The Fable of the Bees or Private Vices, Publick Benefits, by Bernard Mandeville

Description of the Editions

HERE are listed the full title-pages of all the accessible editions of the Fable of the Bees, together with descriptions of the editions. In reproducing titles, I have indicated always whether the type is roman or italic, upper case or lower case, but, beyond this, no attempt has been made to differentiate type. All capitals, no matter what size, have been transliterated into small capitals, except that in words where an initial capital is followed by smaller capitals or lower case I have used a full capital for the initial letter. Long ‘s’ has been modernized. The German type used in the translations of 1761 and 1818 has been transliterated into roman. In the collations, although I have in general indicated all departures from normal folding, I have not noted the number of leaves in the last folding, since this is here sufficiently indicated by the pagination. Concerning the misprints in pagination which I have recorded, it should be remembered that any of these might have been corrected in the press in copies not seen by me. Where, in the collations, both the page-numbers delimiting a part of a book are enclosed within one pair of brackets (e.g., pp. [340–8]), none of the pages in the group are numbered in the original; where page-numbers are individually enclosed in brackets (e.g., pp. [1]–[24] or pp. [15]–27), the intervening pages of the group are numbered in the original.

The Grumbling Hive

1. The Grumbling Hive. . . . 1705.

See the reproduction opposite (reduced from 127 × 180.5 mm.).

titlepage

Collation: 4to. Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; Grumbling Hive, pp. 1–26. Signatures omitted on A sheet.

Copies in the Bodleain and in my possession.

2. the / Grumbling Hive: / or, / knaves / Turn’d honest. [1705.]

Collation: 4to (half-sheet). Grumbling Hive, pp. 1 (A)–4.

This has no title-page. The above title heads the four double-columned pages of the pamphlet. At the end is stated, ‘Printed in the Year, 1705.’ This is the pirated edition (see Fable i. 4). Copy in the British Museum.

3. The / grumbling hive, / or, / knaves turn’d honest. / Boston [Mass.]: / Printed for the people. / 1811.

Collation: Format uncertain, signatures irregular (A2 on p. 5, B on p. 13, C on p. 17). Title, p. [1]; blank, p. [2]; Grumbling Hive, pp. 3–18(Cv).

Copy in the Library of Congress.

The Fable of the Bees. Part 1

1. The Fable of the Bees. . . . 1714.

See the reproduction opposite.

titlepage

Collation: 12 mo. Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [iii(A2)-xiv]; table of contents, pp. [xv-xxiii]; Errata, p. [xxiv]; Grumbling Hive, pp. 1(B)–20; introduction, pp. [21–2]; Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, pp. 23(†)–41; Remarks, pp. 42–228. Signature I3 misprinted ‘I2’.

The table of contents, which was not printed in any edition after the second, reads as follows:

THE CONTENTS.1
A Description of the glorious Beehive, Page 1
The cause of their Greatness, 8
Their unreasonable Murmurings. 10
Jupiter makes them honest. 11
The effects of honesty upon Trade. 15
The Moral. 19
The reason why so few People understand themselves, 21
En Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, 23
Man without Government is of all Creatures the most unfit for Society, 24
Mankind is for Emulations sake divided in two Classes, 26
What Animals discover the greatest Pride, 28
The first Rudiments of Morality were broach’d for the Ease of Governors 30
The Definitions of Virtue and Vice, 31
Moral Virtue not deriv’d from Religion, 32
What excited the Ancients to Heroick Virtues, 33
The various Arts of Flattery 34
What the Thirst after Fame consists in, 38
Pity no Virtue, and why, 39
Observations concerning Education, 42
No Traders strictly honest 46
A Story of two Merchants that both took Advantage of their Intelligences, 47
The genuine Signification of Honour, 50
A Definition of Shame, 51
What makes Men asham’d for the faults of others, 53
The Symptoms of Shame and Pride 54
Why all Tradesmen take such Pains to hide the Prime Cost of their Goods, 56
The reason why Gamesters conceal their Gettings before the Losers, 57
When the Reason alledg’d ceases, 59
How Virtue may be said to be made Friends with Vice, 61
The worst of the Society do something for the Publick Good, 62
The Clergy of different Perswasions are beneficial to one another, 63
Virtuous Women promote the Advantage of Prostitutes, 64
The Tolleration of Strumpets necessary to the Preservation of Chastity, 65
A Description of the Musick Houses at Amsterdam, 66
The Tolleration of Lewd Women in other Parts of the World, 69
The reason why Avarice is so much exclaim’d against 71
Avarice and Profuseness often joyn’d together, 73
Lavishness is a most beneficial Vice to the Publick, 74
The Body Politick compar’d to a Bowl of Punch, 77
Either every thing is Luxury, or else there is none at all, 79
Luxury not Destructive to the Wealth of a Nation, 81
The mischief proceeding from Bad Politicks are charg’d to Luxury, 85
Several maxims never to be departed from, 86
How Nations may swim in Luxury, and yet be a Warlike People, 89
What the Luxury of Military Men consists in, 94
A Definition of Pride, 98
By Pride and Luxury are more Hands set to work than could be employ’d without them, 99
The use of Cloaths, 102
The Encouragement obscure People have to Dress above their Condition, 103
All degrees of Men imitate those above them, 105
An Objection answer’d, 107
Several different Symptoms of Pride, 108
No body spends his Money to promote the Trade of others, 112
The highest good of Epicurus, 113
The Desires of the Sensual and Ambitious, 114
The highest good of the Stoicks 117
Men are to be judg’d by their Actions, and not from their Words, 119
The Self-denial observ’d in Religious Houses 121
The wishes of all the Reform’d Clergy in general, 123
Poverty brings none of the Clergy into Contempt but such as want Fortitude to bear it, 125
Nothing renders Man more glorious than a voluntary Poverty embrac’d with chearfulness, 126
The effects which the Self-denial of a good Pastor would have upon his Flock, 128
Marriage in a poor Priest is less pardonable than in a ’Prentice, 130
What we must judge of the Apology that is made for the Clergy, 131
The real Pleasures of Great Men, as well the Clergy as the Laity, in all Countries, 133
What must awe Men of abandon’d Principles, 135
Where there is real Power, no Temperance or Austerity of Life ever renders the Person contemptible in whom it is lodg’d, 137
The real Pleasures of all Men in Nature are Worldly and Sensual, 138
Most Men act against their Principle, ibid
The Poor enjoy more of the Comforts of Life than formerly the Rich. 141
The Luxury there is in Woollen and Linnen Cloth, 142
Several other instances of real Luxury made use of among the Poor, 144
The Tyranny of Custom gives us not leave to judge of things as they really are, 145
What is counted very immodest one moment, is not so much as censur’d the next, 146
To use the Flesh of Animals for Food is a cruel piece of Luxury, 147
What raises our Compassion most effectually ibid.
The Repugnancy of Nature to the killing of Animals 148
Why Surgeons are not allowed to be of any Jury upon Life and Death, 149
A fabulous Dialogue between a Man and a Lyon, 150
Man’s Excellency above other Animals, 151
There is little Sincerity in the esteem which Man pretends to have for his Species, 153
Why Man’s craving Flesh for Food is unnatural, ibid.
We ought not to judge of Nature’s design, but from the effects she shews, 155
Man never acknowledges Superiority without Power, 156
The feeling of Brutes proved from several concurring Symptoms, 157
A Definition of Frugality, 158
What the Lavishness or Frugality of Nations depend upon, 159
Maxims to make a People great and flourishing. 162
To make a Society good and honest, 162
The present Grandeur of the Dutch is not owing to the Virtue and Frugality of their Ancestors, 164
The Hardships and Calamities they have suffered 164
Their natural Wants, 165
The Dutch not frugal by Principle 168
’Tis Policy and not Virtue that makes the Dutch encourage Frugality, 169
How they promote Lavishness when it suits with their Interest, 170
What the Consequence wou’d be of a National Frugality among us, 172
A Nation could more easily live without Money than without Poor, 174
Nations may be ruined by too much Money, 175
The effect too much Money has had upon the Spaniards, 177
The Labours of the People and the Fruits of the Earth, are Treasures beyond Gold or Silver. 178
All desires tend to Self-Preservation, 182
Fear not to be conquer’d by Reason, 183
Why Anger and Lust are the two fiercest Appetites, 184
What use Anger is of to all Creatures, 185
No Brutes fight obstinately, but what are either Voracious or Lustful. 187
Why Man is a timerous Animal, 190
Man is civiliz’d by his Fear, 191
Natural Courage proceeds from Anger, 192
Natural Courage of no use in Martial Discipline, 193
How artificial Courage is made, 195
That we fear things more than Death demonstrated from Suicide, 196
The force of Constitution, 198
Strong Liquors imitate Anger, 199
Use helps Constitution, 201
Atheism has had Mar [t]yrs, 202
Pride and other Passions are often mistaken for Courage, 204
The Art of rousing Man’s Pride, 205
Thoughts about Duelling, 208
Honour directly opposite to Religion, 211
The Frugality of the Spartans, 213
A Discourse upon Laziness, 215
Content is a Precarious Virtue, 223
A Definition of Industry, 224
The Impossibility of being a Great and a Virtuous Nation, 225
The World’s Conveniencies, 227

For further information concerning this edition see the description below of the 1723 edition.

2. The Fable of the Bees . . . . 1714.

See the reproduction opposite.

titlepage

Collation: 12mo; identical with that of the preceding edition, of which it is a page-for-page reprint. In this edition signature B3 is misprinted ‘B5’ and I 3, ‘I 2’.

That the edition here considered is the later of the two 1714 ones is shown by the fact that a misprint (p. 36, l. 12) noted in the Errata has been corrected in the text.

3. The Fable of the Bees . . . . 1723.

See the reproduction opposite p. 393.

titlepage

Collation: 8vo (signatures A and Ee, four leaves). Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [iii(A2)-viii]; Grumbling Hive, pp. [1](B)–[24](C4v); introduction, pp. [25–6]; Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, pp. [27]–44; Remarks, pp. [45]–284; Essay on Charity, pp. [285]–370(Bbv); Search into the Nature of Society, pp. [371](Bb2)–428(Ff2v); index, pp. [429(Ff2)–439]; Errata, p. [439]. Signature Ff3 is misprinted ‘Ff2’.

The variants show that Mandeville, in preparing this edition, used the first, not the second, edition of 1714 as a nucleus.

The following columns describe this edition by paralleling its structure with that of the edition of 1714, with the purpose of showing at what date the various parts of the Fable were first published.1

1714 17232
Preface. Preface. (A footnote is added on p.[iii], and a final sentence, to bring the work up to date.]
Table of contents. 3 [Omitted.]
The Grumbling Hive: pp. 1–20. The Grumbling Hive: pp. 1–24.
Introduction: pp. 21–2 Introduction: pp. 25–6.
Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue: pp. 23–41. Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue: pp. 27–44. [Brief addition, p. 41.]
Remark A: pp. 42–6. Remark A: pp. 45–9.
Remark B: pp. 46–9. Remark B: pp. 49–52.
Remark C: pp. 49–55. Remark C: pp. 52–74. [New matter added, p. 57 to end of Remark.]
Remark D: pp. 55–6. Remark D: pp. 74–5.
Remark E: pp. 56–61. Remark E: pp. 76–80.
Remark F: pp. 61–2. Remark F: pp. 80–1.
Remark G: pp. 62–3. Remark G: pp. 82–92. [All except first paragraph is new.]
Remark H: pp. 63–70. Remark H: pp. 93–9.
Remark I: pp. 70–4. Remark I: pp. 100–3.
Remark K: pp. 74–9. Remark K: pp. 103–8.
Remark L: pp. 79–97. Remark L: pp. 108–25. [New paragraph added, p. 114.]
Remark M: pp. 98–113. Remark M: pp. 125–39.
Remark N: pp. 139–56. [New.]
. . . . . . .  . . . . Remark N: pp. 113–40. Remark O: pp. 156–81. [Slight additions, pp. 176 and 179.]
Remark O: pp. 141–58. Remark P: pp. 181–97.
Remark P: pp. 158–79. Remark Q: pp. 197–216. [Addition, p. 212.]
Remark Q: pp. 179–212. Remark R: pp. 216–47.
Remark R: pp. 213–15. Remark S: pp. 247–9.
. . . . . . .  . . . . Remark T: pp. 249–66. [New.]
Remark S: pp. 215–24. Remark V: pp. 267–75.
Remark T: pp. 224–7. Remark X: pp. 276–8.
Remark V: pp. 227–8. Remark Y: pp. 278–84. [All but first paragraph is new.]
. . . . . . .  . . . . An Essay on Charity. [New.]
. . . . . . .  . . . . A Search into the Nature of Society. [New.]
. . . . . . .  . . . . Index. [New.]

2Except for the preface and index the pagination of this edition is practically identical with that of 1732, and references to it may therefore be located in my edition by means of the marginal page-numbers.

3See above, ii. 389–91.

4. the / fable / of the / bees: / or, / Private Vices, Publick Benefits. / With an Essay on / CharityandCharity-Schools. / and / A Search into the Nature of Society. / The Third Edition. / To which is added / a vindication of the book / from the Aspersions contain’d in a Presentment / of the Grand-Jury of Middlesex, and / an abusive Letter to Lord C. / london: / Printed for J. Tonson, at Shakespear’s-Head, / over-against Katharine-Street in the Strand. / m dcc xxiv.

Collation: 8vo. Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [iii(A2)-xvi]; Grumbling Hive, pp. [1](B)–[24](C4v); introduction, pp. [25–6]; Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, pp. [27]–44; Remarks, pp. [45]–284; Essay on Charity, pp. [285]–370(Bbv); Search into the Nature of Society, pp. [371](Bb2)–428; index, pp. [429–40(Ff4v)]; half-title, p. [441]; blank, p. [442]; Vindication, pp. [443]–477; Errata, p. 477. Signature Ff3 misprinted ‘F3’; p. 74 misnumbered ‘82’, p. 75, ‘83’, and p. 139, ‘193’.

The chief distinction between this edition and the preceding is the addition of the Vindication and the enlargement by two pages of the preface.

5. the / fable / of the / bees: / or, / Private Vices, Publick Benefits. / With an essay on / CharityandCharity-Schools. / and / A Search into the Nature of Society. / The Fourth Edition. / To which is added, / a vindication of the book / from the Aspersions contain’d in a Presentment / of the Grand-Jury of Middlesex, and / an abusive Letter to Lord C. / london: / Printed for J. Tonson, at Shakespear’s-Head, / over-against Katharine-Street in the Strand. / mdccxxv.

Collation: 8vo; identical with that of the preceding edition except that the list of errata is omitted, that, instead of the misprints noted in the collation of the 1724 edition, this edition has p. 400 misnumbered ‘352’, and that the Essay on Charity collates pp. [285](2)–370(Bbv).

6. the / fable / of the / bees: / or, / Private Vices, Publick Benefits. / With an essay on / Charity and Charity-Schools. / and / A Search into the Nature of Society. / The Fifth Edition. / To which is added, / a vindication of the book / from the Aspersions contain’d in a Present-/ment of the Grand-Jury of Middlesex, / and an abusive Letter to Lord C.’/ london: / Printed for J. Tonson, at Shakespear’s Head, / over-against Katherine-Street in the Strand. / mdccxxviii.

Collation: 8vo; identical with that of the preceding edition, from which the variants show it to have been printed, except that, instead of the misprints noted in the collation of the 1725 edition, this edition has p. 21 misnumbered ‘12’, p. 80, ‘58’, and p. 447, ‘347’, and that the collation of the Essay on Charity is the same as in the edition of 1724.

7. the / fable / of the / bees: / or, / Private Vices, Publick Benefits. / With an essay on / Charity andCharity-Schools. / And / A Search into the Nature of Society. / The Sixth Edition. / To which is added, / a vindication of the book / from the Aspersions contain’d in a Present-/ment of the Grand-Jury of Middlesex, and / an abusive Letter to Lord C. / london, / Printed: And Sold by J. Tonson, at Shake-/spear’s-Head, over-against Katherine-Street in / the Strand. / m dcc xxix.

Collation: 12mo (sheet A in sixes). Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp [iii(A2)-xi]; advertisement, p. [xii]; Grumbling Hive, pp. [1](B)–12; introduction, pp. [13–14]; Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, pp. [15]–27(C2); Remarks, pp. [28] (C2v)–201(K5); Essay on Charity, pp. [202](K5v)–267(N2); Search into the Nature of Society, pp. 267(N2)–311; index, pp. [311–23]; Vindication, pp. [324]–348. P. 51 is misnumbered ‘31’.

8. the fable of the bees. . . . Sixth Edition. . . . 1732.

See the reproduction above, i. 1.

Collation: 8vo; identical with that of the edition of 1728, from which the variants show it to have been printed, except that, instead of the misprints noted in the collation of the 1728 edition, this edition has p. 106 misnumbered ‘107’, p. 107, ‘106’, and p. 333, ‘332’.

The Vindication

The Vindication, which now forms the last section of the first part of the Fable, is a compound of three articles, each originally issued separately. The Presentment of the Grand Jury was printed in the Evening Post 11 July 1723; the abusive Letter to Lord C. appeared 27 July in the London Journal; Mandeville’s letter of defence against these attacks came out in the same paper 10 Aug. These three documents, unified by a few connecting sentences, were published by Mandeville that year as a six-penny pamphlet in octavo (see above, i. 14, n. 2). I have found no copy of this pamphlet either separately or bound with the 1723 edition.

The Fable of the Bees. Part ii

1. the fable of the bees. part ii. . . . 1729.

See the reproduction above, ii. 1.

Collation: 8vo (title-page and preface signed in fours, A, a-c; d, one leaf). Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [i](A2)-xxxi(d); Errata, p. [xxxii](dv); dialogues, pp. [i](B)–432; index, pp. [433(Ff)–456]. P. 4 is misnumbered ‘2’.

In some copies of this edition sheet O has been reset, and some minor Variants (indicated in my footnotes) have resulted. Evidently, there was a shortage of the original sheet O, either because of accident to both formes (unlikely), failure to print enough of sheet O originally, or accident to the printed sheets. Which of the two sheet O’s is the first printing? A clue to the answer is to be found in the ‘figures’ (numbers placed usually on the verso of some leaf in a sheet to indicate the division of labour among the presses; see R. W. Chapman, ‘Printing with Figures’, in the Library for 1922, 4th ser., iii. 175–6). One sheet O is without ‘figures’; the other is ‘figured’ in both formes —‘7’ on sign. Ov (inner forme) and ‘1’ on sign. O4v (outer forme). Let us inspect the rest of the book to see what bearing this matter of ‘figures’ has. In the body of the book we find four sheets with no ‘figures’, two sheets (H and X) with two ‘figures’, and the rest with one ‘figure’. (The preface — signed in half-sheets — has one ‘figure’— in the first half-sheet; the index shows no ‘figures’.) In the case of the two sheets ‘figured’ twice, the two ‘figures’ are identical for each sheet (two ‘5’s’ in H; two ‘2’s’ in X). The presence of double ‘figures’, therefore, is evidently the result of accidental duplication: only one press was used for both formes of sheets H and X. The ‘figured’ sheet O, consequently, is the only sheet of which the two formes were given to different presses. Examination of other books from the Roberts establishment confirms the presumption that giving one sheet to two presses was an exceptional performance. The ‘figured’ sheet O, accordingly, seems to have been printed under unusual circumstances — circumstances such as might have been due to a sudden shortage of the original printing of sheet O. Such shortage, indeed, with the resultant need for hasty duplication of the sheet, would be a very natural cause of dividing the sheet between two presses.

There is still another reason why the ‘figured’ sheet is the later. Inspection of books of the period shows that the same volume often contained both ‘figured’ and ‘unfigured’ sheets. It is very possible that several sheets were assigned to the same press, each batch of sheets assigned to one press being ‘figured’ once. There was no need to ‘figure’ each sheet, since the press from which it issued could be identified by the one ‘figured’ sheet in the group. On the other hand, for a sheet printed separately a ‘figure’ would be more necessary. Thus it would be not unnatural for the first printing of sheet O to be without ‘figures’, but abnormal for the second — and separate — printing to be without them. I have, therefore, assumed the ‘unfigured’ sheet O to be the original one, and have adopted it for my basic text.

In some exemplars of this edition, the ornamental initial which introduces the sixth dialogue differs.

2. the / fable / of the / bees, / part ii. / By the Author of the First. / Opinionum enim Commenta delet dies; Naturæ ju-/dicia confirmat. Cicero de Nat. Deor. Lib. 2. / [Ornament] / london, / Printed: And Sold by J. Roberts in / Warwick-Lane.m dcc xxx.

Collation: 12mo. Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [i](A2)-xx (‡); dialogues, pp. [1]–315(P); index, pp. 315(P)–[341]; advertisement of ‘BOOKS Printed by and for Samuel Fairbrother in Skinner-Row’, p. [342]. There are two versions of the two leaves forming the Q gathering, which were apparently set in duplicate.

This book is printed from the same style type and has the same decorations as the 1729 edition of Part I.

3. the / fable / of the / bees. / part ii. / By the Author of the First. / Opinionum enim Commenta delet dies; Naturæ ju-/dicia confirmat. / Cicero de Nat. Deor. Lib. 2. / The Second Edition. / london,/ Printed: and Sold by J. Roberts in / Warwick-Lane.m dcc xxxiii.

Collation: 8vo (title-page and preface signed in fours, A, a-c). Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [i](A2)-xxx; dialogues, pp. [i](B)–432; index, pp. [433(Ff)–456]. P. 423 misnumbered ‘223’.

This edition was printed, the variants show, from that of 1729.

The Fable of the Bees. Parts I and ii

The Fable of the Bees. . . . A New Edition. Printed for J. Tonson. [1734.]

8vo. 2 vol. Price, 12s.

I have cited this edition, of which I can trace no exemplar, from a notice in the London Magazine for Dec. 1733, p. 647. That the book is dated 1734 is probable, first, because of the practice of dating ahead works published at the close of a year, and, secondly, because 1734 was the date placed on the ‘faked’ title-page of the 1755 edition (see discussion below of second issue of 1755 edition).

[Vol. 1] the / fable / of the / bees: / or; / Private Vices, Public Benefits. / With, An essay on / Charity and Charity-Schools; / and, / A Search into the Nature of Society. / The ninth Edition: / To which is added, / A Vindication of the Book from the / Aspersions contained in a Presentment of the / Grand Jury of Middlesex, and an abusive Let-/ter to the Lord C. / edinburgh: / Printed for W. Gray and W. Peter. / Sold at their shop in the Parliament Close. / mdcclv.
[Vol. 2] the / fable / of the / bees. / part ii. / By the Author of the First. / Opinionum enim commenta delet dies; naturæ / judicia confirmat. / Cicero de Nat. Deor. Lib. II. / edinburgh: / Printed for W. Gray and W. Peter. / mdcclv.

Collation: 12mo. Vol. 1: title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; pref., pp. [iii](A 2)-ix; blank, p. [x]; Grumbling Hive, pp. [i]–13; introduction, p. [14]; Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, pp. [15](B)–28; Remarks, pp. [29]–220; Essay on Charity, pp. 221–91; Search into the Nature of Society, pp. 292–339; index, pp. [340–8]; half-title, p. [349]; Vindication, pp. [350]–74. P. 51 misnumbered ‘5’. Vol. 2: title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [i](a2)-xxii; dialogues, pp. [1]–345; index, pp. [346–72]. P. 306 misnumbered ‘303’. The leaf with pp. 1 and 2 is not included in the regular signatures and has been inserted between sheets a and B.

Dr. A. E. Case sends me the following explanation of this last irregularity: For some reason, the extra leaf carrying pp. 1 and 2 was printed as the last leaf of a half-sheet the first five leaves of which carried the end of the index. Chain-lines verify this in some copies; in others they do not, but, of course, if wholesale binding was being done, there is no reason why the single leaf and the last five leaves in each book should always be mates. In order to save time the printer set up this single leaf and the last five leaves twice, and printed with full sheets, cutting them afterwards. There are, therefore, two versions of the extra leaf and last five leaves.

One of the pair of final half-sheets was signed ‘R’ in error for ‘S’. Because of the apparent duplication of R sheets, therefore, in some copies of vol. 2 the last half-sheet is omitted. In one copy, to cover this up, ‘FINIS’ has been added with a hand-stamp at the close of the real R sheet.

[Vol. 1] the / fable / of the / bees: / or, Private Vices, Public Benefits. / With, An essay on / Charity and Charity-Schools; / and, / A Search into the Nature of Society. / in two volumes. / By Bernard Mandeville, M.D. / volume the first. / london:/ Printed for J. Tonson in the Strand. / m dcc xxxiv.
[Vol. 2] the / fable / of the / bees. / volume the second. / By the Author of the First. / Opinionum enim commenta delet dies; naturae /judicia confirmat / Cicero de Nat. Deor. Lib. II. / London: / Printed for J. Tonson in the Strand. / m dcc xxxiv.

Collation: 12mo. Identical with that of the preceding edition, of which this is merely a reissue with new title-page.

The reason for issuing this edition with a title-page announcing a false publisher and a date twenty-one years earlier than the real date may perhaps have been to avoid possible trouble over copyright in London sales made by the publishers or the bookseller to whom they may have sold the sheets. This supposition would lead us to infer that the ‘faked’ title-page was intended to imitate the genuine two-volume edition of Tonson.

the / fable / of the / bees: / or, / Private Vices, Public Benefits. / in two volumes. / with / An Essay on Charity and Charity-Schools: / and / A Search into the Nature of Society. / To which is added, / A Vindication of the Book from the Aspersions / contained in a Presentment of the Grand Jury of / Middlesex, and an abusive Letter to the Lord C—. / Opinionum enim commenta delet dies; naturae judicia confirmat. / Cic. de nat. Deor. Lib. II. / volume first. / Edinburgh: / Printed for J. Wood, and sold by the Booksellers in Great / Britain and Ireland. / mdcclxxii.

The title-page of the second volume is identical, except for the substitution of ‘volume second’ for ‘volume first’.

Collation: 12mo (signed in sixes). Vol. 1: title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [iii](A2)-viii; Grumbling Hive, pp. [9]–19; introduction, p. [20]; Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, pp. [21]–31; Remarks, pp. 32–186(Q3v); Essay on Charity, pp. 187–244(X2v); Search into the Nature of Society, pp. 245(X3)–284; index, pp. [285–92](Bb2v); half-title, p. [293](Bb3); Vindication, pp. 294(Bb3v)–316(Dd2v). Vol. 2: title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [iii](A2)-xxii; dialogues, pp. [23]–298; index, pp. [299–315](Dd2).

the / fable of the bees; / or, / Private Vices, Public Benefits. / with an essay on / charity and charity schools, / and / a search into the nature of society. / also, / A Vindicationof theBook s, / and / a search into the nature of society. / also, / from the Aspersions contained in a Presentment / of theGrand Juryof Middlesex, and an Abusive Letter to s, / and / a search into the nature of society. / also, / Lord C—. / london: / printed for c. bathurst, c. nourse, t. carnan, f. newbery, / r. cater, r. brotherton, w. johnstone, p. valliant, / n. conant, t. davies, l. davies, a. millar, / r. tonson, g. keith, w. owen, / and l. hawis. / 1795.

Collation: 8vo (sign. a, four leaves, b, two leaves). Half-title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; table of contents, p. [iii](a2); blank, p. [iv] (a2v); preface, pp. [v]-ix(b); blank, p. [x](bv); half-title, p. [xi]; blank, p. [xii]; Grumbling Hive, pp. [1](B)–11; introduction, p. [:12]; Inquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, pp. [13]–22(C3v); Remarks, pp. [23](C4)–153; blank, p. [154]; Essay on Charity, pp. [155]–203; blank, p. [204]; Search into the Nature of Society, pp. [205]–238(6v); Vindication, pp. [239]–258(Sv); half-title, p. [259]; blank, p. [260]; preface, pp. [261](S3)–278(T3v); dialogues, pp. [279](T4)–519; blank, p. [520]; index, pp. [521]–534. P. 287 misnumbered ‘187’.

the / fable of the bees; / or, / Private Vices, Public Benefits. / with an essay on / charity and charity schools, / and / a search into the nature of society. / also, / AVindicationof theBookfrom the Aspersions contained in a Presentment / of theGrand Juryof Middlesex, and an Abusive Letter toLord C—. / london: / printed for allen & west, no. 15. pater noster row, / and for j. mundell & co. edinburgh. / 1795

Collation: 8vo; identical with that of the preceding edition, being merely another issue with altered title-page. In the copy seen by me there was no preliminary half-title.

the / fable of the bees; / or, / private vices public benefits: / with an essay on / charity and charity schools, / and a search into/ the nature of society: / also, / A Vindication of the Book from the Aspersions Contained / In a Presentment of the Grand Jury of Middlesex, / and an Abusive Letter to Lord C—. / london: / published by t. ostell, ave-maria lane, london, and / mundell and son, edinburgh. / 1806.

8vo. Collation: identical with that of the 1795 edition, of which this is merely a reissue with new title.page. The verso of the title-page states, ‘Edinburgh, printed by Mundell and Son.

Translations — French

la fable / des / abeilles, / ou / les fripons / devenus / honnetes gens. / avec / le commentaire, / Où l’on prouve que les Vices des Particuliers / tendent à l’avantage du Public. / Traduit de L’anglois / Sur la Sixième Edition. / tome premier. / a londres,1 / Aux Depens de la Compagnie. / mdccxl.

Volume 3 inserts on its title-page, after ‘Tome Troisieme’, the regulation motto from Cicero to Part II, omitting ‘enim’. Volume 4 has instead a quotation from Seneca: ‘Pars sanitatis, velle sanari, fuit. / Ann. Senec. Hypol. Act. I.’

Collation: 8vo. Vol. 1: title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; Avertissement des Libraires, pp. [i](*)–viiii(*4v); preface, pp. [ix](*5)–xxii(**3v); Errata, p. xxii (**3v); blank, pp. [xxiii-xxiv]; La Ruche Murmurante, pp. [i](A)–26(B5v); introduction, pp. [27]–28; Remarks, pp. [29]–333. Sign. **, four leaves. Vol. 2: title, p. [–]; blank, p. [–]; Recherches sur l’Origine de la Vertu Morale, pp. [i](A)–23(B4); Essaí sur la Charite’, pp. 24 (B4v)–138(I5v); Recherches sur la Nature de la Socie’te’, pp. 139–216(O4v); half-title of De’fense, p. [217](O5); blank, p. [218] (O5v); De’fense, pp. 219–67. Vol. 3: title, p. [–]; blank, p. [–]; preface to Part II, pp. [i](*)–xlviii; dialogues 1–4, pp. 1(A)–282(Tv). S gathering, four leaves. Vol. 4: title, p. [–]; blank, p. [–]; dialognes 5–6, pp. [1](A)–270.

la fable / des / abeilles. / ou / les fripons / devenus / honnestes gens. / avec / le commentaire, / Où l’on prouve que les vices des Particuliers / tendent á l’avantage du Public. / Traduit de L’anglois / Sur la Sixiéme Edition. / tome premier. / Opinionum commenta delet dies, naturæ judicia / confirmat.Cicero de Nat. Deor. Lib. II. / a londres, / Chez jean nourse. / m.dcc.l.

Collation: 12mo, signed alternately in eights and fours, the groups of eight showing the watermark in the upper outer margin of the seventh and eighth leaves, the groups of four having a different watermark similarly placed on the third and fourth leaves; the chain-lines being horizontal.1 Vol. 1: half-title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; Avertissement des Libraires, pp. iii(*)-xiv; preface, pp. xv-xxxiiij; blank, p. [xxxiv]; La Ruche Murmurante, pp. 1(A)–34; introduction, pp. 35–6; Remarks, pp. 37–396. P. 354 misnumbered ‘4’. Vol. 2: half-title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; Recherches sur l’Origine de la Vertu Morale, pp. 1(A)–27(Cij); Essai sur la Charité, pp. 28(Cijv)–167; Recherches sur la Nature de la Sociéte’, pp. 168–261; blank, p. 262; half-title of Defense, p. 263; blank, p. 264; De’fense, pp. 265(Z)–321; index, pp. 322–62(Ffv); Errata, p. 362(Ffv). P. 278 misnumbered ‘778’. Vol. 3: half-title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface to Part II, pp. [iii](aij)-lxvj(fv); dialogues 1–4, pp. 1(A)–339. Sign. f, one leaf. P. 334 misnumbered ‘134’; p. 336, ‘356’. Vol. 4: half-title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; title, p. [—]; blank, p. [—]; dialogues 5–6, pp. 1(A)–322; index, pp. 323–61(Hh); Errata, p. 362(Hhv). Signature Ddiiij misprinted ‘Ddiij’.

La Fable des Abeilles. 1760.

See above. i. xxxvii, n. 2.

Translations — German

Anti-Shaftsbury / oder die / Entlarvte Eitelkeit / der / Selbstliebe und Ruhmsucht. / In philosophischen Gespra̔chen, / nach dem Engla̔ndischen. / [Ornament] / Frankfurt am Mayn, / bey Johann Gottlieb Gorbe, 1761.2

Collation: 8vo (sign. a, seven leaves, unless plate part of sheet; b, three leaves). Plate, p [—v]; title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface, pp. [iii(a2)-xviii(b2v)]; table of contents, p. [xix]; blank, p. [xx]; dialogues, pp. 1(A)–472; Einige Verbesserungen dieses Werkes, p. 473.3

This book is a translation of Part II only. A preface by the translator is substituted for Mandeville’s.

Bernhard von Mandeville’s Fabel von den Bienen. 1817.

See above, i. xxxvii, n. 6.

Bernhard von Mandeville’s / Fabel von den Bienen. / Aus dem Englischen u̔bersetzt / und / mit einer Einleitung / und / einem neuen Commentar / versehen, / von / Dr. S. Ascher. / Leipzig, 1818. / Bei Achenwall und Comp.

Collation: 8vo. Title, p. [i]; blank, p. [ii]; preface [Ascher’s], pp. [iii(*2)–xiv; table of contents, pp. xv-xvi; half-title (Einleitung, oder Apologie des gesellschaftlichen Lebens), p. [1](A); motto p. [2](Av); introduction [Ascher’s], pp. [3](A2)–66(Ev); half-title (Die Bienen), p. [67](E2); Grumbling Hive, pp. [68](E2v)–99(G2) (English text on verso, German translation on recto throughout); blank, p. [100](G2v); half-title (Anmerkungen. Oder Beitra̔ge zur Apologie des gesellschaftlichen Lebens), p. [101]; blank, p. [102]; Remarks, pp. [103]–246.

mandevilles / bienenfabel / herausgegeben von / otto bobertag / [Device] / 1 · 9 · 1 · 4 / München bei georg müller [Half-title: bibliothek der philosophen / geleitet von fritz mauthner / fünfzehnter band].

Collation: 8vo (sign. 11, seven leaves). Half-title, p. [I]; blank, p. [II]; title, p. [III]; blank, p. [IV]; Einleitung des Herausgebers, pp. V–XXX; half-title, p. [1]; blank, p. [2]; Vorwort, pp. 3(1*)–10; Der Unzufriedene Bienenstock, pp 11–23; blank, p. [24]; Einleitung, pp. 25–6; Untersuchung über den Ursprung der Sittlichkeit, pp. 27–41; blank, p. [42]; Anmerkungen, pp. 43–244 (16*v), half-title, p. [245]; blank, p. [246]; Abhandlung über Barmherzigkeit, pp. 247–88; half-title, p. [289]; blank, p. [290]; Untersuchung über das Wesen der Gesellschaft, pp. 291(19*)–337(22); blank, p. [338] (22v); half-title, p. [339]; blank, p. [340]; selection from Berkeley’s Alciphron, pp. 341–46; half-title, p. [347]; blank, p. [348]; Brief an Dion, pp. 349–98; Register, pp. 399–400; Inhaltsverzeichnis, p. [401]; blank, p. [402]; printer’s notice that 150 copies were printed on ‘holländisch Büttenpapier’, p. [403].

In this translation, Part II is omitted. Part I is given complete except for the excision of about a third of the Essay on Charity, the omission of Mandeville’s Vindication, and the condensation of his index. The edition includes a translation of Mandeville’s Letter to Dion, slightly condensed, and of §§4 and 5 from the second dialogue of Berkeley’s Alciphron.

1The page references are given as originally printed in the 1714 editions. To find the corresponding pages in the present edition see below, ii. 392.

1 Slight verbal changes are not noted. For such verbal changes see the variant readings of the present edition.

1 Dunkel’s Historisch-critische Nachrichten von verstorbenen Gelehrten (1753–7), i. 102, states: ‘Der französischen Druck ist zweifelsohne in Holland Veranstaltet worden, obgleich London auf dem Titel steht.’

1 The printer set up the book in 12mo; then cut off the last third of each sheet, having given this part a separate signature. The original sheets had a double watermark. That the groups signed in fours were cut from the same sheet as the preceding groups of eight is proved by the fact that the watermark which usually appears in the group of eight sometimes appears in the gathering signed in fours, and vice versa. This could not have happened if different sheets had been used for the two gatherings. I am indebted to Mr. Arundell Esdaile for this explanation.

2 Heinsius (Allgemeines Bücher-Lexikon, ed. 1812, iv. 97) and Kayser (Vollständiges Bücher-Lexicon, ed. 1834, i. 82) give Gebhard as publisher (possibly incorrectly for Gorbe), and Kayser also records a copy published by Hermann of Frankfort. The price was 1 reichsthaler, 4 groschen.

3 The title-page of this edition is from a photograph; the description was sent me by two independent scholars, whose accounts agree, and is checked by over a hundred rotographs. Some minor irregularities may, of course, have been overlooked.

http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/m/mandeville/bernard/bees/part19.html

Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 23:00