malabar;
    Tana;
    Cambaet;
    Semenat;
    Far North.
—— Origin of,
    of Brahmans;
    of Jogis.
Idols, Tartar,
    Tangut;
    colossal;
    of Cathay;
    of Bacsi or Lamas;
    of Sensin;
    of East generally;
    in India.
[Greek: Ieródouloi].
Ieu, Gnostics of.
Ifat, Aufat.
Ig, Ij, or Irej, capital of the Shawánkárs.
Igba Zion, Iakba Siun, king of Abyssinia.
Ilchi, commissioner.
Ilchi, modern capital of Khotan.
Ilchigadai Khan.
Ilija, hot springs at.
Ilkhan, the title.
Ilyáts, nomads of Persia.
Imáms of the Ismailites.
Im Thurn, Everard, on Couvade.
Incense, Sumatran,
    brown in West India;
    white (i.e. frankincense), in Arabia.
India,
    horse trade to;
    trade to Manzi or China from;
    believed to breed no horses;
    trade with Persia and Arabia;
    western limits of;
    islands of;
    division of;
    sundry lists of States;
    trade with Aden and Egypt;
    with Arabian ports;
    confusion of Ethiopia and.
India, the Greater.
—— its extent.
—— the Lesser.
—— Middle (Abyssinia).
—— remarks on this title.
—— Maxima.
—— Tertia.
—— Superior.
—— Sea of.
Indian drugs to prolong life.
—— geography, dislocation of Polo’s.
—— nuts, see Cocoa-nuts.
—— steel (ondanique).
Indies, the Three, and their distribution.
Indifference, religious, of Mongol Emperors.
Indigo, mode of manufacture at Coilum,
    in Guzerat;
    Cambay;
    prohibited by London Painters’ Guild.
Indo–China,
    States.
Indragiri River.
Infants, exposure of.
Ingushes of Caucasus.
Innocent IV., Pope.
Inscription, Jewish, at Kaifungfu.
Insult, mode of, in South India.
Intramural interment prohibited.
Invulnerability, devices for.
‘Irák.
Irghai.
Irish, accused of eating their dead kin.
—— M.S. version of Polo’s Book.
Iron, in Kerman,
    in Cobinan.
Iron Gate (Derbend Pass), said to have been built by Alexander,
    gate ascribed to.
Irtish River.
Isaac, king of Abyssinia.
Isabel, queen of Little Armenia.
Isabeni.
Isentemur (Sentemur, Essentemur), Kúblái’s grandson.
Ish, the prefix.
‘Ishin.
Ish-Káshm,
    dialect.
Iskandar, Shah of Malacca.
Islands, of the Indian Sea,
    of China;
    in the Gulf of Cheinan;
    Male and Female.
Isle d’Orleans.
Isle of Rubies (Ceylon).
Ismaïl, Shah of Persia.
Ismailites, see Assassins.
Ispahan (Istanit, Istan, Spaan), kingdom of Persia.
Israel in China, see Jews.
Iteration, wearisome.
I’tsing.
Ivongo.
Ivory trade.
Izzuddin Muzaffar, suggests paper-money in Persia.

Jacinth.
Jacobite Christians, at Mosul,
    at Tauris;
    Yarkand;
    perhaps in China.
Jacobs, Joseph, Barlaam and Josaphat.
Jadah or Yadah-Tásh.
Jade stone (jasper) of Khotan.
Jaeschke, Rev. H.A.
Jaffa, Count of, his galley.
Jaipál, Raja.
Jájnagar.
Jaláluddín of Khwarizm.
Jamáluddín-al-Thaibi, Lord of Kais.
Jamaluddin, envoy from Ma’bar to Khanbaligh.
Jambi River.
James of Aragon, king.
Jámisfulah (Gauenispola).
Jamúi Khátún,
    Kúblái’s favourite Queen;
    her kindness to the captured Chinese princesses.
Jangama sect.
Janibeg, Khan of Sarai.
Japan, see Chipangu.
Japanese paper-money.
Jaroslawl.
Jase, stitched vessel.
Jaspar (Gaspar), one of the Magi.
Jasper and chalcedony.
Jatolic, Játhalík, Jaselic, Gáthalík ([Greek: katholikós]).
Jauchau.
Jaúzgún, former captain of Badakhshan.
Java, the Great,
    described;
    circuit, empires in;
    Kúblái’s expedition against.
Java, the Greater and Lesser, meaning of these terms.
Java, the Less, see Sumatra.
Jawa, Jáwi,
    applied by Arabs to islands and products of the Archipelago generally.
Jaya–Sinhavarman II., king of Champa.
Jazirah.
Jehangír (Jehan, Shah).
Jenkinson, Anthony.
Jerún (Zarun), island, site of the later Hormuz.
Jerusalem.
Jesuit maps.
Jesujabus, Nestorian Patriarch.
Jews, their test of Mahomed’s prophetic character,
    shut up by Alexander;
    their connection with the Tartars;
    in China, their inscription at Kaifungfu;
    in Coilum;
    in Abyssinia.
Jibal.
—— Nakús, or “Hill of the Bell,” Sinai desert.
Jibal-ul-Thabúl, “Hill of Drums,” near Mecca.
Jiruft.
Jogis (Chughi).
John XXII., Pope.
Johnson, his visit to Khotan.
Johnston, Keith.
Johore, Sultan of.
Jon (Jihon, or Oxus) River.
Jordanus, Friar.
Jor-fattan (Baliapatan).
Josephus.
Jubb River.
Judi, Mount.
Jugglers, at Khan’s feasts,
    and gleemen conquer Mien.
Juggling extraordinary.
Juji, eldest son of Chinghiz.
Juju (Cho-chau).
Julman.
Junghuhn, on Batta cannibalism,
    on camphor trees.
Junks. (See also Ships.).
Jupár.
Justice, administration of Tartar.
Justinian, Emperor.
Juzgána (Dogana).

Kaan, and Khan, the titles.
Kaan, the Great, see Kúblái.
Kaans, the series of, and their burial place,
    massacre of all met by funeral party.
Kabul.
Kachkár (Ovis Vignei), wild sheep.
Kadapah.
Kafchi-kúe.
Káfirs of Hindu Kush,
    their wine.
Kahgyur, Tibetan Scripture.
Kahn-i-Panchur.
Kaidu (Caidu) Khan, Kúblái’s cousin and life-long opponent,
    plots with Nayan;
    his differences with Kúblái;
    and constant aggressions;
    his death;
    his victorious expedition v. Kúblái;
    Kúblái’s resentment;
    his daughter’s valour;
    sends a host v. Abaga.
Kaifung-fu, Jews and their synagogues there,
    siege of.
Kaikhátu (Kiacatu), Khan of Persia, seizes throne,
    his paper-money scheme;
    his death;
    his dissolute character.
Kaikhosru I. and III., Seljukian dynasty.
Kaïkobad I. and III.
Kaikus, Izz ed-din.
Káil, see Cail.
Káïn (Gháín), a city of Persia.
Kaipingfu (Keibung, Kaiminfu, Kemenfu).
Kairat-ul-Arab.
Kais, see Kish.
Kaisaríya (Caesaraea, Casaria).
Kajjala, or Khajlak, a Mongol leader.
Kakateya, dynasty.
Kakhyens, Kachyens, tribe in Western Yun-nan.
Kakula.
Kala’ Atishparastan (Cala Ataperistan), “The Castle of the
        Fire–Worshippers”.
Kala’ Safed.
Kalajan (Calachan).
Kalámúr.
Kalantan.
Kalchi, Kalakchi.
Kales Devar, king of Ma’bar,
    his enormous wealth.
Kalgan, or Chang-kia-keu.
Kalhát (Kalhátú, Calatu, Calaiate),
    described;
    idiom of.
Kalidása, the poet, on the Yak.
Kálikút.
Kálín, marriage prices.
Kalinga.
Kalinjar.
Kalmia angustifolia, poisonous.
Kamál Malik.
Kamárah, Komar.
Kamasal (Conosalmi), Kahn-i-asal, “The honey canal”.
Kambala, Kúblái’s grandson.
Kambáyat (Cambay).
Kamboja (Chinla).
Kampar, district and River, Buddhist ruins.
Kamul (Komal, Camul), the Mongol Khamil, Chinese Hami.
Kanat, or Karez, underground stream.
Kanát-ul-Shám (Conosalmi).
Kanauj.
Kanbalu Island.
Kancháu (Campichu).
Kandahár, Kandar, Ghandhára.
Kandy.
Kanerkes, or Kanishka, kingdom,
    coins of.
Kang-hi, Emperor.
Kank.
Kanp’u (Ganpu), old Port of Hang-chau.
Kansan, see Shensi.
Kansuh.
Kao Hoshang.
Kao–Tsung, Emperor.
Kao-yu (Cayu).
Kapilavastu.
Kapukada, Capucate.
Karábughá, Carabya, Calabra, a military engine.
Kará Hulun.
Karájáng (Carajan, or Yun-nan).
Karákásh (“black jade”) River.
Karákhitaian Empire.
—— Princes of Kerman.
Kará Khoja.
Karakorum (Caracoron).
Kara Kumiz, special kind of Kumiz.
Karámúren (Caramoran) River, Mongol name for the Hwang-ho, or Yellow River.
Karana, meaning of.
Karáni (vulgo Cranny).
Karanút, a Mongol sept.
Karaún Jidun, or Khidun.
Karaunahs (Caraonas), a robber tribe.
Karavat, an instrument for self-decollation.
Karens.
Karmathian, heretics.
Karnúl.
Karrah.
Karra-Mánikpúr.
Kartazonon, Karkaddan, rhinoceros.
Kasaidi Arabs.
Kash, jade.
Kashan.
Káshgar (Cascar),
    Chankans of.
Kashísh (Casses).
Kashmír (Keshimur),
    Buddhism;
    beauty of the women;
    conjurers;
    the language of;
    sorcery in.
Kashmiris.
Kasia, people and hills.
Kasyapa Buddha.
Kataghan, breed of horses.
Katar pirates.
Katif.
Kattiawár,
    pirates.
Kaulam, see Coilum.
Kaulam–Malé.
Kauli (Cauly), Corea.
Kaunchi (Conchi), Khan.
Káveripattanam.
Káveri River, delta of.
Kavir, saline swamp.
Kavváyi.
Káyal, Káil, see Cail.
—— Pattanam.
—— Punnei.
Kayten.
Kazan.
Kazáwinah.
Kazbek.
Kazvín (Casvin).
Keary, C.F.
Kebteul, night-watch.
Kehran.
Keiaz tribe.
Keibung (Kaipingfu).
Kelinfu (Kienning-fu), City, its bridges.
Kemenfu, see Kaipingfu.
Kenjanfu (Si-ngan fu).
Keraits, a great Tartar tribe.
Kerala.
Keria, see Kiria.
Keriza River.
Kermán,
    route to Hormus from;
    steel manufacture, its industries;
    king of, Atabeg of;
    stitched vessels of;
    desert of.
Kerulen (K’i-lien) valley, the Khans’ burial-ground.
Keshican (Keshikten), Kúblái’s life-guard.
Kesmacoran (Kij Makrán),
    Kij–Makrán.
Keuyung Kwan, village.
Khakán, the word.
Khalif (Calif) Mosta’Sim Billah of Baghdad,
    taken by Húlakú and starved to death;
    plot v. the Christians laid by a former — the miracle of the
        mountain;
    becomes secretly a Christian.
Khálij.
Khàm, stuff made with cotton thread.
Khambavati (Cambay).
Khanabad (Dogana?).
Khán Bádshah of Khotan.
Khánbalík, see Cambaluc.
Khanfu.
Khanikoff, N. de (travels in Persia).
Khanjár-i-Hundwán, hanger of Indian steel.
Khán-khánán, a title.
Khanoolla (Mount Royal), site of Chinghiz’s tomb.
Khansâ.
Kharesem, Mount.
Khato-tribe.
Khátún-gol, or “Lady’s River,” i.e. Hwang-ho.
Khatun title of Khan’s wives.
Khavailu (Hwo-lu h’ien).
Khazars, the.
Khilak.
Khimka.
Khinsa, Khingsai, Khinzai. (See Kinsay.).
Khitan, Khitai.
—— character.
—— dynasty of Liao.
Khmer.
Khodabanda, Ilkhan of Kermán.
Khojas, name of modern Ismailite sect.
Khorasan, province,
    turquoises of.
Khormuzda, supreme deity of the Tartars.
Khotan (Cotan),
    fruits;
    routes between China and;
    buried cities of;
    its jade.
Khumbavati (Cambay).
Khumdán.
Khusrú, Amír, Indian poet.
Khutuktai Setzen, Prince of the Ordos.
Khwarizm.
Kiacatu, see Kaikhátu.
Kiahing (Ciangan, Canigan).
Kiai — or Hiai-chau (Caichu).
Kiakhta.
Kia-k’ing, Emperor.
Kiang, the Great (Kian and Kian–Suy, and in its highest course Brius,
        the Kinsha Kiang),
    its vastness, and numerous craft;
    steamers on;
    its former debouchure to the south, and changes.
Kiang–Ché,
    limits of.
Kiang–Hung, Xieng–Hung.
Kiangka.
Kiang-mai, Xieng-mai, Zimmé.
Kiangshan.
Kiangsi.
Kiang-su.
Kiang-suy (-shui) River.
Kiangtheu.
Kiang–Tung.
Kiao-chi (Tungking), Chinese etymology of.
Kia Tsing, Emperor, a great bridge builder.
Kichau Castle.
Kieh–Ch’a.
K’ien-ch’ang, Kiung-tu (Caindu).
Kien-chau.
Kien-kwé.
Kien-lung, Emperor.
Kien-ning fu (Kelinfu).
Kiepert, Map of Asia.
Kij–Makrán (Kesmacoran).
Kila’-i-Gabr, “Gueber Castle”.
Kilimanchi River.
Kiming shan Mountains, gold and silver mines.
Kimiz, kumiz (kemiz), mare’s milk — Tartar beverage.
Kin, or Golden Dynasty in N. China,
    their paper-money;
    story of their Golden King.
Kincha, Chinese name for Kipchak.
Kin–Chi, or Gold–Teeth (Zardandan).
King of the Abraiaman.
—— of England, Kúblái’s message to,
    intercourse with Mongol princes.
—— of France, Kúblái’s message to.
—— of Spain, Kúblái’s message to.
—— Rev. C.W.
Kings of Maabar, the five brothers,
    their mother’s efforts to check their broils.
—— subordinate, or Viceroys, in China.
—— Tartar, of the Ponent.
Kingsmill, T.W.
King-tê-chên, porcelain manufacture.
K’ing-yüan (Ning-po).
Kin-hwa fu.
Kinki, Kimkhá.
Kinsay (King-szé, or “Capital,” Khansá, Khinsá, Khingsai, Khanzai,
        Cansay, Campsay),
    formerly Lin-ngan now Hang-chau fu;
    its surrender to Bayan;
    extreme public security;
    alleged meaning of the name;
    described;
    bridges;
    hereditary trades, guilds and wealthy craftsmen and their dainty wives;
    the lake, islands and garden-houses;
    stone-towers — inhabitants’ clothing and food;
    guards and police regulations;
    fires;
    alarm towers, paved streets;
    revenue;
    pavements, public baths, port of Ganfu;
    the province and other provinces of Manzi, garrisons;
    horoscopes, funeral rites;
    palace of the expelled king;
    church, house registers;
    hostel regulations;
    canals;
    markets and squares;
    fruits and fish shops;
    women of the town, physicians and astrologers, courts of justice;
    vast consumption of pepper;
    inhabitants’ character — their behaviour to women and foreigners;
    hatred of soldiers;
    pleasures on the lake and in carriage excursions;
    palace of the king;
    the king’s effeminacy and ruin;
    tides;
    plan of;
    notices by various writers of;
    wealth of;
    ships.
Kin-sha Kiang, “River of Golden Sands” (upper branch of Great Kiang,
        Brius).
Kinshan, see Golden Island.
Kinto, or Hintu, Mongol general.
Kipchak (Ponent), Southern Russia,
    events related by Polo in;
    sovereigns;
    people of;
    extent of empire.
Kirghiz Kazak.
Kirghiz, the.
Kiria.
Kirk, Sir John, and Raphia palm.
Kis, Kish, or Kais (Kisi), now Ghes, or Kem, island in Persian Gulf,
    merchants;
    described.
Kishik, Kishikan, Kizik, Keshikchi, see Keshican.
Kishm (Casem).
—— or Brakht (Oaracta), island in the Persian Gulf.
Kistna River.
Kitubuka, General.
Kiu-chau.
Kiulan (Quilon), see Coilum.
Kizil Irmak, the.
Kizil River.
Kneeling oxen.
Kobad, the Sassanian.
Kobdo.
Koh–Banán (Cobinan).
Koja (Coja), a Tartar envoy from Persia.
Kokcha River.
Kok–Tash, greenstone of Samarkand.
Kolastri, or Kolatiri Rajas.
Ko-li-ki-sze.
Kolkhoi of Ptolemy, identified.
Kollam, see Coilum.
Koloman, see Coloman.
Kolyma, bird-hunting at.
[Greek: Kómakon].
Komár.
[Greek: Komária ákron].
Konár tree, Marco Polo’s apples of Paradise.
Kondachi.
Konkan, Konkan–Tana.
Korano, epithet on Indo–Scythic coins.
Korea, History of.
Koresh king.
Kornish, or K’o-tow (Khén-théu).
Kosakio, a general against Japan.
Kosseir.
Kotcheres, Kurds of Mosul.
Kotlogh, or Kutlugh, Sultan of Kerman.
Kotlogh Shah, the Chaghataian prince.
Kotrobah Island.
Kouyunjik, sculptures at.
Kozlov, Lieutenant K.P., on the Lob-nor.
Kuang-chou.
Kúbenán (Cobinan), a Kuh-banán “Hill of the Terebinths or Wild Pistachios”.
Kúblái (Cublay), Káán, the Great Khán,
    his envoys meet the two elder Polos;
    receives and questions the Polos;
    sends them as envoys to the Pope;
    his desire for Christian teachers, and for oil from the lamp in the
    Holy Sepulchre;
    gives them a Golden Tablet;
    his reception of the three Polos;
    sends Marco on an embassy;
    Marco grows in favour;
    allows the Polos to depart with Tablets of Authority;
    rumour of his death;
    sends a napkin of asbestos to the Pope;
    his greatness and power;
    his milk libations;
    his inscription at Shangtu;
    Chinghiz’s prophecy;
    his lineage, age, and accession;
    Nayan’s revolt;
    Nayan’s defeat and death;
    rebukes anti-Christian gibes;
    returns to Cambaluc;
    treats four religions with equal respect;
    his views on Christianity;
    how he rewards his captains;
    his personal appearance;
    his wives and ladies-inwaiting;
    his palace at Cambaluc;
    builds Cambaluc city;
    his bodyguard;
    order of his feasts;
    celebration of his birthday;
    his distribution of robes;
    his New Year’s feast;
    his elephants;
    the K’o-tow;
    adopts Chinese ancestor-worship;
    his game laws;
    his hunting establishment;
    his masters of hounds;
    how he goes a-hunting;
    how his year is spent;
    Ahmad’s influence, oppression, and death;
    his treatment of Mahomedans;
    his mint and paper-money;
    his purchase of valuables;
    his twelve great Barons;
    his posts and runners;
    remission of taxes;
    his justice;
    a tree planter;
    his store of corn;
    charity to the poor;
    his astrologers;
    gaol deliveries, and prohibition of gambling;
    his early campaign in Yun-nan;
    and the king of Mien and Bangala;
    Litan’s plot;
    sends Bayan to invade Manzi;
    his dealings with Bayan;
    satisfied with the Polo’s mangonels;
    appoints Mar Sarghis governor of Chinghian-fu;
    the city of Kinsay;
    his revenue from Kinsay;
    from Zayton;
    his expedition against Chipangu (Japan);
    sends force against Chamba;
    attempts to gain Java;
    his death;
    sends to buy Ceylon ruby;
    sends for religions of Sakya;
    testifies to miraculous powers of Sakya’s dish;
    intercourse with Ma’bar;
    with Kaulam;
    missions to Madagascar;
    Kaidu’s wars with him.
—— Khan, territories and people subject to (Turkistan),
    (Tangut and Mongolia);
    (Tibetan frontier and Yun-nan);
    (Western China);
    (N. Eastern China);
    (Manzi);
    (Sinju);
    (Caiju);
    Chinghian-fu;
    (Chinginju);
    (Suju);
    (Tanpigu);
    (Chonka);
    (Zayton);
    (Chamba);
    (Sumatra).
Kuché character.
Kudatku Bilik, an Uíghúr poem.
Kuhistan, or Hill country of Persia.
Kúkachin, see Cocachin.
Kukin-Tána.
Kukju (Genkju), Kúblái’s son.
Kuku–Khotan (Blue Town), depôt for Mongolian trade with China.
Ku-kwan, Customs’ Barrier.
Kuláb, lions in,
    Salt Mines.
Kulán, Asinus Onager, the Gor Khar of Persia.
Kulasaikera.
Kumár, see Komár.
Kumhari, Kumari, see Comari.
Kumiz, kimiz (kemiz), Mare’s milk, Tartar beverage,
    sprinkling of.
Kummájar.
Kúnbúrn Monastery.
Kunduz.
Kunduz (beaver or sable).
Kunduz–Baghlán.
Kung-ki-cheng (Fei-ch’eng).
Kunguráts, Kunkuráts (Ungrat), a Mongol tribe.
Kunichi (Cunichi, or Chinuchi), “The Keepers of the Mastiff Dogs”.
Kuniyah (Conia), Iconium, Koniah.
Kunlun (Pulo Condore).
Kurd dynasty.
Kurdistan (Curdistan).
Kurds, the.
Kúreh-i-Ardeshír (Kuwáshír).
Kuria Maria Islands.
Kuridai, Kúblái’s son.
Kúrkah, great drum.
Kurmishi.
Kurshids of Lùristán.
Kurut (Curd).
Kus, Cos (in Egypt).
Kushluk, the Naiman.
Kutan, son of Okkodai.
Kutchluk Khan (Buddhist), Chief of the Naïmans.
Kutuktemur, Kúblái’s son.
Kutulun, Princess.
Kuwinji, see Kaunchi.
Kuyuk Khan.
Kwa-chau (Caiju), at mouth of Great Canabon Yang-tse-Kiang.
Kwan Hsien.
Kwansinfu.
Kwawa, i.e. Java, etymology.
Kwei-chau (Cuiju).
Kwei-hwa-ch’eng, or Kuku Khotan.
Kweilei River.
Kyung-sang province.

Lac (Wallachia), Lacz.
Ladies’ dresses in Badakhshan.
Ladies of Kinsay.
Lagong.
Lahore (Dalivar, Dilivar).
Lahsa.
Lájwurd mines.
Lake, Caindu.
—— Fanchau.
—— Kinsay.
—— of Palace at Cambaluc.
—— Pleasure parties on.
—— Talifu.
—— Yunnan-fu.
Laknaoti.
Lakshamana Deva, king of Kashmír.
Lamas of Tibetan Buddhism;
    their superstitions and rites;
    their monasteries;
    marriage. (See also Bakhshi.).
Lambri,
    kingdom of;
    situation of.
Lances of Sago Palm.
Lanchang.
Land of Darkness,
    market in.
Langdarma.
Langting Balghasun.
Languages used in Mongol Court and administration.
Lan–Ho.
Lanja Bálús, or Lankha bálús.
Lanka (Ceylon).
Lan Ki Hien (Nan–Che-hien).
Lanner Falcons.
Lan-tsang kiang (Mekong) River.
Lao–Kiun, or Lao–Tseu, the Philosopher.
Laos, people of.
Lar, or Lát-Desa.
—— province.
Latin version of Polo’s Book.
Latins, the term.
Latsé, Tibetan for musk.
Lauredano, Agnes.
Laurus Camphora.
Lawek, Lawáki.
Laxities of marriage customs, see Marriage.
Layard, Mr.
Layas, see Ayas.
—— Gulf of.
Leather,
    embroidered mats of Guzerat.
Leaves,
    used for plates;
    green leaves said to have a soul.
Lecomte on Chinese war vessels.
Lembeser, Ismaelite fortress.
Lenzin.
Leon I., king of Lesser Armenia.
Leon II., king of Lesser Armenia.
Leon III., king of Lesser Armenia.
Leon VI., last king of Lesser Armenia.
Leopards,
    taught to sit on horseback;
    (Cheetas) kept for the Chase by Kúblái.
Lepechin, Professor.
Le Strange, Guy.
Leung Shan.
Levant, term applied by Polo to the kingdom of the Mongol Khans.
Lewchew.
Lewis, see St. Lewis.
Lewis XI. and XII. (France).
Lew-sha, old Chinese name for Lop Desert.
Leyes, see Ayas.
Lhása,
    Labrang Monastery at.
Li, Chinese measure,
    supposed to be confounded with miles.
Liampo (Ningpo).
Liang, or tael.
Liang-chau in Kansuh.
Liao dynasty.
Liao-tong.
Libanos, [Greek: Libanophóros] and [Greek: libanotophóros chóra].
Libro d’Oro.
Licinius, Emperor.

Lidé (Liti).
Lieuli Ho.
Lign-aloes (eagle-wood),
    etymology;
    in Sumatra.
Ligor.
Ligurium, the precious stone, Liguire.
Li H’ien, Tartar ruler of Tangut.
Likamankwas of Abyssinian kings.
Li-kiang fu.
Limyrica.
Lindley.
Lindsay, Hon. R.
Linga.
Linju.
Lin-ngan (Hang-chau).
Lin-ngan in Yun-nan.
Lintching-y, or Linchinghien.
Lin-t’sing chau.
Lion and Sun.
Lions, black.
—— on the Oxus,
    Chinese notion of.
—— (apparently for tigers) kept for the chase by Kúblái,
    skins of striped;
    how hunted with dogs (See also Tigers.).
Lion’s Head Tablets.
Lire, various Venetian.
—— of gold.
Lisbon.
Lissu, or Lisau tribe.
Litai.
Litán, rebellion of.
Lithang.
Little Orphan Rock.
Liu Pang, founder of 1st Han dynasty.
Liu Pei (Luo Pé), of the Han dynasty.
Livre des Merveille.
Livres of gold.
—— Parisis.
—— Tournois.
Li Yuan-hao, founder of the Hsi Hsia dynasty, Tangut.
Lo, tribes of S.W. China so-called.
—— Chinese name of part of Siam.
Lob, see Lop.
Locac, kingdom of.
Lockhart, Dr. W.
Lokok.
Lolo tribes.
Longevity of Brahmins and Jogis.
Longfellow.
Lop, city and lake,
    desert.
Lophaburi.
Loping.
Lor, see Lúristan.
Lord, Dr. Percival.
Löss, brownish-yellow loam.
Loups cerviers (lynx).
Low castes.
Lowatong River.
Loyang, Bridge of.
Lubán.
Lubán-Jáwi.
Lubán-Shehri.
Lubbies.
Lucky and unlucky hours and days.
Luddur Deo.
Luh-ho-ta Pagoda, Hang-chau.
Lukon–Kiao (Hun-ho, Pulisanghin River).
Lukyn Port.
Lung-yin.
Lúristan (Lor, Lur),
    kingdom of Persia;
    Great and Little;
    character of Lurs or people of.
Lusignan, John de.
Lút, Desert of (Dasht-i-Lut).
Lu-tzu tribe.
Lynxes, trained to hunt,
    in Cuncun.

Ma Twan-lin, the Chinese Pliny.
Maaden, turquoise mines at.
Maatum, or Nubia.
Ma’bar (Maabar, i.e. Coromandel coast),
    province of India;
    its brother kings;
    pearl fishery;
    etymology;
    limits;
    obscurity of history;
    port visited by Polo;
    nakedness of people, king, his jewels;
    his wives, “Trusty Lieges,” treasure;
    horses imported;
    superstitious customs;
    ox-worship;
    Govis, Ib.;
    no horses bred;
    other customs;
    mode of arrest for debt;
    great heat;
    regard for omens;
    astrology, treatment of boys;
    birds, girls consecrated to idols;
    customs in sleeping;
    ships at Madagascar.
Macartney’s Map.
Macgregor, Sir C, “Journey through Khorasan”.
Máchin, city of (Canton).
Máchin, Maháchin (Great China),
    used by Persian writers as synonymous with Manzi.
Maclagan, Major–General (R.E.).
Madagascar (Madeigascar),
    confused with Magadoxo;
    etymology;
    traces of ancient Arab colonisation.
Mádái, Madavi, Maudoy.
Madjgars.
Madar–Des, Eastern Pánjáb.
Madras.
Madura.
Maestro, or Great Bear, said to be invisible in Sumatra.
Magadha.
Magadoxo, confused with Madagascar.
Magapatana, near Ceylon.
Magi, the three,
    legend as told by Mas’udi;
    source of fancies about;
    names assigned to.
Magic, of Udyana,
    Lamaitic, (See also Sorcerers.).
Magical darkness (dry fog and dust storms).
Magnet, Mount.
Magyars.
Mahar Amlàk, king of Abyssinia.
Mahavan.
Mahmúd Kalháti, prince of Hormuz.
Mahmúd of Ghazni.
Mahmudiah Canal.
Mahomed (Mahommet),
    his account of Gog and Magog;
    his Paradise;
    his alleged prophecy of the Mongols;
    his use of mangonels.
Mahomed, supposed worship of idols of.
—— II., uses the old engines of war.
—— Tarahi.
—— Tughlak of Delhi, his copper token currency.
—— Shah of Malacca.
Mahomedan revolts in China.
—— conversion of Malacca.
—— conversion of states in Sumatra.
—— butchers in Kashmir.
—— butchers in Maabar.
—— king of Kayal.
—— merchants at Kayal.
—— settlements on Abyssinian coast.
Mahomedans (Saracens),
    in Turcomania;
    in and near Mausul;
    their universal hatred of Christians;
    in Tauris;
    in Persia;
    their hypocrisy about wine;
    at Yezd;
    Hormuz;
    Cobinan;
    Tonocain;
    Sapurgan;
    Taican;
    Badakhshan,
    Wakhan, etc.;
    Kashgar;
    strife with Christians in Samarkand;
    Yarkand;
    Khotan;
    Pein;
    Charchan;
    Lop;
    Tangut;
    Chingintalas;
    Kanchau;
    Sinju;
    Egrigaia;
    Tenduc, their half-breed progeny;
    in northern frontier of China, alleged origin of:
    their gibes at Christians;
    Kúblái’s dislike of;
    in Yun-nan;
    in Champa;
    in Sumatra;
    troops in Ceylon;
    pilgrims to Adam’s Peak;
    honour St. Thomas;
    in Kesmacoran;
    in Madagascar;
    in Abyssinia;
    in Aden;
    outrage by;
    at Esher;
    Dufar;
    Calatu;
    Hormuz;
    Ahmad Sultan one.
Mailapúr (Shrine of St. Thomas).
Maiman.
Maistrè, the word.
Maitreya Buddha.
Majapahit, empire of (Java).
Majar (Menjar).
Major, R.H., on Australia.
Makdashan, see Magadoxo.
Malabar, Melibar, Malibar, Manibar,
    fleets;
    products;
    imports, Chinese ships in.
Malacca,
    foundation of;
    chronology.
Malacca, Straits of.
Malaiur, island and city.
Mal–Amir, or Aidhej.
Malasgird.
Malay Peninsula,
    invasion of Ceylon;
    chronicle;
    language;
    origin of many geographical names.
Malayo, or Tana Malayu.
Malcolm, Sir John.
Maldive Islands.
Malé in Burma.
Male and Female Islands,
    legend widely diffused.
Malifattan.
Malik al Dháhir, king of Samudra.
—— al Mansúr.
—— al Sálih, king of Samudra.
—— Kafur.
Malli, the.
Malpiero, Gasparo.
Malte–Brun.
Malwa.
Mamaseni.
Mamre, tree of.
Mán, barbarians.
Man, Col. Henry.
Manchu dynasty.
Mancopa.
Mandalé in Burma.
Mandarin language.
Mangalai, third son of Kúblái,
    his palace.
Mangalore.
Mangla and Nebila Islands.
Mangonels made by Polos for attack of Saianfu,
    etymology;
    account of;
    a barbarous lubricant for.
Mangu (Mangkú, Mongu) Khan,
    Kúblái’s elder brother;
    his death;
    reign;
    massacre at his funeral.
Mangu–Temur (Mungultemur).
Manjáník (Manjaniki).
—— Kumghá.
Manjanikis (Mangonellas). (See Mangonels.).
Manji, see Manzi.
Manjushri, Bodhisatva.
Manphul, Pandit.
Mansur Shah.
Mantzé, Man-tzu, Mantszi, Aborigines.
Manuel, Comnenus, Emperor.
Manufactures, Kúblái’s.
Manuscripts of Polo’s Book.
Manzi (Facfur), king of,
    his flight;
    his charity;
    his effeminacy;
    his death;
    his palace at Kinsay.
    (See Faghfur.)
—— (Mangi) province,
    White City of the Frontier;
    entrance to;
    conquest of;
    character of the people;
    its nine kingdoms, 1200 cities and squares;
    its bamboos;
    no sheep in;
    dialects;
    called Chin;
    ships and merchants in India,
—— queen of,
    surrenders;
    her report of Kinsay.
Map, constructed on Polo’s data,
    Hereford;
    Roger Bacon’s;
    Marino Sanudo’s;
    Medicean;
    Catalan;
    Fra Mauro’s;
    Ruysch’s;
    Mercator’s;
    Sanson’s.
Mapillas, or Moplahs.
Maps, allusions to, in Polo’s book,
    early mediaeval;
    of the Arabs;
    in the palace at Venice.
Marabia, Maravia, Maravi.
Marah Silu.
Mâramangalam, site of Kolkhoi.
Marash.
Maratha.
Mardin (Merdin).
Mare’s milk, see Kumiz.
Margaritone.
Marignolli, John.
Market days.
Markets in Kinsay.
—— Squares in Kinsay.
Marks of Silver.
Marriage customs in Khotan.
—— customs in Kanchau.
—— customs of the Tartars.
—— (posthumous) amongst Tartars.
—— laxities of different peoples.
—— laxities in Thibet.
Mar Sarghis.
Marsden’s edition of Polo.
Martin, Dr. Ernest, of French Legation at Pekin.
Martini,
    his Atlas Sinensis;
    his account of Kinsay.
Martyrs, Franciscan.
Masálak-al-Absár.
Mashhad (Meshed), or Varsach River.
Mashiz.
Maskat.
Mastiff Dogs, Keepers of the.
Mastiffs of Tibet, see Dogs.
Mastodon, bogged.
Mas’ud II., Ghiath ed-din-Seljuk dynasty.
Mas’udi.
Masulipatam.
Matchlocks, manufacture at Kerman,
    at Taianfu.
Ma-t’eu (Matu).
Mati Dhivaja, see Bashpah Lama.
Matitánana.
Matityna (Martinique).
Mätzner, Eduard.
Maundevile, Sir John (John a Beard),
    on lying in water;
    Cloths of Tartary;
    Trees of the Sun;
    Dry Tree;
    his Book of Travels;
    English version;
    his tomb.
Maung Maorong, or Pong, Shan kingdom.
Mauro, Fra, his map.
Mausul (Mosul), kingdom of.
Mauvenu (Malvennez), the phrase.
Mayers, W.F.
Mayhew, A.L., on Couvade.
Mazandéran, province.
Mecchino, Ginger.
Medressehs at Sivas.
Mekhitar.
Mekong River (Lan-tsang kiang).
Mekrán, often reckoned part of India.
Mekránis.
Melchior, one of the Magi.
Melibar, see Malabar.
Melic, the title.
Melons, dried, of Shibrgán.
Menangkabau.
Mendoza.
Menezes, Duarte.
Mengki, envoy to Java.
Menjar (Májar?).
Menuvair and Grosvair.
Merghuz Boirúk Khan.
Merkit (Mecrit, Mescript), a Tartar tribe.
Meshid (more correctly Mashhad).
Messengers, Royal Mongol.
Mexico.
Meyer, Paul, Alexandre le Grand.
Miafarakain.
Miau-tzu.
Mien, Amien, Ava (Burma), king of,
    his battle with Tartars;
    City of;
    its gold and silver towers;
    how it was conquered;
    communications and war with Mongols;
    Chinese notices.
Mikado.
Military engines of the Middle Ages,
    dissertation on;
    two classes;
    Trébuchets;
    Balista;
    shot used, carrion, live men, bags of gold;
    Mangonel;
    Napoleon’s experiments with heavy shot;
    size and accuracy;
    length of range (Sanudo on);
    effect of Mangonel on Saracens;
    procured by Kúblái for siege of Siang-yang;
    Chinese and Persian histories on;
    known to Mongols and Chinese;
    the Karabugha, or Calabra;
    the P’ao.
Milk, portable, or curd.
Milk, rite of sprinkling Mare’s.
Million, use of the numeral.
Millione, Millioni, nickname for Polo and his book.
Millioni, Corte del.
Milne.
Minao district.
Mines and Minerals, see Iron, Silver, etc.
Minever, see Menuvair.
Ming, the Chinese dynasty which ousted the Mongols, A.D. 1368,
    their changes in Peking;
    their paper-money;
    their effeminate customs;
    expeditions to India;
    annals.
Mingan, Khan’s Master of Hounds.
Ming-ti, Emperor.
Minján, dialect of.
Minotto, Professor A.S.
Min River (in Fokien).
—— River (in Szech’wan).
Mint, the Khan’s.
Mintsing-hien.
Mious River.
Miracle Stories,
    fish in Lent;
    Mountain moved;
    St. Barsamo’s girdles;
    Holy Fire;
    Stone at Samarkand;
    at St. Thomas’ Shrine.

Mírat.
Mire French for leech.
Mirkhond.
Mirobolans.
Miskál, a weight. (See also Saggio.).
Misri, sugar-candy.
Missionary Friars, powers conferred on,
    in China in 14th century.
—— Martyrs.
Moa of New Zealand.
Modhafferians, the.
Modun Khotan (“Wood-ville”).
Moghistan.
Mohammed, son of Yusuf Kelefi, founder of Shíráz.
Mohammerah.
Mohiuddin.
Mokli, the Jelair.
Molayu.
Molebar, see Malabar.
Molephatan.
Molière, Pastorale Comique.
Moluccas.
Mombasa.
Momein.
Monasteries of Idolaters (Buddhists).
Money, paper.
—— values.
Mongol conquests,
    capture Soldaia;
    Bolghar;
    treachery and cruelty;
    their inroads;
    Bakh city;
    invade Balakhshán;
    invasion of Poland and Silesia.
Mongon Khan, see Mangu.
Mongotay (Mangkutai), a Mongol officer.
Monkeys,
    passed off as pygmies.
Monks, idolatrous. (See Monasteries.).
Monnier, Marcel, his visit to Karakorum,
    on the Ch’êng-tu Suspension Bridge.
Monoceros and Maiden, legend of.
Monophysitism.
Monsoons.
Montecorvino, John, Archbishop of Cambaluc.
Monte d’Ely.
Montgomerie, Major T.G. (R.E.) (Indian Survey),
    on fire at great altitudes;
    position of Kashgar and Yarkund.
Monument at Si-ngan fu, Christian.
Moon, Mountains of the.
Moore, Light of the Harem.
Moplas, see Mapillas.
Morgan, E. Delmar.
Mortagne, siege of.
Morus alba, silk-worm tree.
Moscow, Tartar Massacre at.
Mosolin, or Muslin (Mosolini), Mo-sze, Arab Mauçili.
Mossos, a tribe.
Mosta’sim Billah, last Abbaside Khalif of Baghdad,
    story of his avarice and death.
Mostocotto.
Mosul (Mausul).
Motapallé, see Mutfili.
Motawakkil, Khalif.
Moule, Bishop G.E.
Mount, Green, in Palace grounds at Peking.
—— St Thomas.
—— D’Ely, see Monte d’Ely.
Mountain, Old Man of the, see Old Man of the.
—— Miracle of the.
—— Road in Shensi, extraordinary.
Mourning customs,
    at Hormuz;
    in Tangut;
    at Kinsay.
Mozambique Channel.
Muang, term applied in Shan countries (Laos and W. Yunnan) to fortified.
        towns, as:—
    Muang–Chi;
    Muang, or Maung Maorong;
    Muang Shung;
    Muang Yong.
Muláhidah (Mulehet, Alamút, Chinese Mulahi), epithet of Ismaelites.
Mulberry Trees.
Mul–Java.
Müller, F.W.K.
Müller, Professor Max,
    on Couvade;
    on stories of Buddha and St. Josafat.
Multan.
Múnál pheasant (Lopophorus impeyanus), described by Aelian.
Mung (Nicaea).
Mungasht, hill fort, stronghold of the Atabegs.
Mungul, name applied to Tartars. (See Mongol.).
Mungul–Temur and Mongo–Temur, see Mangu–Temur.
Murad Beg, of Kunduz.
Murghab River.
Murray, Dr. J.A.H., on Couvade.
—— Hugh.
Murus Ussu (Brius, Upper Kiang).
Mus, Merdin (Mush, Mardin).
Musa’úd, Prince of Hormuz.
Musk, animal (Moschus).
—— earliest mention of and use in medicine.
Muslin, see Mosolin.
Mutfili (Motapallé for Telingana),
    its diamonds;
    identified.
Muza.
Mynibar.
Mysore.
Mystic number, see Numbers.

Nac, Nasich, Naques (Nakh), a kind of brocade.
Nachetti, silk stuff interwoven with gold.
Nakhut, gold brocade.
Nakkára (Naccara, Nacaires), the great kettledrum signalling action.
Nákshatra.
Nalanda.
Nan–Chao, formerly Ai–Lao, Shan dynasty in Yun-nan.
Nancouri.
Nanghin (Ngan-king).
Nangiass, Mongol name of Manzi.
Nankau, archway in Pass of, with polyglot inscription.
Nanking, not named by Polo.
Nanwuli.
Naobanján.
Naoshirwan.
Naphtha in the Caucasian country.
—— Fire used in war by the Karaunahs.
Napier, Sir C.
Napoleon III.,
    his researches and experiments on mediaeval engines of war.
Narikela–Dvipa.
Narin–Kaleh, fortress.
Narkandam, volcanic island.
Narsinga, King of.
Narwhal tusk, mediaeval Unicorn’s Horn.
Nasich, see Nac.
Nasruddin (Nescradin), officer in the Mongol Service.
Nassir-uddin, Mahmud, Sultan of Delhi.
Natigay, Tartar idol.
Nava–Khanda, or Nine Divisions of Ancient India.
Navapa (Lop?).
Naversa (ancient Anazarbus), in Cilicia, under Taurus.
Nayan, Kúblái’s kinsman, his revolt,
    Kúblái marches against;
    routed in battle;
    put to death by Kúblái.
earchus at Hormuz.
Nebila and Mangla islands.
Nebuchadnezzar.
Necklaces, precious.
Necuveran, see Nicobar.
Negapatam, Chinese Pagoda at.
Negroes described.
Negropont.
Nellore.
Nemej, Niemicz (“Dumb”), applied to Germans by Slavs.
Nerghi, Plain of.
Neri (pigs).
Nescradin, see Nasruddin.
Nesnás (a goblin).
Nestorian Christians, at Mosul,
    Tauris;
    Kashgar;
    Samarkand;
    Yarkand;
    Tangut;
    Kamul;
    Chingintalas;
    Sukchur;
    Kampichu, Kan-chau;
    their diffusion in Asia;
    among the Mongols;
    Erguiul and Sinju;
    Egrigaia;
    Tenduc;
    China;
    Yachi, or Yun-nan fu;
    Cacanfu;
    Yang-chau;
    one in Polo’s suite;
    churches at Chinghianfu;
    church at Kinsay;
    at St. Thomas;
    Patriarch of;
    Metropolitan.
Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople.
Nevergún Pass.
New Year Festival at Kúblái’s Court.
Neza Tash Pass.
Ngan-king (Nanghin).
Ngan-ning-ho River.
Ngantung, Mongol general.
Ngo-ning, or Ho-nhi.
Nia (ancient Ni-jang), in Khotan.
Nias Island.
Nibong Palm.
Nicaea of Alexander.
Nicholson, Edward B.
Nicobar (Necuveran) Islands,
    etymology and people.
Nicolas of Pistoia.
Nicolas, Christian name of Ahmad Sultan.
—— Friar, of Vicenza.
Nicolas IV., Pope.
Nieuhoff.
Nigudar (Nogodar), Mongol princes.
Nigudarian bands.
Nilawár (Nellore).
Nile, sources of.
Nileshwaram.
Nímchah Musulmán, “Half-and-Halfs”.
Nine, auspicious number among Tartars.
Nine Provinces (India),
    (China).
Ning-hsia, or hia (Egrigaia).
Ningpo.
Ning-yuan fu.
Niriz, steel mines of.
Nirvana, figures of Buddha in.
Nishapúr.
Niuché (Yuché), Chinese name for the Churchés or race of Kin Empire.
Noah’s Ark in Armenia.
Nobles of Venice,
    Polo’s claim to be one.
Nochdarizari, mountains north of Kabul.
Nogai Khan,
    his intrigues and wars;
    his history;
    wars with Toctai.
Nogodar (Nigudar), King of the Caraonas, story of.
Nomad tribes of Persia.
Nomogan (Numughan), Kúblái’s son.
None, Nono, Nuna, title given to younger brothers or subordinate
        princes
North, regions of the Far.
North Star, see Pole–Star.
Note Book, Polo’s.
Novgorod.
Nubia, St. Thomas,
    alleged use of elephants in.
Nukdaris, tribe west of Kabul.
Nuksán Pass.
Numbers, mystic or auspicious,
    Nine;
    one hundred and eight.
Nuna, see None.
Nusi–Ibrahim.
Nutmegs.
Nyuché, or Churché, race of Kin Emperors, see Niuché.

Oak of Hebron, see Terebinth.
Oaracta (Kishm, or Brakht).
Obedience of Ismaelites, extraordinary.
Obi River.
Observatory at Peking.
Ocean Sea,
    other seas, parts of.
Ocoloro Island.
Odoric, Friar,
    on Kinsay;
    on Fu-chau;
    Zayton;
    Java;
    Champa;
    Sumatra;
    on sago tree;
    on products of Ceylon;
    St. Thomas’s;
    Pepper Forest;
    brazil-wood;
    Thána.
Oger, the Dane.
Ogotai Khan, see Okkodai.
Oil from the Holy Sepulchre,
    fountain of (Naphtha) at Baku;
    whale.
—— head (Capidoglio, or Sperm whale).
—— walnut and Sesamé.
Oirad, or Uirad (Horiad), a great Tartar tribe.
Okkodai Khan, third son of Chinghiz.
Olak, Illuk, Aulak, see Lac.
Old Man of the Mountain (Aloadin),
    his envoys to St. Lewis;
    account of;
    how he trained his Assassins;
    the Syrian;
    his subordinate chiefs;
    his end;
    modern representative.
Oljaïtu Khan, his correspondence with European princes,
    his tomb.
Oman.
Omens, much regarded in Maabar,
    by the Brahmans.
Onan Kerule, near Baikal.
Ondanique (fine kind of steel), Andaine, Andanicum, Hundwáníy,
    in Kerman;
    Chingintalas.
Oppert, Dr. Gustavus, Book on Prester John, Der Presbyter Johannes in
        Sage und Geschichte
.
Orang Gugu.
Orang Malayu River.
Or Batuz.
Orbelian, John, identified by Bruun with Prester John.
Ordos, the Mongols of.
Organa (Jerún), Persian Gerún.
Oriental phrases in Polo’s dictation.
Orissa.
Orkhon River.
Orleans, defence of.
—— Isle d’.
Orloks, or Marshals of the Mongol Host.
Oroech.
Oron, Mongol for a region or realm.
Orphani, strange customs of the.
Osci, the word.
Ostriches.
Ostyaks.
Otto, Bishop of Freisingen.
Oulatay (Uladai), Tartar envoy from Persia.
Ovis Poli, see Sheep.
Oweke, see Ucaca.
Owen, Professor.
Owen, Rev. Gray, on the Lolos.
Owo, Mongol for Musk.
Oxen, humped, in Kerman,
    wild, shaggy (Yaks).
—— wild (Beyamini),
    in East Tibet;
    Burma;
    in Bengal;
    Anin;
    worshipped;
    figures of, worn.
Oxenham, Atlas.
Oxydracae, the.
Oxyrhynchus.
Oxus Valley and River.
Ozene.

Pacamuria (Baccanor).
Pacauta! (an invocation).
Pacem, see Pasei.
Paddle-wheel barges.
Paderin, Mr., visits Karákorum.
Pádishah Khátún of Kerman.
Padma Sambhava.
Pagán (in Burma),
    ruins at;
    empire of.
—— Old (Tagaung).
Pagaroyang, inscriptions from.
Paggi Islands.
Pagodas, Burmese,
    alleged Chinese in India.
Pahang.
Paï, or Peyih tribe.
Paipurth (Baiburt).
Pai-yen-ching.
Paizah, or Golden Tablet of Honour.
—— and Yarligh.
Pakwiha, China ware.
Pala, a bird.
Palace of Khan at Chagannor,
    at Chandu (Shangtu);
    of cane;
    at Langtin;
    Cambaluc;
    on Green Mount;
    at Kenjanfu (Si-ngan fu);
    of the Empire of Manzi at Kinsay;
    in Chipangu, paved and roofed with gold.
Palembang.
Paliolle, Or de, for gold dust.
Palladius, the Archimandrite.
Palm (Measure).
Palm Wine, see Wine of Palm.
Pamier (Pamir), Plain of,
    its wild sheep;
    great height;
    pasture, etc.;
    described by Hiuen Tsang, Wood, Goës, Abdul Mejid, Colonel Gordon and
    others;
    Dr. M.A. Stein on;
    Lord Curzon on number of.
Pan–Asiatic usages.
Pandarani, or Fandaraina.
Pandit Manphul.
Pandrethan in Kashmir, Buddhist temple at.
Pandyan kings.
Panja River, or Upper Oxus.
Panjáb.
Panjkora.
Panjshir.
Pantaleon, coins of.
Panthé, or Mahomedan Kingdom in Yun-nan.
Panya (or Pengya), in Burma.
Pao-ki h’ien.
Paonano Pao.
Papé, Papesifu.
Paper-money (Chao), Kúblái’s made from bark,
    modern. (See also Currency.).
Papien River.
Paquier, Professor.
Paradise, Apples of.
—— in legend of the Cross.
—— of Persia.
—— of the Old Man of the Mountain,
    destroyed.
—— Rivers of.
Parákráma Bahu I.
Paramisura, founder of Malacca.
Parapomisadae.
Parasol.
Paravas.
Parez, Pariz, turquoise mines of.
—— falcons of.
Pariahs (Paraiyar),
    etymology of.
Parker, E.H.
Parlák, or Perlak, see Ferlec.
—— Tanjong.
Parliament, Tartar.
Parpa iron mines.
Parrot, Professor, first to ascend Mount Ararat.
Parrots.
Partridges,
    black;
    Jiruftì;
    great (Chakors);
    in mew. (See also Francolin.).
Parwana, a traitor eaten by the Tartars.
Paryán silver mines.
Pascal of Vittoria, Friar.
Pasei, Pacem (Basma), a kingdom of Sumatra.
—— Bay of.
—— History of.
Pasha–Afroz.
Pasha and Pashagar tribes.
Pashai,
    what region intended.
—— Dir.
Passo (or Pace), Venetian.
Patarins, heretics.
Patera, debased Greek, from Badakhshán.
Patlam.
Patra, or Alms-dish of Buddha,
    miraculous properties;
    Holy Grail of Buddhism.
Patriarchs of Eastern Christians. (See also Catholicos and
        Nestorian.).
Patteik–Kará.
Patterns, beast and bird, on silk, etc.
Patu, see Batu.
Paukin (Pao-ying).
Pauthier, G., remarks on text of Polo.
Paved roads in China.
—— streets of Kinsay.
Payan, see Bayan.
Payangadi.
Pa-yi writing, specimen of.
Peaches, yellow and white (apricots).
Peacocks at St. Thomas’s,
    special kind in Coilum.
Pearls,
    in Caindu;
    rose-coloured in Chipangu;
    fishery of;
    pearls and precious stones of kingdom of Maabar.
Pears, enormous.
Pedir.
Pedro, Prince of Portugal.
Pegu and Bengal confounded.
Pei-chau (Piju).
Pein (Pim), province,
    site of.
Peking, white pagoda at. (See Cambaluc.).
Pelly, Col. Sir Lewis, British Resident at Bushire.
Pema-ching.
Pemberton, Captain R.
Pentam (Bintang).
Pepper, daily consumption of, at Kinsay,
    change in Chinese use of;
    great importation at Zayton, duty on;
    white and black;
    in Coilum;
    Eli and Cananore;
    Melibar;
    Guzerat;
    trade in, to Alexandria.
Pepper Country.
Peregrine falcons.
Perla (Ferlec).
Persia, extent of name to Bokhara,
    spoken of;
    three Magi of;
    its eight kingdoms.
Persia and India, boundary of.
Persian applied to language of foreigners at Mongol Court.
Persian Gulf (Sea of India?).
Pesháwar.
Peter, Tartar slave of Marco Polo’s.
Pharaoh’s rats (Gerboa).
Phayre, Major–General Sir Arthur.
Pheasants, large and long tailed,
    Reeves’s.
Pheng (the Rukh).
Philip the Fair.
Philip III. and IV. of France.
Philippine Islands.
Phillips, G.
Phipps, Captain.
Phra Râma, Siamese kings so-called.
Phungan, Phungan-lu (Fungul?).
Physician, a virtuous.
Physicians.
Pianfu (P’ing-yang fu).
Piccoli.
Pichalok.
Pievtsov, General,
    expedition.
Pigeon posts.
Pig-shells.
Piju (Pei-chau).
Pilgrimage, to Adam’s Sepulchre in Ceylon,
    to Shrine of St. Thomas.
“Pillar Road”.
Pima (Pim).
Pinati, king of Kaulam.
Pine woods in Mongolian desert.
—— in South China.
P’ing-chang, Fanchán, or second class Minister.
P’ing-yang fu (Pianfu).
Pinna–Cael (Punnei-Káyal).
Pipino, Friar Francesco.
Pirabandi or Bir Pandi (Vira Pandi).
Pirada.
Pirates of Malabar,
    Guzerat;
    Tana;
    Somnath;
    Socotra.
Piratical customs at Eli.
Pistachioes.
Plane, Oriental or Chinár.
Plano Carpini.
Pog, or Fiag River.
Poison, antidote to.
Poisoning guests, custom of.
Poisonous pasturage.
Poison wind.
Poland, Mongol invasion of.
Pole, or Jackdaw on Polo’s scutcheon.
Pole-star, invisible in Java the Less,
    visible again in India.
Police,
    of Cambaluc;
    Kinsay.
Politeness of Chinese.
Polo, Andrea, grandfather of Marco.
—— Antonio, illegitimate son of Elder Marco.
—— Bellela, second daughter,
    died before 1333.
—— Donata, wife of Traveller,
    sale of property to her husband;
    death between 1333–1336;
    before Council;
    may have been Loredano.
—— or Bragadino, Fantina, eldest daughter of Traveller.
—— Felice, a cousin.
—— Fiordelisa, wife of last.
Polo, Fiordelisa, daughter of Maffeo the Younger.
—— Maffeo, brother of Nicolo,
    in Kan-chau;
    time of death between 1309 and 1318.
—— Maffeo, brother of Traveller,
    probabilities as to birth;
    will of;
    abstract from.
—— Marco, the elder son of Andrea, Uncle of the Traveller,
    his will.
—— Marco, the Traveller,
    veracity;
    perplexities in his biography;
    Ramusio’s notices, extracts from;
    recognition of his names of places, paralleled with Columbus;
    nicknamed Millioni;
    story of his capture at Curzola;
    writes his book in prison at Genoa;
    release and marriage;
    arms;
    claim to nobility;
    supposed autograph;
    his birth, circumstances of;
    is taken to East;
    employed by Kúblái, mentioned in Chinese Records;
    mission to Yun-nan;
    governor of Yang-chau;
    employed at Kan-chau, Kara Korum, Champa and Indian Seas;
    returns home;
    mentioned in his Uncle Marco’s will;
    commands a galley at Curzola;
    taken prisoner and carried to Genoa;
    his imprisonment there;
    dictates his book to Rusticiano;
    release and return to Venice;
    evidence as to story of capture;
    dying vindication of his book;
    executor to his brother Maffeo;
    record of exemption from municipal penalty;
    gives copy of book to T. de Cepoy;
    marriage and daughters;
    lawsuit with Paulo Girardo, proceeding regarding house property;
    illness and last will;
    probable date of death;
    place of burial;
    professed portraits of;
    alleged wealth;
    estimate of him and of his book;
    true claims to glory;
    faint indications of personality;
    rare indications of humour;
    absence of scientific notions;
    geographical data in book;
    his acquisition of languages, ignorance of Chinese, deficiencies in
    Chinese notices;
    historical notices;
    allusions to Alexander;
    incredulity about his stories;
    contemporary recognition;
    by T. de Cepoy, Friar Pipino;
    J. d’Acqui, Giov. Villani, and P. d’Abano;
    notice by John of Ypres;
    borrowings in poem of Bauduin de Sebourc;
    Chaucer and;
    influence on geography, obstacles to its effect;
    character of mediaeval cosmography;
    Roger Bacon as geographer;
    Arab maps;
    Marino Sanudo’s map;
    Medicean;
    Carta Catalana largely based on Polo’s book;
    increased appreciation of Polo’s book;
    confusions of nomenclature;
    introduction of block-printing into Europe and Polo;
    dictates his narrative;
    found at Venice;
    his age;
    noticed and employed by Kúblái;
    grows in favour, many missions;
    returns from one to India;
    escapes from the Karaunas;
    hears of breed of Bucephalus;
    recovers from illness in hill climate;
    hears from Zulficar about Salamander;
    at Kan-chau;
    brings home hair of yak;
    and head and feet of musk deer;
    witnesses events connected with Ahmad’s death;
    noticed in Chinese annals;
    whether he had to do with Persian scheme of paper currency in;
    sent by Khan into Western provinces;
    governor of Yang-chau;
    probable extent of his authority;
    aids in constructing engines for siege of Siang-yang;
    difficulties as to this statement;
    on number of vessels on Great Kiang;
    ignorant of Chinese;
    on greatness of Kinsay;
    his notes;
    sent to inspect amount of revenue from Kinsay;
    his great experience;
    never in islands of Sea of Chin;
    in kingdom of Chamba;
    historical anecdotes;
    detained five months in Sumatra, stockade party against wild people;
    brings Brazil seed to Venice;
    partakes of tree-flour (sago);
    takes some to Venice;
    in six kingdoms of Sumatra;
    witnesses arrest for debt in Maabar;
    his erroneous view of Arabian coast;
    Indian geography;
    his unequalled travels;
    Venetian documents about him.
—— Marco, called Marcolino, son of Nicolo the Younger.
—— Marco, last male survivor.
—— Marco, others of this name.
—— Maroca, sister of Nicolo the Younger.
—— or Delfino, Moreta, youngest daughter.
Polo, Nicolo and Maffeo, sons of Andrea,
    their first journey;
    cross Black Sea to Soldaia;
    visit Volga country, etc.;
    go to Bokhara;
    join envoys to Khan’s Court;
    Kúblái’s reception of;
    sent back as envoys to Pope;
    receive a Golden Tablet;
    reach Ayas;
    Acre;
    Venice;
    find young Marco there
—— Nicolo, Maffeo and Marco, proceed to Acre;
    set out for East, recalled from Ayas;
    set out again with Pope’s letters, etc.;
    reach Kúblái’s Court;
    are welcomed;
    see on their journey outward;
    their alleged service in capture of Siang-yang;
    Khan refuses them permission to return home;
    allowed to go with ambassadors;
    receive Golden Tablets;
    on return;
    story of their arrival at Venice;
    scheme to assert their identity.
—— Nicolo, his alleged second marriage and sons;
    probable truth as to time of;
    his illegitimate sons;
    approximate time of his death;
    his tomb.
—— Nicolo the Younger, cousin of traveller.
—— Stefano and Giovannino, illegitimate brothers of Traveller.
—— (?), or Trevisano (?), Fiordelisa, perhaps second wife of Nicolo Polo
        the Elder, and mother of Maffeo the Younger.
—— or Trevisano, Maria, last survivor of the family,
    doubts as to her kindred.
—— Family, its duration and end, according to Ramusio,
    origin;
    last notices of.
    (For relationship of different Polos, see table).
—— Family, branch of S. Geremia.
Po-lut (Pa-lut), incense.
Polygamy,
    supposed effect on population.
Pomilo (Pamir).
Pompholyx.
Ponent, or West, term applied by Polo to Kipchak, the Mongol Khanate of
        the Volga, see Kipchak.
Pong (Mediaeval Shan State).
Poods, Russian.
Popinjays.
Population, vast, of Cathay.
Porcelain manufacture,
    fragments found at Kayál;
    Chinese.
—— shells, see Cowries.
Porcupines.
Pork, mention of, omitted.
Postín, sheep-skin coat.
Posts, post-houses and runners,
    in Siberia.
Po-sz’ (Persia).
Potala at L’hasa.
Pottinger.
Poultry, kind of, in Coilum,
    in Abyssinia (guinea-fowl?).
Pound, sterling.
Pourpre, or Purpura.
P’o-yang Lake.
Pozdneiev, Professor.
Precious stones or gems,
    how discovered by pirates.
Prester John (Unc Can, Aung or Ung Khan),
    Tartar tribute to;
    account of;
    marriage relations with Chinghiz;
    insults Chinghiz’ envoys;
    “these be no soldiers”;
    marches to meet Chinghiz;
    real site of battle with Chinghiz;
    his real fate;
    slain in battle;
    his lineage in Tenduc;
    and the Golden King.
Prices of horses, see Horses.
Printing, imaginary connection of Polo’s name with introduction of.
Private names supposed.
Prjevalsky, Colonel N.M.
Probation of Jogis,
    parallel.
Prophecy regarding Bayan.
Proques, the word.
Prostitutes; at Cambaluc,
    Kinsay.
Provinces, thirty-four of Kúblái’s Empire.
Pseudo–Callisthenes.
Ptolemies’ trained African elephants.
Ptolemy,
    Sarmatic Gates.
P’u-chau fu.
Pu-ch’eng.
Puer and Esmok.
Pukan Mien–Wang.
Pulad Chingsang.
Pulisanghin, River and Bridge.
Pulo Bras.
Pulo Condore (Sondur and Condur).
Pulo Gommes (Gauenispola).
Pulo Nankai, or Nási.
Pulo Wé, Wai, or Wey.
Punnei-Káyal.
Puránas, the.
Purpura, see Pourpre.
Putchok.
Putu-ho, “Grape R.”.
Pygmies, factitious (?).

Qal’ah Asgher, hot springs at.
Qara Ars-lán Beg, king of Kermán.
Quails in India.
Queen of Mutfili.
Quicksilver and sulphur potion.
—— as regarded by alchemists.
Quills of the Ruc, see Ruc.
Quilon, Kaulam, etc., see Coilum.
Qumadin (Camadi)

Rabelais.
Rabbanta, a Nestorian monk.
Radloff, Dr. W.,
    map.
Ráin.
Rainald, of Dassel, Archbishop.
Rain-makers, see Conjurers.
Rainy season.
Rajkot leather-work.
Rakka, Rákshasas.
Rama Kamheng, king.
Rameshwaram.
Ramnad.
Rampart of Gog and Magog.
Ramusio, Giov. Battista, passim,
    his biographical notices of Polo;
    his edition of Polo.
Ráná Paramitá‘s Woman Country.
Ranking, John.
Raonano–Rao.
Rapson, E.J.
Ras Haili.
—— Kumhari.
Rashíduddín, alias Fazl-ulla Rashid, Persian statesman and
        historian of the Mongols,
    frequently quoted in the Notes.
Ravenala tree (Urania speciosa).
Raw meat eaten.
Rawlinson, Sir H.
Reclus, Asie russe,
    on Caspian Sea fisheries.
Red gold and red Tangas.
Re Dor.
Red Sea, trade from India to Egypt by,
    described in some texts as a river;
    possible origin of mistake.
Red sect of Lamas.
Refraction, abnormal.
Reg Ruwán, of Kabul.
—— of Seistán.
Reindeer ridden.
Religion, indifference of Chinghizide Princes to,
    occasional power of among Chinese.
Remission of taxation by Kúblái
Rennell, Major James.
Reobarles (Rúdbár, etc.).
Revenue of Kinsay.
Rhinoceros (Unicorn), in Sumatra,
    habits;
    four Asiatic species.
—— Tichorinus.
Rhins, Dutreuil de.
Rhubarb, Rheum palmatum.
Riant, Comte.
Ricci, Matteo.
Rice.
Rice-wine,
    at Yachi.
—— trade on Grand Canal.
Richard II.
Richthofen, Baron F. von,
    on Fungul;
    on Tanpiju.
Right and Left, ministers of the.
Rio Marabia.
Rishis (Eremites) of Kashmir.
“River of China”.
Roads radiating from Cambaluc.
Robbers in Persia.
Robbers’ River.
Robes distributed by Kúblái.
Roborovsky, Lieutenant.
Rochefort, “faire la couvade”.
Rockets.
Rockhill (Rubruck and Diary of a Journey),
    on the titles Khan, Khatun, etc.;
    on horn horse-shoes;
    earliest mention of name Mongol in Oriental works;
    Mongol storm-dispellers;
    charge of cannibalism against Tibetans;
    on Bonbo Lamas;
    Tablets (hu);
    mechanical contrivances at E. Court;
    Mongol etiquette;
    Chinese leather-money;
    Mongol post-stations;
    pocket-spittoons;
    from Peking to Si-ngan fu;
    descent of Yellow River;
    road between T’ung-kwan and Si-ngan fu;
    two famous Uigur Nestorians;
    on the word Salar;
    on the Hui-hui sects;
    on the Alan;
    on branch of Volga Bulgars.
Rofia palm (sagus ruffia).
Roiaus dereusse (?).
Rome, the Sudarium at.
Rondes, ingenious but futile explanation of.
Rook, in Chess.
Rori–Bakkar, Sepoy name for Upper Sind.
Rosaries, Hindu.
Rostof and Susdal, Andrew, Grand Duke of.
Roth, H. Ling, on couvade.
Rouble.
Roxana, daughter of Darius, wife of Alexander.
Roze de l’Açur.
Rubies, Balas,
    of Ceylon;
    of Adam’s Peak.
Rubruquis, or Rubruc, Friar William de.
Ruby mines in Badakhshan.
Ruc (Rukh), or Gryphon, bird called, described,
    its feathers and quills;
    wide diffusion and various forms of fable;
    eggs of the Aepyornis;
    Fra Mauro’s story;
    genus of that bird, condor;
    discovery of bones of Harpagornis in New Zealand;
    Sindbad, Rabbi Benjamin, romance of Duke Ernest;
    Ibn Batuta’s sight of Ruc;
    rook in chess;
    various notices of.
Rúdbár-i-Lass, Robbers’ River.
—— (Reobarles), district and River.
Rudder, single, noted by Polo as peculiar,
    double, used in Mediterranean.
Rúdkhánah-i-Duzdi (Robbers’ River).
Rúdkhánah-i-Shor (Salt River).
Rudra Deva, King of Telingana.
Rudrama Devi, Queen of Telingana.
Rukh, Shah.
Rukhnuddin, Mahmud, Prince of Hormuz.
—— Masa’úd.
—— Khurshah, son of Alaodin, Prince of the Ismaelites.
Rúm.
Runiz.
Ruomedam–Ahomet, King of Hormuz.
Rupen, Bagratid, founder of Armenian State in Cilicia.
Rupert, Prince.
Rüppell’s Table of Abyssinian kings.
Russia (Rosia), annexes Georgia,
    great cold, Arab accounts of;
    silver mines;
    subject to Tartars;
    conquered by Batu.
—— leather,
    clothes of.
Russians, trusty lieges of king.
Rusták.
Rusticiano of Pisa,
    introduces himself in prologue;
    writes down Polo’s book;
    extracts and character of his compilation;
    his real name;
    his other writings.
Ruysch’s map.

Saadi.
Saba (Sava, Savah), city of the Magi.
Sabaste, see Sivas.
Sable, its costliness.
Sabreddin.
Sabzawur.
Sachiu (Sha-chau).
Sacrifices of people of Tangut.
—— human.
Sadd-i-Iskandar, rampart of Alexander.
Saffron, fruit-serving purposes of.
Sagacity of sledge-dogs.
Sagamon Borcan, see Sakyamuni Buddha.
Sagatu, general of Kúblái’s.
Saggio (1/6 oz.).
Sago.
Saianfu, see Siang-yang-fu.
Saif Arad, king of Abyssinia.
Saifuddin Nazrat, ruler of Hormuz.
Saimur (Chaul).
Sain Khan (or Batu).
St. Anno of Cologne.
St. Barlaam and St. Josafat, story of Buddhist christianised.
St. Barsauma (Barsamo, Brassamus), and monastery of.
St. Blasius (Blaise), Church at Sivas.
St. Brandon.
St. Buddha!
St. Epiphanius.
St. George, Church of, in Sivas,
 at Quilon.
St. Helena.
St. James’ Shrine, Gallicia.
St. John the Baptist, Church of, in Samarkand.
—— Major Oliver.
St. Leonard’s Convent in Georgia, and the fish miracle.
St. Lewis,
    his campaign on the Nile.
St. Martin, Vivien de, Map.
St. Mary’s Island, Madagascar.
St. Matthew, Monastery near Mosul.
St. Matthew’s Gospel, story of the Magi.
St. Nina.
St. Sabba’s at Acre.
St. Thomas, the Apostle,
    his shrine in India;
    his murderers, and their hereditary curse;
    reverenced by Saracens and heathen;
    miracles in India;
    story of his death;
    tradition of his preaching in India;
    translation of remains to Edessa;
    King Gondopharus of legend a real king;
    Roman Martyrology;
    the localities;
    alleged discovery of reliques;
    the Cross;
    church ascribed to;
    in Abyssinia.
St. Thomas’s Isle.
—— Mounts.
Saker falcons.
Sakta doctrines.
Sakya Muni (Sagamon Borcan) Buddha,
    death of;
    recumbent figures of;
    story of;
    his footmark on Adam’s Peak;
    Alms dish, Holy Grail;
    tooth relique.
Salamander, the.
Salar (Ho-chau).
Salem, dragoman, explores Rampart of Gog.
Salghur, Atabegs of Fars.
Sálih, Malik, son of Badruddin Lúlú.
Salsette Island.
Salt, H., his version of Abyssinian chronology.
—— rock,
    in Badakhshan;
    used for currency;
    extracted from deep wells;
    in Carajan province;
    manufactured in Eastern China;
    manufacture, revenue and traffic in;
    trade on the Kiang;
    junks employed therein.
—— stream.
Salwen River, or Lu–Kiang.
Samagar.
Samána.
Samara, kingdom of, see Sumatra.
Samarkand (Samarcan),
    story of a miracle at;
    colony near Peking from.
Sampson, Theos., on grapes in China.
Sámsúnji Báshi.
Samudra, see Sumatra.
Samuel, his alleged tomb at Sávah.
San Giovanni Grisostomo,
    parish in Venice where the Ca’ Polo was;
    theatre.
San Lorenzo, Venice, burial place of Marco and his father.
Sandu, see Chandu.
Sanf, see Champa.
Sangín, Sangkan River.
Sanglich, dialect of.
Sang–Miau, tribe of Kwei-chau.
Sangon, the Title (Tsiang-kiun).
Sanitary effects of Mountain air.
Sanjar, sovereigns of Persia.
Sankin Hoto, Dalai.
Sanuto of Torcelli, Marino,
    his World Map;
    on long range.
Sappan wood, see Brazil.
Sapta–Shaila.
Sapurgan (Sabúrkán, Shabúrkán, Shibrgán).
Saputa, Sçue, peculiar use of.
Saracanco (Saraichik), on the Yaik.
Saracens, see Mahomedans.
Sarai (Sara), capital of Kipchak,
    city and its remains;
    perhaps occupied successive sites.
—— Sea of (Caspian).
Sáras, crane (Grus antigone).
Saratov.
Sarbizan Pass.
Sardines.
Sárdú Pass.
Sarghalan River.
Sarha, Port of Sumatra.
Sarhadd River.
Sar-i-kol, Lakes.
Sarsáti.
Sartak, the Great Khan’s ambassador to Húlakú.
Sassanian dynasty.
Sati, see Suttee.
Satin, probable origin of word.
Saum, Sommo,
    silver ingots used in Kipchak;
    apparently the original rouble.
Sauromatae.
Sávah (Saba).
Savast (Siwas).
Scanderoon, Gulf of.
Scasem.
Scherani, bandits.
Schiltberger, Hans.
Schindler, General Houtum-.
Schlegel, Dr. G.
Schmidt, Professor I.J.
Schönborn, Carl.
Schuyler, Eugene.
Scidmore, Miss E., on the Tide.
Scotra, see Socotra.
Sea of Chin.
—— England.
—— Ghel, or Ghelan.
—— India.
—— Rochelle.
—— Sarain.
Seal, Imperial.
Sebaste, see Sivas.
Sebourc, Bauduin de, see Bauduin de Sebourc.
Sees of Latin Church.
—— Nestorian Church.
Sefavíehs, the.
Seilan, see Ceylon.
Self-decapitation.
Selitrennoyé Gorodok (Saltpetre Town).
Seljukian dynasty.
—— Turks.
Selles, chevaux à deux, the phrase.
Semal tree.
Semedo.
Semenat, see Somnath.
Sempad, Prince, High Constable of Armenia.
Sendal, a silk texture.
Sendaus, generally Taffetas.
Sendemain, king of Seilan.
Seneca, Epistles.
Senecherim, king of Armenia.
Seni, Verzino.
Senshing.
Sensin, ascetics, devotees living on bran.
Sentemur.
Sepulchre of Adam, see Adam’s Sepulchre.
—— of our Lord,
    oil from.
Serano, Juan de.
Serazi (Shíráz), kingdom of Persia.
Serendib.
Seres, Sinae,
    their tree wool;
    ancient character of the.
Serpents, great, i.e. alligators.
Sertorius.
Sesamé.
Sesnes, mediaeval form of cygnet, cigne.
Seta Ghella, seta Leggi (Ghellé), silk.
Seth’s mission to Paradise.
Sevan Lake.
Seven Arts, the.
Severtsoff, shoots the Ovis Poli,
    on the name Bolor.
Seyyed Barghash, Sultan of Zanzibar.
Shabankara, or Shawankára (Soncara).
Shabar, son of Kaidu.
Sha-chau (Sachin), “Sand-district”.
Shadow, augury from length of
Shah Abbas,
    his Court.
—— Jahan.
Shahr-i-Babek, turquoise mine at.
Shahr-i-Nao (Siam).
Shahr Mandi, or Pandi.
Shah Werdy, last of the Kurshid dynasty.
Shaibani Khan.
Shaikh-ul-Jibal.
Shaikhs (Esheks), in Madagascar.
Shakespeare, on relation of gold to silver.
Sháliát.
Shamanism. (See also Devil–Dancing.).
Shampath, ancestor of Georgian kings.
Shamsuddin Shamatrani.
Shamuthera, see Sumatra.
Shan (Laotian, or Thai).
—— race and country.
—— dynasty in Yun-nan.
—— ponies.
—— state of Pong, see Pong.
Shanars of Tinnevelly,
    their devil-worship.
Shang-hai.
Shangking–Fungking.
Shangtu, Shangdu (Chandu),
    Kúblái’s City and Summer Palace;
    Dr. Bushell’s description of;
    Kúblái’s annual visit to.
Shangtu Keibung.
Shan-hai-kwan.
Shankárah, Shabankára (Soncara).
Shan-si.
Shan-tung,
    silk in;
    pears from.
Shao-hing-fu.
Shao-ling, pariah caste of.
Sharakhs.
Shara-ul-buks (Forest of box on the Black Sea).
Sharks and shark charmers.
Shauls, or Shúls, the.
Shawánkára (Soncara).
Shaw, R.B.
Shawls of Kerman.
Sheep, fat-tailed in Kerman.
—— four-horned at Shehr.
—— large Indian.
—— none in Manzi.
—— of Pamir (Ovis Poli).
—— wild, of Badakhshan (Kachkar, Ovis Vignei).
—— with trucks behind.
—— Zanghibar.
Sheep’s head given to horses.
Shehr, or Shihr, see Esher.
Shehrizor (Kerkuk).
Shenrabs.
Shen-si.
Shentseu tribe.
Sheuping.
Shewá, cool plateau of.
Shibrgán (Sapurgan).
Shieng, Sheng, or Sing, the Supreme Board of Administration.
Shien-sien, Shin-sien.
Shighnan (Syghinan), ruby mines.
Shijarat Malayu, or Malay Chronicle.
Shikárgáh, applied to animal pattern textures, Benares brocades.
Shing-king, or Mukden.
Ships, of the Great Khan,
    of India at Fuju;
    of Manzi described;
    mediaeval, accounts of;
    in Japan;
    in Java Seas;
    at Eli.
Shíráz (Cerazi).
Shireghi.
Shirha.
Shirwan.
Shi-tsung, Emperor.
Shoa.
Shob’aengs of Nicobar.
Shodja ed-din Kurshid, Kurd.
Shor–Rud (Salt River).
Shot of Military Engines.
Shpilevsky.
Shúlistán (Suolstan).
Shúls of Shauls, people of Persia.
Shut up nations, legend of the.
Shwéli River.
Siam,
    king of.
Siang-yang-fu (Saianfu),
    Kúblái’s siege of;
    Polo’s aid in taking;
    difficulties in Polo’s account;
    not removed by Pauthier, notice by Wassáf, Chinese account,
    Rashiduddin’s;
    treasure buried.
Siberia.
Sibree, on rofia palm.
Sick men put to death and eaten by their friends.
Siclatoun, kind of texture.
Siddhárta.
Sidi Ali.
Sien, Sien–Lo, Sien–Lo-Kok (Siam, Locac).
Sifan.
Sigatay, see Chagatai.
Sighelm, envoy from King Alfred to India.
Si Hia, language of Tangut.
Si-hu, Lake of Kinsay or Hang-chau.
Sijistán.
Siju (Suthsian).
Sikintinju (Kien-chow).
Silesia, Mongol invasion of.
Silk, called Ghellé (of Gilan),
    manufacture at Yezd;
    at Taianfu;
    in Shan-si and Shen-si;
    in Kenjanfu;
    Cuncun;
    Sindafu;
    Kwei-chau;
    Tasinfu;
    Piju;
    Pao-ying-Hien;
    Nanghin;
    Chinhiang-fu;
    Chinginju;
    Suju;
    Vughin;
    Kinsay;
    Ghiuju.
—— cotton tree.
—— duty on.
—— and gold stuffs.
—— stuffs and goods, Turcomania,
    Georgia;
    Baghdad;
    Yezd;
    Kerman;
    Tenduc province;
    Cambaluc;
    Juju;
    Sindafu;
    Cacanfu;
    Chinangli;
    Suju;
    Vughin;
    Kinsay;
    in animal patterns;
    with Cheetas;
    of Kelinfu;
    with giraffes.
Silk, tent ropes,
    bed furniture.
—— trade at Cambaluc,
    at Kinsay.
—— worms.
Silver chairs.
—— imported into Malabar,
    Cambay.
—— Island.
—— mines at Baiburt,
    Gumish–Khánah;
    in Badakhshan;
    in N. Shansi;
    Yun-nan;
    Russian.
—— plate in Chinese taverns.
Simon, Metropolitan of Fars.
—— Magus.
Simúm, effects of.
Simurgh.
Sinbad,
    his story of the diamonds;
    of the Rukh.
Sind (Sindhu–Sauvira).
Sindábúr (Goa).
Sindachu (Siuen-hwa fu).
Sindafu (Chengtu-fu).
Sindhu–Sauvira (Sindh-Ságor).
Si-ngan fu (Kenjanfu),
    Christian inscription at.
Singapore, Singhapura.
Singkel.
Singphos.
Sings.
Singtur, Mongol Prince.
Singuyli (Cranganor).
Sinhopala (Accambale), king of Chamba.
Sinju (Si-ning fu).
—— (Ichin-hien).
Sinju-matu.
Sínkalán, Sín-ul-Sín, Mahá-chin, or Canton.
Sinope.
Síráf (Kish, or Kais?).
Sir-i-Chashma.
Sirikol, Lake and River.
Sírján or Shirján.
Sis.
Sístán.
Sitting in air.
Siu chau.
Siuen-hwa-fu, see Sindachu.
Siva.
Sivas, Siwas, Sebaste, Sevasd (Savast).
Siwastán.
Siwi, gigantic cotton in.
Sixtus V., Pope.
Siya-gosh, or lynx.
Siyurgutmish.
Sladen, Major.
Slaves in Bengal.
Sledges, dog-.
Sleeping-mats, leather.
Sluices of Grand Canal.
Smith, G., Bishop of Hongkong.
Smith (R.E.), Major R.M.
Sneezing, omen from.
Socotra (Scotra), island of,
    history of;
    Christian Archbishop;
    aloes of.
Soer (Suhar).
Sofala, trade to China from.
Sogoman Borcan, see Sakya Muni.
Sol, Arbre, see Arbre.
Soldaia, Soldachia, Sodaya (the Oriental Sudák).
Soldan, a Melic.
Soldurii, trusty lieges of Celtic kings.
Soli, Solli (Chola, or Tanjore), kingdom of.
Solomon, house of, in Abyssinia.
Soltania, Archbishop of (See Sultaniah.).
Somnath (Semenat),
    gates of.
Sonagar-pattanam.
Soncara (Shawankára).
Sender Bandi Davar, see Sundara Pandi.
Sondur and Condur (Pulo Condore Group).
Sorcerers, sorceries of Pashai (Udyana),
    Kashmir;
    Lamas and Tibetans.
—— Dagroian,
    Socotra (See also Conjurers.).
Sornau (Shahr-i-Nau), Siam.
Sotiates, tribe of Aquitania.
Soucat.
Southey, St. Romuald.
Spaan, Ispahan.
Sposk, district.
Spezerie.
Spice, Spicery.
Spice wood.
Spices in China, duty on.
Spikenard.
Spinello Aretini, fresco by.
Spirit drawings and spiritual flowers.
Spirits haunting deserts.
Spiritualism in China.
Spittoons, pocket.
Spodium (Spodos).
Sport and game,
 in Shan-si;
 Cachanfu;
    Cuncun;
    Acbalec Manzi;
    Tibet;
    Caindu;
    Zardandan;
    Mien;
    Linju;
    Cagu;
    Nanghin;
    Saianfu;
    Ching-hiang-fu;
    Chinginju;
    Changan;
    Kinsay;
    Fuju;
    Lambri;
    Maabar;
    Comari;
    Eli.
Springolds.
Springs, hot.
Sprinkling of drink, a Tartar rite.
Squares at Kinsay.
Sri–Thammarat.
Sri–Vaikuntham.
Sse River.
Stack, E., visits Kuh Banán.
Star Chart.
Star of Bethlehem, traditions about.
Steamers on Yangtse-kiang.
Steel mines at Kermán,
    in Chingintalas;
    Indian;
    Asiatic view of.
Stefani, Signor.
Stein, Dr. M.A., on Sorcery in Kashmir,
    on Paonano Pao;
    on Pamirs;
    on site of Pein.
Stiens of Cambodia.
Stirrups, short and long.
Stitched vessels.
Stockade erected by Polo’s party in Sumatra.
Stone, miracle of the, at Samarkand.
—— the green.
—— towers in Chinese cities.
—— umbrella column.
Stones giving invulnerability.
Suákin.
Submersion of part of Ceylon.
Subterraneous irrigation.
Suburbs of Cambaluc.
Subutai, Mongol general.
Su-chau (Suju),
    plan of.
Suchnan River.
Sudarium, the Holy.
Súddhodhana.
Sugar, Bengal,
    manufactured;
    art of refining;
    of Egypt and China.
Suh-chau (Sukchur).
Suicides before an idol.
Sukchur, province Sukkothai.
Sukkothai.
Suklát, broadcloth.
Sukum Kala’.
Suleiman, Sultan.
Sulphur and quicksilver, potion of longevity.
Sultaniah, Monument at (See Soltania.).
Sultan Shah, of Badakhshan.
Sumatra (Java the Less),
    described, its kingdoms;
    circuit.
Sumatra, Samudra,
    city and kingdom of (Samara for Samatva);
    legend of origin;
    Ibn Batuta there;
    its position;
    latest mention of;
    wine-pots.
Sumbawa.
Summers, Professor.
Sumutala, Sumuntala, see Sumatra.
Sun and moon, trees of the.
Sundara Pandi Devar, Sondar Bandi Davar, king in Ma’bar,
    his death;
    Dr. Caldwell’s views about.
Sundar Fúlát (Pulo Condore Group).
Sung, a native dynasty reigning in S. China till Kúblái’s conquest,
    their paper-money, effeminacy;
    cremation;
    Kúblái’s war against;
    end of them.
Sunnis and Shias.
Suolstan (Shulistan), a kingdom in Persia.
Superstitions in Tangut, the devoted sheep or ram (Tengri Tockho),
    the dead man’s door;
    as to chance shots;
    in Carajan;
    devil-dancing;
    property of the dead;
    Sumatran;
    Malabar;
    as to omens.
Sur–Raja.
Survival, instances of.
Sushun, Regent of China, execution of.
Su-tásh, the Jadek.
Suttees in S. India,
    of men.
Svastika, sacred symbol of the Bonpos.
Swans, wild, at Chagan–Nor.
Swat.
—— River.
Swi-fu.
Sword blades of India.
Syghinan, see Shighnan.
Sykes, Major P. Molesworth.
Sylen (Ceylon).
Symbolical messages, Scythian and Tartar.
Syrian Christians.
Syrrhaptes Pallasii, see Barguerlac.
Szechényi, Count.
Sze-ch’wan (Ch’eng-tu),
    aborigines.

Tabashir.
Tabbas.
Table of the Great Khan.
Tables, how disposed at Mongol feasts.
Tablet, Emperor’s, adored with incense.
Tablets of Authority, Golden (Páizah),
    presented by Khan to Polos;
    lion’s head and gerfalcon;
    bestowed on distinguished captains, inscription;
    cat’s head;
    granted to governors of different rank.
—— worshipped by Cathayans.
Tabriz (Tauris).
Tachindo, see Ta-ts’ien-lu.
Tacitus, Claustra Caspiorum, Pass of Derbend.
Tactics, Tartar.
Tacuin.
Tadinfu.
Taeping Insurrection and Devastations.
Taeping, or Taiping, Sovereigns’ effeminate customs.
Taffetas.
Taft, near Yezd, turquoise at.
Tafurs.
Tagachar.
Tagaung.
Tagharma Pass.
Taghdúngbásh River.
Taianfu (T’ai-yuan-fu), king of N. China.
Taiani.
Taican, see Talikan.
Taichau (Tigu).
T’aiching-Kwan.
Taidu, Daitu, Tatu, Kúblái’s new city of Cambaluc.
Taikung, see Tagaung.
Tailed men, in Sumatra,
    elsewhere;
    English.
Tailors, none in Maabar.
Taimúni tribe.
Taiting-fu (Tadinfu), or Yenchau.
Taitong-fu, see Tathung.
Tai-tsu, Emperor.
T’ai Tsung, Emperor.
Tatyang Khan (Great King), king of the Naimans.
Tajiks of Badakhshan, great topers.
Takfúr.
Takhtapul.
Táki-uddin, Abdu-r Rahmán.
Takla–Makan.
Talains.
Talas River.
Tali, gold mines.
Talifu (Carajan).
Talikan, Thaikan (Taican).
Tallies, record by.
Tamarind, pirates use of.
Tamerlan.
Tana (Azov).
—— near Bombay, kingdom of
Tana–Maiambu.
Tana–Malayu.
Tánasi cloth.
Tanduc, see Tenduc.
T’ang dynasty.
Tangnu Oola, branch of Altai.
Tangut province, Chinese Si Hia, or Ho Si,
    five invasions of.
Tangutan, term applied to Tibetan speaking people round the Koko-nor.
Tanjore,
    Suttee at;
    Pagoda at;
    fertility of.
Tánkíz Khan, applied to Chinghiz.
Tanpiju (Shaohing?).
Tantras, Tantrika, Tantrists.
Tao-lin, a Buddhist monk.
Tao-sze (Taossé), sect,
    female idols of the.
Ta-pa-Shan range.
Taprobana, mistakes about.
Tarakai.
Tarantula.
Tarcasci.
Tarem, or Tarum.
Tares of the parable.
Taríkh-i-Rashídí.
Tarmabala, Kúblái’s grandson.
Tarok, Burmese name for Chinese.
Tarok Man and Tarok Myo.
Tartar language,
    on Tartar, its correct form;
    misuse by Ramusio.
Tartars,
    different characters used by;
    identified with Gog and Magog;
    ladies;
    their first city;
    original country, tributary to Prester John;
    revolt and migration;
    earliest mention of the word;
    make Chinghiz their king;
    his successors;
    their customs and religion;
    houses;
    waggons;
    chastity of their women;
    polygamy, etc.;
    their gods and idols;
    their drink (Kumiz);
    cloths;
    arms, horses, and war customs;
    military organization;
    sustenance on rapid marches;
    blood-sucking;
    portable curd;
    tactics in war;
    degeneracy;
    administration of justice;
    laws against theft;
    posthumous marriage;
    the cudgel;
    Rubruquis’ account of;
    Joinville’s;
    custom before a fight;
    want of charity to the poor;
    conquerors of China, history of;
    excellence in archery;
    objection to meddling with things pertaining to the dead;
    admiration of the Polo mangonels;
    employment of military engines;
    their cruelties;
    arrows;
    marriage customs.
—— in the Far North.
—— of the Levant, see Levant.
—— of the Ponent, see Ponent.
Tartary cloths.
Tarungares, tribe.
Tásh Kurgán.
Tataríya coins.
Tathung, or Taitongfu.
Ta-t’sien-lu, or Tachindo, Tartsédo.
Ta Tsing River.
Tattooing,
    artists in.
Tatu (Taichu).
—— River.
Tauris, see Tabriz.
Taurizi, Torissi.
Tawálisi.
Taxes, see Customs, Duties.
Tchakiri Mondou (Modun).
Tchekmen, thick coarse cotton stuff.
Tea-houses at Kingszé.
Tea trees in E. Tibet.
Tebet, see Tibet.
Tedaldo, see Theobald.
Teeth, custom of casing in gold.
—— of Adam or of Buddha.
—— conservation of, by Brahmans.
Tegana.
Teghele, Atabeg of Lúr.
Teimur (Temur), Kúblái’s grandson and successor.
Tekla, Hamainot.
Tekrit.
Telingana, see Tilinga.
Telo Samawe.
Tembul (Betel), chewing.
Temkan, Kúblái’s son.
Temple, connection of Cilician Armenia with Order of.
—— Master of the.
Temple’s account of the Condor.
Temujin, see Chinghiz.
Tenduc, or Tanduc, plain of,
    province of.
Tengri, Supreme deity of Tartars.
Tennasserim,
    (Tanasari).
Tents, the Khan’s.
Terebinth,
    of Mamre.
Terlán, goshawk.
Terra Mountains.
Terra Australis.
Te–Tsung, Emperor.
Thai, Great and Little,
    race.
Thaigin.
Thai-yuanfu (Taianfu).
Thard-wahsh, see Patterns, Beast and Bird.
Theft, Tartar punishment of.
Theistic worship.
Thelasar.
Theobald, or Tedaldo of Piacenza,
    chosen Pope as Gregory X.;
    sends friars with the Polos and presents.
Theodorus, king of Abyssinia.
Theodosius the Great.
Theophilus, Emperor of Constantinople.
—— missionary.
Thévenot, Travels.
Thian Shan.
Thianté-Kiun.
Thin l’Evêque, siege of.
Thinae of Ptolemy.
Tholoman, see Coloman.
Thomas, Edward.
—— of Mancasola, Bishop of Samarcand.
Thread, Brahmanical.
Three kingdoms (San–Kwé).
Threshold, a great offence to step on the.
Thurán Shah’s History of Hormuz.
Tibet (Tebet) province,
    boundary of;
    its acquisition by Mongols;
    organisation under Kúblái;
    dogs of.
Tibetan language and character,
    origin of the Yue-chi.
Tibetans,
    superstitions of;
    and Kashmiris (Tebet and Keshimur), sorceries of;
    accused of cannibalism.
Tides in Hang-chau estuary.
Tierce, half tierce, etc., hours of.
Tiflis.
Tigado, Castle of.
Tigers (called lions by Polo),
    trained to the chase;
    in Cuncun;
    in Caindu;
    Kwei-chau.
    (See also Lions.).
Tigris River (Volga),
    at Baghdad.
Tigúdar (Acomat Soldan).
Tiju.
Tiles, enamelled.
Tilinga, Telingana, Tiling, Telenc.
Tiling.
Timur of Toumen, chief of the Nikoudrians.
Timur the Great.
Timurids, the.
Ting, 10 taels of silver = tael of gold.
Tinju.
Tinnevelly.
Tithe on clothing material.
Tithing men, Chinese (Pao-kia).
Titus, Emperor.
Tjajya, see Choiach.
Toba race.
Toctai, king, see Toktai.
Tod, Colonel James.
Toddy, see Wine of Palm.
Togan.
Toghontemur, last Mongol Emperor,
    his wail.
Toghrul I.
—— Shah of Kermán.
Togrul Wang Khan, see Prester John.
Toka Tumir.
Tokát.
Toktai Khan (Toctai, Lord of the Ponent),
    wars with Noghai;
    his symbolic message.
Tolan-nur (Dolonnúr).
Toleto, John de, Cardinal Bishop of Portus.
Tolobuga.
Toman (Tuman, etc.), Mongol word for 10,000.
Tongking, Tungking.
Tooth-relique of Buddha,
    history of.
Torchi, Dorjé, Kúblái’s first-born.
Tornesel.
Toro River.
Torshok.
Torture by constriction in raw hide.
Toscaul, toskáúl (toscaol), watchman.
Tournefort, on cold at Erzrum.
Tower and Bell Alarm at Peking,
    at Kinsay.
Toyan (Tathung?).
Trade at Layas,
    by Baghdad;
    at Tauris;
    at Cambaluc;
    in Shan-si;
    on the Great Kiang;
    at Chinangli;
    at Sinju Matu;
    Kinsay;
    Fu-chau;
    Zayton;
    Java;
    Malaiur;
    Cail;
    Coilum;
    Melibar;
    Tana;
    Cambaet;
    Kesmacoran;
    Socotra.
—— of India with Hormuz,
    with Egypt by Aden;
    with Esher;
    with Dofar;
    with Calatu.
Trades in Manzi, alleged to be hereditary.
Tramontaine.
Transmigration.
Traps for fur animals.
Travancore,
    Rajas of.
Treasure of Maabar kings.
Trebizond,
    Emperors of, and their tails.
Trebuchets.
Trees, of the Sun and Moon,
    superstitions about;
    by the highways;
    camphor;
    producing wine;
    producing flour (sago).
Tregetoures.
Trench, Archbishop.
Trevisano, Azzo.
—— Marc’ Antonio, Doge.
Trincomalee.
Tringano.
Trinkat.
‘Trusty lieges,’ devoted comrades of king of Maabar.
T’sang-chau.
T’siang-kiun (‘General’).
T’sien T’ang River,
    bore in.
T’si-nan-fu (Chinangli).
T’sing-chau.
T’sing-ling range.
T’si-ning-chau.
Tsin-tsun.
Tsiuan-chau, T’swanchau, see Zayton.
Tsongkhapa, Tibetan Reformer.
Ts’uan-chou, see Zayton.
Tsukuzi in Japan.
Tsung-ngan-hien.
Tsushima, Island.
Tuan, Prince, chief of the Boxers.
Tuc, tuk, tugh, commanders of 100,000, horse-tail or yak-tail;
    standard.
Tudai, Ahmad Khan’s wife.
Tudai–Mangku (Totamangu or Totamangul).
Tu-fan, ancient name of Tibet.
Tughan, Tukan, Kúblái’s son.
Tughlak Shah, of Delhi (a Karaunah).
Tuktuyai Khan.
Tu-ku-hun.
Tuli, or Tulin, fourth son of Chinghiz.
Tuman, see Toman.
Tumba, Angelo di,
    Marco di.
Tún, city of E. Persia.
Tung-‘an in Fokien.
Tungani, or Converts, Mahomedans in N. China and Chinese Turkestan.
Tung-chau (Tinju).
Tung-hwang-hien, ancient Shachau.
Tung-kwan, fortress of the Kin sovereigns.
Tung-lo (Kumiz).
Tunguses.
Tunny fish.
Tun-o-kain (Tunocain), kingdom of Persia.
Turbit (radex Turpethi).
Turcomania (Anatolian Turkey).
Turgaut, day-watch.
Turkey, Great (Turkestan).
Turkistan chiefs send mission to kings of India.
Turkmans and Turks, distinction between,
    horses.
Turks, ancient mention of,
    friend of Polo’s;
    and Mongols.
Turmeric.
Turner, Lieutenant Samuel, describes Yak of Tartary.
Turquans, Turkish horses.
Turquoises in Kermán,
    in Caindu.
Turtle doves.
Turumpak, Hormuz.
Tutia (Tutty), preparation of.
Tuticorin.
Tu T’song, Sung Emperor of China.
Tver.
Twelve, a favourite round number.
—— Barons over Khan’s Administration.
Twigs or arrows, divination by.
Tyuman.
Tyunju, porcelain manufacture.
Tylor, Dr. E.B., on Couvade.
Tzarev.
Tzaritzyn.

Ucaca (Ukak, Ukek, Uwek),
    Ukák of Ibn Batuta, a different place.
Uch-baligh.
Uch–Multán.
Udoe country.
Udong.
Udyána.
Ughuz, legend of.
Uighúr character, parent of present Mongol writing.
Uighúrs, the.
Uiraca.
Uirad, see Oirad.
Ujjain, legend of,
    (Ozene).
Ukak. (See Ucaca.).
Ulatai (Oulatay), Tartar envoy from Persia.
Ulakhai.
Ulan Muren (Red River).
Ulugh Bagh, on Badakhshan border.
—— Mohammed.
Ulús, the.
U-man and Pe-man (Black and White Barbarians).
Umbrellas.
Unc Can (Aung Khan), see Prester John
Ung (Ungkút), Tartar tribe..
Ungrat (Kungurat), Tartar tribe.
Unicorn (Rhinoceros), in Burma,
    Sumatra;
    legend of Virgin and;
    horns of.
Unken, City.
Unlucky hours.
U-nya-Mwezi superstition.
Urduja, Princess.
Uriangkadai.
Uriangkút (Tunguses).
Urianhai, the.
Urumtsi.
Urzú.
Uspenskoye (called also Bolgarskoye).
Uttungadeva, king of Java.
Uwek, see Ucaca.
Uzbeg Khan of Sarai.
Uzbegs of Kunduz.
Uzun Tati, coins, Chinese porcelain from.

Vair, the fur and animal.
—— as an epithet of eyes.
Valaghir district.
Vámbéry, Prof. Hermann.
Vanchu (Wangchu), conspires with Chenchu against Ahmad.
Van Lake.
Varaegian, Varangian.
Varaha Mihira, astronomer.
Vardoj River.
Varini.
Varsach, or Mashhad River.
Vasmulo.
Vateria Indica.
Veil of the Temple, [Greek: péplos babylónios].
Vellalars.
Venádan, title of king of Kaulam.
Venetians, factory at Soldaia,
    expelled from Constantinople.
Venice,
    return of Polos to;
    its exaltation after Latin conquest of Constantinople;
    its nobles;
    Polo’s mansion at;
    galleys;
    archives at;
    articles brought from East by Marco to.
Ventilators at Hormuz.
Verlinden, Belgian missionary.
Verniques.
Verzino Colombino. (See also Brazil.).
Vessels, war,
    stitched of Kermán ([Greek: ploiária rhaptá]).
    (See also Ships.).
Vial, Paul, French missionary.
Vijayanagar.
Vikramajit, legend of.
Vikrampúr.
Villard de Honnecourt, Album of.
Vincent of Beauvais.
Vincenzo, P.
Vineyards, in Taican,
    Kashgar;
    Khotan;
    in N. China.
Vinson, Prof., on Couvade.
Virgin of Cape Comorin.
Visconti, Tedaldo, or Tebaldo, see Theobald of Piacenza.
Vissering, on Chinese Currency.
Vochan (Unchan, Yungchan),
    battle there.
Vogels, J.
Vokhan, see Wakhán.
Volga, called Tigris.
Vos, Belgian Missionary.
Vughin.
Vuju in Kiangnan.
—— in Chekiang.

Wadoe tribe.
Wakf.
Wakhán (Vokhan), dialect.
—— Mountains.
Wakhjír Pass.
Wakhijrui Pass, see Wakhjír Pass.
Wakhsh, branch of the Oxus.
Wakhtang II., king of Georgia.
Walashjird.
Wallachs.
Wall of Alexander (or Caucasian).
—— of Gog and Magog (i.e. China).
Walnut-oil.
Wami River.
Wang, Chinese silk.
Wang, king of Djungar.
Wangchu, see Vanchu
Wapila.
Warangol Ku.
Warangs.
Warner, Dr.
War vessels, Chinese.
Wassáf, the historian,
    his character of the Karaunahs;
    notices of Hormuz;
    eulogy of Kúblái;
    story of Kúblái;
    his style;
    account of taking of Siang-yang;
    of Kinsay;
    Maabar;
    horse trade to India;
    treatment of them there;
    extract from his history.
Water, bitter.
—— custom of lying in,
    consecration by Lamas.
—— Clock.
Wathek, Khalif.
Wa-tzu, Lolo slaves.
Weather-conjuring.
Wei dynasty.
Weights and measures.
Wei-ning.
Wei River in Shen-si.
—— in Shan-tung.
Wen River.
Wen-chow.
Westermarck, Human Marriage.
Whale oil, including spermaceti.
Whales,
    in Socotra;
    Madagascar;
    species of Indian Ocean;
    sperm (Capdoille).
Wheaten bread not eaten,
    at Yachi.
White bears.
—— bone, Chinese for Lolos.
—— camels.
—— City, meaning of term among Tartars.
—— City, of Manzi frontier.
—— Devils.
—— Feast at Kúblái’s City.
—— Horde.
—— horses and mares,
    offered to Khan.
Whittington and his cat in Persia.
Wild asses and oxen, see Asses and Oxen.
William of Tripoli, Friar,
    his writings.
Williams, Dr. S.W., on the Chinese year,
    on elephants at Peking.
Williamson, Rev. A.
Wilson, General Sir C.
Wind, poison (Simúm),
    monsoons.
Wine, of the vine, Persians lax in abstaining from,
—— boiled.
—— of ancient Kapisa,
    Khotan;
    at Taianfu;
    imported at Kinsay.
—— rice (Samshu or darásún),
    and of wheat;
    at Yachi;
    spices, etc., in Caindu;
    Kien-ch’ang;
    Cangigu;
    Coloman;
    Kinsay.
—— Palm (toddy).
—— from sugar.
—— date.
—— (unspecified), at Khan’s table,
    not used in Ma’bar;
    nor by Brahmans.
“Winter” used for “rainy season”.
Wo-fo-sze, “Monastery of the lying Buddha”.
Wolves in Pamir.
Women, Island of.
Women, of Kerman,
    their embroidery;
    mourners;
    of Khorasan, their beauty;
    of Badakhshan;
    Kashmir;
    Khotan;
    Kamul, fair and wanton;
    Tartar good and loyal;
    Erguiul, pretty creatures;
    of the town;
    of Tibet, evil customs;
    Caindu;
    Carajan; Zardandan, couvade;
    Anin;
    Kinsay, charming;
    respectful treatment of;
    Kelinfu, beautiful;
    Zanghibar, frightful.
Wonders performed by the Bacsi.
Wood, Lieutenant John, Indian Navy,
    his elucidations of Polo in Oxus regions.
Wood-oil.
Wool, Salamander’s.
Worship of Mahomet (supposed).
—— of fire,
    Tartar;
    Chinese.
—— of first object seen in the day.
Worshipping the tablets.
Wu-chau (Vuju).
Wukiang-hien (Vughin).
Wüsus, or Wesses, people of Russia.
Wu-ti, Emperor.
Wylie, Alexander.

Xanadu.
Xavier, at Socotra.
Xerxes.

Ya-chau.
Yachi (Yun-nan-fu), city.
Yadah, Jadagari, Jadah-tásh, science and stone of weather-conjurer.
Yaik River.
Yájú, and Májúj, see Gog and Magog.
Yak (dong),
    their tails carried to Venice;
    used in India for military decorations.
Ya’kúb Beg of Kasghar.
Yakuts.
Yalung River.
Yam, or Yamb (a post-stage or post-house).
Yamgán.
Yang-chau (Yanju), city,
    Marco’s government there.
Yarbeg of Badakhshan.
Yarkand (Yarcan).
Yarligh and P’aizah.
Yasdi (Yezd).
—— silk tissue.
Yashm, jade.
Yasodhara, bride of Sakya Sinha.
Yavanas.
Yazdashir.
Ydifu.
Year, Chinese,
    Mongol and Chinese cycle.
Yelimala, see Monté d’Ely.
Yeliu Chutsai, statesman and astronomer.
Yellow, or orthodox Lamas.
Yemen (See also Aden.).
Yeng-chau (in Shan-tung).
—— (in Che-kiang).
Yen-king (Old Peking).
Yen–Ping.
Yenshan.
Yesubuka.
Yesudar.
Yesugai, father of Chinghiz.
Yetsina (Etzina).
Yezd (Yasdi),
    silk fabrics of.
Yiu-ki River.
Yoritomo, descendants of.
Yonting Ho River.
Yotkàn, village.
Youth, Island of.
Yrac, province.
Ysemain of Hiulie, western engineer.
Yu, see Jade.
Yuan Ho.
Yu-chow, gold and silver mines.
Yue-chi.
Yuen, Mongol Imperial dynasty, so styled.
Yuen-hao, kingdom of Tangut.
Yuen ming-yuen, palace.
Yuen shi, History of Mongol Dynasty in China.
Yugria, or Yughra, in the Far North.
Yuh-shan.
Yule, Sir Henry,
    on Ravenala;
    on Maundeville.
Yun–Hien, a Buddhist Abbot.
Yung-chang fu (Shen-si).
—— (Yun-nan, Vochan).
Yung Lo, Emperor.
Yun-nan (Carajan), province,
    conquerors of;
    Mahomedans.
Yun-nan-fu city, see Yachi.
Yurungkásh (white Jade) River.
Yusuf Kekfi.
Yuthia, Ayuthia (Ayodhya), mediaeval capital of Siam.
Yvo of Narbonne.

Zabedj.
Zaila.
Zaitúníah, probable origin of satin.
Zampa, see Champa.
Zanghibar (Zangibar, Zanjibar, Zanzibar),
    currents off;
    Ivory trade;
    its blacks, women.
Zanton (Shantung?).
Zanzale, James, or Jacob Baradaeus, Bishop of Edessa.
Zapharan, monastery near Baghdad.
Zardandan, or “Gold Teeth,” a people of W. Yun-nan,
    identity doubtful;
    characteristic customs.
Zarneke, Fr.
Zayton, Zaitún, Zeiton, Cayton,
    (T’swan-chau, Chwan-chau, or Chinchew of modern charts);
    the great mediaeval port of China;
    Khan’s revenue from;
    porcelain;
    language;
    etymology;
    mediaeval notices;
    identity;
    Chinchew, a name misapplied;
    Christian churches at;
    ships of.
Zayton, Andrew, Bishop of.
Zebák Valley.
Zebu, humped oxen.
Zedoary.
Zenghi.
Zerms (Jerms).
Zerumbet.
Zettani.
Zhafar, see Dhafar.
Zic (Circassia).
Zikas.
Zimmé, see Kiang-mai.
Zinc.
Zinj, Zinjis.
Zobeidah, the lady.
Zorza, see Chorcha.
Zu-‘lkarnain (Zulcarniain), “the Two Horned,” an epithet of Alexander.
Zurficar (Zúrpica, Zulficar), a Turkish friend of Marco Polo’s.

http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/p/polo/marco/travels/index1.html

Last updated Thursday, March 6, 2014 at 16:24