The principal navigations, voyages, traffiques, and discoveries of the English nation, by Richard Hakluyt

A briefe relation of two notable voyages, the first made by frier Augustin Ruyz a Franciscan, in the yeere 1581: the second by Antonio de Espejo in the yere 1583: who together with his company discouered a land wherein they found fifteene prouinces all full of townes, conteining houses of foure and fiue stories high, which they named New Mexico; for that in many respects it resembleth the prouince of olde Mexico. This land is situate to the North of Nueua Espanna, and stretcheth from 24 to 34 degrees and better: by the which and by other inhabited lands it is thought that men may trauell euen to Terra de Labrador. Taken out of the history of China written by Frier Iuan Gonzales de Mendoça, and printed in Madrid 1586.

I haue now declared in the title of this present discourse, that in the yeere 1583 there were discouered fifteene prouinces, which the discouerers called New Mexico, situate on the firme land of Nueua Espanna, and I promised to giue notice of the sayd discouery which I will do with as much breuity as is possible: for if I should record at large all particulars which they saw and came to the knowledge of, it would require a full history. The substance thereof is as followeth.

The first voyage made by Frier Augustin Ruiz to the prouince de los Tiguas. In the yere of our Lord 1581, a certaine Franciscan frier called Augustin Ruiz which dwelt in the valley of S. Bartholomew, being informed by the report of certaine Indians called Conchos, which had dealings and conuersation with other of their neighbours called Passaguates; that toward the North, trauelling always by land, there were certaine great townes not hitherto knowen nor discouered by our Spanyards; moved with a zeale of charity and a desire to saue soules, craued licence of the Conde of Corunna as then Viceroy of Nueua Espanna, and of his superiors, to go to the sayd townes, and to indeuour to learne their language, and hauing learned the same to baptise them and to preach the holy Gospel vnto them. After he had obteined licence of the parties aforesayd, taking with him other two companions of his owne order, and eight souldiers, who of their owne good will offered to beare him company, he departed to put in execution his Christian and zealous intent. The chiefe of these 8 soldiers was Francisco Sanchez Xamuzeado which made a map of these prouinces, which being intercepted is come to our hands. Who after certeine dayes trauell came vnto a countrey called The prouince de los Tiguas distant from the mines of Santa Barbara, from whence they began their iourney, 250 leagues towards the North: in which prouince the inhabitants, vpon a certaine occasion, slew one of the sayd friers two companions. The souldiers that went with him seeing this mishap, and perceiuing the successe, and likewise fearing, that thereof might happen some greater danger, determined with a common consent to return vnto the mines from whence they departed: considering that their company was too small to resist the dangers that might happen, being so farre distant from the dwellings of the Spanyards, and from all necessary succour. But the two friers which remained aliue did not onely refuse their determination, but rather seeing fit occasion to put their good desire in execution, and so great a haruest ripe for the Lords table, because they could not persuade the souldiers to proceed any further in that discouery, remained behinde in the sayd prouince with three Indian boyes and one Mestiço whom they had carried with them; thinking that although they remained alone, yet should they be there in securitie, by reason of the great affability and loue which the people of that place shewed vnto them.

The eight souldiours being returned to their wished home, immediatly sent newes of all that had passed to the Viceroy vnto the city of Mexico, which is distant from the sayd mines of Santa Barbara 160 leagues.

The friers of Sant Francis were much agrieued at the staying of their brethren behinde in the countrey, and fearing least the Sauages would kill them seeing them left alone, they began to mooue the minds of certaine souldiers to make another voyage to the sayd prouince in the company of another Frier of the foresayd Order called Frier Bernardin Beltran, to deliuer the aforesayd two religious men out of danger, and to prosecute their former enterprise.

The second voyage. At the same time there was at the foresayd mines vpon some occasion a citizen of Mexico called Antonio de Espejo, a rich man, and of great courage and industry, and very zealous in the seruice of king Philip his souereigne, and was borne in Cordoua. Who vnderstanding the desire of the foresayd friers, and the importance of the action, offered himselfe to go on that voyage, and also to spend part of his substance, and to aduenture his life therein; conditionally that licence might be granted him to the same purpose from some person sufficiently authorised by his Maiestie. Which licence at the sayd friers procurement was granted vnto him by the gouernour Iuan de Ontiueros the kings Alcade mayór or chiefe Iustice in the towns called Las quatro Cienegas situate within the iurisdiction of Nueua Biscaya seuenty leagues from the sayd mines of Santa Barbara; authorizing him both to take in hand the sayd voyage, and also to assemble such people and souldiers as he could, which might accompany and ayde him in the performance of this his Christian intent.

The sayd Antonio de Espejo was so earnest in this matter, that in very few dayes he had gathered a company of souldiers, and made prouision of things necessary for his voyage, spending therein a good part of his substance. And he departed with his whole company from the valley of S. Bartholomew the tenth of Nouember 1582; taking with him (for whatsoeuer should happen) 115 horses and mules, with great store of weapons, munition, and victuals, and some Indians to serue him in his iourney.

Directing his course toward the North, after two dayes iourney he met with great store of the foresayd Indians called Conchos, which dwell in villages or hamlets of cottages couered with straw. Who, assoone as they vnderstood of his approch, hauing newes thereof long before, came foorth to receiue him with shewes of great ioy. The food of this people and of all the rest of that prouince, which is great, are conies, hares, and deere which they kill, of all which they haue great abundance. Also they haue great store of Maiz or Indian wheat, gourds, and melons very good and plentifull: and there are many riuers full of excellent fish of diuers sorts. They goe almost naked, and the weapons that they vse are bowes and arrowes, and liue vnder the gouernment and lordship of Caçiques like those of Mexico: they found no idols among them, neither could they vnderstand that they worshipped any thing, whereupon they easily consented that the Spanyards should set vp crosses, and were very well content therewith, after they were informed by our friers of the signification thereof, which was done by the interpreters that they caried with them; by whose meanes they vnderstood of other townes, whither the said Conchos did conduct them, and bare them company aboue foure and twenty leagues, all which way was inhabited with people of their owne nation: and at all places where they came they were peaceably receiued by aduice that was sent by the Caçiques from one towne to another.

Hauing passed the foure and twenty leagues aforesayd, they came vnto another nation of Indians called Passaguates, who liue after the maner of the foresayd Conchos their borderers, and did vnto them as the others had done, conducting them forward other foure dayes iourney, with aduice of the Caciques as before. Very great and rich siluer mines. The Spanyards found in this iourney many mines of siluer, which according to the iudgement of skilfull men, were very plentifull and rich in metall.

A dayes iourney from thence they met with another nation called Tobosos, who so soone as they beheld the countenance of our people fledde vnto the mountaines, leauing their townes and houses desolate. Afterward wee vnderstood that certeine yeeres past there came vnto that place certaine souldiers to seeke mines, who caried away captiue certaine of the people of the countrey, which caused the rest of them to be so shey and fearefull. The captaine sent messengers to call them backe againe, assuring them that they should not sustaine any harme, and handled the matter so discreetly, that many of them returned, whom he made much of, and gaue them gifts, vsing them kindly, and declaring vnto them by the interpreter, that their comming was not to hurt any man: whereupon they were all quieted, and were content that they should set vp crosses, and declare the mystery of the same, making shew that they were highly pleased therewith. For proofe whereof they accompanied them on their voyage, as their neighbours had done, vntill they had brought them to a countrey inhabited by another nation, which was distant from theirs some 12 leagues. They vse bowes and arrowes and go naked.

Iumanos or Patarabueyes. The nation vnto which the sayd Tobosos conducted them, is called Iumanos, whom the Spanyards by another name call Patarabueyes: their prouince is very great, conteining many townes and great store of people: their houses are flat roofed, and built of lime and stone, and the streets of their townes are placed in good order. All the men and women haue their faces, armes and legges raced and pounced: they are a people of great stature, and of better gouernment, then the rest which they had seene in their former iourneys: and are well prouided of victuals, and furnished with plenty of wilde beasts, fowles and fishes, Rio turbioso del Norte. by reason of mighty riuers from the North, whereof one is as great as Guadalquiuir, which falleth into the North sea or bay of Mexico. Here also are many lakes of salt water, which at a certeine time of the yere waxeth hard, and becommeth very good salt. They are a warlike people, and soone made shew thereof: for the first night that our people incamped there, with their arrowes they slew fiue horses, and wounded fiue other very sore, nor would not haue left one of them aliue, if they had not beene defended by our guard. Rio del Norte. Hauing done this mischiefe, they abandoned the towne, and withdrew themselues to a mountaine which was hard by, whither our captaine went betimes in the morning, taking with him fiue souldiers well armed, and an interpreter called Peter an Indian of their owne nation, and with good persuasions appeased them, causing them to descend to their towne and houses, and persuading them to giue aduice vnto their neighbours, that they were men that would hurt no body, neither came they thither to take away their goods: which he obtained easily by his wisedome, and by giuing vnto the Caciques certeine bracelets of glasse beads, with hats and other trifles, which he caried with him for the same purpose; so by this meanes, and by the good interteinment which they gaue them, many of them accompanied our Spanyards for certeine dayes, alwayes trauelling along the banke of the great riuer abouesayd; along the which there were many townes of the Indians of this nation, which continued for the space of twelue dayes trauel, all which time the Caciques having receiued aduice from one to another, came forth to interteine our people without their bowes and arrowes, and brought them plenty of victuals, with other presents and gifts, especially hides and chamois-skins wery well dressed, so that those of Flanders do nothing exceed them. These people are all clothed, and seemed to haue some light of our holy faith: for they made signes to God, looking vp towards heauen, and call him in their language Apalito, and acknowledge him for their Lord, from whose bountifull hand and mercy they confesse that they haue receiued their life and being, and these worldly goods. Many of them with their wiues and children came vnto the frier (which the captaine and souldiers brought with them) that hee might crosse and blesse them. Pamphilo de Naruaez entred into Florida 1527. Who demanding of them, from whom they had receiued that knowledge of God, they answered, from three Christians and one Negro which passed that way, and remained certaine dayes among them, who by the signes which they made, were Aluaro Nunnez, Cabeca de Vaca, and Dorantes, and Castillo Maldonado, and a Negro; all which escaped of the company which Pamphilo de Naruaez landed in Florida; who after they had bene many dayes captiues and slaues, escaped and came to these townes, by whom God shewed many miracles, and healed onely by the touching of their hands many sicke persons, by reason wherof they became very famous in all that countrey. Rio del Norte. Another prouince. All this prouince remained in great peace and security; in token wherof, they accompanied and serued our men certaine dayes, trauelling along by the great riuer aforesayd.

Within few days after they came vnto another great prouince of Indians, from whence they came forth to receiue them, vpon the newes which they had heard of their neighbors, and brought them many curious things made of feathers of diuers colours, and many mantles of cotton straked with blew and white, like those that are brought from China, to barter and trucke them for other things. All of them both men, women and children were clad in chamois skinnes very good and wel dressed. Very great quantity of siluer. Our people could neuer vnderstand what nation they were for lacke of an interpreter: howbeit they dealt with them by signes; and hauing shewed vnto them certaine stones of rich metall, and inquired whether there were any such in their countrey: they answered by the same signes, that fiue dayes iourney Westward from thence there was great quantity therof, and that they would conduct them thither, and shew it vnto them; as afterward they performed their promise, and bare them company 22 leagues, which was all inhabited by people of the same nation.

Next vnto the foresayd prouince they came vnto another further vp the great riuer aforesayd, being much more populous then the former, of whom they were well receiued, and welcomed with many presents, especially of fish, whereof they haue exceeding great store, by reason of certaine great lakes not far from thence, wherein they are bred in foresayd plenty. They stayed among these people three days; all which time both day and night they made before them many dances, according to their fashion, with signification of speciall ioy. They could not learne the name of this nation for want of an interpreter, yet they vnderstood that it extended very farre, and was very great. Among these people they found an Indian of the foresayd nation of the Conchos, who told them, and shewed them by signes, that fifteene dayes iourney from thence toward the West there was a very broad lake, and nere vnto it very great townes, and in them houses of three or foure stories high, and that the people were well apparelled, and the countrey full of victuals and prouision. This Concho offered himselfe to conduct our men thither; whereat our company reioyced, but left off the enterprise, onely to accomplish their intent for which they vndertook the voyage, which was to go Northward to giue ayd vnto the two friers aforesayd. The chiefe and principall thing that they noted in this prouince was, that it was of very good temperature, and a very rich soile, and had great store of wilde beasts, and wild fowle, and abundance of rich metals, and other excellent things, and very profitable.

From this prouince they folowed their iourney for the space of fifteene dayes without meeting any people all that while, passing thorow great woods and groues of pine trees bearing such fruit as those of Castile: at the end whereof, having trauelled, to their iudgement, fourescore leagues, they came vnto a small hamlet or village of fewe people, in whose poore cottages couered with straw they found many deeres-skinnes as well dressed as those of Flanders, with great store of excellent white salt. They gave our men good entertainment for the space of two dayes while they remained there, after which they bare them company about twelue leagues, vnto certaine great townes, alwayes travelling by the riuer called Rio del Norte abouesayd, till such time as they came vnto the countrey called by them New Mexico. Here all along the shore of the sayd riuer grew mighty woods of poplar being in some places foure leagues broad, and great store of walnut trees, and vines like those of Castillia.

Hauing trauelled two dayes thorow the said woods of Poplar and Walnut trees, they came to ten townes situate on both sides of the sayd riuer, besides others which they might see further out of the way, wherein they seemed to be great store of people, and those which they saw were aboue ten thousand persons. In this prouince they received them very courteously, and brought them to their townes, whereas they gaue them plenty of victuals and hennes of the countrey, with many other things, and that with great good will. Here they found houses of foure stories high, very well built, with gallant lodgings, and in most of them were Stooues for the Winter season. Their garments were of Cotton and of deere-skinnes, and the attire both of the men and women is after the maner of the Indians of the kingdome of Mexico. But the strangest thing of all was to see both men and women weare shooes and boots with good soles of neats leather, a thing which they never sawe in any other part of the Indies. The women keepe their haire well combed and dressed, wearing nothing els vpon their heads. In all these townes they had Caciques, which gouerned their people like the Caciques of Mexico, with Sergeants to execute their commandments, who goe thorow the townes proclaiming with a loud voice the pleasure of the Caciques, commanding the same to be put in execution. In this prouince our men found many idols which they worshipped, and particularly they had in euery house an Oratory for the diuell, whereinto they ordinarily cary him meat: and another thing they found, that as it is an vse among the Christians to erect crosses vpon the high wayes, so haue this people certain high chapels, in which they say the diuell vseth to take his ease, and to recreat himselfe as he trauelleth from one towne to another; which chapels are maruellously well trimmed and painted. In all their arable grounds, wherof they haue great plenty, they erect on the one side a little cottage or shed standing vpon foure studdes, vnder which the labourers do eat, and passe away the heat of the day, for they are a people much giuen to labour, and doe continually occupy themselues therein. These high mountains are a cause of the coldness of the countrey. This countrey is full of mountaines and forrests of Pine trees. The weapons that they vse are strong bowes and arrowes headed with flints, which will pierce thorow a coat of male, and macanas which are clubs of halfe a yard long, so beset with sharpe flints, that they are sufficient to cleaue a man asunder in the midst: they vse also a kinde of targets made of raw hides.

Hauing remained foure dayes in this prouince, not farre off they came to another called The prouince of Tiguas conteining sixteene townes, in one wherof, called Poala, they vnderstood that the inhabitants had slaine the two fathers aforesayd, to wit, frier Francis Lopez, and frier Augustus Ruyz whom they went to seeke, together with the three Indian boyes, and the mestiço. So soone as the people of this towne and their neighbours saw our men there, their own consciences accusing them, and fearing that our men came to punish them, and to be auenged of the death of the foresaid fathers, they durst not abide their comming, but leauing their houses desolate they fled to the mountaines next adioyning, from whence they could neuer cause them to descend, although our men attempted the same by diuers deuises and entisements. They found in the townes and houses good store of victuals, with infinite number of hennes in the countrey, and many sorts of metals, wherof some seemed to be very good. They could not perfectly vnderstand what numbers of people this prouince might conteine, by reason they were fled into the mountains, as I haue said before.

Hauing found those to be slaine which they went to seeke, they entred into consultation, whether they should returne to Nueua Biscaya, from whence they came, or should proceed further in their iourney; whereabout there were diuers opinions: howbeit, vnderstanding there, that toward the Orient or East parts of that prouince, This draweth toward Virginia. and very far distant from thence, there were great and rich townes: and finding themselues so far on the way, the sayd captaine Antonio de Espeio with the consent of the foresaid frier called Frier Bernardine Beltron, and the greater part of his souldiers and companions determined to proceed on the discouery, till such time as they did see to what end it would come; to the end they might giue certeine and perfect knowledge thereof to his Maiesty, as eye-witnesses of the same. And so with one accord they determined, that while the army lay still there, the captaine and two more of his company should prosecute their desire, which they did accordingly. And within two dayes iourney they came vnto another prouince, where they found eleuen townes, and much people in them; which in their iudgement were aboue forty thousand persons. The country was very fertile and plentifull, whose confines bordered vpon the territories of Cibola, where there are great store of kine, with whose hides and with cotton they apparell themselues, imitating in the forme of their gouernment their next neighbours. In this place are signes of very rich mines, some quantity of the metals whereof they found in the houses of the Indians; which Indians haue and doe worship idols. They receiued our men peaceably, and gaue them victuals. Hauing seene this much, and the disposition of the countrey, they returned to the campe, from whence they departed, to informe their companions of the things aboue mentioned.

Being returned to the campe they had intelligence of another prouince called Los Quires, Quires bordering vpon Rio del Norte. which stood sixe leagues higher vp the riuer called Rio del Norte. And in their iourney thitherward, being arriued within a league of the place, there came forth very many Indians to receiue them in peace, requesting them to beare them company to their townes: which they did, and were maruellous well interteined and cherished. In this prouince they found fiue townes only. Wherein were great store of people, and those which they saw were aboue 14000 soules, who worship idols as their neighbours do. In one of these townes they found a pie in a cage after the maner of Castile, and certaine shadowes or canopies like vnto those which are brought from China, wherein were painted the Sunne, the Moone, and many Starres. Where hauing taken the height of the pole-starre, they found themselues to be in 37 degrees and 1/2 of Northerly latitude.

Cunames, or Punames. Cia a great city. They departed out of this prouince, and keeping still the same Northerly course, fourteene leagues from thence they found another prouince called The Cunames, where they saw other fiue townes, the greatest whereof was called Cia, being so large, that it conteined eight market-places, the houses whereof being plaistered and painted with diuers colours, were better then any which they had seene in the prouinces before mentioned: the people which they heere saw, they esteemed to be aboue twenty thousand persons. They presented to our men many curious mantles, and victuals excellently well dressed; so that our men deemed this nation to be more curious, and of greater ciuility, and better gouernment, then any other that hitherto they had seene. They shewed them rich metals, and the mountaines also not farre off whereout they digged them. Heere our people heard of another prouince standing toward the Northwest, wherevnto they purposed to goe.

Ameies, or Emexes. Hauing trauelled about sixe leagues, they came to the sayd prouince, the people whereof were called Ameies, wherin were seuen very great townes, conteining, to their iudgement, aboue thirty thousand soules. They reported that one of the seuen townes was very great and faire, which our men would not go to see, both because it stood behinde a mountaine, and also for feare of some mishappe, if in case they should be separated one from another. This people are like vnto their neighbours of the former prouince, being as well prouided of all necessaries as they, and of as good gouernment.

Acoma or Acoman a towne conteining aboue 6000 persons. About fifteene leagues from this prouince, trauelling alwayes toward the West, they found a great towne called Acoma, conteining aboue sixe thousand persons, and situate vpon an high rocke which was aboue fifty paces hie, hauing no other entrance but by a ladder or paire of staires hewen into the same rocke, whereat our people maruelled not a little: all the water of this towne was kept in cisternes. The chiefe men of this towne came peaceably to visit the Spanyards, bringing them many mantles and chamois-skinnes excellently dressed, and great plenty of victuals. Their corne-fields are two leagues from thence, and they fetch water out of a small riuer nere thereunto, to water the same, on the brinks whereof they saw many great banks of Roses like those of Castile. Here are many mountaines that beare shewes of mettals, but they went not to see them, because the Indians dwelling vpon them are many in number, and very warlike. Our men remained in this place three dayes, vpon one of the which the inhabitants made before them a very solemne dance, comming foorth in the same with gallant apparell, vsing very witty sports, wherewith our men were exceedingly delighted.

Zuny or Sunne. Twenty foure leagues from hence toward the West, they came to a certaine prouince called by the inhabitants themselues Zuny, and by the Spanyards Cibola, containing great numbers of Indians; Vasquez de Coronado was here 1540 and 1541. in which prouince Francisco Vasquez de Coronado had bene, and had erected many crosses and other tokens of Christianity, which remained as yet standing. Heere also they found three Indian Christians which had remained there euer since the said iourny, whose names were Andrew de Culiacan, Gaspar de Mexico, and Antonio de Guadalajara, who had almost forgotten their owne language, but could speake that countrey speech very well; howbeit after some small conference with our men, they easily vnderstood one another. A mighty lake 60 daies iourney from Cibola. By these three Indians they were informed, that threescore dayes iourney from this place there was a very mighty lake, vpon the bankes whereof stood many great and good townes, and that the inhabitants of the same had plenty of golde, an euident argument wherof was their wearing of golden bracelets and earrings: and also that after the sayd Francis Vasquez de Coronado had perfect intelligence thereof, hee departed out of this prouince of Cibola to goe thither, and that hauing proceeded twelue dayes iourney, he began to want water; and thereupon determined to returne, as he did indeed, with intention to make a second voyage thither at his better opportunity; which afterward he performed not, being preuented of his determined iourney by death.

Another mightie prouince Westward of Cibola 28. leagues, called Mohotze. Vpon the newes of these riches the sayd Captaine Antony de Espeio was desirous to go thither; and though some of his companions were of his opinion, yet the greater part and the frier were of the contrary, saying that it was now high time to returne home to New Biscay from whence they came, to giue account of that which they seene: which the sayd greater part within few dayes put in execution, leauing the captaine with nine companions onely that willingly followed him: who after hee had fully certified himselfe of the riches abouesayd, and of the great quantity of excellent mettals that were about that lake, departed out of this prouince of Cibola with his companions; and travelling directly toward the West, after hee had passed 28 leagues, he found another very great prouince, which by estimation contained aboue 5000 soules: the inhabitants whereof assoone as they vnderstood of their approch, sent them word, vpon paine of death to come no neerer to their townes: whereto the captaine answered, that their comming was in no wise to hurt them, as they should well perceiue, and therefore requested them not to molest him in his intended voyage, and withall gaue to the messenger a reward of such things as they brought with them: who thereupon made so good report of our people, and so appeased the troubled minds of the Indians, that they granted them free accesse vnto their townes, and so they went thither with 15. Indians their friends of the prouince of Cibola aforesaid, and the three Mexican Indians before mentioned. When they were come within a league of the first towne, there came forth to meete them aboue 2000. Indians laden with victuals, whom the Captaine rewarded with some things of small value, which they made great accompt of, and esteemed more precious than gold. Zaguato, or Ahuxto a towne. As they approched neere vnto the towne which was named Zaguato, a great multitude of Indians came forth to meete them, and among the rest their Caçiques, with so great demonstration of ioy and gladnes, that they cast much meale of Maiz vpon the ground for the horses to tread vpon: with this triumph they entred the towne, where they were very wel lodged and much made of, which the Captaine did in part requite, giuing to the chiefest among them hats, and beads of glasse, with many such trifles, which he caried with him for the like purpose. The said Caciques presently gaue notice to the whole prouince of the arriual of these new guests, whom they reported to bee a courteous people, and such as offered them no harme: which was occasion sufficient to make them all come laden with presents vnto our people, and to intreat them to goe and make merry with them in their townes; which they yeelded vnto, though always with great foresight what might follow. A witty policie to be vsed by the English in like cases. Whereupon the Captaine vsed a certaine policie, making the Caciques beleeue, that forasmuch as his horses were very fierce (for they had told the Indians that they would kill them) therefore it was necessary to make a Fort of lime and stone to inclose them, for the auoyding of such inconueniences as otherwise might happen vnto the Indians by them. This tale was so steadfastly beleeued by the Caciques, that in fiue houres they assembled such store of people together, that with incredible celeritie they built the said Fort which our men required.

Moreouer, when the Captaine saide that he would depart, they brought vnto him a present of 40000. mantles of cotton, both white and other colours, and great store of hand towels, with tassels at the corners, with diuers other things, and among the rest rich mettals, which seemed to holde much siluer. Among these Indians they learned very much concerning The great Lake aforesaide, whose report agreed wholly with relation of the former, as touching the riches and great abundance of gold about that lake.

The Captaine reposing great confidence in this people and in their good disposition toward him determined after certaine dayes, to leaue there fiue of his companions with the rest of his Indian friends, that they might returne with his cariages to the prouince of Zuni, while himselfe with the foure other which remained should ride in post to discouer certaine very rich Mines, whereof he had perfect information. And putting this purpose in execution he departed with his guides, and hauing traueiled due-west 45. leagues he came vnto the said Mines, and tooke out of the same with his owne hands exceeding rich metals holding great quantitie of siluer: and the mines which were of a very broad veine were in a mountaine whereon they might easily ascend, by reason of an open way that led vp to the same. Neere vnto these mines were certaine townes of Indians dwelling upon the mountaine whereon they might easily ascend, by reason of an open way that led vp to the same. Neere vnto these mines were certaine townes of Indians dwelling vpon the mountaines, who shewed them friendship, and came forth to receiue them with crosses on their heads, and other tokens of peace. Hereabout they found two riuers of a reasonable bignesse, vpon the banks whereof grew many vines bearing excellent grapes, and great groues of walnut trees, and much flaxe like that of Castile: and they shewed our men by signes, that behinde those mountaines there was a riuer about 8. leagues broad, Perhaps this Riuer may fall into the Chesepiouk bay, or into the great lake of Tadoac. but they could not learne how neere it was: howbeit the Indians made demonstration that it ran towards the North sea, and that vpon both sides thereof stood many townes of so great bignesse, that in comparison thereof those wherein they dwelt were but small hamlets.

After he had receiued all this information, the said Captaine returned toward the prouince of Zuni, whither he had sent his said companions: and being arrived there in safety, hauing trauailed vpon a very good way, he found in the same place his 5. companions, and the said father Frier Bernardin Beltran, with the souldiers which were determined to returne, as is aforesaid, but vpon certaine occasions were not as yet departed: whom the inhabitants had most friendly treated, and furnished with all things necessary in abundance as afterward likewise they vsed the Captaine, and those that came with him, comming foorth to meete them with shew of great ioy, and giuing them great store of victuals to serue them in their iourney homewards, and requesting them to returne againe with speed, and to bring many Castilians with them (for so they call the Spaniards) to whom they promised food sufficient. For the better performance wherof they sowed that yeere more graine and other fruits, then they had done at any time before.

At this present the Frier and souldiers aforesaid resolued themselues in their former determination, and agreed to returne vnto the prouince from whence they came with intention before mentioned, to seeke the two Friers that were slaine, to whom also Gregorio Hermandez who had bene standard-bearer in the iourney, ioyned himselfe. Who being departed, the Captaine accompanied onely with 8. souldiers, determined to prosecute his former attempt, and to passe vp higher the saide riuer called Rio del Norte, which he did accordingly. And hauing traueiled about 60. leagues toward the prouince of the Quires aforesaid, 12 leagues from thence toward the Orient or East they found a prouince of Indians called Hubates, who receiued them peaceably, and gaue them great store of victuals, informing them also of very rich Mines which they found whereout they got glistening and good metal, and therewith returned to the towne from whence they came. This prouince contained by their estimation 25000. persons all very well apparelled in coloured mantles of cotton, and Chamois-skins very well dressed. They haue many mountaines full of Pines and Cedars, and the houses of their townes are of 4. and 5. stories high. Their returne. Here they had notice of another prouince distant about one dayes iourney from thence inhabited by certaine Indians called Tamos, and containing aboue 40000 soules: whither being come the inhabitants would neither giue them any victuals, nor admit them into their townes: for which cause, and in regard of the danger wherein they were, and because some of the souldiers were not well at ease, and for that they were so fewe (as we haue said) they determined to departe thence, and to returne toward the land of the Christians, which they put in execution in the beginning of Iuly 1583, being guided by an Indian that went with them, who led them another way then they went forth by, downe a riuer, which they called Rio de las vacas; that is to say, The riuer of oxen, in respect of the great multitudes of oxen or kine that fed vpon the bankes therof, by the which they traueiled for the space of 120. leagues, still meeting with store of the said cattell. From hence they went forward to the riuer of Conchos by which they entered, and thence to the valley of S. Bartholomew, from whence they first entered into their discouerie. Vpon their coming thither they found that the said Frier Bernardin Beltran and his company were safely arriued at the said towne many dayes before, and were gone from thence to the towne of Guadiana. In this towne the foresaid captaine Anthony de Espeio made most certaine relation of all that is aforesaid, which relation presently hee sent vnto the Conde of Corunna Vizroy of Nueua Espanna, who sent the same to his Maiestie, and the Lords of his royal counsel in the Indies, to the end they might take such order as they thought best, which they haue already performed with great care and circumspection.

Almighty God vouchsafe his assistance in this busines, that such numbers of soules redeemed by his blood may not vtterly perish, of whose good capacitie, wherein they exceed those of Mexico and Peru (as we be giuen to vnderstand by those that haue delt with them) we may boldly presume that they will easily embrace the Gospel, and abandon such idolatrie as now the most of them doe liue in: which Almightie God graunt for his honour, and glory, and for the increase of the holy Catholique faith.

Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 19:52