The History of Rome, by Livy

Lost Books.

HERE ten books of the original are lost, making a chasm of seventy-five years. The Translator’s object being to publish the work of Livy only, he has not thought it his duty to attempt to supply this deficiency, either by a compilation of his own, or by transcribing or translating those of others. The reader, however, who may be desirous of knowing the events which took place during this interval, will find as complete a detail of them as can now be given, in Hooke’s or Rollin’s Roman History.

The contents of the lost books have been preserved, and are as follows:—

Book xi.

Y.R. 460. 292. — Fabius Gurges, consul, having fought an unsuccessful battle with the Samnites, the senate deliberate about dimissing him from the command of the army; are prevailed upon not to inflict that disgrace upon him, principally by the entreaties of his father, Fabius Maximus, and by his promising to join the army, and serve, in quality of lieutenant-general, under his son: which promise he performs, and the consul, aided by his counsel and co-operation, obtains a victory over the Samnites, and a triumph in consequence. C. Pontius, the general of the Samnites, led in triumph before the victor’s carriage, and afterwards beheaded. A plague at Rome. Y.R. 461. 291. — Ambassadors sent to Epidaurus, to bring from thence to Rome the statue of Æsculapius; a serpent, of itself, goes on board their ship; supposing it to be the abode of the deity, they bring it with them; and, upon its quitting their vessel, and swimming to the island in the Tyber, they consecrate there a temple to Æsculapius. L. Postumius, a man of consular rank, condemned for employing the soldiers under his command in working upon his farm. Y.R. 462. 290. — Curius Dentatus, consul, having subdued the Samnites, and the rebellious Sabines, triumphs twice during his year of office. Y.R. 463. 289. — The colonies of Castrum, Sena, and Adria, established. Three judges of capital crimes now first appointed. A census and lustrum: the number of citizens found to be two hundred and seventy-three thousand. After a long continued sedition, on account of debts, the commons secede to the Janiculum: Y.R. 466. 286. — are brought back by Q. Hortensius, dictator, who dies in office. Successful operations against the Volsinians and Lucanians, against whom it was thought expedient to send succour to the Thuringians. Y.R. 468. 284.

Book xii.

Y.R. 469. 283. — The Senonian Gauls having slain the Roman ambassadors, war is declared against them: they cut off L. Cæcilius, prætor, with the legions under his command. Y.R. 470. 282. — The Roman fleet plundered by the Tarentines, and the commander slain: ambassadors, sent to complain of this outrage, are ill-treated and sent back; whereupon war is declared against them. The Samnites revolt; against whom, together with the Lucanians, Bruttians, and Etruscans, several unsuccessful battles are fought by different generals. Y.R. 471. 281. — Pyrrhus, King of Epirus, comes into Italy, to succour the Tarentines. A Campanian legion sent, under the command of Decius Jubellius, to garrison Rhegium, murder the inhabitants, and seize the city.

Book xiii.

Y.R. 472. 280. — Valerius Lævinus, consul, engages with Pyrrhus, and is beaten, his soldiers being terrified at the unusual appearance of elephants. After the battle, Pyrrhus, viewing the bodies of the Romans who were slain, remarks, that they all of them lay with their faces turned towards their enemy. He proceeds towards Rome, ravaging the country as he goes along. C. Fabricius is sent by the senate to treat for the redemption of the prisoners: the King, in vain, attempts to bribe him to desert his country. The prisoners restored without ransom. Cineas, ambassador from Pyrrhus, to the senate, demands, as a condition of peace, that the King be admitted into the city of Rome: the consideration of which being deferred to a fuller meeting, Appius Claudius, who, on account of a disorder in his eyes, had not, for a long time, attended in the senate, comes there; moves, and carries his motion, that the demand of the King be refused. Cneius Domitius, the first plebeian censor, holds a lustrum; the number of the citizens found to be two hundred and seventy-eight thousand two hundred and twenty-two. A second, but undecided battle with Pyrrhus. Y.R. 473. 279. — The treaty with the Carthaginians renewed a fourth time. Y.R. 474. 278. — An offer made to Fabricius, the consul, by a traitor, to poison Pyrrhus; he sends him to the King, and discovers to him the treasonable offer. Successful operations against the Etruscans, Lucanians, Bruttians, and Samnites.

Book xiv.

Y.R. 475. 277. — Pyrrhus crosses over into Sicily. Many prodigies, among which, the statue of Jupiter in the Capitol is struck by lightning, and thrown down. Y.R. 476. 276. The head of it afterwards found by the priests. Curius Dentatus, holding a levy, puts up to sale the goods of a person who refuses to answer to his name when called upon. Y.R. 477. 275. — Pyrrhus, after his return from Sicily, is defeated, and compelled to quit Italy. The censors hold a lustrum, and find the number of the citizens to be two hundred and seventy-one thousand two hundred and twenty-four. Y.R. 479. 273. — A treaty of alliance formed with Ptolemy, king of Ægypt. Sextilia, a vestal, found guilty of incest, and buried alive. Two colonies sent forth, to Posidonium and Cossa. Y.R. 480. 272. — A Carthaginian fleet sails in aid of the Tarentines, by which act the treaty is violated. Successful operations against the Lucanians, Samnites, and Bruttians. Death of King Pyrrhus.

Book xv.

The Tarentines overcome; peace and freedom granted to them. Y.R. 481. 271. — The Campanian legion, which had forcibly taken possession of Rhegium, besieged there; lay down their arms, and are punished with death. Some young men, who had ill-treated the ambassadors from the Apollonians to the senate of Rome, are delivered up to them. Peace granted to the Picentians. Y.R. 484. 268. — Two colonies established; one at Ariminum in Picenum, another at Beneventum in Samnium. Silver coin now, for the first time, used by the Roman people. Y.R. 485. 267. — The Umbrians and Sallentines subdued. The number of quæstors increased to eight.

Book xvi.

Y.R. 488. 264. — Origin and progress of the Carthaginian state. After much debate, the senate resolves to succour the Mammertines against the Carthaginians, and against Hiero, King of Syracuse. Roman cavalry, then, for the first time, cross the sea, and engage, successfully, in battle with Hiero; who solicits and obtains peace. Y.R. 489. 263. — A lustrum: the number of the citizens amounts to two hundred and ninety-two thousand two hundred and twenty-four. D. Junius Brutus exhibits the first show of gladiators, in honour of his deceased father. Y.R. 490. 262. — The Æsernian colony established. Y.R. 491. 261. — Successful operations against the Carthaginians and Vulsinians.

Book xvii.

Y.R. 492. 260. — Cneius Cornelius, consul, surrounded by the Carthaginian fleet; and, being drawn into a conference by a stratagem, is taken. Y.R. 493. 259. — C. Duillius, consul, engages with, and vanquishes the Carthaginian fleet: is the first commander to whom a triumph was decreed for a naval victory; in honour of which, he is allowed, when returning to his habitation at night, to be attended with torches and music. L. Cornelius, consul, fights and subdues the Sardinians and Corsicans, together with Hanno, the Carthaginian general, in the island of Sardinia. Y.R. 494. 258. — Atilius Calatinus, consul, drawn into an ambuscade by the Carthaginians, is rescued by the skill and valour of M. Calpurnius, a military tribune, who, making a sudden attack upon the enemy, with a body of only three hundred men, turns their whole force against himself. Y.R. 495. 257. — Hannibal, the commander of the Carthaginian fleet which was beaten, is put to death by his soldiers.

Book xviii.

Y.R. 496. 256. — Attilius Regulus, consul, having overcome the Carthaginians in a sea-fight, passes over into Africa: kills a serpent of prodigious magnitude, with great loss of his own men. Y.R. 497. 255:— The senate, on account of his successful conduct of the war, not appointing him a successor, he writes to them, complaining; and, among other reasons for desiring to be recalled, alleges, that his little farm, being all his subsistence, was going to ruin, owing to the mismanagement of hired stewards. Y.R. 498. 254. — A memorable instance of the instability of fortune exhibited in the person of Regulus, who is overcome in battle, and taken prisoner, by Xanthippus, a Lacedæmonian general. Y.R. 499. 253. — The Roman fleet shipwrecked; which disaster entirely reverses the good fortune which had hitherto attended their affairs. Y.R. 500. 252. — Titus Coruncanius, the first high priest chosen from among the commons. Y.R. 501. 251. — P. Sempronius Sophus, and M. Valerius Maximus, censors, examine into the state of the senate, and expel thirteen of the members of that body. They hold a lustrum, and find the number of citizens to be two hundred and ninety-seven thousand seven hundred and ninety-seven. Y.R. 502. 250. — Regulus, being sent by the Carthaginians to Rome to treat for peace, and an exchange of prisoners, binds himself by oath to return, if these objects be not attained; dissuades the senate from agreeing to the propositions; and then, in observance of his oath, returning to Carthage, is put to death by torture.

Book xix.

Y.R. 502. 250. — C. Cæcilius Metellus, having been successful in several engagements with the Carthaginians, triumphs with more splendour than had ever yet been seen; thirteen generals of the enemy, and one hundred and twenty elephants, being exhibited in the procession. Y.R. 503. 249. — Claudius Pulcher, consul, obstinately persisting, notwithstanding the omens were inauspicious, engages the enemy’s fleet, and is beaten; drowns the sacred chickens which would not feed: recalled by the senate, and ordered to nominate a dictator; he appoints Claudius Glicia, one of the lowest of the people, who, notwithstanding his being ordered to abdicate the office, yet attends the celebration of the public games in his dictator’s robe. Y.R. 504. 248. — Atilius Calatinus, the first dictator who marches with an army out of Italy. An exchange of prisoners with the Carthaginians. Two colonies established at Fregenæ and Brundusium, in the Sallentine territories. Y.R. 505. 247. — A lustrum: the citizens numbered amount to two hundred and fifty-one thousand two hundred and twenty-two. Y.R. 506. 246. — Claudia, the sister of Claudius, who had fought unsuccessfully, in contempt of the auspices, being pressed by the crowd, as she was returning from the game, cries out, I wish my brother were alive, and had again the command of the fleet: for which offence she is tried and fined. Y.R. 507. 245. — Two prætors now first created. Y.R. 508. 244. — Aulus Postumius, consul, being priest of Mars, forcibly detained in the city by Cæcilius Metellus, the high-priest, and not suffered to go forth to war, being obliged by law to attend to the sacred duties of his office. Y.R. 509. 243. — After several successful engagements with the Carthaginians, Caius Lutatius, consul, puts an end to the war, by gaining a complete victory over their fleet, at the island of Ægate. Y.R.510. 242. — The Carthaginians sue for peace, which is granted to them. Y.R. 511. 241. — The temple of Vesta being on fire, the high priest, Cæcilius Metellus, saves the sacred utensils from the flames. Two new tribes added, the Veline and Quirine. The Falisci rebel; are subdued in six days.

Book xx.

Y.R. 512. 240. — A colony settled at Spoletum. An army sent against the Ligurians; being the first war with that state. The Sardinians and Corsicans rebel, and are subdued. Y.R. 514. 238. — Tuccia, a vestal, found guilty of incest. War declared against the Illyrians, who had slain an ambassador: they are subdued and brought to submission. Y.R. 515. 237. — The number of prætors increased to four The Transalpine Gauls make an irruption into Italy: are conquered and put to the sword. Y.R. 516. 236. — The Roman army, in conjunction with the Latines, is said to have amounted to no less than three hundred thousand men. Y.R. 517. 235. — The Roman army for the first time, crosses the Po; fights with and subdues the Insubrian Gauls. Y.R. 530. 222. — Claudius Marcellus, consul, having slain Viridomarus, the general of the Insubrian Gauls, carries off the spolia opima. Y.R. 531. 221. — The Istrians subdued; also the Illyrians, who had rebelled. Y.R. 532. 220. — The censors hold a lustrum, in which the number of the citizens is found to be two hundred and seventy thousand two hundred and thirteen. The sons of freedmen formed into four tribes: the Esquiline, Palatine, Suburran and Colline. Y.R. 533. 219. — Caius Flaminius, censor, constructs the Flaminian road, and builds the Flaminian circus.

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