The History of England, from the Accession of James II, by Thomas Babington Macaulay

Table of Contents

Chapter 1

Introduction — Britain under the Romans — Britain under the Saxons — Conversion of the Saxons to Christianity — Danish Invasions; The Normans — The Norman Conquest — Separation of England and Normandy — Amalgamation of Races — English Conquests on the Continent — Wars of the Roses — Extinction of Villenage — Beneficial Operation of the Roman Catholic Religion — The early English Polity often misrepresented, and why? — Nature of the Limited Monarchies of the Middle Ages — Prerogatives of the early English Kings — Limitations of the Prerogative — Resistance an ordinary Check on Tyranny in the Middle Ages — Peculiar Character of the English Aristocracy — Government of the Tudors — Limited Monarchies of the Middle Ages generally turned into Absolute Monarchies — The English Monarchy a singular Exception — The Reformation and its Effects — Origin of the Church of England — Her peculiar Character — Relation in which she stood to the Crown — The Puritans — Their Republican Spirit — No systematic parliamentary Opposition offered to the Government of Elizabeth — Question of the Monopolies — Scotland and Ireland become Parts of the same Empire with England — Diminution of the Importance of England after the Accession of James I— Doctrine of Divine Right — The Separation between the Church and the Puritans becomes wider — Accession and Character of Charles I— Tactics of the Opposition in the House of Commons — Petition of Right — Petition of Right violated; Character and Designs of Wentworth — Character of Laud — Star Chamber and High Commission — Ship–Money — Resistance to the Liturgy in Scotland — A Parliament called and dissolved — The Long Parliament — First Appearance of the Two great English Parties — The Remonstrance — Impeachment of the Five Members — Departure of Charles from London — Commencement of the Civil War — Successes of the Royalists — Rise of the Independents — Oliver Cromwell — Selfdenying Ordinance; Victory of the Parliament — Domination and Character of the Army — Rising against the Military Government suppressed — Proceedings against the King — His Execution — Subjugation of Ireland and Scotland — Expulsion of the Long Parliament — The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell — Oliver succeeded by Richard — Fall of Richard and Revival of the Long Parliament — Second Expulsion of the Long Parliament — The Army of Scotland marches into England — Monk declares for a Free Parliament — General Election of 1660 — The Restoration

Chapter 2

Conduct of those who restored the House of Stuart unjustly censured — Abolition of Tenures by Knight Service; Disbandment of the Army — Disputes between the Roundheads and Cavaliers renewed — Religious Dissension — Unpopularity of the Puritans — Character of Charles II— Character of the Duke of York and Earl of Clarendon — General Election of 1661 — Violence of the Cavaliers in the new Parliament — Persecution of the Puritans — Zeal of the Church for Hereditary Monarchy — Change in the Morals of the Community — Profligacy of Politicians — State of Scotland — State of Ireland — The Government become unpopular in England — War with the Dutch — Opposition in the House of Commons — Fall of Clarendon — State of European Politics, and Ascendancy of France — Character of Lewis xiv — The Triple Alliance — The Country Party — Connection between Charles II. and France — Views of Lewis with respect to England — Treaty of Dover — Nature of the English Cabinet — The Cabal — Shutting of the Exchequer — War with the United Provinces, and their extreme Danger — William, Prince of Orange — Meeting of the Parliament; Declaration of Indulgence — It is cancelled, and the Test Act passed — The Cabal dissolved — Peace with the United Provinces; Administration of Danby — Embarrassing Situation of the Country Party — Dealings of that Party with the French Embassy — Peace of Nimeguen — Violent Discontents in England — Fall of Danby; the Popish Plot — Violence of the new House of Commons — Temple’s Plan of Government — Character of Halifax — Character of Sunderland — Prorogation of the Parliament; Habeas Corpus Act; Second General Election of 1679 — Popularity of Monmouth — Lawrence Hyde — Sidney Godolphin — Violence of Factions on the Subject of the Exclusion Bill — Names of Whig and Tory — Meeting of Parliament; The Exclusion Bill passes the Commons; \— Exclusion Bill rejected by the Lords — Execution of Stafford; General Election of 1681 — Parliament held at Oxford, and dissolved — Tory Reaction — Persecution of the Whigs — Charter of the City confiscated; Whig Conspiracies — Detection of the Whig Conspiracies — Severity of the Government; Seizure of Charters — Influence of the Duke of York — He is opposed by Halifax — Lord Guildford — Policy of Lewis — State of Factions in the Court of Charles at the time of his Death

Chapter 3

Great Change in the State of England since 1685 — Population of England in 1685 — Increase of Population greater in the North than in the South — Revenue in 1685 — Military System — The Navy — The Ordnance — Noneffective Charge; Charge of Civil Government — Great Gains of Ministers and Courtiers — State of Agriculture — Mineral Wealth of the Country — Increase of Rent — The Country Gentlemen — The Clergy — The Yeomanry; Growth of the Towns; Bristol — Norwich — Other Country Towns — Manchester; Leeds; Sheffield — Birmingham — Liverpool — Watering-places; Cheltenham; Brighton; Buxton; Tunbridge Wells — Bath — London — The City — Fashionable Part of the Capital — Lighting of London — Police of London — Whitefriars; The Court — The Coffee Houses — Difficulty of Travelling — Badness of the Roads — Stage Coaches — Highwaymen — Inns — Post Office — Newspapers — News-letters — The Observator — Scarcity of Books in Country Places; Female Education — Literary Attainments of Gentlemen — Influence of French Literature — Immorality of the Polite Literature of England — State of Science in England — State of the Fine Arts — State of the Common People; Agricultural Wages — Wages of Manufacturers — Labour of Children in Factories — Wages of different Classes of Artisans — Number of Paupers — Benefits derived by the Common People from the Progress of — Civilisation — Delusion which leads Men to overrate the Happiness of preceding Generations

Chapter 4

Death of Charles II— Suspicions of Poison — Speech of James II. to the Privy Council — James proclaimed — State of the Administration — New Arrangements — Sir George Jeffreys — The Revenue collected without an Act of Parliament — A Parliament called — Transactions between James and the French King — Churchill sent Ambassador to France; His History — Feelings of the Continental Governments towards England — Policy of the Court of Rome — Struggle in the Mind of James; Fluctuations in his Policy — Public Celebration of the Roman Catholic Rites in the Palace — His Coronation — Enthusiasm of the Tories; Addresses — The Elections — Proceedings against Oates — Proceedings against Dangerfield — Proceedings against Baxter — Meeting of the Parliament of Scotland — Feeling of James towards the Puritans — Cruel Treatment of the Scotch Covenanters — Feeling of James towards the Quakers — William Penn — Peculiar Favour shown to Roman Catholics and Quakers — Meeting of the English Parliament; Trevor chosen Speaker; — Character of Seymour — The King’s Speech to the Parliament — Debate in the Commons; Speech of Seymour — The Revenue voted; Proceedings of the Commons concerning Religion — Additional Taxes voted; Sir Dudley North — Proceedings of the Lords — Bill for reversing the Attainder of Stafford

Chapter 5

Whig Refugees on the Continent — Their Correspondents in England — Characters of the leading Refugees; Ayloffe; Wade — Goodenough; Rumbold — Lord Grey — Monmouth — Ferguson — Scotch Refugees; Earl of Argyle — Sir Patrick Hume; Sir John Cochrane; Fletcher of Saltoun — Unreasonable Conduct of the Scotch Refugees — Arrangement for an Attempt on England and Scotland — John Locke — Preparations made by Government for the Defence of Scotland — Conversation of James with the Dutch Ambassadors; Ineffectual Attempts to prevent Argyle from sailing — Departure of Argyle from Holland; He lands in Scotland — His Disputes with his Followers — Temper of the Scotch Nation — Argyle’s Forces dispersed — Argyle a Prisoner — His Execution. — Execution of Rumbold — Death of Ayloffe — Devastation of Argyleshire — Ineffectual Attempts to prevent Monmouth from leaving Holland — His Arrival at Lyme — His Declaration — His Popularity in the West of England — Encounter of the Rebels with the Militia at Bridport — Encounter of the Rebels with the Militia at Axminster; — News of the Rebellion carried to London; — Loyalty of the Parliament — Reception of Monmouth at Taunton — He takes the Title of King — His Reception at Bridgewater — Preparations of the Government to oppose him — His Design on Bristol — He relinquishes that Design — Skirmish at Philip’s Norton; Despondence of Monmouth — He returns to Bridgewater; The Royal Army encamps at Sedgemoor — Battle of Sedgemoor — Pursuit of the Rebels — Military Executions; Flight of Monmouth — His Capture — His Letter to the King; He is carried to London — His Interview with the King — His Execution — His Memory cherished by the Common People — Cruelties of the Soldiers in the West; Kirke — Jeffreys sets out on the Western Circuit — Trial of Alice Lisle — The Bloody Assizes — Abraham Holmes — Christopher Battiseombe; The Hewlings — Punishment of Tutchin — Rebels Transported — Confiscation and Extortion — Rapacity of the Queen and her Ladies — Grey; Cochrane; Storey — Wade, Goodenough, and Ferguson — Jeffreys made Lord Chancellor — Trial and Execution of Cornish — Trials and Executions of Fernley and Elizabeth Gaunt — Trial and Execution of Bateman — Persecution of the Protestant Dissenters

Chapter 6

The Power of James at the Height — His Foreign Policy — His Plans of Domestic Government; the Habeas Corpus Act — The Standing Army — Designs in favour of the Roman Catholic Religion — Violation of the Test Act — Disgrace of Halifax; general Discontent — Persecution of the French Huguenots — Effect of that Persecution in England — Meeting of Parliament; Speech of the King; an Opposition formed in the House of Commons — Sentiments of Foreign Governments — Committee of the Commons on the King’s Speech — Defeat of the Government — Second Defeat of the Government; the King reprimands the Commons — Coke committed by the Commons for Disrespect to the King — Opposition to the Government in the Lords; the Earl of Devonshire — The Bishop of London — Viscount Mordaunt — Prorogation — Trials of Lord Gerard and of Hampden — Trial of Delamere — Effect of his Acquittal — Parties in the Court; Feeling of the Protestant Tories — Publication of Papers found in the Strong Box of Charles II. — Feeling of the respectable Roman Catholics — Cabal of violent Roman Catholics; Castlemaine — Jermyn; White; Tyrconnel — Feeling of the Ministers of Foreign Governments — The Pope and the Order of Jesus opposed to each other — The Order of Jesus — Father Petre — The King’s Temper and Opinions — The King encouraged in his Errors by Sunderland — Perfidy of Jeffreys — Godolphin; the Queen; Amours of the King — Catharine Sedley — Intrigues of Rochester in favour of Catharine Sedley — Decline of Rochester’s Influence — Castelmaine sent to Rome; the Huguenots illtreated by James — The Dispensing Power — Dismission of Refractory Judges — Case of Sir Edward Hales — Roman Catholics authorised to hold Ecclesiastical Benefices; — Sclater; Walker — The Deanery of Christchurch given to a Roman Catholic — Disposal of Bishoprics — Resolution of James to use his Ecclesiastical Supremacy against the Church — His Difficulties — He creates a new Court of High Commission — Proceedings against the Bishop of London — Discontent excited by the Public Display of Roman Catholic — Rites and Vestments — Riots — A Camp formed at Hounslow — Samuel Johnson — Hugh Speke — Proceedings against Johnson — Zeal of the Anglican Clergy against Popery — The Roman Catholic Divines overmatched — State of Scotland — Queensberry — Perth and Melfort — Favour shown to the Roman Catholic Religion in Scotland — Riots at Edinburgh — Anger of the King; his Plans concerning Scotland — Deputation of Scotch Privy Councillors sent to London — Their Negotiations with the King — Meeting of the Scotch Estates; they prove refractory — They are adjourned; arbitrary System of Government in Scotland — Ireland — State of the Law on the Subject of Religion — Hostility of Races — Aboriginal Peasantry; aboriginal Aristocracy — State of the English Colony — Course which James ought to have followed — His Errors — Clarendon arrives in Ireland as Lord Lieutenant — His Mortifications; Panic among the Colonists — Arrival of Tyrconnel at Dublin as General; his Partiality and Violence — He is bent on the Repeal of the Act of Settlement; he returns to England — The King displeased with Clarendon — Rochester attacked by the Jesuitical Cabal — Attempts of James to convert Rochester — Dismission of Rochester — Dismission of Clarendon; Tyrconnel Lord Deputy — Dismay of the English Colonists in Ireland — Effect of the Fall of the Hydes

Chapter 7

William, Prince of Orange; his Appearance — His early Life and Education — His Theological Opinions — His Military Qualifications — His Love of Danger; his bad Health — Coldness of his Manners and Strength of his Emotions; his Friendship for Bentinck — Mary, Princess of Orange — Gilbert Burnet — He brings about a good Understanding between the Prince and Princess — Relations between William and English Parties — His Feelings towards England — His Feelings towards Holland and France — His Policy consistent throughout — Treaty of Augsburg — William becomes the Head of the English Opposition — Mordaunt proposes to William a Descent on England — William rejects the Advice — Discontent in England after the Fall of the Hydes — Conversions to Popery; Peterborough; Salisbury — Wycherley; Tindal; Haines — Dryden — The Hind and Panther — Change in the Policy of the Court towards the Puritans — Partial Toleration granted in Scotland — Closeting — It is unsuccessful — Admiral Herbert — Declaration of Indulgence — Feeling of the Protestant Dissenters — Feeling of the Church of England — The Court and the Church — Letter to a Dissenter; Conduct of the Dissenters — Some of the Dissenters side with the Court; Care; Alsop — Rosewell; Lobb — Venn — The Majority of the Puritans are against the Court; Baxter; Howe — Banyan — Kiffin — The Prince and Princess of Orange hostile to the Declaration of Indulgence — Their Views respecting the English Roman Catholics vindicated — Enmity of James to Burnet — Mission of Dykvelt to England; Negotiations of Dykvelt with English Statesmen — Danby — Nottingham — Halifax — Devonshire — Edward Russell; Compton; Herbert — Churchill — Lady Churchill and the Princess Anne — Dykvelt returns to the Hague with Letters from many eminent Englishmen — Zulestein’s Mission — Growing Enmity between James and William — Influence of the Dutch Press — Correspondence of Stewart and Fagel — Castelmaine’s embassy to Rome

Chapter 8

Consecration of the Nuncio at Saint James’s Palace; his public Reception — The Duke of Somerset — Dissolution of the Parliament; Military Offences illegally punished — Proceedings of the High Commission; the Universities — Proceedings against the University of Cambridge — The Earl of Mulgrave — State of Oxford — Magdalene College, Oxford — Anthony Farmer recommended by the King for President — Election of the President — The Fellows of Magdalene cited before the High Commission — Parker recommended as President; the Charterhouse — The Royal Progress — The King at Oxford; he reprimands the Fellows of Magdalene — Penn attempts to mediate — Special Ecclesiastical Commissioners sent to Oxford — Protest of Hough — Parker — Ejection of the Fellows — Magdalene College turned into a Popish Seminary — Resentment of the Clergy — Schemes of the Jesuitical Cabal respecting the Succession — Scheme of James and Tyrconnel for preventing the Princess of Orange from succeeding to the Kingdom of Ireland — The Queen pregnant; general Incredulity — Feeling of the Constituent Bodies, and of the Peers — James determines to pack a Parliament — The Board of Regulators — Many Lords Lieutenants dismissed; the Earl of Oxford — The Earl of Shrewsbury — The Earl of Dorset — Questions put to the Magistrates — Their Answers; Failure of the King’s Plans — List of Sheriffs — Character of the Roman Catholic Country Gentlemen — Feeling of the Dissenters; Regulation of Corporations — Inquisition in all the Public Departments — Dismission of Sawyer — Williams Solicitor General — Second Declaration of Indulgence; the Clergy ordered to read it — They hesitate; Patriotism of the Protestant Nonconformists of London — Consultation of the London Clergy — Consultation at Lambeth Palace — Petition of the Seven Bishops presented to the King — The London Clergy disobey the Royal Order — Hesitation of the Government — It is determined to prosecute the Bishops for a Libel — They are examined by the Privy Council — They are committed to the Tower — Birth of the Pretender — He is generally believed to be supposititious — The Bishops brought before the King’s Bench and bailed — Agitation of the public Mind — Uneasiness of Sunderland — He professes himself a Roman Catholic — Trial of the Bishops — The Verdict; Joy of the People — Peculiar State of Public Feeling at this Time

Chapter 9

Change in the Opinion of the Tories concerning the Lawfulness of Resistance — Russell proposes to the Prince of Orange a Descent on England — Henry Sidney — Devonshire; Shrewsbury; Halifax — Danby — Bishop Compton — Nottingham; Lumley — Invitation to William despatched — Conduct of Mary — Difficulties of William’s Enterprise — Conduct of James after the Trial of the Bishops — Dismissions and Promotions — Proceedings of the High Commission; Sprat resigns his Seat — Discontent of the Clergy; Transactions at Oxford — Discontent of the Gentry — Discontent of the Army — Irish Troops brought over; Public Indignation — Lillibullero — Politics of the United Provinces; Errors of the French King — His Quarrel with the Pope concerning Franchises — The Archbishopric of Cologne — Skilful Management of William — His Military and Naval Preparations — He receives numerous Assurances of Support from England — Sunderland — Anxiety of William — Warnings conveyed to James — Exertions of Lewis to save James — James frustrates them — The French Armies invade Germany — William obtains the Sanction of the States General to his Expedition — Schomberg — British Adventurers at the Hague — William’s Declaration — James roused to a Sense of his Danger; his Naval Means — His Military Means — He attempts to conciliate his Subjects — He gives Audience to the Bishops — His Concessions ill received — Proofs of the Birth of the Prince of Wales submitted to the — Privy Council — Disgrace of Sunderland — William takes leave of the States of Holland — He embarks and sails; he is driven back by a Storm — His Declaration arrives in England; James questions the Lords — William sets sail the second Time — He passes the Straits — He lands at Torbay — He enters Exeter — Conversation of the King with the Bishops — Disturbances in London — Men of Rank begin to repair to the Prince — Lovelace — Colchester; Abingdon — Desertion of Cornbury — Petition of the Lords for a Parliament — The King goes to Salisbury — Seymour; Court of William at Exeter — Northern Insurrection — Skirmish at Wincanton — Desertion of Churchill and Grafton — Retreat of the Royal Army from Salisbury — Desertion of Prince George and Ormond — Flight of the Princess Anne — Council of Lords held by James — He appoints Commissioners to treat with William — The Negotiation a Feint — Dartmouth refuses to send the Prince of Wales into France — Agitation of London — Forged Proclamation — Risings in various Parts of the Country — Clarendon joins the Prince at Salisbury; Dissension in the Prince’s Camp — The Prince reaches Hungerford; Skirmish at Reading; the King’s Commissioners arrive at Hungerford — Negotiation — The Queen and the Prince of Wales sent to France; Lauzun — The King’s Preparations for Flight — His Flight

Chapter 10

The Flight of James known; great Agitation — The Lords meet at Guildhall — Riots in London — The Spanish Ambassador’s House sacked — Arrest of Jeffreys — The Irish Night — The King detained near Sheerness — The Lords order him to be set at Liberty — William’s Embarrassment — Arrest of Feversham — Arrival of James in London — Consultation at Windsor — The Dutch Troops occupy Whitehall — Message from the Prince delivered to James — James sets out for Rochester; Arrival of William at Saint James’s — He is advised to assume the Crown by Right of Conquest — He calls together the Lords and the Members of the Parliaments of Charles II. — Flight of James from Rochester — Debates and Resolutions of the Lords — Debates and Resolutions of the Commoners summoned by the Prince — Convention called; Exertions of the Prince to restore Order — His tolerant Policy — Satisfaction of Roman Catholic Powers; State of Feeling in France — Reception of the Queen of England in France — Arrival of James at Saint Germains — State of Feeling in the United Provinces — Election of Members to serve in the Convention — Affairs of Scotland — State of Parties in England — Sherlock’s Plan — Sancroft’s Plan — Danby’s Plan — The Whig Plan — Meeting of the Convention; leading Members of the House of Commons — Choice of a Speaker — Debate on the State of the Nation — Resolution declaring the Throne vacant — It is sent up to the Lords; Debate in the Lords on the Plan of Regency — Schism between the Whigs and the Followers of Danby — Meeting at the Earl of Devonshire’s — Debate in the Lords on the Question whether the Throne was vacant — Majority for the Negative; Agitation in London — Letter of James to the Convention — Debates; Negotiations; Letter of the Princess of Orange to Danby — The Princess Anne acquiesces in the Whig Plan — William explains his views — The Conference between the houses — The Lords yield — New Laws proposed for the Security of Liberty — Disputes and Compromise — The Declaration of Right — Arrival of Mary — Tender and Acceptance of the Crown — William and Mary proclaimed; peculiar Character of the English Revolution

Chapter 11

William and Mary proclaimed in London — Rejoicings throughout England; Rejoicings in Holland — Discontent of the Clergy and of the Army — Reaction of Public Feeling — Temper of the Tories — Temper of the Whigs — Ministerial Arrangements — William his own Minister for Foreign Affairs — Danby — Halifax — Nottingham Shrewsbury The Board of Admiralty; the Board of Treasury — The Great Seal — The Judges — The Household — Subordinate Appointments — The Convention turned into a Parliament — The Members of the two Houses required to take the Oaths Questions relating to the Revenue — Abolition of the Hearth Money — Repayment of the Expenses of the United Provinces — Mutiny at Ipswich — The first Mutiny Bill — Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act — Unpopularity of William — Popularity of Mary — The Court removed from Whitehall to Hampton Court — The Court at Kensington; William’s foreign Favourites — General Maladministration — Dissensions among Men in Office — Department of Foreign Affairs — Religious Disputes — The High Church Party — The Low Church Party — William’s Views concerning Ecclesiastical Polity — Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury — Nottingham’s Views concerning Ecclesiastical Polity — The Toleration Bill — The Comprehension Bill — The Bill for settling the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy — The Bill for settling the Coronation Oath — The Coronation — Promotions — The Coalition against France; the Devastation of the Palatinate — War declared against France

Chapter 12

State of Ireland at the Time of the Revolution; the Civil Power in the Hands of the Roman Catholics — The Military Power in the Hands of the Roman Catholics — Mutual Enmity between the Englishry and Irishry — Panic among the Englishry — History of the Town of Kenmare — Enniskillen — Londonderry — Closing of the Gates of Londonderry — Mountjoy sent to pacify Ulster — William opens a Negotiation with Tyrconnel — The Temples consulted — Richard Hamilton sent to Ireland on his Parole — Tyrconnel sends Mountjoy and Rice to France — Tyrconnel calls the Irish People to Arms — Devastation of the Country — The Protestants in the South unable to resist — Enniskillen and Londonderry hold out; Richard Hamilton marches into Ulster with an Army — James determines to go to Ireland — Assistance furnished by Lewis to James — Choice of a French Ambassador to accompany James — The Count of Avaux — James lands at Kinsale — James enters Cork — Journey of James from Cork to Dublin — Discontent in England — Factions at Dublin Castle — James determines to go to Ulster — Journey of James to Ulster — The Fall of Londonderry expected — Succours arrive from England — Treachery of Lundy; the Inhabitants of Londonderry resolve to defend themselves — Their Character — Londonderry besieged — The Siege turned into a Blockade — Naval Skirmish in Bantry Bay — A Parliament summoned by James sits at Dublin — A Toleration Act passed; Acts passed for the Confiscation of the Property of Protestants — Issue of base Money — The great Act of Attainder — James prorogues his Parliament; Persecution of the Protestants in Ireland — Effect produced in England by the News from Ireland — Actions of the Enniskilleners — Distress of Londonderry — Expedition under Kirke arrives in Loch Foyle — Cruelty of Rosen — The Famine in Londonderry extreme — Attack on the Boom — The Siege of Londonderry raised — Operations against the Enniskilleners — Battle of Newton Butler — Consternation of the Irish

Chapter 13

The Revolution more violent in Scotland than in England — Elections for the Convention; Rabbling of the Episcopal Clergy — State of Edinburgh — Question of an Union between England and Scotland raised — Wish of the English Low Churchmen to preserve Episcopacy in Scotland — Opinions of William about Church Government in Scotland — Comparative Strength of Religious Parties in Scotland — Letter from William to the Scotch Convention — William’s Instructions to his Agents in Scotland; the Dalrymples — Melville — James’s Agents in Scotland: Dundee; Balcarras — Meeting of the Convention — Hamilton elected President — Committee of Elections; Edinburgh Castle summoned — Dundee threatened by the Covenanters — Letter from James to the Convention — Effect of James’s Letter — Flight of Dundee — Tumultuous Sitting of the Convention — A Committee appointed to frame a Plan of Government — Resolutions proposed by the Committee — William and Mary proclaimed; the Claim of Right; Abolition of Episcopacy — Torture — William and Mary accept the Crown of Scotland — Discontent of the Covenanters — Ministerial Arrangements in Scotland — Hamilton; Crawford — The Dalrymples; Lockhart; Montgomery — Melville; Carstairs — The Club formed: Annandale; Ross — Hume; Fletcher of Saltoun — War breaks out in the Highlands; State of the Highlands — Peculiar Nature of Jacobitism in the Highlands — Jealousy of the Ascendency of the Campbells — The Stewarts and Macnaghtens — The Macleans; the Camerons: Lochiel — The Macdonalds; Feud between the Macdonalds and Mackintoshes; Inverness — Inverness threatened by Macdonald of Keppoch — Dundee appears in Keppoch’s Camp — Insurrection of the Clans hostile to the Campbells — Tarbet’s Advice to the Government — Indecisive Campaign in the Highlands — Military Character of the Highlanders — Quarrels in the Highland Army — Dundee applies to James for Assistance; the War in the Highlands suspended — Scruples of the Covenanters about taking Arms for King William — The Cameronian Regiment raised — Edinburgh Castle surrenders — Session of Parliament at Edinburgh — Ascendancy of the Club — Troubles in Athol — The War breaks out again in the Highlands — Death of Dundee — Retreat of Mackay — Effect of the Battle of Killiecrankie; the Scottish Parliament adjourned — The Highland Army reinforced — Skirmish at Saint Johnston’s — Disorders in the Highland Army — Mackay’s Advice disregarded by the Scotch Ministers — The Cameronians stationed at Dunkeld — The Highlanders attack the Cameronians and are repulsed — Dissolution of the Highland Army; Intrigues of the Club; State of the Lowlands

Chapter 14

Disputes in the English Parliament — The Attainder of Russell reversed — Other Attainders reversed; Case of Samuel Johnson — Case of Devonshire — Case of Oates — Bill of Rights — Disputes about a Bill of Indemnity — Last Days of Jeffreys — The Whigs dissatisfied with the King — Intemperance of Howe — Attack on Caermarthen — Attack on Halifax — Preparations for a Campaign in Ireland — Schomberg — Recess of the Parliament — State of Ireland; Advice of Avaux — Dismission of Melfort; Schomberg lands in Ulster — Carrickfergus taken — Schomberg advances into Leinster; the English and Irish Armies encamp near each other — Schomberg declines a Battle — Frauds of the English Commissariat — Conspiracy among the French Troops in the English Service — Pestilence in the English Army — The English and Irish Armies go into Winter Quarters — Various Opinions about Schomberg’s Conduct — Maritime Affairs — Maladministration of Torrington — Continental Affairs — Skirmish at Walcourt — Imputations thrown on Marlborough — Pope Innocent XI. succeeded by Alexander viii. — The High Church Clergy divided on the Subject of the Oaths — Arguments for taking the Oaths — Arguments against taking the Oaths — A great Majority of the Clergy take the Oaths — The Nonjurors; Ken — Leslie — Sherlock — Hickes — Collier — Dodwell — Kettlewell; Fitzwilliam — General Character of the Nonjuring Clergy — The Plan of Comprehension; Tillotson — An Ecclesiastical Commission issued. — Proceedings of the Commission — The Convocation of the Province of Canterbury summoned; Temper of the Clergy — The Clergy ill affected towards the King — The Clergy exasperated against the Dissenters by the Proceedings of the Scotch Presbyterians — Constitution of the Convocation — Election of Members of Convocation; Ecclesiastical Preferments bestowed — Compton discontented — The Convocation meets — The High Churchmen a Majority of the Lower House of Convocation — Difference between the two Houses of Convocation — The Lower House of Convocation proves unmanageable. — The Convocation prorogued

Chapter 15

The Parliament meets; Retirement of Halifax — Supplies voted — The Bill of Rights passed — Inquiry into Naval Abuses — Inquiry into the Conduct of the Irish War — Reception of Walker in England — Edmund Ludlow — Violence of the Whigs — Impeachments — Committee of Murder — Malevolence of John Hampden — The Corporation Bill — Debates on the Indemnity Bill — Case of Sir Robert Sawyer — The King purposes to retire to Holland — He is induced to change his Intention; the Whigs oppose his going to Ireland — He prorogues the Parliament — Joy of the Tories — Dissolution and General Election — Changes in the Executive Departments — Caermarthen Chief Minister — Sir John Lowther — Rise and Progress of Parliamentary Corruption in England — Sir John Trevor — Godolphin retires; Changes at the Admiralty — Changes in the Commissions of Lieutenancy — Temper of the Whigs; Dealings of some Whigs with Saint Germains; Shrewsbury; Ferguson — Hopes of the Jacobites — Meeting of the new Parliament; Settlement of the Revenue — Provision for the Princess of Denmark — Bill declaring the Acts of the preceding Parliament valid — Debate on the Changes in the Lieutenancy of London — Abjuration Bill — Act of Grace — The Parliament prorogued; Preparations for the first War — Administration of James at Dublin — An auxiliary Force sent from France to Ireland — Plan of the English Jacobites; Clarendon, Aylesbury, Dartmouth — Penn — Preston — The Jacobites betrayed by Fuller — Crone arrested — Difficulties of William — Conduct of Shrewsbury — The Council of Nine — Conduct of Clarendon — Penn held to Bail — Interview between William and Burnet; William sets out for Ireland — Trial of Crone — Danger of Invasion and Insurrection; Tourville’s Fleet in the — Channel — Arrests of suspected Persons — Torrington ordered to give Battle to Tourville — Battle of Beachy Head — Alarm in London; Battle of Fleurus — Spirit of the Nation — Conduct of Shrewsbury

Chapter 16

William lands at Carrickfergus, and proceeds to Belfast — State of Dublin; William’s military Arrangements — William marches southward — The Irish Army retreats — The Irish make a Stand at the Boyne — The Army of James — The Army of William — Walker, now Bishop of Derry, accompanies the Army — William reconnoitres the Irish Position; William is wounded — Battle of the Boyne — Flight of James — Loss of the two Armies — Fall of Drogheda; State of Dublin — James flies to France; Dublin evacuated by the French and Irish Troops — Entry of William into Dublin — Effect produced in France by the News from Ireland — Effect produced at Rome by the News from Ireland — Effect produced in London by the News from Ireland — James arrives in France; his Reception there — Tourville attempts a Descent on England — Teignmouth destroyed — Excitement of the English Nation against the French — The Jacobite Press — The Jacobite Form of Prayer and Humiliation — Clamour against the nonjuring Bishops — Military Operations in Ireland; Waterford taken — The Irish Army collected at Limerick; Lauzun pronounces that the Place cannot be defended — The Irish insist on defending Limerick — Tyrconnel is against defending Limerick; Limerick defended by the Irish alone — Sarsfield surprises the English Artillery — Arrival of Baldearg O’Donnel at Limerick — The Besiegers suffer from the Rains — Unsuccessful Assault on Limerick; The Siege raised — Tyrconnel and Lauzun go to France; William returns to England; Reception of William in England — Expedition to the South of Ireland — Marlborough takes Cork — Marlborough takes Kinsale — Affairs of Scotland; Intrigues of Montgomery with the Jacobites — War in the Highlands — Fort William built; Meeting of the Scottish Parliament — Melville Lord High Commissioner; the Government obtains a Majority — Ecclesiastical Legislation — The Coalition between the Club and the Jacobites dissolved — The Chiefs of the Club betray each other — General Acquiescence in the new Ecclesiastical Polity — Complaints of the Episcopalians — The Presbyterian Conjurors — William dissatisfied with the Ecclesiastical Arrangements in Scotland — Meeting of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland — State of Affairs on the Continent — The Duke of Savoy joins the Coalition — Supplies voted; Ways and Means — Proceedings against Torrington — Torrington’s Trial and Acquittal — Animosity of the Whigs against Caermarthen — Jacobite Plot — Meeting of the leading Conspirators — The Conspirators determine to send Preston to Saint Germains — Papers entrusted to Preston — Information of the Plot given to Caermarthen — Arrest of Preston and his Companions

Chapter 17

William’s Voyage to Holland — William’s Entrance into the Hague — Congress at the Hague — William his own Minister for Foreign Affairs — William obtains a Toleration for the Waldenses; Vices inherent in the Nature of Coalitions — Siege and Fall of Mons — William returns to England; Trials of Preston and Ashton — Execution of Ashton — Preston’s Irresolution and Confessions — Lenity shown to the Conspirators — Dartmouth — Turner; Penn — Death of George Fox; his Character — Interview between Penn and Sidney — Preston pardoned — Joy of the Jacobites at the Fall of Mons — The vacant Sees filled — Tillotson Archbishop of Canterbury — Conduct of Sancroft — Difference between Sancroft and Ken — Hatred of Sancroft to the Established Church; he provides for the episcopal Succession among the Nonjurors — The new Bishops — Sherlock Dean of Saint Paul’s — Treachery of some of William’s Servants — Russell — Godolphin — Marlborough — William returns to the Continent — The Campaign of 1691 in Flanders — The War in Ireland; State of the English Part of Ireland — State of the Part of Ireland which was subject to James — Dissensions among the Irish at Limerick — Return of Tyrconnel to Ireland — Arrival of a French Fleet at Limerick; Saint Ruth — The English take the Field — Fall of Ballymore; Siege and Fall of Athlone — Retreat of the Irish Army — Saint Ruth determines to fight — Battle of Aghrim — Fall of Galway — Death of Tyrconnel — Second Siege of Limerick — The Irish desirous to capitulate — Negotiations between the Irish Chiefs and the Besiegers — The Capitulation of Limerick — The Irish Troops required to make their Election between their Country and France — Most of the Irish Troops volunteer for France — Many of the Irish who had volunteered for France desert — The last Division of the Irish Army sails from Cork for France — State of Ireland after the War

Chapter 18

Opening of the Parliament — Debates on the Salaries and Fees of Official Men — Act excluding Papists from Public Trust in Ireland — Debates on the East India Trade — Debates on the Bill for regulating Trials in Cases of High Treason — Plot formed by Marlborough against the Government of William — Marlborough’s Plot disclosed by the Jacobites — Disgrace of Marlborough; Various Reports touching the Cause of Marlborough’s Disgrace. — Rupture between Mary and Anne — Fuller’s Plot — Close of the Session; Bill for ascertaining the Salaries of the Judges rejected — Misterial Changes in England — Ministerial Changes in Scotland — State of the Highlands — Breadalbane employed to negotiate with the Rebel Clans — Glencoe — William goes to the Continent; Death of Louvois — The French Government determines to send an Expedition against England — James believes that the English Fleet is friendly to him — Conduct of Russell — A Daughter born to James — Preparations made in England to repel Invasion — James goes down to his Army at La Hogue — James’s Declaration — Effect produced by James’s Declaration — The English and Dutch Fleets join; Temper of the English Fleet — Battle of La Hogue — Rejoicings in England — Young’s Plot

Chapter 19

Foreign Policy of William — The Northern Powers — The Pope — Conduct of the Allies — The Emperor — Spain — William succeeds in preventing the Dissolution of the Coalition — New Arrangements for the Government of the Spanish Netherlands — Lewis takes the Field — Siege of Namur — Lewis returns to Versailles — Luxemburg — Battle of Steinkirk — Conspiracy of Grandval — Return of William to England — Naval Maladministration — Earthquake at Port Royal — Distress in England; Increase of Crime — Meeting of Parliament; State of Parties — The King’s Speech; Question of Privilege raised by the Lords — Debates on the State of the Nation — Bill for the Regulation of Trials in Cases of Treason — Case of Lord Mohun — Debates on the India Trade — Supply — Ways and Means; Land Tax — Origin of the National Debt — Parliamentary Reform — The Place Bill — The Triennial Bill — The First Parliamentary Discussion on the Liberty of the Press — State of Ireland — The King refuses to pass the Triennial Bill — Ministerial Arrangements — The King goes to Holland; a Session of Parliament in Scotland

Chapter 20

State of the Court of Saint Germains — Feeling of the Jacobites; Compounders and Noncompounders — Change of Ministry at Saint Germains; Middleton — New Declaration put forth by James — Effect of the new Declaration — French Preparations for the Campaign; Institution of the Order of Saint Lewis — Middleton’s Account of Versailles — William’s Preparations for the Campaign — Lewis takes the Field — Lewis returns to Versailles — Manoeuvres of Luxemburg — Battle of Landen — Miscarriage of the Smyrna Fleet — Excitement in London — Jacobite Libels; William Anderton — Writings and Artifices of the Jacobites — Conduct of Caermarthen — Now Charter granted to the East India Company — Return of William to England; Military Successes of France — Distress of France — A Ministry necessary to Parliamentary Government — The First Ministry gradually formed — Sunderland — Sunderland advises the King to give the Preference to the Whigs — Reasons for preferring the Whigs — Chiefs of the Whig Party; Russell — Somers — Montague — Wharton — Chiefs of the Tory Party; Harley — Foley — Howe — Meeting of Parliament — Debates about the Naval Miscarriages — Russell First Lord of the Admiralty; Retirement of Nottingham — Shrewsbury refuses Office — Debates about the Trade with India — Bill for the Regulation of Trials in Cases of Treason — Triennial Bill — Place Bill — Bill for the Naturalisation of Foreign Protestants — Supply — Ways and Means; Lottery Loan — The Bank of England — Prorogation of Parliament; Ministerial Arrangements; Shrewsbury Secretary of State — New Titles bestowed — French Plan of War; English Plan of War — Expedition against Brest — Naval Operations in the Mediterranean — War by Land — Complaints of Trenchard’s Administration — The Lancashire Prosecutions — Meeting of the Parliament; Death of Tillotson — Tenison Archbishop of Canterbury; Debates on the Lancashire Prosecutions — Place Bill — Bill for the Regulation of Trials in Cases of Treason; the Triennial Bill passed — Death of Mary — Funeral of Mary — Greenwich Hospital founded

Chapter 21

Effect of Mary’s Death on the Continent — Death of Luxemburg — Distress of William — Parliamentary Proceedings; Emancipation of the Press — Death of Halifax — Parliamentary Inquiries into the Corruption of the Public Offices — Vote of Censure on the Speaker — Foley elected Speaker; Inquiry into the Accounts of the East India Company — Suspicious Dealings of Seymour — Bill against Sir Thomas Cook — Inquiry by a joint Committee of Lords and Commons — Impeachment of Leeds — Disgrace of Leeds — Lords Justices appointed; Reconciliation between William and the Princess Anne — Jacobite Plots against William’s Person — Charnock; Porter — Goodman; Parkyns — Fenwick — Session of the Scottish Parliament; Inquiry into the Slaughter of Glencoe — War in the Netherlands; Marshal Villeroy — The Duke of Maine — Jacobite Plots against the Government during William’s Absence — Siege of Namur — Surrender of the Town of Namur — Surrender of the Castle of Namur — Arrest of Boufflers — Effect of the Emancipation of the English Press — Return of William to England; Dissolution of the Parliament — William makes a Progress through the Country — The Elections — Alarming State of the Currency — Meeting of the Parliament; Loyalty of the House of Commons — Controversy touching the Currency — Parliamentary Proceedings touching the Currency — Passing of the Act regulating Trials in Cases of High Treason — Parliamentary Proceedings touching the Grant of Crown Lands in Wales to Portland — Two Jacobite Plots formed — Berwick’s Plot; the Assassination Plot; Sir George Barclay — Failure of Berwick’s Plot — Detection of the Assassination Plot — Parliamentary Proceedings touching the Assassination Plot — State of Public Feeling — Trial of Charnock, King and Keyes — Execution of Charnock, King and Keyes — Trial of Friend — Trial of Parkyns — Execution of Friend and Parkyns — Trials of Rookwood, Cranburne and Lowick — The Association — Bill for the Regulation of Elections — Act establishing a Land Bank

Chapter 22

Military Operations in the Netherlands — Commercial Crisis in England — Financial Crisis — Efforts to restore the Currency — Distress of the People; their Temper and Conduct — Negotiations with France; the Duke of Savoy deserts the Coalition — Search for Jacobite Conspirators in England; Sir John Fenwick — Capture of Fenwick — Fenwick’s Confession — Return of William to England — Meeting of Parliament; State of the Country; Speech of William at the Commencement of the Session — Resolutions of the House of Commons — Return of Prosperity — Effect of the Proceedings of the House of Commons on Foreign Governments — Restoration of the Finances — Effects of Fenwick’s Confession — Resignation of Godolphin — Feeling of the Whigs about Fenwick — William examines Fenwick — Disappearance of Goodman — Parliamentary Proceedings touching Fenwick’s Confession — Bill for attainting Fenwick — Debates of the Commons on the Bill of Attainder — The Bill of Attainder carried up to the Lords — Artifices of Monmouth — Debates of the Lords on the Bill of Attainder — Proceedings against Monmouth — Position and Feelings of Shrewsbury — The Bill of Attainder passed; Attempts to save Fenwick — Fenwick’s Execution; Bill for the Regulating of Elections — Bill for the Regulation of the Press — Bill abolishing the Privileges of Whitefriars and the Savoy — Close of the Session; Promotions and Appointments — State of Ireland — State of Scotland — A Session of Parliament at Edinburgh; Act for the Settling of Schools — Case of Thomas Aikenhead — Military Operations in the Netherlands — Terms of Peace offered by France — Conduct of Spain; Conduct of the Emperor — Congress of Ryswick — William opens a distinct Negotiation — Meetings of Portland and Boufflers — Terms of Peace between France and England settled — Difficulties caused by Spain and the Emperor — Attempts of James to prevent a general Pacification — The Treaty of Ryswick signed; Anxiety in England — News of the Peace arrives in England — Dismay of the Jacobites — General Rejoicing — The King’s Entry into London — The Thanksgiving Day

Preface To The Fifth Volume.

Chapter 23

Standing Armies — Sunderland — Lord Spencer — Controversy touching Standing Armies — Meeting of Parliament — The King’s Speech well received; Debate on a Peace Establishment — Sunderland attacked — The Nation averse to a Standing Army — Mutiny Act; the Navy Acts concerning High Treason — Earl of Clancarty — Ways and Means; Rights of the Sovereign in reference to Crown Lands — Proceedings in Parliament on Grants of Crown Lands — Montague accused of Peculation — Bill of Pains and Penalties against Duncombe — Dissension between the houses — Commercial Questions — Irish Manufactures — East India Companies — Fire at Whitehall — Visit of the Czar — Portland’s Embassy to France — The Spanish Succession — The Count of Tallard’s Embassy — Newmarket Meeting: the insecure State of the Roads — Further Negotiations relating to the Spanish Succession — The King goes to Holland — Portland returns from his Embassy — William is reconciled to Marlborough

Chapter 24

Altered Position of the Ministry — The Elections — First Partition Treaty — Domestic Discontent — Littleton chosen Speaker — King’s Speech; Proceedings relating to the Amount of the Land Force — Unpopularity of Montague — Bill for Disbanding the Army — The King’s Speech — Death of the Electoral Prince of Bavaria. — Renewed Discussion of the Army Question — Naval Administration — Commission on Irish Forfeitures. — Prorogation of Parliament — Changes in the Ministry and Household — Spanish Succession — Darien

Chapter 25

Trial of Spencer Cowper — Duels — Discontent of the Nation — Captain Kidd — Meeting of Parliament — Attacks on Burnet — Renewed Attack on Somers — Question of the Irish Forfeitures: Dispute between the Houses — Somers again attacked — Prorogation of Parliament — Death of James the Second — The Pretender recognised as King — Return of the King — General Election — Death of William

http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/m/macaulay/thomas_babington/history-of-england/contents.html

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