Elements of Chemistry, by Antoine Lavoisier

No. VII.

Tables of the Specific Gravities of different bodies.
§ 1. Metallic Substances.
Gold.
Pure gold of 24 carats melted but not hammered 19.2581
The same hammered 19.3617
Gold of the Parisian standard, 22 carats fine, not hammered(A) 17.4863
The same hammered 17.5894
Gold of the standard of French coin, 21-22/32 carats fine, not hammered 17.4022
The same coined 17.6474
Gold of the French trinket standard, 20 carats fine, not hammered 15.7090
The same hammered 15.7746

[Note A: The same with Sterling.]

Silver.
Pure or virgin silver, 24 deniers, not hammered 10.4743
The same hammered 10.5107
Silver of the Paris standard, 11 deniers 10 grains fine, not hammered(B) 10.1752
The same hammered 10.3765
Silver, standard of French coin, 10 deniers 21 grains fine, not hammered 10.0476
The same coined 10.4077

[Note B: This is 10 grs. finer than Sterling.]

Platina.
Crude platina in grains 15.6017
The same, after being treated with muriatic acid 16.7521
Purified platina, not hammered 19.5000
The same hammered 20.3366
The same drawn into wire 21.0417
The same passed through rollers 22.0690
Copper and Brass.
Copper, not hammered 7.7880
The same wire drawn 8.8785
Brass, not hammered 8.3958
The same wire drawn 8.5441
Iron and Steel.
Cast iron 7.2070
Bar iron, either screwed or not 7.7880
Steel neither tempered nor screwed 7.8331
Steel screwed but not tempered 7.8404
Steel tempered and screwed 7.8180
Steel tempered and not screwed 7.8163
Tin.
Pure tin from Cornwall melted and not screwed 7.2914
The same screwed 7.2994
Malacca tin, not screwed 7.2963
The same screwed 7.3065
Molten lead 11.3523
Molten zinc 7.1908
Molten bismuth 9.8227
Molten cobalt 7.8119
Molten arsenic 5.7633
Molten nickel 7.8070
Molten antimony 6.7021
Crude antimony 4.0643
Glass of antimony 4.9464
Molybdena 4.7385
Tungstein 6.0665
Mercury 13.5681
§ 2. Precious Stones.
White Oriental diamond 3.5212
Rose-coloured Oriental ditto 3.5310
Oriental ruby 4.2833
Spinell ditto 3.7600
Ballas ditto 3.6458
Brasillian ditto 3.5311
Oriental topas 4.0106
Ditto Pistachio ditto 4.0615
Brasillian ditto 3.5365
Saxon topas 3.5640
Ditto white ditto 3.5535
Oriental saphir 3.9941
Ditto white ditto 3.9911
Saphir of Puy 4.0769
Ditto of Brasil 3.1307
Girasol 4.0000
Ceylon jargon 4.4161
Hyacinth 3.6873
Vermillion 4.2299
Bohemian garnet 4.1888
Dodecahedral ditto 4.0627
Syrian ditto 4.0000
Volcanic ditto, with 24 sides 2.4684
Peruvian emerald 2.7755
Crysolite of the jewellers 2.7821
Ditto of Brasil 2.6923
Beryl, or Oriental aqua marine 3.5489
Occidental aqua marine 2.7227
§ 3. Silicious Stones.
Pure rock cristal of Madagascar 2.6530
Ditto of Brasil 2.6526
Ditto of Europe, or gelatinous 2.6548
Cristallized quartz 2.6546
Amorphous ditto 2.6471
Oriental agate 2.5901
Agate onyx 2.6375
Transparent calcedony 2.6640
Carnelian 2.6137
Sardonyx 2.6025
Prase 2.5805
Onyx pebble 2.6644
Pebble of Rennes 2.6538
White jade 2.9502
Green jade 2.9660
Red jasper 2.6612
Brown ditto 2.6911
Yellow ditto 2.7101
Violet ditto 2.7111
Gray ditto 2.7640
Jasponyx 2.8160
Black prismatic hexahedral schorl 3.3852
Black spary ditto 3.3852
Black amorphous schorl, called antique basaltes 2.9225
Paving stone 2.4158
Grind stone 2.1429
Cutler's stone 2.1113
Fountainbleau stone 2.5616
Scyth stone of Auvergne 2.5638
Ditto of Lorrain 2.5298
Mill stone 2.4835
White flint 2.5941
Blackish ditto 2.5817
§ 4. Various Stones, &c.
Opake green Italian serpentine, or gabro of the Florentines   2.4295
Coarse Briancon chalk   2.7274
Spanish chalk   2.7902
Foliated lapis ollaris of Dauphiny   2.7687
Ditto ditto from Sweden   2.8531
Muscovy talc   2.7917
Black mica   2.9004
Common schistus or slate   2.6718
New slate   2.8535
White rasor hone   2.8763
Black and white hone   3.1311
Rhombic or Iceland cristal   2.7151
Pyramidal calcareous spar   2.7141
Oriental or white antique alabaster   2.7302
Green Campan marble   2.7417
Red Campan marble   2.7242
White Carara marble   2.7168
White Parian marble   2.8376
Various kinds of calcareous stones used in France for building. from 1.3864
to 2.3902
Heavy spar   4.4300
White fluor   3.1555
Red ditto   3.1911
Green ditto   3.1817
Blue ditto   3.1688
Violet ditto   3.1757
Red scintilant zeolite from Edelfors   2.4868
White scintilant zeolite   2.0739
Cristallized zeolite   2.0833
Black pitch stone   2.0499
Yellow pitch stone   2.0860
Red ditto   2.6695
Blackish ditto   2.3191
Red porphyry   2.7651
Ditto of Dauphiny   2.7033
Green serpentine   2.8960
Black ditto of Dauphiny, called variolite   2.9339
Green ditto from Dauphiny   2.9883
Ophites   2.9722
Granitello   3.0626
Red Egyptian granite   2.6541
Beautiful red granite   2.7609
Granite of Girardmas   2.7163
Pumice stone   .9145
Lapis obsidianus   2.3480
Pierre de Volvic   2.3205
Touch stone   2.4153
Basaltes from Giants Causeway   2.8642
Ditto prismatic from Auvergne   2.4153
Glass gall   2.8548
Bottle glass   2.7325
Green glass   2.6423
White glass   2.8922
St Gobin cristal   2.4882
Flint glass   3.3293
Borax glass   2.6070
Seves porcelain   2.1457
Limoges ditto   2.3410
China ditto   2.3847
Native sulphur   2.0332
Melted sulphur   1.9907
Hard peat   1.3290
Ambergrease   .9263
Yellow transparent amber   1.0780
§ 5. Liquids.
Distilled water       1.0000
Rain water       1.0000
Filtered water of the Seine       1.00015
Arcueil water       1.00046
Avray water       1.00043
Sea water       1.0263
Water of the Dead Sea       1.2403
Burgundy wine       .9915
Bourdeaux ditto       .9939
Malmsey Madeira       1.0382
Red beer       1.0338
White ditto       1.0231
Cyder       1.0181
Highly rectified alkohol       .8293
Common spirits of wine       .8371
Alkohol 15 pts. water 1 part. .8527
14   2 .8674
13   3 .8815
12   4 .8947
11   5 .9075
10   6 .9199
9   7 .9317
8   8 .9427
7   9 .9519
6   10 .9594
5   11 .9674
4   12 .9733
3   13 .9791
2   14 .9852
1   15 .9919
Sulphuric ether       .7394
Nitric ether       .9088
Muriatic ether       .7298
Acetic ether       .8664
Sulphuric acid       1.8409
Nitric ditto       1.2715
Muriatic ditto       1.1940
Red acetous ditto       1.0251
White acetous ditto       1.0135
Distilled ditto ditto       1.0095
Acetic ditto       1.0626
Formic ditto       .9942
Solution of caustic ammoniac, or volatil alkali fluor     .8970
Essential or volatile oil of turpentine     .8697
Liquid turpentine       .9910
Volatile oil of lavender       .8938
Volatile oil of cloves       1.0363
Volatile oil of cinnamon       1.0439
Oil of olives       .9153
Oil of sweet almonds       .9170
Lintseed oil       .9403
Oil of poppy seed       .9288
Oil of beech mast       .9176
Whale oil       .9233
Womans milk       1.0203
Mares milk       1.0346
Ass milk       1.0355
Goats milk       1.0341
Ewe milk       1.0409
Cows milk       1.0324
Cow whey       1.0193
Human urine       1.0106
§ 6. Resins and Gums
Common yellow or white rosin 1.0727
Arcanson 1.0857
Galipot(A) 1.0819
Baras(A) 1.0441
Sandarac 1.0920
Mastic 1.0742
Storax 1.1098
Opake copal 1.1398
Transparent ditto 1.0452
Madagascar ditto 1.0600
Chinese ditto 1.0628
Elemi 1.0182
Oriental anime 1.0284
Occidental ditto 1.0426
Labdanum 1.1862
Ditto in tortis 2.4933
Resin of guaiac 1.2289
Ditto of jallap 1.2185
Dragons blood 1.2045
Gum lac 1.1390
Tacamahaca 1.0463
Benzoin 1.0924
Alouchi(B) 1.0604
Caragna(C) 1.1244
Elastic gum .9335
Camphor .9887
Gum ammoniac 1.2071
Sagapenum 1.2008
Ivy gum(D) 1.2948
Gamboge 1.2216
Euphorbium 1.1244
Olibanum 1.1732
Myrrh 1.3600
Bdellium 1.3717
Aleppo Scamony 1.2354
Smyrna ditto 1.2743
Galbanum 1.2120
Assafoetida 1.3275
Sarcocolla 1.2684
Opoponax 1.6226
Cherry tree gum 1.4817
Gum Arabic 1.4523
Tragacanth 1.3161
Basora gum 1.4346
Acajou gum(E) 1.4456
Monbain gum(F) 1.4206
Inspissated juice of liquorice 1.7228
—— Acacia 1.5153
—— Areca 1.4573
Terra Japonica 1.3980
Hepatic aloes 1.3586
Socotrine aloes 1.3795
Inspissated juice of St John's wort 1.5263
Opium 1.3366
Indigo .7690
Arnotto .5956
Yellow wax .9648
White ditto .9686
Ouarouchi ditto(G) .8970
Cacao butter .8916
Spermaceti .9433
Beef fat .9232
Veal fat .9342
Mutton fat .9235
Tallow .9419
Hoggs fat .9368
Lard .9478
Butter .9423

[Note A: Resinous juices extracted in France from the Pine. Vide Bomare's Dict.]

[Note B: Odoriferous gum from the tree which produces the Cortex Winteranus. Bomare.]

[Note C: Resin of the tree called in Mexico Caragna, or Tree of Madness. Ibid.]

[Note D: Extracted in Persia and the warm countries from Hedera terrestris. —Bomare.]

[Note E: From a Brasilian tree of this name. —Ibid.]

[Note F: From a tree of this name. —Ibid.]

[Note G: The produce of the Tallow Tree of Guayana. Vide Bomare's Dict.]

§ 7. Woods.
Heart of oak 60 years old 1.1700
Cork .2400
Elm trunk .6710
Ash ditto .8450
Beech .8520
Alder .8000
Maple .7550
Walnut .6710
Willow .5850
Linden .6040
Male fir .5500
Female ditto .4980
Poplar .3830
White Spanish ditto .5294
Apple tree .7930
Pear tree .6610
Quince tree .7050
Medlar .9440
Plumb tree .7850
Olive wood .9270
Cherry tree .7150
Filbert tree .6000
French box .9120
Dutch ditto 1.3280
Dutch yew .7880
Spanish ditto .8070
Spanish cypress .6440
American cedar .5608
Pomgranate tree 1.3540
Spanish mulberry tree .8970
Lignum vitae 1.3330
Orange tree .7050

Note— The numbers in the above Table, if the Decimal point be carried three figures farther to the right hand, nearly express the absolute weight of an English cube foot of each substance in averdupois ounces. See No. VIII. of the Appendix. — E.

http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/l/lavoisier/antoine_laurent/elements/appendix7.html

Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 22:36