Elements of Chemistry, by Antoine Lavoisier

Table of Contents

Advertisement of the Translator.

Preface of the Author.

Part I.

Of the Formation and Decomposition of Aëriform Fluids — of the Combustion of Simple Bodies — and the Formation of Acids.

  1. Of the Combinations of Caloric, and the Formation of Elastic Aëriform Fluids.
  2. General Views relative to the Formation and Composition of our Atmosphere.
  3. Analysis of Atmospheric Air, and its Division into two Elastic Fluids; the one fit for Respiration, the other incapable of being respired.
  4. Nomenclature of the several Constituent Parts of Atmospheric Air.
  5. Of the Decomposition of Oxygen Gas by Sulphur, Phosphorus, and Charcoal — and of the Formation of Acids in general.
  6. Of the Nomenclature of Acids in general, and particularly of those drawn from Nitre and Sea-Salt.
  7. Of the Decomposition of Oxygen Gas by means of Metals, and the Formation of Metallic Oxyds.
  8. Of the Radical Principle of Water, and of its Decomposition by Charcoal and Iron.
  9. Of the quantities of Caloric disengaged from different species of Combustion.
  10. Of the Combination of Combustible Substances with each other.
  11. Observations upon Oxyds and Acids with several Bases — and upon the Composition of Animal and Vegetable Substances.
  12. Of the Decomposition of Vegetable and Animal Substances by the Action of Fire.
  13. Of the Decomposition of Vegetable Oxyds by the Vinous Fermentation.
  14. Of the Putrefactive Fermentation.
  15. Of the Acetous Fermentation.
  16. Of the Formation of Neutral Salts, and of their different Bases.
  17. Continuation of the Observations upon Salifiable Bases, and the Formation of Neutral Salts.

Part II.

Of the Combination of Acids with Salifiable Bases, and of the Formation of Neutral Salts.

Table of Simple Substances.
Table of compound oxydable and acidifiable bases.
Sect. II. — Observations upon the Table of Compound Radicals.
Sect. III. — Observations upon the Combinations of Light and Caloric with different Substances.
Table of the binary Combinations of Oxygen with simple Substances
Sect. IV. — Observations upon the Combinations of Oxygen with the simple Substances.
Table of the combinations of Oxygen with the compound radicals.
Sect. V. — Observations upon the Combinations of Oxygen with the Compound Radicals.
Table of the Binary Combinations of Azote with the Simple Substances.
Sect. VI. — Observations upon the Combinations of Azote with the Simple Substances.
Table of the Binary Combinations of Hydrogen with Simple Substances.
Sect. VII. — Observations upon Hydrogen, and its Combinations with Simple Substances.
Table of the Binary Combinations of Sulphur with Simple Substances.
Sect. VIII. — Observations on Sulphur, and its Combinations.
Table of the Binary Combinations of Phosphorus with the Simple Substances.
Sect. IX. — Observations upon Phosphorus, and its Combinations.
Table of the Binary Combinations of Charcoal.
Sect. X. — Observations upon Charcoal, and its Combinations with Simple Substances.
Sect. XI. — Observations upon the Muriatic, Fluoric, and Boracic Radicals, and their Combinations.
Sect. XII. — Observations upon the Combinations of Metals with each other.
Table of the Combinations of Azote in the state of Nitrous Acid with the Salifiable Bases, arranged according to the affinities of these Bases with the Acid.
Table of the Combinations of Azote, completely saturated with Oxygen, in the state of Nitric Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the order of the affinity with the Acid.
Sect. XIII. — Observations upon the Nitrous and Nitric Acids, and their Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of Sulphuric Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the order of affinity.
Sect. XIV. — Observations upon Sulphuric Acid and its Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of the Sulphurous Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the order of affinity.
Sect. XV. — Observations upon Sulphurous Acid, and its Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of Phosphorous and Phosphoric Acids, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
Sect. XVI. — Observations upon Phosphorous and Phosphoric Acids, and their Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of Carbonic Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
Sect. XVII. — Observations upon Carbonic Acid, and its Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of Muriatic Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
Table Of the Combinations of Oxygenated Muriatic Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
Sect. XIX. — Observations upon Muriatic and Oxygenated Muriatic Acids, and their Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of Nitro-muriatic Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity, so far as is known.
Sect. XX. — Observations upon the Nitro-Muriatic Acid, and its Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of Fluoric Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
Sect. XXI. — Observations upon the Fluoric Acid, and its Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of Boracic Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
Sect. XXII. — Observations upon Boracic Add and its Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of Arseniac Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
Sect. XXIII. — Observations upon Arseniac Acid, and its Combinations.
Sect. XXIV. — Observations upon Molybdic Acid, and its Combinations with Acidifiable Bases .
Table of the Combinations of Tungstic Acid with the Salifiable Bases.
Sect. XXV. — Observations upon Tungstic Acid, and its Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of Tartarous Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
Sect. XXVI. — Observations upon Tartarous Acid, and its Combinations.
Sect. XXVII. — Observations upon Malic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases .
Table of the Combinations of Citric Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity(A).
Sect. XXVIII. — Observations upon Citric Acid, and its Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of Pyro-lignous Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity(A).
Sect. XXIX. — Observations upon Pyro-lignous Acid, and its Combinations.
Sect. XXX. — Observations upon Pyro-tartarous Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases .
Table of the Combinations of Pyro-mucous Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity(A).
Sect. XXXI. — Observations upon Pyro-mucous Acid, and its Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of the Oxalic Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity(A).
Sect. XXXII. — Observations upon Oxalic Acid, and its Combinations.
Sect. XXXIII. — Observations upon Acetous Acid, and its Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of Acetic Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the order of affinity.
Sect. XXXIV. — Observations upon Acetic Acid, and its Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of Succinic Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the order of Affinity.
Sect. XXXV. — Observations upon Succinic Acid, and its Combinations.
Sect. XXXVI. — Observations upon Benzoic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases .
Sect. XXXVII. — Observations upon Camphoric Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases .
Sect. XXXVIII. — Observations upon Gallic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases .
Sect. XXXIX. — Observations upon Lactic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases .
Table of the Combinations of Saccholactic Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
Sect. XL. — Observations upon Saccholactic Acid, and its Combinations.
Table of the Combinations of Formic Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
Sect. XLI. — Observations upon Formic Acid, and its Combinations.
Sect. XLII. — Observations upon Bombic Acid, and its Combinations with Acidifiable Bases .
Table of the Combinations of Sebacic Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
Sect. XLIII. — Observations upon Sebacid Acid, and its Combinations.
Sect. XLIV. — Observations upon the Lithic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases .
Table of the Combinations of the Prussic Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the order of affinity.
Observations upon the Prussic Acid, and its Combinations.

Part III.

Description of the Instruments and Operations of Chemistry.

Introduction.
  1. Of the Instruments necessary for determining the Absolute and Specific Gravities of Solid and Liquid Bodies.
  2. Of Gazometry, or the Measurement of the Weight and Volume of Aëriform Substances.
    1. Description of the Pneumato-chemical Apparatus.
    2. Of the Gazometer.
    3. Some other methods of measuring the volume of Gasses.
    4. Of the method of Separating the different Gasses from each other.
    5. Of the necessary corrections upon the volume of the Gasses, according to the pressure of the Atmosphere.
    6. Of Corrections relative to the Degrees of the Thermometer.
    7. Example for calculating the Corrections relative to the Variations of Pressure and Temperature.
    8. Method of determining the Absolute Gravity of the different Gasses.
  3. Description of the Calorimeter, or Apparatus for measuring Caloric.
  4. Of Mechanical Operations for Division of Bodies.
    1. Of Trituration, Levigation, and Pulverization.
    2. Of Sifting and Washing Powdered Substances.
    3. Of Filtration.
    4. Of Decantation.
  5. Of Chemical Means for separating the Particles of Bodies from each other; without Decomposition, and for uniting them again.
    1. Of the Solution of Salts.
    2. Of Lixiviation.
    3. Of Evaporation.
    4. Of Cristallization.
    5. Of Simple Distillation.
    6. Of Sublimation.
  6. Of Pneumato-chemical Distillations, Metallic Dissolutions, and some other operations which require very complicated instruments.
    1. Of Compound and Pneumato-chemical Distillations.
    2. Of Metallic Dissolutions.
    3. Apparatus necessary in Experiments upon Vinous and Putrefactive Fermentations.
    4. Apparatus for the Decomposition of Water.
  7. Of the Composition and Application of Lutes.
  8. Of Operations upon Combustion and Deflagration.
    1. Of Combustion in general.
    2. Of the Combustion of Phosphorus.
    3. Of the Combustion of Charcoal.
    4. Of the Combustion of Oils.
    5. Of the Combustion of Alkohol.
    6. Of the Combustion of Ether.
    7. Of the Combustion of Hydrogen Gas, and the Formation of Water.
    8. Of the Oxydation of Metals.
  9. Of Deflagration.
  10. Of the Instruments necessary for Operating upon Bodies in very high Temperatures.
    1. Of Fusion.
    2. Of Furnaces.
    3. Of increasing the Action of Fire, by using Oxygen Gas instead of Atmospheric Air.

Appendix.

  1. No. I.
  2. No. II.
  3. No. III.
  4. No. IV. Additional.
  5. No. V. Additional.
  6. Rules for converting French Weights and Measures into correspondent English Denominations .
  7. § 1. Weights.
  8. § 2. Long and Cubical Measures.
  9. § 3. Measure of Capacity.
  10. No. VI.
  11. No. VII.
  12. No. VIII. Additional.
  13. No. IX.
  14. No. X.
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