the principal
Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries
of the
ENGLISH NATION

Collected by
Richard Hakluyt
and Edited by
Edmund Goldsmid, F.R.H.S.

VOLUME VI

The Ilands of Madera and of the Canaries

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Table of Contents

Title Page to volume 2 of the original edition.

Dedication to the first edition.

  1. The voyage of Macham an English man, wherein he first of any man discouered the Iland of Madera, recorded verbatim in the Portugall history, written by Antonio Galuano.
  2. A briefe note concerning an ancient trade of the English Marchants to the Canarie-ilands, gathered out of an olde ligier booke of M. Nicolas Thorne the elder a worshipfull marchant of the city of Bristoll.
  3. A description of the fortunate Ilands, otherwise called the Ilands of Canaria, with their strange fruits and commodities: composed by Thomas Nicols English man, who remained there the space of seuen yeeres together.
  4. The Fardle of Facions, containing the aunciente maners, customes, and lawes, of the peoples enhabiting the two partes of the Earth, called Affricke and Asie.
  5. The Conquest of the Grand Canaries.
  6. The Worldes Hydrographical Discription.

[Title Page to volume 2 of the original edition.]

THE SECOND VOLVME

OF THE PRINCIPAL

NAVIGATIONS, VOYAGES, TRAFFIQVES,

AND

DISCOUERIES

OF THE

ENGLISH NATION,

MADE BY SEA OR OUER-LAND,

TO THE SOUTH & SOUTH-EAST PARTS OF THE WORLD.

AT ANY TIME WITHIN THE COMPASSE OF THESE 1600. YERES:

DIUIDED INTO TWO SEUERALL PARTS:

WHEREOF THE FIRST CONTAINETH

THE PERSONALL TRAUELS, &c. OF THE ENGLISH, THROUGH AND WITHIN THE STREIGHT OF GIBRALTAR,

TO

Alger, Tunis, and Tripolis in Barbary, to Alexandria and Cairo in Aegypt, to the Isles of Sicilia, Zante, Candia, Rhodes, Cyprus, and Chio, to the Citie of Constantinople, to diuers parts of Asia Minor, to Syria and Armenia, to Ierusalem, and other Places in Iudea;

AS ALSO TO:

Arabia, downe the Riuer of Euphrates, to Babylon and Balsara, and so through the Persian Gulph to Ormuts, Chaul, Goa, and to many Islands adioyning vpon the South Parts of Asia;

AND LIKEWISE FROM

Goa to Cambaia, and to all the Dominions of Zelabdim Echebar The Great Mogor, to the Mighty Riuer of Ganges, to Bengala, Aracan, Bacola, and Chonderi, to Pegu, to Iamahai in the Kingdome of Siam, and almost to the very Frontiers of China.

THE SECOND COMPREHENDETH

THE VOYAGES, TRAFFICKS, &c. OF THE ENGLISH NATION, MADE WITHOUT THE STREIGHT OF GIBRALTAR,

TO THE ISLANDS OF THE ACORES, OF PORTO SANTO, MADERA, AND THE CANARIES, TO THE KINGDOMES OF BARBARY, TO THE ISLES OF CAPO VERDE,

To the Riuers of Senega, Gambra, Madrabumba, and Sierra Leona, to the Coast of Guinea and Benin, to the Isles of S. Thome and Santa Helena, to the Parts about the Cape of Buona Esperanza, to Quitangone, neere Mozambique, to the Isles of Comoro and Zanzibar, To the Citie of Goa, Beyond Cape Comori, to the Isles of Nicubar, Gomes Polo, and Pulo Pinaom, to the maine Land of Malacca, and to the Kingdome of Iunsalaon.

BY RICHARD HAKLVYT PREACHER, AND SOMETIME STUDENT OF CHRIST CHVRCH IN OXFORD.

IMPRINTED AT LONDON BY GEORGE BISHOP, RALPH NEWBERY, AND ROBERT BARKER.

ANNO 1599.

Dedication to the first edition.

TO THE

RIGHT HONOURABLE

SIR ROBERT CECIL KNIGHT,

PRINCIPALL SECRETARIE TO HER MAIESTIE, MASTER OF THE COURT OF WARDES AND LIUERIES, AND ONE OF HER MAIESTIES MOST HONOURABLE PRIUIE COUNSELL.

Right Honorable, hauing newly finished a Treatise of the long Voyages of our Nation made into the Leuant within the Streight of Gibraltar, and from thence ouer-land to the South and Southeast parts of the world, all circumstances considered, I found none to whom I thought it fitter to bee presented then to your selfe: wherein hauing begun at the highest Antiquities of this realme vnder the gouerment of the Romans; next vnder the Saxons; and thirdly since the conquest vnder the Normans, I haue continued the histories vnto these our dayes. The time of the Romans affoordeth small matter. But after that they were called hence by forren inuasions of their Empire, and the Saxons by degrees became lords in this Iland, and shortly after receiued the Christian faith, they did not onely trauell to Rome, but passed farther vnto Ierusalem, and therewith not contented, Sigelmus bishop of Shireburne in Dorsetshire caried the almes of king Alfred euen to the Sepulcher of S. Thomas in India, (which place at this day is called Maliapor) and brought from thence most fragrant spices, and rich iewels into England: Which iewels, as William of Malmesburie in two sundry treatises writeth, were remaining in the aforsayd Cathedrall Church to be seene euen in his time. And this most memorable voyage into India is not onely mentioned by the aforesayd Malmesburie, but also by Florentius Wigorniensis, a graue and woorthy Author which liued before him, and by many others since, and euen by M. Foxe in his first volume of his acts and Monuments in the life of king Alfred. To omit diuers other of the Saxon nation, the trauels of Alured bishop of Worcester through Hungarie to Constantinople, and so by Asia the lesse into Phoenicia and Syria, and the like course of Ingulphus, not long afterward Abbot of Croiland, set downe particularly by himselfe, are things in mine opinion right worthy of memorie. After the comming in of the Normans, in the yeere 1096, in the reigne of William Rufus, and so downward for the space of aboue 300 yeeres, such was the ardent desire of our nation to visite the Holy land, and to expell the Saracens and Mahumetans, that not only great numbers of Erles, Bishops, Barons, and Knights, but euen Kings, Princes, and Peeres of the blood Roiall, with incredible deuotion, courage and alacritie intruded themselues into this glorious expedition. A sufficient proofe hereof are the voiages of prince Edgar the nephew of Edmund Ironside, of Robert Curtois brother of William Rufus, the great beneuolence of king Henry the 2. and his vowe to haue gone in person to the succour of Ierusalem, the personall going into Palestina of his sonne king Richard the first, with the chiualrie, wealth, and shipping of this realme; the large contribution of king Iohn, and the trauels of Oliuer Fitz–Roy his sonne, as is supposed, with Ranulph Glanuile Erle of Chester to the siege of Damiata in Egypt: the prosperous voyage of Richard Erle of Cornwall, elected afterward king of the Romans, and brother to Henry the 3, the famous expedition of Prince Edward, the first king of the Norman race of that name; the iourney of Henry Erle of Derbie, duke of Hereford, and afterward King of this realme, by the name of Henry the 4 against the citie of Tunis in Africa, and his preparation of ships and gallies to go himselfe into the Holy land, if he had not on the sudden bene preuented by death; the trauel of Iohn of Holland brother by the mothers side to king Richard the 2 into those parts. All these, either Kings, Kings sonnes, or Kings brothers, exposed themselues with inuincible courages to the manifest hazard of their persons, liues, and liuings, leauing their ease, their countries, wiues and children; induced with a Zelous deuotion and ardent desire to protect and dilate the Christian faith. These memorable enterprises in part concealed, in part scattered, and for the most part vnlooked after, I haue brought together in the best Method and breuitie that I could deuise. Whereunto I haue annexed the losse of Rhodes, which although it were originally written in French, yet maketh it as honourable and often mention of the English nation, as of any other Christians that serued in that most violent siege. After which ensueth the princely promise of the bountiful aide of king Henry the 8 to Ferdinando newly elected king of Hungarie, against Solyman the mortall enemie of Christendome. These and the like Heroicall intents and attempts of our Princes, our Nobilitie, our Clergie, and our Chiualry, I haue in the first place exposed and set foorth to the view of this age, with the same intention that the old Romans set vp in wax in their palaces the Statuas or images of their worthy ancestors; whereof Salust in his treatise of the warre of Iugurtha, writeth in this maner: Sæpe audiui ego Quintum maximum, Publium Scipionem, præterea ciuitatis nostræ præclaros viros solitos ita dicere, cum maiorum imagines intuerentur, vehementissimè animum sibi ad virtutem accendi. Scilicet non ceram illam, neque figuram, tantam vim in sese habere, sed memoria rerum gestarum flammam eam egregijs viris in pectore crescere, neque prius sedari, quàm virtus eorum famam et gloriam adæquauerit. I haue often heard (quoth he) how Quintus maximus, Publius Scipio, and many other worthy men of our citie were woont to say, when they beheld the images and portraitures of their ancestors, that they were most vehemently inflamed vnto vertue. Not that the sayd wax or portraiture had any such force at all in it selfe, but that by the remembring of their woorthy actes, that flame was kindled in their noble breasts, and could neuer be quenched, vntill such time as their owne valure had equalled the fame and glory of their progenitors. So, though not in wax, yet in record of writing haue I presented to the noble courages of this English Monarchie, the like images of their famous predecessors, with hope of like effect in their posteritie. And here by the way if any man shall think, that an vniuersall peace with our Christian neighbours will cut off the emploiment of the couragious increasing youth of this realme, he is much deceiued. For there are other most conuenient emploiments for all the superfluitie of euery profession in this realme. For, not to meddle with the state of Ireland, nor that of Guiana, there is vnder our noses the great and ample countrey of Virginia; the In-land whereof is found of late to bee so sweete, and holesome a climate, so rich and abundant in siluer mines, so apt and capable of all commodities, which Italy, Spaine, and France can affoord, that the Spaniards themselues in their owne writings printed in Madrid 1586, and within few moneths afterward reprinted by me in Paris,391 and in a secret mappe of those partes made in Mexico the yeere before; for the king of Spaine, (which originall with many others is in the custodie of the excellent Mathematician M. Thomas Hariot) as also in their intercepted letters come vnto my hand, bearing date 1595, they acknowledge the In-land to be a better and richer countrey then Mexico and Nueua Spania itselfe. And on the other side their chiefest writers, as Peter Martyr ab Angleria, and Francis Lopez de Gomara, the most learned Venetian Iohn Baptista Ramusius, and the French Geographers, as namely, Popiliniere and the rest, acknowledge with one consent, that all that mightie tract of land from 67., degrees Northward to the latitude almost of Florida was first discouered out of England, by the commaundement of king Henry the seuenth, and the South part thereof before any other Christian people of late hath bene planted with diuers English colonies by the royal consent of her sacred Maiestie vnder the broad seale of England, whereof one as yet remaineth, for ought we know, aliue in the countrey. Which action, if vpon a good and godly peace obtained, it shal please the Almighty to stirre vp her Maiesties heart to continue with her fauourable countenance (as vpon the ceasing of the warres of Granada, hee stirred vp the spirite of Isabella Queene of Castile, to aduance the enterprise of Columbus) with transporting of one or two thousand of her people, and such others as vpon mine owne knowledge will most willingly at their owne charges become Aduenturers in good numbers with their bodies and goods; she shall by Gods assistance, in short space, worke many great and vnlooked for effects, increase her dominions, enrich her cofers, and reduce many Pagans to the faith of Christ. The neglecting hitherto of which last point our aduersaries daily in many of their bookes full bitterly lay vnto the charge of the professors of the Gospell. No sooner should we set footing in that pleasant and good land, and erect one or two conuenient Fortes in the Continent, or in some Iland neere the maine, but euery step we tread would yeeld vs new occasion of action, which I wish the Gentrie of our nation rather to regard, then to follow those soft vnprofitable pleasures wherein they now too much consume their time and patrimonie, and hereafter will doe much more, when as our neighbour warres being appeased, they are like to haue lesse emploiment then nowe they haue, vnlesse they bee occupied in this or some other the like expedition. And to this ende and purpose giue me leaue (I beseech you) to impart this occurrent to your honourable and prouident consideration: that in the yere one thousand fiue hundred eighty and seuen, when I had caused the foure voyages of Ribault, Laudonniere, and Gourges to Florida, at mine owne charges to bee printed in Paris, which by the malice of some too much affectioned to the Spanish faction, had bene aboue twentie yeeres suppressed, as soone as that booke came to the view of that reuerend and prudent Counseller Monsieur Harlac the lord chiefe Iustice of France, and certaine other of the wisest Iudges, in great choler they asked, who had done such intolerable wrong to their whole kingdome, as to haue concealed that woorthie worke so long? Protesting further, that if their Kings and the Estate had throughly followed that action, France had bene freed of their long ciuill warres, and the variable humours of all sortes of people might haue had very ample and manifold occasions of good and honest emploiment abroad in that large and fruitfull Continent of the West Indies. The application of which sentence vnto our selues I here omit, hastening vnto the summarie recapitulation of other matters contained in this worke. It may please your Honour therefore to vnderstand, that the second part of this first Treatise containeth our auncient trade and traffique with English shipping to the Ilands of Sicilie, Candie, and Sio, which, by good warrant herein alleaged, I find to haue bene begun in the yeere 1511. and to haue continued vntill the yeere 1552. and somewhat longer. But shortly after (as it seemeth) it was intermitted, or rather giuen ouer (as is noted in master Gaspar Campions discreet letters to Master Michael Lock and Master William Winter inserted in this booke) first by occasion of the Turkes expelling of the foure and twentie Mauneses or gouernours of the Genouois out of the Ile of Sio, and by taking of the sayd Iland wholie into his owne hand in Aprill, 1566. sending thither Piali Basha with fourescore gallies for that purpose; and afterward by his growing ouer mightie and troublesome in those Seas, by the cruell inuasion of Nicosia and Famagusta, and the whole Ile of Cyprus by his lieutenant Generall Mustapha Basha. Which lamentable Tragedie I haue here againe reuiued, that the posteritie may neuer forget what trust may bee giuen to the oath of a Mahometan, when hee hath aduauntage and is in his choler.

Lastly, I haue here put downe at large the happie renuing and much increasing of our interrupted trade in all the Leuant, accomplished by the great charges and speciall Industrie of the worshipfull and worthy Citizens, Sir Edward Osborne Knight, M. Richard Staper, and M. William Hareborne, together with the league for traffike onely betweene her Maiestie and the Grand Signior, with the great priuileges, immunities, and fauours obteyned of his imperiall Highnesse in that behalfe, the admissions and residencies of our Ambassadours in his stately Porch, and the great good and Christian offices which her Sacred Maiestie by her extraordinary fauour in that Court hath done for the king and kingdome of Poland, and other Christian Princes: the traffike of our Nation in all the chiefe Hauens of Africa and Egypt: the searching and haunting the very bottome of the Mediterran Sea to the ports of Tripoli and Alexandretta, of the Archipelagus, by the Turkes now called The white sea, euen to the walles of Constantinople: the voyages ouer land, and by riuer through Aleppo, Birrha, Babylon and Balsara, and downe the Persian gulfe to Ormuz, and thence by the Ocean sea to Goa, and againe ouer-land to Bisnagar, Cambaia, Orixa, Bengala, Aracan, Pegu, Malacca, Siam, the Iangomes, Quicheu, and euen to the Frontiers of the Empire of China: the former performed diuerse times by sundry of our nation, and the last great voyage by M. Ralph Fitch, who with M. Iohn Newbery and two other consorts departed from London with her Maiesties letters written effectually in their fauour to the kings of Cambaia and China in the yere 1583, who in the yeere 1591. like another Paulus Venetus returned home to the place of his departure, with ample relation of his wonderfull trauailes, which he presented in writing to my Lord your father of honourable memorie.

Now here if any man shall take exception against this our new trade with Turkes and misbeleeuers, he shall shew himselfe a man of small experience in old and new Histories, or wilfully lead with partialitie, or some worse humour. 1. King. cap. 5., 2. Chron. cap. 2. For who knoweth not, that king Solomon of old, entred into league vpon necessitie with Hiram the king of Tyrus, a gentile? Or who is ignorant that the French, the Genouois, Florentines, Raguseans, Venetians, and Polonians are at this day in league with the Grand Signior, and haue beene these many yeeres, and haue vsed trade and traffike in his dominions? Who can deny that the Emperor of Christendome hath had league with the Turke, and payd him a long while a pension for a part of Hungarie? And who doth not acknowledge, that either hath traueiled the remote parts of the world, or read the Histories of this latter age, that the Spaniards and Portugales in Barbarie, in the Indies, and elsewhere, haue ordinarie confederacie and traffike with the Moores, and many kindes of Gentiles and Pagans, and that which is more, doe pay them pensions, and vse them in their seruice and warres? Why then should that be blamed in vs, which is vsuall and common to the most part of other Christian nations? Therefore let our neighbours, which haue found most fault with this new league and traffike, thanke themselues and their owne foolish pride, whereby we were vrged to seeke further to prouide vent for our naturall commodities. And herein the old Greeke prouerbe was most truely verified, That euill counsaille prooueth worst to the author and deuiser of the same.

Hauing thus farre intreated of the chiefe contents of the first part of this second Volume, it remayneth that I briefly acquaint your Honor with the chiefe contents of the second part. It may therefore please you to vnderstand, that herein I haue likewise preserued, disposed, and set in order such Voyages, Nauigations, Traffikes, and Discoueries, as our Nation, and especially the worthy inhabitants of this citie of London, haue painefully performed to the South and Southeast parts of the world, without the Streight of Gibraltar, vpon the coasts of Africa, about the Cape of Buona Sperança, to and beyonde the East India. To come more neere vnto particulars, I haue here set downe the very originals and infancie of our trades to the Canarian Ilands, to the kingdomes of Barbarie, to the mightie riuers of Senega and Gambia, to those of Madrabumba, and Sierra Leona, and the Isles of Cape Verde, with twelue sundry voyages to the sultry kingdomes of Guinea and Benin, to the Ile of San Thomé, with a late and true report of the weake estate of the Portugales in Angola, as also the whole course of the Portugale Caracks from Lisbon to the barre of Goa in India, with the disposition and qualitie of the climate neere and vnder the Equinoctiall line, the sundry infallible markes and tokens of approaching vnto, and doubling of The Cape of good Hope, the great variation of the compasse for three or foure pointes towards the East between the Meridian of S. Michael one of the Islands of the Azores, and the aforesaid Cape, with the returne of the needle againe due North at the Cape Das Agulias, and that place being passed outward bound, the swaruing backe againe thereof towards the West, proportionally as it did before, the two wayes, the one within and the other without the Isle of S. Laurence, the dangers of priuie rockes and quicksands, the running seas, and the perils thereof, with the certaine and vndoubted signes of land. All these and other particularities are plainly and truely here deliuered by one Thomas Steuens a learned Englishman, who in the yeere 1579 going as a passenger in the Portugale Fleete from Lisbon into India, wrote the same from Goa to his father in England: Whereunto I haue added the memorable voyage of M. Iames Lancaster, who doth not onely recount and confirme most of the things aboue mentioned, but also doth acquaint vs with the state of the voyage beyond Cape Comori, and the Isle of Ceilon, with the Isles of Nicubar and Gomes Polo lying within two leagues of the rich Island Sumatra, and those of Pulo Pinaom, with the maine land of Iunçalaon and the streight of Malacca. I haue likewise added a late intercepted letter of a Portugall reuealing the secret and most gainefull trade of Pegu, which is also confirmed by Cesar Fredericke a Venetian, and M. Ralph Fitch now liuing here in London.

And because our chiefe desire is to find out ample vent of our wollen cloth, the naturall commoditie of this our Realme, the fittest places, which in al my readings and obseruations I find for that purpose, are the manifold Islands of Iapan, and the Northern parts of China, and the regions of the Tartars next adioyning (whereof I read, that the countrey in winter is Assi fria como Flandes, that is to say, as cold as Flanders, and that the riuers be strongly ouer frozen) and therefore I haue here inserted two speciall Treatises of the sayd Countries, the last discourse I hold to be the most exact of those parts that is yet come to light, which was printed in Lantine in Macao a citie of China, in China paper, in the yeere a thousand fiue hundred and ninetie, and was intercepted in the great Carack called Madre de Dios two yeeres after, inclosed in a case of sweete Cedar wood, and lapped vp almost an hundred fold in fine Calicut cloth, as though it had bene some incomparable iewel.

But leauing abruptly this discourse, I thinke it not impertinent, before I make an end, to deliuer some of the reasons, that moued me to present this part of my trauailes vnto your Honour. The reuerend antiquitie in the dedication of their workes made choyse of such patrons, as eyther with their reputation and credits were able to countenance the same, or by their wisedome and vnderstanding were able to censure and approue them, or with their abilitie were likely to stand them or theirs in steade in the ordinarie necessities and accidents of their life. Touching the first, your descent from a father, that was accounted Pater patriæ, your owne place and credite in execution of her Maiesties inward counsailes and publike seruices, added to your well discharging your forren imployment (when the greatest cause in Christendome was handled) haue not onely drawen mens eyes vpon you, but also forcibly haue moued many, and my selfe among the rest to haue our labours protected by your authoritie. For the second point, when it pleased your Honour in sommer was two yeeres to haue some conference with me, and to demaund mine opinion touching the state of the Country of Guiana, and whether it were fit to be planted by the English: I then (to my no small ioy) did admire the exact knowledge which you had gotten of those matters of Indian Nauigations: and how carefull you were, not to be ouertaken with any partiall affection to the Action, appeared also, by the sound arguments which you made pro and contra, of the likelihood and reason of good or ill successe of the same, before the State and common wealth (wherein you haue an extraordinarie voyce) should be farther engaged. In consideration whereof I thinke myselfe thrise happie to haue these my trauailes censured by your Honours so well approued iudgement, Touching the third and last motiue I cannot but acknowledge my selfe much indebted for your fauourable letters heretofore written in my behalfe in mine, honest causes. Whereunto I may adde, that when this worke was to passe vnto the presse, your Honour did not onely intreate a worthy knight, a person of speciall experience, as in many others so in marine causes, to ouersee and peruse the same, but also vpon his good report with your most fauourable letters did warrant, and with extraordinarie commendation did approue and allow my labours, and desire to publish the same. Wherefore to conclude, seeing they take their life and light from the most cheerefull and benigne aspect of your fauour, I thinke it my bounden dutie in all humilitie and with much bashfulnesse to recommend my selfe and them vnto your right Honorable and fauourable protection, and your Honour to the merciful tuition of the most High. From London this 24. of October. 1599.

Your Honours most humble to be commanded,

Richard Hakluyt preacher.

391This no doubt refers to the “History of the West Indies,” which appears further on in this edition.

The voyage of Macham an English man, wherein he first of any man discouered the Iland of Madera, recorded verbatim in the Portugall history, written by Antonio Galuano.

Madera first discouered by one Macham an Englishman. In the yeere 1344, King Peter the fourth of that name reigning in Aragon, the Chronicles of his age write that about this time the Iland of Madera, standing in 32 degrees, was discouered by an English man, which was named Macham, who sailing out of England into Spaine, with a woman that he had stollen, arriued by tempest in that Iland, and did cast anker in that hauen or bay, which now is called Machico after the name of Macham. And because his louer was sea sicke, he went on land with some of his company, and the shippe with a good winde made saile away, and the woman died for thought. Macham made there a chapel, naming it Iesus chapell. Macham, which loued her dearely built a chapell, or hermitage, to bury her in, calling it by the name of Iesus, and caused his name and hers to be written or grauen vpon the stone of her tombe, and the occasion of their arriuall there. And afterward he ordeined a boat made of one tree (for there be trees of a great compasse about) and went to sea in it, with those men that he had, and were left behinde with him, and came vpon the coast of Afrike, without saile or oare. And the Moores which saw it tooke it to be a maruellous thing, and presented him vnto the king of that countrey for a woonder, and that king also sent him and his companions for a miracle vnto the king of Castile.

In the yeere 1395. King Henry the third of that name reigning in Castile, the information which Macham gaue of this Iland, and also the ship of his company, mooued many of France and Castile to go and discouer it, and also the great Canaria, &c.

In the yeere 1417, King Iohn the second reigning in Castile, and his mother Lady Katherine being Regent, one Monsieur Ruben of Bracamont, which was Admirall of France, demanding the conquest of the Ilands of the Canaries, with the title of King, for a kinsman of his named Monsieur Iohn Betancourt, after that the Queene hath giuen him them, and holpen him, he departed from Siuil with a good army. And they affirme also, that the principall cause which moued him to this, was to discouer the Iland of Madera, which Macham had found, &c. ibidem pag. 2. of Anthonio Galuano.392

392The romantic story of Machin or Macham has been recently confirmed by authentic documents discovered in Lisbon. The lady eloped with him from near Bristol. The name of Madeira is derived from its thick woods, the word being the same as the Latin Materies.

A briefe note concerning an ancient trade of the English Marchants to the Canarie-ilands, gathered out of an olde ligier booke of M. Nicolas Thorne the elder a worshipfull marchant of the city of Bristoll.

The English had an ordinary trade to the Canaries 1526. It appeareth euidently out of a certaine note or letter of remembrance, in the custody of me Richard Hakluyt, written by M. Nicolas Thorne the elder a principall marchant of Bristoll, to his friend and factour Thomas Midnall and his owne seruant William Ballard at that time resident at S. Lucar in Andaluzia; that in the yeere of our Lord 1526 (and by all circumstances and probabilities long before) certaine English marchants, and among the rest himselfe with one Thomas Spacheford exercised vsuall and ordinary trade of marchandise vnto the Canarie Ilands. For by the sayd letter notice was giuen to Thomas Midnall and William Ballard aforesayd, that a certaine ship called The Christopher of Cadiz bound for the West Indies had taken in certaine fardels of cloth both course and fine, broad and narrow of diuers sorts and colours, some arouas [sic.] of packthreed, sixe cerons or bagges of sope with other goods of M. Nicolas Thorne, to be deliuered at Santa Cruz the chiefe towne in Tenerifa one of the seuen Canary-ilands. All which commodities the sayd Thomas and William were authorised by the owner in the letter before mentioned to barter and sell away at Santa Cruz. And in lieu of such mony as should arise of the sale of those goods they were appointed to returne backe into England good store of Orchell (which is a certaine kinde of mosse growing vpon high rocks, in those dayes much vsed to die withall) some quantity of sugar, and certaine hundreds, of kid skinnes. For the procuring of which and of other commodities at the best and first hand the sayd Thomas and William were to make their abode at Santa Cruz, and to remaine there as factours for the abouesayd M. Nicolas Thorne.

And here also I thought good to signifie, that in the sayd letters mention is made of one Thomas Tison an English man, who before the foresayd yere 1526 had found the way to the West Indies, and was there resident, vnto whom the sayd M. Nicolas Thorne sent certaine armour and other commodities specified in the letter aforesayd.

A description of the fortunate Ilands, otherwise called the Ilands of Canaria, with their strange fruits and commodities: composed by Thomas Nicols English man, who remained there the space of seuen yeeres together.

Mine intent is particularly to speake of the Canaria Ilands, which are seuen in number, wherein I dwelt the space of seuen yeres and more, because I finde such variety in sundry writers, and especially great vntruths, in a booke called The New found world Antarctike, set out by a French man called Andrew Thenet, the which his booke he dedicated to the Cardinall of Sens, keeper of the great seale of France.

It appeareth by the sayd booke that he had read the works of sundry Phylosophers, Astronomers, and Cosmographers, whose opinions he gathered together. But touching his owne trauell, which he affirmeth, I refer to the iudgement of the expert in our dayes, and therefore for mine owne part I write of these Canaria Ilands, as time hath taught me in many yeres.

The Iland of Canaria.

The Iland of Canaria is almost equal in length and bredth, containing 12 leagues in length, touching the which as principall and the residue, the Spanyards holde opinion, that they discouered the same in their nauigation toward America, but the Portugals say, that their nation first found the sayd Ilands in their nauigation toward Aethiopia and the East Indies.

English men at the first conquest of the Canaries. But truth it is that the Spanyards first conquered these Ilands, with diuers English gentlemen in their company, whose posterity this present day inioyeth them. Some write that this Iland was named Canaria by meane of the number of dogs which there were found: as for example, Andrew Theuet sayth, that one Iuba carried two dogs from thence: but that opinion could I neuer learne by any of the naturall people of the countrey, although I haue talked with many in my time and with many of their children. For trueth it is, that there were dogs, but such as are in all the Northwest lands, and some part of the West India, which serued the people in stead of sheepe for victual. But of some of the conquerors of those Ilands I haue heard say that the reason why they were called the Canaria Islands is, because there grow generally in them all fouresquare canes in great multitude together, which being touched will cast out a liquor as white as milke, which liquor is ranke poison, and at the first entry into these Ilands some of the discouerers were therewith poisoned: for many yeeres after that conquest the inhabitants began to plant both wine and sugar, so that Canaria was not so called by sugar canes.

The people which first inhabited this land were called Canaries by the conquerors, they were clothed in goat skinnes made like vnto a loose cassocke, they dwelt in caues in the rocks,393 in great amity and brotherly loue. They spake all one language: their chiefe feeding was gelt dogges, goates, and goates milke, their bread was made of barley meale and goates milke, called Gofia, which they vse at this day, and thereof I haue eaten diuers times, for it is accounted exceeding holesome.

Touching the originall of these people some holde opinion, that the Romans which dwelt in Africa exiled them thither, as well men as women, their tongues being cut out of their heads, for blasphemy against the Romane gods. But howsoeuer it were, their language was speciall, and not mixed with Romane speech or Arabian.

This Iland is now the principallest of all the rest, not in fertility, but by reason it is the seat of iustice and gouernment of all the residue. This Iland hath a speciall Gouernour for the Iland onely, yet notwithstanding there are three Iudges called Auditours, who are superiour Iudges, and all in one ioyntly proceed as the Lord Chanceller of any realme.

To this city from all the other Ilands come all such by appeale, as haue sustained any wrong, and these good Iudges do remedy the same. Ciuitas Palmarum. The city is called Ciuitas Palmarum, it hath a beautifull Cathedrall church, with all dignities thereunto pertaining. For the publike weale of the Iland there are sundry Aldermen of great authority, who haue a councell house by themselues. The city is not onely beautifull, but the citizens curious and gallant in apparell. And after any raine or foule weather a man may goe cleane in Veluet slippers, because the ground is sandy, the aire very temperate, without extreame heat or colde.

They reape wheat in February, and againe in May, which is excellent good, and maketh bread as white as snow. This Iland hath in it other three townes, the one called Telde, the second Galder, and the third Guia. It hath also twelue sugar houses called Ingenios, in which they make great quantity of good sugar. The planting and growth of sugar canes. The maner of the growth of sugar is in this sort, a good ground giueth foorth fruit nine times in 18 yere: that is to say, the first is called Planta which is layd along in a furrow, so that the water of a sluce may come ouer euery roote being couered with earth: this root bringeth foorth sundry canes, and so consequently all the rest. It groweth two yeeres before the yeelding of profit, and not sixe moneths, as Andrew Theuet the French man writeth.

The making of sugar. Then are they cut euen with the ground, and the tops and leaues called Coholia cut off, and the canes bound into bundels like faggots, and so are caried to the sugar house called Ingenio, where they are ground in a mill, and the iuyce thereof conueyed by a conduct to a great vessell made for the purpose, where it is boiled till it waxe thicke, and then is it put into a fornace of earthen pots of the molde of a sugar loafe, and then is it carried to another house, called a purging house where it is placed to purge the blacknesse with a certaine clay that is layd thereon. Of the remainder in the cauldron is made a second sort called Escumas, and of the purging liquor that droppeth from the white sugar is made a third sort, and the remainder is called Panela or Netas, the refuse of all the purging is called Remiel or Malasses: and thereof is made another sort called Refinado.

When this first fruit is in this sort gathered, called Planta, then the Cane field where it grew is burned ouer with sugar straw to the stumps of the first canes, and being husbanded, watred and trimmed, at the end of other two yeeres it yeeldeth the second fruit called Zoca. The third fruit is called Tertia Zoca, the fourth Quarta Zoca, and so orderly the rest, til age causeth the olde Canes to be planted againe.

Wine. This Iland hath singular good wine, especially in the towne of Telde, and sundry sorts of good fruits, as Batatas, Mellons, Peares, Apples, Oranges, Limons, Pomgranats, Figs Peaches of diuers sorts, and many other fruits; Plantano. but especially the Plantano which groweth neere brooke sides, it is a tree that hath no timber in it, but groweth directly vpward with the body, hauing maruelous thicke leaues, and euery leafe at the toppe of two yards long and almost halfe a yard broad. The tree neuer yeeldeth fruit but once, and then is cut downe; in whose place springeth another, and so still continueth. The fruit groweth on a branch, and euery tree yeeldeth two or three of those branches, which beare some more and some lesse, as some forty and some thirty, the fruit is like a Cucumber, and when it is ripe it is blacke, and in eating more delicate then any conserue.

This Iland is sufficiently prouided of Oxen, Kine, Camels, Goats, Sheepe, Capons, Hens, Ducks, and Pidgeons, and great Partridges. Wood is the thing that most wanteth: and because I haue particularly to intreat of the other sixe Ilands, I leaue further inlarging of Canaria, which standeth in 27 degrees distant from the Equator.

The Ile of Tenerif.

The Iland of Tenerif standeth in 27 degrees and a halfe from the equator, and is distant from Canaria 12 leagues Northward. This Iland containeth 17 leagues in length, and the land lieth high in forme of a ridge of sowen lande in some part of England, and in the midst of the sayd place standeth a round hill called Pico Deteithe, situated in this sort. The top of this pike conteineth of heigth directly vpward 15 leagues and more, which is 45 English miles, out of the which often times proceedeth fire and brimstone, and it may be about halfe a mile in compasse: the sayd top is in forme or likenesse of a caldron.394 But within two miles of the top is nothing but ashes and pumish stones: yet beneath that two miles is the colde region couered all the yere with snow, and somewhat lower are mighty huge trees growing called Vinatico, which are exceeding heauy and will not rot in any water although they lie a thousand yeeres therein. Also there is a wood called Barbusano, of like vertue, with many Sauine trees and Pine trees. And beneath these sorts of trees are woods of Bay trees of ten and 12 miles long, which is a pleasant thing to trauell thorow, among the which are great numbers of small birds, which sing exceeding sweet, but especially one sort that are very litle, and of colour in all respects like a Swallow, sauing that he hath a little blacke spot on his breast as broad as a peny. He singeth more sweetly than all the rest, but if he be taken and imprisoned in a cage, he liueth but a small while. Lime. This Iland bringeth foorth all sorts of fruits, as Canaria doth: and also all the other Ilands in generall bring foorth shrubs or bushes, out of the which issueth a iuice as white as milke, which after a while that it hath come out waxeth thicke, and is exceeding good birdlime, the bush is called Taybayba. This Iland also bringeth foorth another tree called Drago, which groweth on high among rocks, and by incision at the foot of the tree issueth out a liquor like blood, which is a common drug among Apothecaries. Of the wood of this tree are made targets greatly esteemed, because if any sword or dagger hit thereon, they sticke so fast that it is hard plucking them out.

This is the most fruitfull Iland of all the rest for corne, and in that respect is a mother or nurse to all the others in time of need. Orchel good for dying. There groweth also a certaine mosse vpon the high rocks called Orchel, which is bought for Diars to die withall. There are 12 sugar houses called Ingenios, which make great quantity of sugar. There is also one league of ground which standeth between two townes, the one called Larotaua, and the other Rialeio, and it is thought that the like plot of ground is not in all the world. The reason is, that this one league of ground produceth sweet water out of the cliffes or rocky mountaines, come of all sortes, fruites of all sortes, and excellent good silke, flaxe, waxe, and hony, and very good wines in abundance, with great store of sugar and fire wood. Out of this Iland is laden great quantities of wines for the West India, and other countreys. The best groweth on a hill side called the Ramble.

There is in that Iland a faire citie, standing three leagues from the sea, nere vnto a lake called Laguna, wherein are two faire parish churches, there dwelleth the gouernour who ruleth all that Iland, with iustice. There are also aldermen for the publike weale, who buy their offices of the king: the most of the whole inhabitants of this city are gentlemen, merchants, and husband men.

Santa Cruz. There are foure other townes called Santa Cruz, Larotaua, Rialeio, and Garachico. In this Iland before the conquest dwelt seuen kings, who with all their people dwelt in caues, and were clothed in goat skinnes, as the Canaria people were, and vsed such like order of diet as they had. Their order of buriall was, that when any died, he was carried naked to a great caue, where he was propped vp against the wall standing on his feet. But if he were of any authority among them, then had he a staffe in his hand, and a vessell of milke standing by him. I haue seene caues of 300 of these corpses together, the flesh being dried vp, the body remained as light as parchment. These people were called Guanches, naturally they spake another language cleane contrary to the Canarians, and so consequently euery Iland spake a seuerall language.

Note (gentle reader) that the Iland of Canaria, the Ile of Tenerif, and the Ile of Palma appertaine to the king of Spaine, vnto whom they pay fifty thousand duckats yeerely for custome and other profits. All these Ilands ioyntly are one bishopricke, which pay to the bishop twelue thousand duckats yeerely. And thus I conclude of the Ile of Tenerif, which standeth in 27 degrees and a halfe, as I haue before declared.

Gomera.

The Iland of Gomera standeth Westward from Tenerif in distance sixe leagues: this is but a small Iland conteining eight leagues in length. It is an Earledome, and the Lord thereof is called the earle of Gomera. But in case of any controuersie the vassals may appeale to the kings superior Iudges which reside in Canaria.

This Iland hath one proper towne called Gomera, which hath an excellent good port or harbour for ships, where often times the Indian fleet takes refreshing for their voyage.

There is also sufficient graine and fruit for the maintenance of themselues.

There is one Ingenio or Sugar-house, with great plenty of wine and other sorts of fruits, as Canaria and Tenerif hath.

This Iland yeeldeth no other commodity but onely orchell; it standeth in 27 degrees distant from the Equator toward the pole Arcticke.

The Ile of Palma.

The Ile of Palma standeth twelue leagues distant from the Ile of Gomera Northwestward. This Iland is fruitfull of wine and sugar: it hath a proper city called the city of Palma, where is great contraction for vines, which are laden for the West India and other places. This city hath one faire church, and a gouernour, and aldermen to maintaine and execute iustice. It hath also another prety towne, called S. Andrewes. It hath also foure Ingenios which make excellent sugar, two of the which are called Zauzes, and the other two, Tassacort.

This Iland yeeldeth but little bread-corne; but rather is thereof prouided from Tenerif and other places.

Their best wines grow in a soile called the Brenia, where yeerely is gathered twelue thousand buts of wine like vnto Malmsies. This Iland standeth round, and containeth in circuit neere fiue and twenty leagues. It hath plenty of all sorts of fruits, as Canaria and Tenerif haue, it standeth in twenty seuen degrees and a halfe.

The Iland of Yron, called Hierro.

This Iland standeth ten leagues distant from the Iland of Palma Westward: it is but a little Iland, which containeth sixe leagues in circuit, and hath but small extension. It appertaineth to the earle of Gomera. The chiefest commodity of this Iland is goats flesh and orchell. The onely vineyard in Hierro planted by Ioh. Hill of Taunton. There is no wine in all that Iland, but onely one vineyard that an English man of Taunton in the West countrey planted among rocks, his name was Iohn Hill.

This Iland hath no kind of fresh water, but onely in the middle of the Iland groweth a great tree with leaues like an Oliue tree which hath a great cisterne at the foot of the sayd tree. This tree continually is couered with clouds, and by meanes thereof the leaues of the said tree continually drop water, very sweet, into the sayd cisterne, which commeth to the sayd tree from the clouds by attraction. And this water sufficeth the Iland for all necessities, as well for the cattell, as for the inhabitants. 395 It standeth in 27 degrees.

The Iland of Lanzarota

The Iland of Lanzarota standeth eighteene leagues distant from grand Canaria Southeastward. The onely commodity of this Iland is goats flesh and orchell. It is an earldome, and doth, appertaine to Don Augustine de Herrerra, with title of earle of Fortauentura and Lanzarota. But the vassals of these earledomes may in any cause of wrong appeale to the Kings Iudges, which reside in Canaria, as I haue sayd before: because although the king hath reserued to himselfe but onely the three fruitful Ilands, called Canaria, Teneriff and Palma, yet he also reserued the rod of Iustice to himselfe, because otherwise the vassals might be euil intreated of their Lords.

From this Iland do weekly resort to Canaria, Tenerif, and Palma, boats laden with dried goats flesh, called Tussmetta, which serueth in stead of bacon, and is very good meat. This Iland standeth in 26 degrees, and is in length twelue leagues.

The Ile of Forteuentura.

The Ile of Forteuentura standeth fifty leagues from the promontory of Cabo de Guer, in the firme land of Africa, and foure and twenty leagues distant from Canaria Eastward. This Iland doth appertaine to the lord of Lanzarota. It is reasonable fruitfull of wheat and barley, and also of kine, goats, and orchel: this Ile is fifteene leagues long and ten leagues broad. On the North side it hath a little Iland about one league distant from the maine Iland, betweene both of the which it is nauigable for any ships, and is called Graciosa.

Both Forteuentura and Lanzarota haue very little wine of the growth of those Ilands. It standeth in 27 degrees.

Thus much haue I written of these seuen Ilands by experience, because I was a dweller there, as I haue sayd before, the space of seuen yeeres in the affaires of master Thomas Locke, master Anthonie Hickman, and master Edward Caselin, who in those dayes were worthy merchants, and of great credite in the citie of London.

A description of the Iland of Madera.

The Iland of Madera standeth in 32 degrees distant from the equinoctinall line, and seuentie leagues from the Ile of Tenerif Northeastward and Southwest from Hercules pillars. This Iland was first discouered by one Macham an Englishman, and was after conquered and inhabited by the Portugall nation. It was first called the Iland of Madera, by reason of the great wildernesse of sundry sortes of trees that there did growe, and yet doe, as Cedars, Cypres, Vinatico, Barbuzano, Pine trees, and diuers others, and therefore the sayd Iland continueth still with the same name. Howbeit they hold opinion, that betweene the sayd Iland, and the Ile of Palma is an Iland not yet discouered, which is the true Iland Madera called saint Brandon. This Iland yeeldeth a great summe of money to the king of Portugall yeerely: it hath one faire citie called Fouchall, which hath one faire port or harbour for shippes, and a strong bulwarke, and a faire Cathedrall church, with a bishop and other dignities thereunto appertaining. There is also iustice and gouernment according to the Portugall vse. But causes of appellation are remitted to the citie of Lisbone in Portugall to the kings superior iudges there. This Iland hath another towne called Machico, which hath likewise a good road for ships, which towne and road were so called after the name of Macham the Englishman, who first discouered the same. There are also sixteene sugar houses called Ingenios, which make excellent good sugar.

There is besides the goodly timber before declared, great store of diuers sortes of fruites, as Peares, Apples, Plummes, wild Dates, Peaches of diuers sortes, Mellons, Batatas, Orenges, Lemmons, Pomgranates, Citrons, Figges, and all maner of garden herbes. There are many Dragon trees, such as grow in the Canarie Ilands, but chiefly this land produceth great quantitie of singular good wines which are laden for many places. On the North side of this land three leagues distant from the maine Iland standeth another litle Iland called Porto santo: the people thereof liueth by husbandrie, for the Iland of Madera yeeldeth but litle corne, but rather is thereof prouided out of France and from the Iland of Tenerif. On the East side of the Ile of Madera sixe leagues distant standeth another litle Iland called the Desert, which produceth onely Orchell, and nourisheth a great number of Goates, for the prouision of the maine Iland, which may be thirtie leagues in circuit: and the land is of great heighth where the foresayd trees growe. It is woonder to see the conueyance of the water to the Ingenios by Mines through the mountaines.

In the mid way betweene Tenerif and the Iland of Madera standeth a litle solitarie Iland called the Saluages, which may bee about one league in compasse, which hath neither tree nor fruit, but is onely food for Goates.

393Many thousand persons, including a colony of free negroes, still reside in cave dwellings in the hill side.

394The Peak of Teneriffe is 12,182 feet high.

395In connection with this fable, it is interesting to see what is said by Le Maire, who visited these Islands in 1682. “As I had been told of a wonderful tree in Ferro, whose long and narrow leaves were always green, and furnished all the inhabitants with water, I wished to find out if it were true. I asked if, as I had heard, such a heavy dew fell on this tree that it dropped clear water into stone basins placed expressly to receive it. There was enough of it for the islanders and their cattle, Nature repairing by this miracle the defect of not providing pure water for this isle. The inhabitants confirmed my belief that this was a pure fable. There were some, however, who said that there might have been such a tree, but it could never have furnished the quantity attributed to it.” [See VOYAGE TO THE CANARIES, etc, page 21, reprinted In Bibliotheca Curiosa.

THE

FARDLE OF FACIONS

CONTAINING

THE AUNCIENTE MANERS, CUSTOMES, AND LAWES,

OF THE

PEOPLES ENHABITING THE TWO PARTES OF

THE EARTH,

CALLED

AFFRICKE AND ASIE.

Printed at London:

BY IHON KINGSTONE, AND HENRY SUTTON.

1555.

This work was not included in the 1598–1600 edition of Hakluyt’s Voyages. It, however, formed part of the supplement issued in 1812.

For this web edition, the work has been extracted as a separate book, at http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/h/hakluyt/voyages/boemus/

THE CONQUEST OF THE GRAND CANARIES,

MADE THIS LAST SUMMER BY THREESCORE AND THIRTEENE SAILE OF SHIPPES,

SENT FORTH AT THE COMMAND AND DIRECTION OF THE GENERAL OF THE VNITED PROUINCES,

TO THE COAST OF SPAINE

AND THE CANARIE-ISLES:

WITH THE TAKING OF A TOWNE IN THE ILE OF GOMERA

AND THE SUCCESSE OF PART OF THE SAIDE FLEETE IN THEIR RETURNED HOMEWARD.

WHICH SET SAILE FOR SPAINE THE 25 OF MAIE, AND RETURNED HOME

THE 10 OF SEPTEMB. 1599.

At London:

PRINTED BY P.S. FOR W. ASPLEY, DWELLING IN PAULES CHURCHYARD AT THE SIGNE OF THE TYGERS HEAD.

1599.

The following very curious and interesting pamphlet was not included in the edition of 1598–1600. It was, however, inserted in the fifth volume of the small edition, 4to., of 1812, and is here transposed to that part of the Voyages relating to the Canaries, etc. Originally printed for “W. Apsley, dwelling in. Paules Church–Yard, at the signe of the Tygers Head” in 1599, it is of the utmost rarity, and for that reason I have thought it right to give the original title-page. — E. G.

A TRUE REPORT

OF A VOYAGE MADE THIS LAST SUMMER, BY A FLEETE OF 73. SHIPPES,

SENT FORTH AT THE COMMANDE AND DIRECTION OF THE STATES GENERALL OF THE VNITED PROUINCES,

TO THE COAST OF SPAINE AND THE CANARIE-ISLES.

Tuesday the 25. daie of Maie the wind being Northe and Northe-east, we in the fleete of Roterdam, being 20. saile of ships, the sunne beeing Southe-west and by West, came before Flushing, and ankered neere vnto Cleiburch; our generall at his comming found the fleetes of North–Holland, and Zealand ready.

Wednesday, the 26. daie wee remained there at anchor.

Thursday the 27. daie of Maie, we tooke into our ships (by the Generals commandement) two gentlemen and foure souldiours.

Friday the 28. of May 1599, the wind being northerly, we waied our anchors, and sailed from the Weelings with 73. ships, hauing faire weather, setting our course West, Southwest. Wee had 3. Admirals in this fleete, whereof the chiefe Admirall was the ship of William Derickson Cloper, wherein was embarked the honourable gentleman Peter Van Doest being generall of the fleete. This ship was called the Orange, carying in her top a flag of Orange colour, vnder whose squadron was certaine Zelanders, with some South and North Hollanders; Ian Geerbranston caried the white flag vnder whom the Zelanders and ships of the Maze were appointed. And Cornelius Gheleinson of Vlyshing wore in his maine top the blew flag, vnder whom were appointed certaine ships of the Maze with some North Hollanders. Thus were wee deuided into sondry squadrons, but to what ende it was so done, it is to me, and many others vnknowne.

Saturday the 29. of Maie, hauing sight of Callis, the ships lay to the lee ward, and staied for the rereward. The Lord generall shot off a peece, and afterward hung out the princes flag, in signe that the captains shold come aboord him, presently al the captains entred into their boates, and rowed aboord the General, at which time were two pinnaces sent out of the fleet, whereof one was the Generals Pinnace, but vnto what place they sailed, wee were altogether ignorant. And when the boates rowed from the Generall, some of them went aboord the victualers, and tooke out of them certaine fire-workes. The sunne Southwest, the Generall discharged an other peece of ordinance, and put out the Princes flag, wherevpon presently the captaines went aboord him, and when our captaine returned, he had in his hande a letter closed vp, which hee brought from the Generall, and wee imagined that euery captaine had receiued the like, and then wee sailed altogether toward the higth of Blacknesse, where wee anchored, (which caused vs greatly to wonder, seeing we had so faire a wind,) but we perceiued afterwards, that this was done, to the ende we should there abide the coming of the great new ship of Amsterdam: for the soldiours which were appointed for her, were all with vs in a ship of our company.

Sunday, the 30. of Maie, where lying at anchor al that night, the next morning we set saile altogether hauing the winde at North East, wee set our course West Northwest, the weather being faire. The same morning our captain read vnto vs those very articles which before had bin read vnto vs in the prince Mauritz his Court, and afterwards we altogether, and with one accord were sworne to the keeping of them: At noone we were neere vnto Beuersier hauing a fine gale out of the East Northeast, the euening was calme, the foremost shippes slacked their sailes, attending the comming in of the hindermost.

Wednesday the ninth of Iune by the breake of daie we were hard vnder the coast of Spaine neere to Viuero, the winde being westerly, we sailed North West and by North, and North Northwest, the sunne Southwest and by West, we were ouer against the cape Ortegael, we sailed North West and by North, to fetch the wind: we were in 44. degrees 20. minuts, at twilight, we had the foresaid Cape of vs about 5. miles South West and by West.

Thursday the 10. of Iune, the winde being at East South East, wee directed our course towardes the shore, and might certainly discerne that it was the coast of Ortegall, we bore in West Southwest directly with the land, and ordered all thinges as if we presently should haue had battell, and about noone wee had sight of the Groyne, namely the tower which standeth neere the Groine.

Friday, the 11. of Iune, at the breake of day the winde being at North East and by East, sixe of our ships sailed forwarde South Southwest, meaning to enter the Groine, and there to learne how al things stood. The sunne being Southeast, Cape Prior was East from vs, wee bare South, presently after we spied two boates comming out of Veroli to learn what ships we were, the rather because that the day before they had seen our fleete at sea: we sailed by the wind, and lay in the wind to stay for their comming. The one doubting vs woulde not come neere vs, the other boat also durst not approch neere vs; wee called to one of the Spaniardes, saying wee came from Hamborch laden with cordage and other goods, desiring and praying him to let vs haue a Pilot to bring vs into the Groine, wherewith the boate came aboord vs, so that by our great haste, and policie we got one Spaniard, the other which remained in the boate would not come into our ship, but presently thrust off their boate, making all possible speede to get from vs. Hauing nowe gotten this Spaniarde, hee was presently deliuered into the handes of the Generall, who confessed that there were about 4000. souldiours come into the towne, with certaine horsemen, 36. waggons with money, and 300. pipes of wine, to furnish the Spanish fleet, that he lay the night past in the Groine, and was the Kings seruant. The whole fleet cometh before the Groine. The sun South South–West, we came with fleet our whole fleete before the Groine, where wee found the great newe ship of Amsterdam vnder the Towne.

At 12. 13. and 10. fadome we cast anchor, so that wee might behold much people both on the shoare and vpon the wals of the town: from the castle and town both, they shot mightely with their great ordinance into our fleet, so that there were aboue 200. cannon shot discharged, wherewith some of our ships were hit, but not one man lost, and little hurt done otherwise. There lay an other castle East ward from the towne, which shot also most terribly, but altogether vncertainly, for we know not that they touched any one ship more then Moy Lambert, which was greatly, to bee wondered at, seeing our fleete lay so thicke together, and so neere vnder the castle. There laie hard vnder the castle 12. great Gallions, with some French ships, which also nowe and then shot among our fleete, but they lay so neere the walles that wee could do them no harme at all. The Lord Generall worthy of al praise, wisely be thinking himselfe, caused all his captaines and counsell to come aboorde him, that they might together conferre vpon this busines, and what meanes might best bee found, to inuade the towne and the enemy, but they concluded not to meddle with the land there: seeing the enemy was there, strong vpon his guard, and that 5. weekes past both from Amsterdam, and by a French man, they had knowledge of our comming; by reason of the calme, wee were constrained to towe out our ships with the boates in dispite of al their shot, thus we parted from the Groyne without profit, or effecting of any thing, leauing the Papists of Groyne as wee founde them, from thence (the winde being at South Southwest) wee bent our course towarde Cape Saint Vincent, meaning to goe to Saint Lucars, hoping to fal vpon them at vnawares, and ere they looked for vs.

Saturday the 12. of Iune, hauing got a fine gale we ran along the coast of Galicia, at noone wee were before the Iland of Cesarian, and set our course towards Cape Finister.

Sunday the 13. of Iune, the lorde Generall gaue sharpe commandement by his letters, forbidding al men aboorde the ships to vse any play, with tables, cards, or dice, either for money, or for pastime, or vpon credit.

Munday the 14. of Iune, the wind blew so harde out of the North, that wee could not beare our topsailes with our forecourse which sailed South, the sunne was southward we had Port a Porte of vs, being in 41. degrees and 20 minuts.

Tuesday the 15. of Iune, as soone as day appeared, we had sight of Cape Roxent, and then we sailed making small way, staying for the comming together of the fleete: the wind as before we sailed South Southwest, and were in 36 degrees.

Wednesday the 16. of Iune, towardes the euening we had sight of two strange ships eastward of our fleete, certain of our ships made towards them and tooke them, the one was an English man of war; the other was a Spanish barke with three missens: at his comming before the Generall, he said, he had already sent 2. prises into Englande, and woulde now with this prise returne home: for his victuals were almost spent.

Thursday the 17. of Iune, it was very still and calme weather.

Friday the 18. of Iune, the wind being at North Northeast, we sailed South Southwest. The Lord Generall caused all the Captaines with the Pilots to come aboord him: demanding of them which of them was best acquainted in the Isles of Canaria: and further, by what meanes, they might conquer and force the said Ilands, and land their people. And about noone the captaines were chosen and appointed which shoulde commande on lande. The Generall gaue out newe ensignes, to the number of 9. or 10. according to the number of the ships. The Lord Generall appointed to each new captaine, an Ancient bearer, a Lieutenant, and other officers, with 130. souldiers and mariners, and instructions how euery one of them should gouerne himself on the land.

Saturday the 19. of Iune, the Generall commanded that the captaines should deliuer out victuals but twice a day, to wit, 6. and 6. to a messe: for 6. men, 5. cans of beere of Roterdams measure euery day, 5. pounde of breade and no more; a cheese of 6. l. euery weeke, one pound of butter weekely, likewise pease, beanes, or Otemeale twise a day, according to the order. Captaine Harman, and captaine Pije, had each of them commission to commande on the land as captaines ouer two companies of saylers, each company containing 130. men. Harman Thunesson was appointed Ancient to captaine Henricke Pije, and de Blomme Ancient to captaine Hendricke Hertman. The ancients were deliuered the same day.

The 20. 21. 22. daies, wee sailed South Southwest, the wind being northerly.

Wednesday the 23. of Iune, the wind was North Northeast. The Generall commaunded all the captaines both for the sea and land to come aboord him, where it was ordained and determined how the battell should be ordered, after they were landed. According to the latitude, we found our selues to be 36. miles from great Canaria.

Thursday the 24. of Iune, we ranne our foresaid course. The sun being West Northwest, we sawe the land East and by South off vs: wee sailed East and by South, and with great labour and diligence bore all that might with the land.

Friday The 25. of Iune, we continued our course to the land for our assured knowledge thereof, and perceiued it to be Lancerot; we saw also a small land (which lay between both) called Allegrania, and also the Iland Forteuentura, which is 24. miles great, afterward we sailed Southwest along the Coast of Forteuentura, which is a lande that hath very high hils. The whole Netherlandish fleet commeth before the Island and town of Grand Canaria. The sun Southwest, we were past the Iland Forteuentura, and were sailed out of sight thereof, running as yet Southwest: about ii. a clocke in the afternoone wee had sight of the Iland of great Canaria, for a while wee kept our way, but when the Generall was assured that it was the grand Canaria, wee all tooke in our sailes, and lay to the lee ward, and so remained vntill it was past midnight, then wee set saile againe and made to the lande, our course westwarde.

Saturday the 26. of Iune, in the morning the whole fleet sailed West directly to the land the winde North and by East, and made all thinges ready to land; being now neere the shore, the whole fleete let fall their anchors harde by the great castle, which lieth North Northwest from the town, from whence they began to shoot mightily against the ships. The lord Generall and the vize Admirall with the other ships that had the greatest ordenance, anchored close vnder the castle, and for a certain time they plied each other with their great shot; the Generals main mast, and his missen mast were shot thorow, and his vize Admirall, namely the great new ship of Amsterdam was shot thorow 6. or 7. times; so that some of the souldiours and maryners also were slaine before they entered their long boates to rowe to the shore: But the ships for their parts, had so well bestowed their shot on the castle, that they of the castle began to faint, wherby they discharged not so thicke and often as before. Our men rowed to the land in the long boates, euery one full of souldiours, and the ships which could not discharge their ordenance against the castle, bent them against the shore, (for the enemy had three brasse peeces lying vpon the strand) and many people were there gathered together where our souldiours shoulde land. Nowe as soone as the Generall with the most parte of the long boates were come together, they all at one instant rowed toward the shore, maintaining for a while the fight on both sides with their shot. But the General perceiuing that the enemie woulde not abandon the place, with a valiant courage made to the shore, and altogether leaping into the water vp to the middle, maintained the fight with the enemy. Notwithstanding the enemy no lesse couragious, would not yet leaue the strond, so that some of our souldiours and mariners lost their liues before the enemy would retire: for the place was discommodious, and hard to lande, but most of the enemy were slaine, to the number of 30. or 36. and the Gouernor his right leg was shot off, sitting on his horse. The lord General Peter von der Doest leaping first on land, was thrust in his leg with a pike, and had in his body 4. wounds more, and was in great danger to haue lost his life but that one of the souldiours slewe the Spaniarde which meant to haue don it; but his wounds were of small moment, and his ancient bearer was slain with a shot, the Lieutenant Generall was shot in his throte, captaine Kruye in the heade, 4. soldiours were slain, and 15. hurt in the generals pinnace before they could come to land: But when our people now with one courage all together rushed vpon the enemie, (leauing their ordenance behinde them,) they forsooke the strond, and ran together into the town, carying with them their Gouernour, whose leg was shot off, and he was a knight of the order of the crosse, and leauing behind them 36. deade carcases on the strond, were presently by our people ransacked, and our dead people buried. Our men now hauing won the strond, put themselues presently in battell ray; the empty boates returned to the ships, but after our people had taken the strond, the castle did neuer shoot shot. Twenty foure companies strong of Netherlanders. After the boates were returned aboord, presently they rowed againe to the shore full of soldiours; our people being all landed, they which for the first time had commandement, set vs in 7. troupes, or battalions, being xxiiii. companies strong, of soldiours and Mariners, with twentie foure Auncientes. At which time we marched a little forward twenty one a brest, and standing altogether in battell; The first castle taken. suddainly three mariners came running to the Generall, (which had bin at the castle) telling him that the Spaniards desired to deliuer him the castle, so their liues and goods might be saued: the generall with some of the captaines and souldiours went first thither, and presently the castle was deliuered into his possession, hoping on his pitty and mercy, and leauing behind them all the great ordenance, namely 9. peeces of brasse, and 6. Iron peeces, and also al their weapons. In the castle were about 80. Spaniards, some cannoniers, some soldiors, and some people of the countrey, for the defence thereof: beside powder, shot and match accordingly, for the artillery, and also thirty small peeces or caliuers. Also wee founde 58. prisoners, the rest were slaine with shot in the fury, and some were run away. The prisoners (which our people had taken in the road with two Barkes, and a ship sunke with our ordenance, as they lay all 3. hard before the castle) were sent altogether aboorde the ships except 3. of the principals which the lord General reserued by him, to the end he might the better knowe the state of all things. Presently 80. soldiours were sent into the castle, who tooke down the kings flag, and set vp the princes colours. At the same instant two Negros were brought to the General, which were fetched out of the mountains, they said that they had lien there a sleepe, and knew nothing of any matter. But now when it began to wax dark, we marched altogether a great way towards the town, 4. companies of soldiors approached hard vnder the towne, and other 4. companies had the rereward: those of the Maze, with the Amsterdammers remained a pretty way from the town, vnder the hils; and the Zealanders, with the North Hollanders lay neere the waters side, so wee remained al that night in order of battell.

Sunday the 27. of Iune, after we had now stood al night in battel order, early in the morning we marched with al our 7. troupes: hard vnder the town of Canarie, where we remained a while in that order: but because they of the castle (which lieth to the towne) shot so mightily among vs; 2. of the troupes retired vnder a hill, where we were a little freede from the castle: for while our people stood imbattailed before the town, the castle did vs great hurt, for sometimes they shot fiue or sixe men with one shot, ere we could entrench our selues before the castle: but after they perceiued that our people had made a small trench against the shot of the castle, they placed on the hill fiue or sixe small peeces of brasse called falconets (which shoote about a pounde of pouder) and sometimes they shot boules of wood, wherewith in the beginning they slew manie of our people: so aduantagiouslie had they placed their ordenaunce to shoot among vs. Ten or twelue of our Souldiours ranne vp the hill, whereof the enemy tooke one, and presently cut him in foure peeces. Our people seeing that they so tyranouslie dealte with them, about the euening tooke a Spaniarde prisoner, and vsed him after the same maner. The lorde, Generall perceiuing that many men were slaine with the ordenance, caused fiue peeces of brasse to bee brought from the castle which we had taken the daie before, and towarde the euening we beganne to make a battery, and the same euening brought into it three peeces, whereof two were placed presentlie to play vppon the Castle and the hill; but that euening were but fiue or sixe shotte made. While that our men made the batterie, and planted or placed the ordenaunce, the enemy placed his ordenance in counter-battery: and before our battery could be finished, and the ordenance placed, many of our men were shot, among whom Peter vanden Eynde commissioner, had his leg shot off, whereof he died within three daies after. After that it was dark, al they which lay there before the towne were againe set in order of battel, 15. on a ranke, and so remained all that night.

The 28. of Iune, early in the morning euery man retired to his quarter, and then were two peeces more brought to the battery, which also were presently placed on the Rampire, and so wee began to shoot against the castle with 4. peeces, and with the fifth we plaied vpon the small ordenance which lay vpon the hils. The enemie in the castle laid many sackes of wooll, and placed many tonnes or barrels filled with stones vpon the castle walles supposing thereby to make some little defence from our ordenance; but when an Iron bullet chanced to hit the barrels so filled with stones, it did them mightie hurt, for the stones would scatter maruailouslie abroad, whereby many of them that were in the castle were slaine. Our men hauing now with their shot almost abated the force of the castle, 4. companies marched vp the hils, intending to beate the enemy from thence, which lay there with the ordenance. But the enemy perceiuing himselfe to bee assaulted on all partes, (for most of the ordenance of the castle were dismounted and made vnprofitable, the gate of the towne set one fire by the Generals commandement) about noone they forsooke both the castle, hill, and town, and with all their wiues, children, money and Iewels, and all other things that they coulde carry with them, fled into the mountaines. Which when our men perceiued, they put themselues in order of battle xv. in a ranke. The second castle and town of Grand Canaria taken. The lord Generall seeing the Spaniards shamefullie to flie, caused 2. ladders belonging to the enemies, to be brought out of a church which stood without the towne, whereof the one was too shorte, notwithstanding himselfe with one of the ladders climed vp the walles, one man at once followed, and by this meanes entered the towne ouer the wals. About noone some of our men ran into the castle without any reencounter: the enemy had vndermined the gate, but as we approched the wall, it tooke fire, but not one of our people was therewith hurt. They had also skattered powder in sundrie places, but our men themselues did fire the same: and as soone as our people were entred the castle, the kinges colours were taken downe, and the prince of Oranges set vp, and we found fiue peeces of brasse therein. When wee were all entered into the towne, we put our selues againe into order of battell 15. in a ranke in a low ground within the towne: and the souldiours which entered the towne by the hils side, brought to the Generall a man of Flushing, which they had taken out of prison: as soone as the Generall sawe him, he went presently with him to the prison, accompanied with some of our captaines, where they found 36. prisoners, which presently were discharged. And further they declared, that the Spaniards had taken with them 2. prisoners into the mountaines, which were condemned to be burnt, the one was an English man, the other a Dutchman, which had lien in the holy house. Thus with the helpe of God about noone, wee won the great Iland of Canaria, and the town of Allegona, battered with their owne artillery, and skaled with their owne ladders. Towards the euening wee were quartered in the housen, those wherein the Generall was, were by writing freed, that no man might take out any goods, in the rest euery one might go, and take what pillage he could find: but the Spaniards had caried all the best things with them into the mountaines, and in the euening all our people entered the town. Euery captaine with his company were seuerallie lodged, but yet we appointed watch on the hils, as well as in the towne, for the enemy shewed himselfe often vpon the hils, whereby we were forced to keep very good watch.

The 29. of Iune, this morning some of the mariners climed vp the hils, but the enemy (to whom the passage were better known, then to our people) suddainly set vpon them, and killed 20. of them. Towards the euening some 300. of our Soldiours marched towardes a small castle which lay halfe an houres iourney from the towne: but the enemy seeing our people to approch, forsooke the place and fled into the mountaines, our men being ascended, they founde in the castle three brasse peeces: and after they had appointed a Corporall with certaine soldiours to keepe the watch, the rest returned to the citty. The same night the Spaniards tooke one of our soldiors appointed for a forlorne Sentinel, whom they presently put to the sword.

The last of Iune, as soone as day appeared, wee began to cary the pillage aboorde belonging to the General, and captaines, as wines and other goods. About noone 3. cheefe men of the Spaniards came to our people, which kept watch on the hils with a flag of truce in their handes, which were straight brought before the Generall, and within a while after, there were 2. more brought vnto him; but after they had bin a while with him they departed again towards the mountaines: and in the euening came other 7. Spaniardes to our watch with a flag of truce, desired to speake with the Generall: but they were sente backe againe into the Mountaynes.

The first day of Iuly, 1599. in the morning (our people being on the hils) 2. friers with three other Spaniards came vnto vs, desiring to be brought to the Generall, which our men accomplished: but the General denied to talke with them, wherefore they were presently sent backe againe from whence they came, for we were then labouring to send the goods a shipboord. Also at that instant was a sermon in the great church of great Canaria, made by the preacher of Ysilmond with great deuotion, and giuing thanks vnto God for our great victory, desiring him that it would please him daily to increase the same, to the honour of his name: at which Sermon the Lorde Generall was present with foure hundred persons.

The second of Iuly 1599. wee were forbidden by sounde of the drum that no man should go beyond the forelorne sentenell placed on the Mountaines: and to sende backe againe into the hilles all such Spaniardes which came with a flag of truce, to speake with the Generall, and to put all such to the sworde as came with weapons. One of our Pinnaces tooke a fisherman fishing vnder the Ilande Forteauentura, wherin were 7. Spaniardes, which were brought before the General, and prently committed to prison.

The 3. of Iuly in the morning we began to sende aboord our ships all the bels, ordenance and munition which the enemies had left behinde them, at which time 2000. soldiors were appointed to march to the hils, to seeke the enemy, which lay hid there with their wiues, children and goods, as they were fled out of the towne: and as soone as they approched each other, they began the fight on both sides with great courage, but the enemy was forced to flie, beeing better acquainted with the passages of the mountains then our people were. Our men returned with the losse of some 70. persons: among whom captain Iacques Dierickson with his boatson were slaine: the rest came into the towne againe into their appointed quarters.

The 4. of Iuly, in the morning we began to burn the towne, and with pouder blewe vp the castle which lay by the towne, and we burned likewise all the cloisters and churches which were without the towne, lying neere the water side. The town burning, our people were set in battell, and in that order marched out of the towne, vntill they came to Gratiosa, the castle, which we first tooke, lying about halfe an houres iourney from the towne, where the long boates receiued our men, and caried them againe aboorde. Presently after wee were departed out of the towne, the enemy entered, endeuoring by all meanes possible to quench the fire. And while we were shipping our people, the enemy shewed him selfe sometimes 5. or 6. in a company, but they durst not approch vs. The rereward of our men being shipped, we put fire to the castle which we tooke first, and blew it vp: This done, captaine Quit imbarked himselfe also with his soldiours and pillage, which he had taken in the rode, for his ship wherein he was before was ready to sincke.

The 5. of Iuly, lying in the roade, in the morning the Generall discharged two peeces of ordenance, and afterward put out 2. flags of the princes colours, thereby giuing to vnderstand, that all land captaines, and sea captaines also with one of their Pilots should resort to him, whereupon presentlie they all rowed aboorde the Generall; the Pilots which were best acquainted with the coast, were demanded by the Generall which were the weakest Ilands, and where they might most commodiouslie land: Towards the euening captaine Quyt his ship was fired, and suffered to driue towarde the strond. At which time a newe captaine was appointed to captaine Iaques Dirriksons ship aforesaide, who was slaine in the mountaines, namely captaine Kloyers Lieutenant. And the Generals Clarke of the band was appointed Lieuetenant to captain Kloyer.

The 6. of Iuly, by reason of the contrary winds, and other inconueniences which happened at this present, and also because such ships, which before were sent to sea, and could not returne by reason of the contrary windes; we remained in the road, vnder the castle of Graciosa. About noone 4. Spaniards came out of the towne with a flag of truce to the strond, directly ouer against our ships, whereof 2. were brought aboorde the Generall in one of our long boates, (the other two with their flag of truce were left behinde on the stronde) which remained with the Generall vntil the euening, and then were set on shore, and so the 4. Spaniardes returned to the towne.

The 7. day riding in the roade, in the morning 4. Spaniards with a flag of peace, came to the shore from the towne, directly ouer against our ships: the fleet seeing them, sent a long boate to the shore, and brought the said 4. Spaniards aboord the General, these men brought with them the ransome of certaine Spaniards, which had deliuered vp the castle of Graciosa at the Generals pleasure, which were set to ransome, euery one according to his habilitie and office: and thus all the Spaniardes which were ransomed, together with the 4. Spaniardes which brought the ransoms, were set on shore with a long boat, and departed to the towne.

The 8. day of Iuly, two howers after sun rising, the Generall with all the ships set saile, carying with him all the Spaniardes that were not ransomed, sailing along the coast of great Canaria; in which time Ian Cornelesson Zwartekeys departed this worlde, whose leg was shot off at the taking of the Iland of great Canaria. Hauing nowe sailed from the hight of the said Iland, which lay southerly from vs, we had sight of captaine Hertmans ship, and of 3. others which rode there at anchor: who, so soone as they perceiued our fleete, waied their anchors, and sailed along the coast with vs, which were the ships that the Generall had sent to sea. Sailing thus together vntill the sun was in the West, the wind began to rise more and more, so that we coulde not keep our direct course, but were forced to put to the Southwest of the great Iland of Canaria, where we anchored: wee had sight of the Iland Teneriffe, and of an other of the Ilands of Canaria, wherein is the hie mountaine called the Pyck. This hil was from vs 14. miles, but by the great hight thereof it seemed to bee within foure or fiue miles off vs, but in the daie time when the sun shined wee could not see it.

The 9. of Iuly, lying thus at anchor, in the morning most of the long boates went a shore to fetch fresh water, such as they could there find and caried with them the deade corps of Ian Cornelesson aforesaid, the Constables son of the Admiralty of Roterdam, called Zwertkeys, which was there honorably buried on the high and drie land. This done, we set on fire the woode which lay on the shore piled and heaped in the woods, but in this place we found not any Spaniards.

The tenth of Iuly, the boates being all returned to their ships with their people, euery one wayed their anchors and hoised their sailes, the winde at Northwest; but being vnder saile together, the wind slacked and by reason of the great calme the ships lay a drift for want of wind.

The 11. of Iuly, in the morning it blewe a stout gale in our topsailes out of the Northeast, but as we approched the Iland of Teneriffa, the winde altered often; sixe or seuen of our shippes, and the rest which were next vnto the shore, had sometimes a gale in their topsailes, and sometimes againe without wind: so that we lay a drift, and could keepe no reckoning either of the wind or course, and were forced to alter our course more than 12. times a day.

A declaration of the taking of Gomera one of the Ilands in Canaria, and how we afterwardes left it.

The 12. day of Iuly sailing thus with great variety of wind, vnder the great Iland Teneriffa, the day appearing, we had the wind more certain, filling our topsailes with a full gale from the Northwest: And when it was faire day light we saw our fleet scattered far one from another, by meanes of the foresaid mutable windes. Some ships lay driuing by reason of the calme, and other some had a little gale, but the most part of our fleet were West of vs, towards whom with all speed, we with the rest of the ships made. Being al come together, wee endeuored to reach the Ilande Gomera, wherein is a little towne: towardes the euening many of our ships were neere the Iland, but the most part were to the lee ward; so that before it grew toward the euening none of vs could come neere the towne. Notwithstanding in the twilight and shutting vp of the euening: Ian Garbrantson Admirall of the white flag, his vize Admirall, and a Pinnace following, were come neere the town. Thus the Admirall sayling so neere to the Iland, they of Gomera discharged 2. pieces at him, but touched him not. The saide Admirall seeing this, passed on a little farther with the other ships which were neere him, and then tooke in their sailes, and cast their anchors. The other ships which were behinde, laboured all they might to come also vnder the Iland to them.

The 13. of Iuly, the Admirall of the white flag lying thus at anchor neere to Gomera, the greatest part of the fleete were yet in the morning betweene the Iland of Teneriffa and Gomera, so that parte of the ships were beyonde the towne, and must sometimes cast about to conducte the others in, which were in the lee of vs. When wee had nowe for the most part passed the hight of the Iland, the Generall gaue a signe to all captaines to come aboorde him, being vnder saile, directing his course to the Iland of Gomera, and the other ships did their endeuour to follow him and anchored about the necke of the valley, lying North North East off the towne. The ships being all come to anchor, the captaines entered presently into the long boates, and aboorde the Generall to know his minde: and after they had beene a while in the Generals ship, they returned to their ships, and 4. companies of souldiours were chosen out, and landed in the valley. Which done, al the ships waied their anchors, and sailed directly toward the towne, and then came to anchor againe. After that all our ships lay thus together in the road neere the valley, before the town: we discharged certaine peeces against the town, but they made no shewe at all of resistaunce, for they had buried foure brasse peeces as soone as they had sight of vs, which lay on the strond neere vnto a small castle; the other sixe companies were also set on land in the long boates, without any resistance: for the Spaniardes with their wiues, children, and all their goods whiche they coulde carry with them were fled into the mountains. The towne of Gomera abandoned by the Spaniards. The first 4. companies that were landed, as they marched along the hils side towards the towne, perceiuing that the enemy fled with all his goods towards the hils, sent out a certaine number of soldiours to intercept them, and to take from them the goods which they caried away. And to accomplish this enterprise, our souldiours descended the hill into the valley, meaning suddainly to set vpon the Spaniardes; but the enemie perceiuing their intent, hid themselues in caues which were neere vnto them, vntill our souldiours were in the valley. The Spaniardes perceiuing that they were strong enough to encounter with our people, suddainly leapt out of their dens, and beset our souldiours on both sides. Eighty Netherlanders and diuers Spaniards slaine. Our people seeing themselues thus compassed with their enemies, behaued themselues most valiantly, so that many of the Spaniards lost their liues, and 80. of ours were slaine in this valley: among whom were 2. Lieutenants (the one was Meerbecks sonne, and the other was Lieutenant to captaine Bynon) which had receiued aboue 50. wounds in their bodies, so pittifullie were they massacred, thus were these worthie champions intercepted. The rest of those 4. companies, which were not present at this fury of the Spaniardes, towardes the euening, descended the hills, and marched into the towne. Presently after this, watch was appointed in al places of the towne, and some of the soldiours began to dig the ground, to seeke for such goods as the Spaniardes had buried, but at that instant they founde nothing, except only certain pipes of wine.

About the sunne setting was brought in a Spanish prisoner, which was de deliuered to the Prouest marshal, by the Generals commandement, to the end he might bring them to all such places in the Ilande, whereas the Spaniardes had hidden their goods: But because nothing could then be effected by reason that the euening approched, and it began, to bee too dark, the Spaniard was committed to a keeper vntil the next morning for the purpose aforesaide. But the night being far spent, and the keeper taking small regard to his charge, the Spaniard secretlie stole awaie and ran to the mountaines.

The 14. of Iuly, in the morning the long boates rowed againe to the shore, and caried aboorde such goods as the enemy had left behind them, which for the most, part were wines, for they had caried clean awaie all other things into the mountains, and had left almost nothing in the towne, but only the wines which they had buried in the earth: In the afternoone our people found 3. bels, which they had buried in the fields, where corne had growne.

The 15. of Iuly in the morning our people running vp to the hils 10. or 12. in a company to hunt and seeke for pillage were suddainly inuironed by the enemy, and 6. or 8. of them slaine; the rest saued themselues by flight. About noone there was a generall muster taken of all the soldiours, to see how many wee had lost: and such ships as were appointed to returne home, began to deliuer out the victuals. The same day were two copper peeces founde: whereof the one was 16. foot and halfe long, and the other about 14. foot.

The 16. day in the morning the Lord Generall gaue notice to all captaines to resort to him aboord his ship, because some of the captaines had not sent victuals vnto the soldiors that were on land, whereby they suffered hunger, and sundry of the soldiours had complained to the General thereof: At afternoone, the enemy came to the hill which lieth ouer the towne, crying and calling vnto our men to come and fetch againe their muskets, and towards the euening many marriners with their weapons landed, and at that instant also all things were ordered to march very early the next morning vp the hils to fetch againe our muskets, caliuers, and other weapons, which the Spaniards before had in mockery, and gibing wise willed vs to fetch from them. But now when all things were ordered for this seruice: the same night arose a strong gale of winde, encreasing more and more, that in the ende it grewe to a mightie tempest, that notwithstanding our fleet did ride vnder the Iland Gomera in the road before the towne, some were forced to way their anchors and to put to sea, to preuent the mischiefe like to happen to the ships, by reason they lay so neere one another. And when those shipps were a little way in the Sea, they cast their anchors, and there remained. By this occasion the generals aforesaid enterprise was kept backe: we iudging it as a warning, that the Generall should spare and preserue his people from the bloud-thirsty Spaniards, which had their holes and dens in the hils, and perhaps might haue taken away many of our liues. And heere by the way; by the name of the Iland Canaria, the Spaniards may rightly bee called Canarians or Canes, for Canaria is by interpretation, dogs kinde, for they ran as swift as dogs, and were as tyrannicall and bloud thirsty as the rauening Wolfe, or any other wild beast, which they sufficiently manifested, for as soon as they could lay handes on any of our people (like vnto mad curs, agreeing with their name Canarians) they would presently woary them.

The 17. this hurtfull night ended, and the tempest ouer passed, and alaid, the couragious soldiors were all in redines, desirous to execute this peece of seruice, exspecting and desiring nothing more, then to march vp the hils, and to incounter their idolotrous enemies. But vpon good consideration, this enterprise was staied, and some 300. soldiours sent into the same valley, where 3. daies before our people had beene suddainly compassed, intrapped, and slaine by the Spaniards. Our soldiours being come to the valley aforesaid found no resistance, neither could once see a Spaniard; but found a smal peece of brasse about a fadome long, and two barrels of gunpowder; and when our souldiours perceiued that there was no good to bee done (forbearing to mount the hils, because they had no commission so to do) with such thinges as they had they returned to the towne. The euening now approaching, the Generall commanded to carry aboord the ships, such goods as they had there found, and digged out of the ground, which was accordingly done and accomplished, among which things were three brasse peeces, some bels and other goods.

Sunday the 18. of Iuly, we remained at anchor in the road of the Iland Gomera.

Munday the 19. of Iuly, remaining yet in the Iland Gomera, and seeing that the Spaniardes continued in their secret holes, and dens of the mountaines, wee set fire on the towne, and as neere as we could burnt down all places, as Cloisters churches, hermitages and houses, remaining yet in the towne vntill it was noone. After that all this was accomplished: we the vnited soldiours forsooke the towne, and presently the Lord General, with al his company, went aboord the ships. Thus we left the Iland Gomera burning, which was neuer before done by any nation. The Spaniardes seeing that the soldiours were departed out of the Iland, with all speed possible, in great heapes came running out of their secret caues and holes, to quench the fire, like as they of Allegona in the Iland of great Canaria before had done.

Wednesday the 20. of Iuly, we lay stil in the road before Gomera, in this time 2. of our soldiours were put into captain Cloiers ship, and in lew of them, we receiued out of his ship 2. others, which were hurt, with two Spaniards.

The summary or briefe declaration of the Admirals departing towardes the West Indies.

Aftre that the Generall had left the Ilands, he giueth order to the fleete, taketh his leaue of all the Captaines and officers in most honorable sort: he aduanceth the voyage to the West Indies with his Nauy: the rest of the ships returne into the low Countries, euery one from whence he came.

After that the Iland of great Canaria was by the vnited soldiours taken, and won by force of armes, and the Iland Gomera conquered, for sundry reasons they were forsaken, after they had caried to their ships such things as they found, fired the townes, churches, cloisters, and houses, and rased their Castles. The Lord Generall commanded all Captaines and officers of the fleete to resorte vnto him aboord his ship. The same principals being come accordingly, he welcommed them and shewed them al friendship he could, thanking them for their good and faithfull endeuours which they had shewed in this seruice, which he performed with a singular oration, praying Almighty God that he woulde vouchsafe to be his only loadsman and merciful defender, in all his enterprises, to the honor of his name, and happy successe of the vnited Netherlandish prouinces. After this, the lorde Generall againe in most friendly sort, and kind speeches, perswaded and desired all the saide captaines and officers, (alleadging many reasons and examples) to perseuer in their good beginning of true and faithfull seruice for God, and for their good Lords and principall magistrates, the honorable gentlemen and states of the vnited Netherland; and to the good liking of their valiant and high borne gentleman, and gouernour General prince Mauritz, their principal lorde and commander, &c. with these and such like matters the daie was spent.

Wednesday the 21. of Iuly, the wind was northerly: The lord Generall commanded all the captaines and officers to resort vnto him: and in most curteous maner againe the second time, tooke leaue of them all, ordaining and appointing in his place as Admirall Generall ouer all those shippes which were to returne home, the valiant captaine Ian Gerbrantson, desiring and straightly charging them at there present, to shew all obedience and duty vnto him, as to his owne person, and that they should make his minde knowne to all others which had not beene there present. After these speeches, and leaue taken, The Netherlandish fleet diuide themselues into two companies, whereof the one returneth homewardes, and the other proceedeth for the West Indians. the Admirall Ian Gerbrantson put out the princes colours in the maine top: and the honorable gentleman Peter von der Doest presentlie caused the princes flag also to be spread; and as soone as the sunne was Southwest, all the ships at one instant waied their anchors, and hoised their sailes, taking leaue nowe the third time one of another, in most braue and triumphant sort, and in this maner departed the one from the other. The lord General with his fleet, set this course South Southwest, with 36. ships, and the Admirall Ian Gerbrantson ran East by the wind, with 35. ships with intent to returne home.

Two Spanish prizes taken. Wednesday the 18. of August, sixteene ships of our fleet which were sent to returne home, being in company together in the latitude of 36. degrees and 10. minutes, the wind Southwest sailing Northeast, before it was noone, we perceiued 2. strange ships vnder saile comming out of the Northwest, towards whom we made, and at afternoone we ouertooke them, and made them our prises: they were both Spaniardes, the one was a small Barke, and came from Cape de Blanco in 21. degrees, loaden for Woluis in the Condate where they dwelled. In the same ships was a marchant of Cyuill with 47. men, each of their ships hauing two cast peeces, and euery man his musket, but they made no shewe of defence, or offending. There was also found laden in the same ships, sixty thousand drie hides or skins, esteemed to bee worth 6000. duckets as they reported, there were also found two bags with mony, in the one was 11. hundred single rials, and in the other 10. hundred and forty single rials, with two Buts of traine oile, and two barrels of gum Arabique.

Thursday the 19. day, we the abouesaid 16. ships were together, beside the two Spanish ships, 4 ships of war of North Holland, 4 ships of Warres of Zeland and one ship of war of the Maze: the captain wherof was Antony Leonardson, al the rest were victualers. The wind West Northwest, we sailed Northeast, and by North in 36. degrees and 45. minutes. The captaines had beene all aboord the Admirall in councell aduising what were best to bee done in this matter of the Spaniards prises.

Saturday, Sunday, the 21. and 22. of August, our said fleet of 18. ships kept yet together, we found our selues to bee in 39. degrees, 6. minuts. The sun South and by West, the winde blew vp at West Northwest, wee sailed North Northeast, and North and by East, Lysborne was East of vs.

Munday the sixt of September, the winde westerly, we ran East, at noone wee sounded, the depth was 50. fadome water, we found small white shels with needles therein, in the hight of 49. degrees 20. minuts, the sun Southwest, wee had sight of Vshant, we ran Northeast and by North.

Tuesday the 7. of September, the sun East South East, wee saw England, a mighty blustering gale of winde from the South Southwest, wee sailed North Northeast. The sunne Southwest, came to land at Gawstert. Afterwarde wee turned and sailed East Southeast: In the euening it blewe so much winde, that wee were forced to strike our maine top mast, and we ranne the whole night with two courses by the wind.

Wednesday the 8. of September, the foule weather continued, the sunne East and by South, we had sight of the Ile of Wight North Northwest of vs, and ranne the whole day, East Northeast with the foresaile by the wind: as the evening approached we saw Beuersier, in the night and second quarter we passed by Douer.

Thursday the 9. of September, as soone as the daie began to appeare it was calme weather, and darke, the sun Southeast, we lay still before Newport all the ebbe, The wind easterly, in the after noone the wind came Northwest, we set saile againe, running al night by the wind with our foresaile.

Friday the 10. of September 1599, by the break of day wee were before the Maze, the sun Southwest, we arriued by the helpe of God’s mercy and grace before the Brill.

Since then, there is arriued at Texell another ship of war, whereof one Cater of Amsterdam was captain, the wich was seuered from the fleet in this voiage by tempest, and thought to be lost. The said captaine met with some prises, and in company of two English shippes tooke a Caruell of Aduiso, verie richly laden comming out of India, and hauing more men then the English, shared halfe of the goods with them, and so came home this present month of Octob.

FINIS.

The Worldes Hydrographical Discription.

WHEREIN IS PROUED NOT ONELY BY AUTHORITIE OF WRITERS, BUT ALSO BY LATE EXPERIENCE OF TRAUELLERS, AND REASONS OF SUBSTANTIALL PROBABILITIE, THAT THE WORLDE IN ALL HIS ZONES, CLYMATS AND PLACES, IS HABITABLE AND INHABITED AND THE SEAS LIKEWISE VNIUERSALLY NAUIGABLE WITHOUT ANY NATURALL ANOYANCE TO HINDER THE SAME

WHEREBY APPEARES THAT FROM ENGLAND THERE IS A SHORT AND SPEEDIE PASSAGE INTO THE SOUTH SEAS, TO CHINA, MALUCCA, PHILIPPINA, AND INDIA, BY NORTHERLY NAUIGATION TO THE RENOWNE, HONOR AND BENIFIT OF HER MAIESTIES STATE, AND COMMUNALTY.

PUBLISHED BY J. DAUIS OF SANDRUDG BY DARTMOUTH IN THE COUNTIE OF DEUON. GENTLEMAN.

ANNO 1595. MAY 27.

IMPRINTED AT LONDON

BY THOMAS DAWSON

DWELLING AT THE THREE CRANES IN THE VINETREE. AND ARE THERE TO BE SOLD. 1595.

TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE

LORDES OF HER MAIESTIES MOST HONORABLE PRIUIE COUNSAYLE.

My most honorable good Lords for as much as it hath pleased God, not only to bestow vpon your Lordships, the excellent gifts of natures benefite, but hath also beautified the same with such speciall ornamentes of perfection: As that thereby the mindes and attentiue industrie of all, haue no small regard vnto your honorable proceedings. And so much the rather, because to the great content of all her maiesties most louing subiectes; it hath pleased her highnes in her stately regard of gouernment, to make choise of your honours as speciall members in the regall disposition of the mightinesse of her imperiall command: Emboldeneth me among the rest to humble myself at your honorable feete, in presenting vnto the fauour of your excellent iudgementes this short treatise of the Worldes Hydrographicall bands. And knowing that not onely your renowned places, but also the singularitie of your education, by the prudent care of your noble progenitors hath and still doth induce and drawe you to fauour and imbrace whatsoeuer beareth but a seeming of the commonweales good: Much more then that which in substantiall truth shal be most beneficiall to the same. I am therefore the more encouraged not to slacke this my enterprise, because that through your honorable assistance when in the ballance of your wisedomes this discouery shall haue indifferent consideration, I knowe it will be ordered by you to bee a matter of no small moment to the good of our countrie. For thereby wee shall not onely haue a copious and rich vent for al our naturall and artificiall comodities of England, in short time by safe passage, and without offence of any, but also shall by the first imployment retourne into our countrey by spedie passage, all Indian commodities in the ripenes of their perfection, whereby her Maiesties dominions should bee the storehouse of Europe, the nurse of the world and the glory of nations, in yielding all forrayne naturall benefites by an easie rate: In communicating vnto all whatsoeuer God hath vnto any one assigned: And by the increase of all nations through the mightinesse of trade. Then should the merchant, tradesman, and poore artificer, haue imployment equall to their power and expedition, whereby what notable benefites would growe to her Maiestie, the state, and communaltie, I refer to your perfect iudgementes. And for that I am desirous to auoyde the contradiction of vulgar conceipts, I haue thought it my best course, before I make profe of the certaintie of this discouerie, to lay downe whatsoeuer may against the same be obiected, and in the ouerthrowe of those conceipted hinderances the safenes of the passage shall most manifestly appeare, which when your wisdomes, shall with your patience peruse, I doe in no sort distruct your fauorable acceptance and honorable assistance of the same. And although for diuers considerations I doe not in this treatis discouer my full knowledge for the place and altitude of this passage, yet whensoeuer it shall so please your honours to commaund I will in few wordes make the full certainty thereof knowne vnto your honours being alwaies redie with my person and poore habilitie to prosecute this action as your honours shall direct, beseeching God so to support you with all happines of this life, fauour of her Maiestie, loue of her highnes subiectes, and increase of honour as may be to your best content.

I most humbly take my leaue from Sandrudg by Dartmouth

this 27. of May 1595.

Your Honors in all dutifull seruice to command

I. D.

THE WORLDS HYDROGRAPHICALL OBIECTIONS AGAINST AL NORTHERLY DISCOUERIES.

All434 impediments in nature, and circumstances of former practises duly considered. The Northerly passage to China seme very improbable. For first it is a matter very doubtfull whether there bee any such passage or no, sith it hath beene so often attempted and neuer performed, as by historical relation appeareth, whereby wee may fully perswade our selues that America and Asia, or some other continent are so conioyned togeather as that it is impossible for any such passage to be, the certaintie whereof is substantially proued vnto vs by the experience of Sebastian Gabota an expert Pylot, and a man reported of especiall iudgement, who being that wayes imployed returned without successe. Iasper Corteriallis a man of no meane practise did likewise put the same in execution, with diuers others, all which in the best parte haue concluded ignorance. If not a full consent of such matter. And therfore sith practise hath reproued the same, there is no reason why men should dote vpon so great an incertayntie, but if a passage may bee prooued and that the contenentes are disioyned whereof there is small hope, yet the impedimentes of the clymate (wherein the same is supposed to lie) are such, and so offensiue as that all hope is thereby likewise vtterly secluded, for with the frozen zone no reasonable creature will deny, but that the extremitie of colde is of such forceable action, (being the lest in the fulnes of his owne nature without mitigation,) as that it is impossible for any mortall creature to indure the same, by the vertue of whose working power, those Northerly Seas are wholly congealed, making but one mas or contenent of yse, which is the more credible because the ordenary experience of our fishermen geueth vs sufficient notice thereof, by reason of the great quantitie of yse which they find to be brought vpon the cost of newefound land from those Northerne regions. By the aboundance whereof they are so noysomly pestred, as that in many weekes they haue not beene able to recouer the shore, yea and many times recouer it not vntill the season of fishing bee ouer passed. This then being so in the Septentrionall latitude of 46, 47 and 48 degrees, which by natures benifit are latitudes of better temperature than ours of England, what hope should there remayne for a nauegable passing to be by the norwest, in the altitude of 60, 70 or 80 degres, as it may bee more Northerly, when in these temperate partes of the world the shod of that frozen sea breadeth such noysome pester: as the pore fishermen doe continually sustain. And therefore it seemeth to be more then ignorance that men should attempt Nauigation in desperate clymates and through seas congeled that neuer dissolue, where the stiffnes of the colde maketh the ayre palpably grosse without certainty that the landes are disioyned.

All which impediments if they were not, yet in that part of the world, Nauigation cannot be performed as ordenarily as it vsed, for no ordenarie sea chart can describe those regions either in the partes Geographicall or Hydrographicall, where the Meridians doe so spedily gather themselues togeather, the parallels beeing a verye small proportion to a great circle, where quicke and vncertayne variation of the Compasse may greatly hinder or vtterly ouerthrow the attempt. So that for lack of Curious lyned globes to the right vse of Nauigation; with many other instruments either vnknowne or out of vse, and yet of necessitie for that voyage, it should with great difficultie be attayned. All which the premises considered I refer the conclusion of these obiections and certainty of this passage to the generall opinion of my louing countrymen, whose dangerous attemptes in those desperate uncertainties I wish to be altered, and better imployed in matters of great probabilitie.

To prove a passage by the Norwest, without any land impedimentes to hinder the same, by aucthoritie of writters, and experience of trauellers, contrary to the former obiections.

Homer an ancient writer affirmeth that, the world being diuided into Asia, Africa, and Europe is an Iland, which is likewise so reported by Strabo in his erst book of Cosmographie, Pomponius Mela in his third booke, Higinius, Solinus, with others. Whereby it is manifest that America was then vndiscovered and to them vnknowne, otherwise they would haue made relation of it as of the rest. Neither could they in reason haue reported Asia, Africa and Europa to bee an Iland vnles they had knowne the same to be conioyned and in all his partes to be inuironed with the seas. And further America being very neere of equall quantitie with all the rest could not be reported as a parte either of Africa, Asia, or Europa in the ordenarie lymites of discretion. And therefore of necessitie it must be concluded that Asia, Africa and Europa the first reueiled world being knowne to bee an Iland, America must likewise be in the same nature because in no parte it conioyneth with the first.

By experience of Trauellers to proue this passage.

And that wee neede not to range after forrayne and ancient authorities, wherat curious wittes may take many exceptions, let vs consider the late discoueryes performed, within the space of two ages not yet passed, whereby it shall so manifestly appeare that Asia, Africa, and Europa are knit togeather, making one continent, and are wholy inuironed with the seas, as that no reasonable creature shall haue occasion thereof to doubt. And first beginning at the north of Europe, from the north cape in 71 degrees, whereby our merchantes passe in their trade to S. Nicholas in Rouscia descending towardes the South, the Nauigation is without impediment to the cape of Bona Esperanca, ordenarilie traded and daily practised. And therefore not to be gaynesayd: which two capes are distant more then 2000 leagues by the neerest tract, in all which distaunces America is not founde to bee any thing neere the coastes either of Europe or Afric, for from England the chefest of the partes of Europa to Newfoundland being parte of America it is 600. leagues the neerest distance that any part thereof beareth vnto Europa. And from cape Verde in Gynny being parte of Africa, vnto cape Saint Augustine in Brasill beeing parte of America, it wanteth but little of 500 leagues the neerest distance betweene Africa and America. Likewise from the sayd North Cape to Noua Zemla by the course of East and West neerest, there is passable sayling, and the North partes of Tartaria are well knowne to be banded with the Scithian Seas to the promontory Tabin so that truely it is apparant that America is farre remooued and by a great sea diuided from any parte of Africa or Europa. And for the Southerne partes of the firste reueiled worlde it is most manifest that from the cape of Bona Esperanca towardes the east, the costes of Safalla, Mosombique, Melinde, Arabia, and Persia, whose gulfes lye open to the mayne occian: And all the coastes of East India to the capes of Callacut and Malacca, are banded with a mightie sea vpon the South whose lymmates are yet vndiscouered. And from the cape of Malacca towardes the North so high as the Ile of Iapan, and from thence the cost of China being part of Asia continueth still North to the promontory Tabin, where the Scithian sea and this Indian sea haue recourse togeather, no part of America being neere the same by many 100 leages to hinder this passage.

For from the Callafornia beeing parte of America, to the yles of Philippina bordering vpon the coastes of China being parte of Asia is 2100 leages and therefore America is farther separated from Asia, then from any the sea coastes either of Europe or Africa. Whereby it is most manifest that Asia, Africa and Europa are conioyned in an Iland. And therefore of necessity followeth that America is contained vnder one or many ylands, for from the septentrionall lat. of 75 deg. vnto the straights of Magilan it is knowne to be nauigable and hath our west occian to lymet the borders thereof, and through the straightes of Magillane no man doubteth but there is Nauigable passage, from which straightes, vpon all the Westerne borders of America, the costs of Chili, Chuli, Rocha, Baldiuia, Peru to the ystmos of Dariena and so the whole West shores of Noua Hispania are banded out by a long and mightie sea, not hauing any shore neere vnto it by one thousand leagues towardes the West, howe then may it be possible that Asia and America should make one contenent:

To proue the premisses by the attemptes of our owne Countreymen, besides others.

But lest it should be obiected that the premises are conceites, the acting aucthors not nominated, I will vse some boldnes to recyte our owne countreymen by whose paynefull trauells these truthes are made manifest vnto vs. Hoping and intreting that it may not bee offensiue, though in this sorte I make relation of their actions. And firste to begin with the North partes of Europe, it is not vnknowne to all our countrymen that from the famous citie of London Syr Huge Willobie, knight, gaue the first attempt for the North estren discoueries, which were afterward most notably accomplished by master Borrowes, a Pylot of excellent iudgemente and fortunate in his actions, so farre as Golgoua Vaygats and Noua Zemla, with trade thereby procured to S. Nicholas in Rouscia. Then succeded master Ginkinson who by his land trauell discouered the Scithian sea to lymit the North coastes of Tartaria, so farre as the riuer Ob. So that by our countrymen the North partes of Europe are at full made knowne vnto vs: and prooued to ioyne with no other continent to hinder this passage. The common and ordenary trade of the Spanyard and Portingall from Lysbome to the coasts of Guyny, Bynny, Mina, Angola, Manicongo, and the cost of Ethiopia to the cape of Bona Esperanca, and all the cost of Est India and Illes of Molucca, (by which wonderfull and copious trade, they are so mightily inriched, as that now they challeng a monarchy vnto themselues vpon the whole face of the earth) that their trade I say, prooueth that America is farre separated from any parte of Africa or the South of Asia. And the same Spaniard trading in the Citye of Canton within the kingdome of China, hauing layd his storehouse of aboundance in Manellia a Citye by him erected in Luzon one of the Illes of Philippa bordring vpon the cost of China, doth by his common and ordenarie passages to Iapan and other the borders of the coast, knowe that the Est continent of Asia lieth due North and South so high as the promontory Tabin, wher the Scithian sea and his maine occian of China are conioyned. But with what care they labour to conceale that matter of Hydrographie for the better preseruation of their fortunate estate, I refer to the excellent iudgement of statesmen, that painefully labour in the glorious administration of a well gouerned Common weale, so that by them Africa and Asia are proued in no parte to ioyne with America, thereby to hinder this passage.

By late experience to prone that America is an Iland, and may be sayled round about contrary to the former obiection.

Asia, Africa and Europa being prooued to be conioyned and an Iland, it now resteth to bee knowne by what authoritie America is proued to be likewise an Iland, so that thereby all land impedimentes are remoued, which might brede the dread or vncertaynty of this passage. The first Englishman that gaue any attempt vpon the coastes of West India being parte of America was syr Iohn Hawkins knight: who there and in that attempt as in many others sithins, did and hath prooued himselfe to be a man of excellent capacity, great gouernment, and perfect resolution. For before he attempted the same it was a matter doubtfull and reported the extremest lymit of danger to sayle vpon those coastes. So that it was generally in dread among vs, such is the slownes of our nation, for the most part of vs rather ioy at home like Epicures to sit and carpe at other mens hassardes, our selues not daring to giue any attempt. (I meane such as are at leisure to seeke the good of their countrie not being any wayes imployed as paynefull members of a common weale,) then either to further or giue due commendations to the deseruers, howe then may Syr Iohn Hawkins bee esteemed, who being a man of good account in his Country, of wealth and great imployment, did notwithstanding for the good of his Countrey, to procure trade, giue that notable and resolute attempt. Whose steps many hundreds following sithins haue made themselues men of good esteeme, and fit for the seruice of her sacrid maiestie.

And by that his attempt of America (wherof West India is a parte) is well prooued to be many hundred leagues distant from any part of Afric or Europe.

Then succeeded Syr Francis Drake in his famous and euer renowned voyage about the world, who departing from Plimouth directed his course for the straightes of Magillane, which place was also reported to be most dangerous by reason of the continuall violent and vnresistable current that was reported to haue continuall passage into the straightes, so that once entring therein there was no more hope remayning of returne, besides the perill of shelues, straightness of the passage and vncertayne wyndinges of the same, all which bread dread in the highest degree, the distance and dangers considered. So that before his revealing of the same the matter was in question, whether there were such a passage or no, or whether Magillane did passe the same, if there was such a man so named, but Syr Frauncis Drake, considering the great benefit that might arise by his voyage through that passage, and the notable discoueries, that might be thereby performed, regarded not these dastardly affections of the idle multitude, but considering with iudgement that in nature there cold be no such perpetuitie of violence where the occian is in no sorte straighted, proceeded with discreet prouision and so departing from England arriued vnto the same, and with good sucesse (through Gods most fauorable mercy passed through) wherein his resolution hath deserued euerlasting commendations. For the place in viewe is dangerous and verye vnpleasing, and in the execution to passe Nothing may seeme more doubtful, for 14 leagues west within the cape of Saint Maria lyeth the first straight, where it floweth and ebbeth with violent swiftnes, the straight not half a mile broad, the first fall into which straight is verye dangerous and doubtfull. This straight lasteth in his narrownes, 3 leages, then falling into another sea 8 leages broad and 8 leages through there lyeth the second straight due west. South West from the firste, which course being vnknowne it is no small perill in finding this second straightes, and that agayne is not a myle broad and continueth the bredth 3 or 4 leages Southwest, with violent swiftnes of flowing and reflowing, and there agayne he falleth into another Sea, through which due, South South West, lyeth the cape Froward, and his straight (so rightly named in the true nature of his peruersnes, for be the wind neuer so fauorable, at that cape it will be directly agaynst you with violent and daungerous flaughes) where there are three places probable to continue the passage. But the true straight lyeth from this cape West Nor West, where the land is very high all couered with snowe, and full of dangerous counter-windes, that beate with violence from those huge mountaines, from which cape the straight is neuer broder then 2 leages and in many places not halfe a mile, without hope of ancorage, the channell beeing shore deepe more then tow hundreth fadomes, and so continueth to the South sea forty leages only to bee releued in little dangerous coues, with many turnings and chang of courses; how perilous then was this passage to Syr Frauncis Drake, to whom at that time no parte thereof was knowne. And being without reliefe of ancorage was inforced to follow his course in the hell darke nights, and in all the fury of tempestious stormes. I am the bolder to make this particuler relation in the praise of his perfect constancy and magnanemitye of spirite, because I haue thrise passed the same straights and haue felt the most bitter and mercyles fury thereof. But now knowing the place as I doe (for I haue described euery creke therein) I know it to be a voiage of as great certaynty, pleasure and ease, as any whatsoeuer that beareth but 1/4 the distaunce from England that these straightes doe. And this straight is founde to be 1200 leages from any parte of Africa so that truely it is manifest that these two landes are by no small distance seperated.

And after that Syr Frauncis was entred into the South Seas he coasted all the Westerne shores of America vntill he came into the Septentrionall latitude of forty eight degrees being on the backe syde of Newfound land. And from thence shaping his course towardes Asia found by his trauells that the Ills of Molucca are distant from America more then two hundreth leages, howe then can Asia and Africa be conioyned and made one continent to hinder the passage, the men yet liuing that can reproue the same, but this conceipt is the bastard of ignorance borne through the fornication of the malitious multitude that onely desire to hinder when themselues can doe no good.

Now their onely resteth the North parts of America, vpon which coast my selfe haue had most experience of any in our age: for thrise I was that waye imployed for the discouery of this notable passage, by the honourable care and some charge of Syr Francis Walsingham knight, principall secretary to her Maiestie, with whom diuers noble men and worshipfull marchants of London ioyned in purse and willingnesse for the furtherance of that attempt, but when his honour dyed the voyage was friendlesse, and mens mindes alienated from aduenturing therein.

The 1 voyage. In my first voyage not experienced of the nature of those climates, and hauing no direction either by Chart, Globe, or other certaine relation in what altitude that passage was to be searched, I shaped a Northerly course and so sought the same toward the South, and in that my Northerly course I fell vpon the shore which in ancient time was called Groenland, fiue hundred leagues distant from the Durseys Westnorthwest Northerly, the land being very high and full of mightie mountaines all couered with snow, no viewe of wood, grass or earth to be seene, and the shore two leagues off into the sea so full of yce that no shipping could by any meanes come neere the same. The lothsome view of the shore, and irksome noyse of the yce was such, as that it bred strange conceites among vs, so that we supposed the place to be wast and voyd of any sensible or vegitable creatures, whereupon I called the same Desolation: so coasting this shore towards the South in the latitude of sixtie degrees, I found it to trend towards the West, I still followed the leading therof in the same height, and after fifty or sixtie leagues it fayled and lay directly North, which I still followed, and in thirtie leagues sayling vpon the West side of this coast by me named Desolation, we were past al the yce and found many greene and pleasant Isles bordering vpon the shore, but the mountaines of the maine were still couered with great quantities of snow, I brought my ship among those Isles and there mored to refresh ourselues in our weary trauell, in the latitude of sixtie foure degrees or there about. The people of the countrey hauing espyed our shippes came downe vnto vs in their Canoas, and holding vp their right hand to the Sunne and crying Yliaout, would strike their breasts: we doing the like the people came aboard our shippes, men of good stature, vnbearded, small eyed and of tractable conditions, by whome as signes would permit, we vnderstood that towards the North and West there was a great sea, and vsing the people with kindenes in giuing them nayles and kniues which of all things they most desired, we departed, and finding the sea free from yce supposing our selues to be past al daunger we shaped our course Westnorthwest thinking thereby to passe for China, but in the latitude of sixtie sixe degrees we fell with another shore, and there found another passage of twenty leagues broad directly West into the same, which we supposed to be our hoped straight, we entered into the same thirty or fortie leagues, finding it neither to wyden nor streighten, then considering that the yeere was spent (for this was in the fine of August) not knowing the length of the straight and dangers thereof, we tooke it our best course to returne with notice of our good successe for this small time of search. And so returning in a sharpe fret of Westerly windes the 29. of September we arriued at Dartmouth. And acquainting master Secretary with the rest of the honourable and worshipfull aduenturers of all our proceedings, I was appointed againe the second yere to search the bottome of this straight, because by all likelihood it was the place and passage by vs laboured for. The 2 voyage. In this second attempt the marchants of Exeter, and other places of the West became aduenturers in the action, so that being sufficiently furnished for sixe moneths, and hauing direction to search these straights, vntill we found the same to fall into another sea vpon the West side of this part of America, we should againe returne: for then it was not to be doubted, but shipping with trade might safely be conueied to China and the parts of Asia. We departed from Dartmouth, and arriuing vnto the South part of the coast of Desolation coasted the same vpon his West shore to the latitude of sixetie sixe degrees, and there ancored among the Isles bordering vpon the same, where we refreshed our selues, the people of this place came likewise vnto vs, by whom I vnderstood through their signes that towards the North the sea was large. At this place the chiefe ship whereupon I trusted, called the Mermayd of Dartmouth, found many occasions of discontentment, and being vnwilling to proceed, shee there forsook me. Then considering how I had giuen my faith and most constant promise to my worshipfull good friend master William Sanderson, who of all men was the greatest aduenturer in that action, and tooke such care for the performance thereof that he hath to my knowledge at one time disbursed as much money as any fiue others whatsoeuer out of his owne purse, when some of the companie haue bene slacke in giuing in their aduenture: And also knowing that I should loose the fauour of M. Secretary Walsingham, if I should shrink from his direction; in one small barke of 30 Tunnes, whereof M. Sanderson was owner, alone without farther comfort or company I proceeded on my voyage, and arriuing at these straights followed the same 80 leagues, vntill I came among many Islands, where the water did ebbe and flow sixe fadome vpright, and where there had bene great trade of people to make traine. The North parts of America all Islands. But by such things as there we found, wee knew that they were not Christians of Europe that had vsed that trade: in fine by searching with our boat, we found small hope to passe any farther that way, and therefore retourning agayne recouered the sea and coasted the shore towards the South, and in so doing (for it was too late to search towards the North) we found another great inlet neere 40 leagues broad, where the water entered in with violent swiftnesse, this we also thought might be a passage: for no doubt the North partes of America are all Islands by ought that I could perceiue therein: but because I was alone in a small barque of thirtie tunnes, and the yeere spent, I entred not into the same, for it was now the seuenth of September, but coasting the shore towardes the South wee saw an incredible number of birds: hauing diuers fishermen aboord our barke they all concluded that there was a great skull of fish, we being vnprouided of fishing furniture with a long spike nayle made a hooke, and fastening the same to one of our sounding lines, before the bait was changed we tooke more than fortie great Cods, the fish swimming so abundantly thicke about our barke as is incredible to bee reported, of which with a small portion of salt that we had, we presented some thirtie couple, or thereaboutes, and so returned for England. And hauing reported to M. Secretarie Walsingham the whole successe of this attempt, he commanded me to present vnto the most honourable Lord high Treasurour of England, some part of that fish: which when his Lordship saw, and heard at large the relation of this second attempt, I receiued fauourable countenance from his honour, aduising me to prosecute the action, of which his lordship conceiued a very good opinion. The next yere, although diuers of the aduenturers fell from the Action, as all the Westerne marchants, and most of those in London: yet some of the aduenturers both honorable and worshipfull continued their willing fauour and charge, so that by this meanes the next yere two shippes were appointed for the fishing and one pinnesse for the discouerie.

The 3 voyage. Departing from Dartmouth, through Gods mercifull fauour, I arrived at the place of fishing, and there according to my direction I left the two ships to follow that busines, taking their faithful promise not to depart vntill my returne vnto them, which should be in the fine of August, and so in the barke I proceeded for the discouerie: but after my departure, in sixteene dayes the two shippes had finished their voyage, but so presently departed for England, without regard of their promise: my selfe not distrusting any such hard measure proceeded for the discouerie, and followed my course in the free and open sea betweene North and Northwest to the latitude of 67 degrees, and there I might see America West from me, and Desolation, East: then when I saw the land of both sides I began to distrust it would prooue but a gulfe: notwithstanding desirous to know the full certainty I proceeded, and in 68 degrees the passage enlarged, so that I could not see the Westerne shore: thus I continued to the latitude of 73 degrees, in a great sea, free from yce, coasting the Westerne shore of Desolation: the people came continually rowing out vnto me in their Canoas, twenty, forty, and one hundred at a time, and would giue me fishes dryed, Salmon, Salmon peale, Cod, Caplin, Lumpe, Stonebase and such like, besides diuers kinds of birds, as Partrige, Fesant, Guls, Sea birds and other kindes of flesh: I still laboured by signes to know from them what they knew of any sea toward the North, they still made signes of a great sea as we vnderstood them, then I departed from that coast, thinking to discouer the North parts of America: and after I had sailed towards the West 40 leagues, I fel vpon a great banke of yce: the winde being North and blew much, I was constrained to coast the same toward the South, not seeing any shore West from me, neither was there any yce towards the North, but a great sea, free, large very salt and blew, and of an vnsearcheable depth: So coasting towards the South I came to the place where I left the ships to fish, but found them not. Then being forsaken and left in this distresse referring my self to the mercifull prouidence of God, I shaped my course for England, and vnhoped for of any, God alone releeuing me, I arriued at Dartmouth. By this last discouery it seemed most manifest that the passage was free and without impediment toward the North: but by reason of the Spanish fleet and vnfortunate time of M. Secretaries death, the voyage was omitted and neuer sithens attempted. The cause why I vse this particular relation of all my proceedings for this discouery, is to stay this obiection, why hath not Dauis discovered this passage being thrise that wayes imployed? How far I proceeded and in what form this discouery lieth, doth appeare vpon the Globe which M. Sanderson to his very great charge hath published, for the which he deserueth great fauor and commendations. Made by master Emery Mullineux a man well qualited of a good iudgment and very experte in many excellente practises, in myselfe being the onely meane with master Sanderson to imploy master Mulineux therein, whereby he is now growne to a most exquisite perfection.

Anthony de Mendoza viceroy of Mexico, sent certayne of his captaynes by land and also a nauy of ships by sea to search out the Norwest passage, who affirmed by his letters dated from Mexico in anno 1541 vnto the Emperour being then in Flaunders, that towardes the Norwest hee had founde the Kingdome of Cette, Citta, Alls, Ceuera, seuen cities and howe beyond the sayd Kingdome farther towardes the Norwest, Francisco Vasques of Coronado hauing passed great desarts came to the sea side, where he found certayne shippes which sayled by that sea with merchandize, and had in their banners vpon the prows of their shippes, certayne fowles made of golde and siluer, named Alcatrazzi, and that the mariners signified vnto him by signes that they were thirtie dayes comming to the hauen, whereby he vnderstoode that those could be of no other country but of Asia, the next knowne continent towardes the West. And farther the sayd Anthony affirmed that by men wel practised hee vnderstoode that 950. leages of that country was discouered vpon the same Sea, now if the cost in that distance of leages should lye to the West, it would then adioyne with the Northe partes of Asia, and then it would be a far shorter voyage then thirtie dayes sayling, but that it is nothing neere Asia by former authoritie is sufficiently expressed, then if it should lie towardes the North, it would extend itself almost vnto the pole, a voiage ouer tedious to be perfourmed by land trauell. Therefore of necessity this distance of 950 leages must lie betweene the North and East, which by Anthony de Especio in his late trauells vpon the North of America is sufficiently discouered, then this beeing so, the distance is very small betweene the East parte of this discouered Sea and the passage wherein I haue so painefully laboured, what doth then hinder vs of England vnto whom of all nations this discouery would be most beneficiall to be incredulous slow of vnderstanding, and negligent in the highest degree, for the search of this passage which is most apparently prooued and of wonderfull benefit to the vniversal state of our countrey. Why should we be thus blinded seeing our enemies to possess the fruites of our blessednes and yet will not perceiue the same. But I hope the eternall maiestie of God the sole disposer of all thinges will also make this to appeare in his good time.

Cornelius Nepos recyteth that when Quintus Metellus Cæsar was proconsull for the Romanes in Fraunce, the King of Sueuia gaue him certayne Indians, which sayling out of India for merchandize were by tempest driuen vpon the coastes of Germany, a matter very strange that Indians in the fury of stormes should ariue vpon that coast, it resteth now carefully to consider by what winde they were so driuen, if they had beene of any parte of Africa how could they escape the ylls of Cape Verd, or the ylles of Canaria, the coastes of Spayne, Fraunce, Ireland or England to arriue as they, but it was neuer knowne that any the natyues of Afric or Ethiopia haue vsed shippings. Therefore they could not bee of that parte of the worlde, for in that distance sayling they would haue been starued if no other shore had giuen them relefe. And that they were not of America is verye manifest, for vpon all the Est parte of that continent, beeing now thereby discouered, it hath not at any time beene perceiued that those people were euer accustomed to any order of shipping, which appeareth by the arriual of Colon vpon those coastes, for they had his shipping in such wonderfull admiration that they supposed him and his companie to haue descended from heauen, so rare and strange a thing was shipping in their eyes. Therefore those Indians could not bee of America safely to bee driuen vpon the coastes of Germany, the distance and impedimentes well considered.

Then comming neither from Afric nor America, they must of necessitie come from Asia by the Noreast or Norwest passages. But it should seme that they came not by the Noreast to double the promontory Tabin, to bee forced through the Scithian Sea, and to haue good passage through the narrow straight of Noua Zemla and neuer to recouer any shore is a matter of great impossibilitie. Therefore it must heedes be concluded that they came by the North partes of America through that discouered sea of 950 leages, and that they were of those people which Francisco Vasques of Coronado discouered, all which premises considered there remaineth no more doubting but that the landes are disioyned and that there is a Nauigable passage by the Norwest, of God for vs alone ordained to our infinite happines and for the euer being glory of her maiestie, for then her stately seate of London should be the storehouse of Europe: the nurse of the world: and the renowne of Nations, in yielding all forraine naturall benifits, by an easie rate, in short time returned vnto vs, and in the fulnes of their natural perfection: by natural participation through the world of all naturall and artificiall benefites, for want whereof at this present the most part liue distressed: and by the excellent comoditie of her seate, the mightines of her trade, with force of shipping thereby arising, and most aboundant accesse and intercourse from all the Kingdomes of the worlde, then should the ydle hand bee scorned and plenty by industry in all this land should be proclamed.

And therefore the passage prooued and the benefites to all most apparant, let vs no longer neglect our happines, but like Christians with grilling and voluntary spirits labour without fainting for this so excellent a benefit.

To prooue by experience that the sea fryseth not.

Hauing sufficiensly prooued that there is a passage without a land impediments to hinder the same, contrary to the first obiection, it nowe resteth that the other supposed impediments bee likewise answered. And firste as touching the frost and fresing of the seas, it is supposed that the frozen zone is not habitable, and seas innauigable by reason of the vehemencie of cold, by the diuine creator allotted to that part of the world, and we are drawn into that absurdity of this opinion by a coniectural reason of the sunnes far distance and long absence vnder the horizon of the greatest parte of that zone, whereby the working power of colde perfourmeth the fulnesse of his nature, not hauing any contrary disposition to hinder the same and when the Sunne by his presence should comfort that parte of the world, his beames are so far remoued from perpendicularitie by reason of his continuall neerenes to the horizon, as that the effectes thereof answere not the violence of the winters cold. And therefore those seas remayne for euer vndissolued. Which if it be so, that the nature of cold can congeale the seas, it is very likely that his first working power, beginneth vpon the vpper face of the waters, and so descending worketh his effect, which if it were, howe then commeth it to passe that shippes sayle by the North cape, to Saint Nicholas fiue degrees or more within the frozen zone, and finde the seas from pester of yse, the farther from the shore the clearer from yse. And myselfe likewise howe coulde I haue sayled to the septentrionall latitude of seuentie fiue degrees, being nine degrees within the frozen zone, betweene two lands where the sea was straightened not fortie leages broade in some places, and thereby restrained from the violent motion and set of the maine occian and yet founde the same Nauigable and free from yse not onely in the midst of the chanell, but also close aborde the estern shore by me name Desolation, and therefore what neede the repetition of authorities from writers, or wrested philosophical reasons, when playne experience maketh the matter so manifest, and yet I deny not but that I haue seene in some part of those seas, tow sortes of yse, in very great quantity, as a kind of yse by seamen name ylands of yse, being very high aboue the water, fortie and fiftie fadomes by estimation and higher, and euery of those haue beene seuen times as much vnder the water, which I haue proued by taking a peece of yse and haue put the same in a vessell of salt water, and still haue found the seuenth part thereof to bee aboue the water, into what forme soeuer I haue reduced the same, and this kind of yse is nothing but snow, which falleth in those great peeces, from the high mountains bordering close vpon the shore depe seas. (For all the sea coastes of Desolation are mountains of equall height with the pike of Tenerif with verye great vallies betweene them) which I haue seene incredible to bee reported, that vpon the toppe of some of these ylls of yse, there haue beene stones of more then one hundreth tonnes wayght, which in his fall, that snowe hath torne from the clyffe, and in falling maketh such an horible noyse as if there were one hundreth canons shot of at one instant, and this kind of yse is verye white, and freshe, and with shore winds is many times beaten far of into the seas, perhaps twentie leages and that is the farthest distance that they haue euer bin seene from the shore. The other kind is called flake yse, blue, very hard and thinne not aboue three fadomes thick at the farthest, and this kinde of yse bordreth close vpon the shore. And as the nature of heate with apt vessels diuideth the pure spirit from his grosse partes by the coning practice of distillation: so doth the colde in these regions deuide and congeale the fresh water from the salt, nere such shores where by the aboundance of freshe rivers, the saltnes of the sea is mittigated, and not else where, for all yse in general beeing dissolued is very fresh water, so that by the experience of all that haue euer trauelled towardes the North it is well knowne that the sea neuer fryseth, but wee know that the sea dissolueth this yse with great speede, for in twentie foure houres I haue seen an ylande of yse turne vp and downe, as the common phrase is, because it hath melted so fast vnder water that the heauier parte hathe beene vpwarde, which hath beene the cause of his so turning, for the heuiest part of all things swiming is by nature downwards, and therefore sith the sea is by his heate of power to dissolue yse, it is greatly against reason that the same should be frozen, so that the congealation of the seas can bee no hinderance to the execution of this passage, contrary to the former obiection, by late experience reprooued, yet if experience wanted in ordenary reason men should not suppose nature to bee monstrous, for if all such yse and snowe as congealeth and descendeth in the winter did not by natures benefit dissolue in the sommer, but that the cold were more actual then the heate, that difference of inequalitie bee it neuer so little would by time bread natures ouerthrowe, for if the one thousand parte of the yse which in winter is congealed, did the next sommer remayne vndissolued, that continual difference sithins the worldes creation, would not onely haue conuerted all those North Seas into yse, but would also by continuall accesse of snow haue extended himselfe aboue all the ayers regions by which reason all such exalations as should be drawn from the earth and seas within the temperate zones and by windes driuen into these stiffe regions, that moysture was no more to bee hoped for that by dissolution it should haue any returne, so that by time the world should be left waterlesse. And therefore how ridiculous this imagination of the seas frysing is, I refer to the worlds generall opinion.

That the ayre in colde regions is tollerable.

And now for a full answer of all obiections, if the ayre bee proued tollerable then this most excellent and commodious passage is without al contradiction to be perfourmed. And that the ayre is tollerable as well in the winter as in the Sommer is thus proued. The inhabitantes of Moscouia, Lapland, Swethland, Norway and Tartaria omit not to trauel for their commodity: in the deepest of winter, passing by sleades ouer the yse and congealed snowe being made very slipperie and compact like yse by reason of much wearing and trading, hauing the vse of a kind of stag by them called Reen to drawe those their sleades.

Groynland (by me lately named Desolation) is likewise inhabited by a people of good stature and tractable conditions, it also mayntayneth diuers kinde of foules and beastes which I haue their seene, but know not their names, and these must trauell for their food in winter, and therefore the ayre is not intolerable in the extremest nature of coldnes: and for the quality thereof in Sommer by my owne experience I knowe that vpon the shore it is as hot there as it is at the ylls of cape de Verde in which place there is such aboundance of moskeetes, (a kind of gnat that is in India very offensiue and in great quantitie) as that we were stong with them like lepers, not beeing able to haue quiet being vpon the shore.

And vnder the clyfe in the pooles vnto which the streames aryse not, I haue found salt in great plenty as whyte as the salt of Mayo congeled from the salt water which the spryng tyds bring into those poles, which could not be but by the benefit of a noble heat, of which salt I brought with me and gaue to master Secretory Walsingham and to master Sanderson, as a rare thing to be found in those parts and farther the same was of an extraordenary saltnes. And therefore it is an idle dreame that the ayre should there be insufferable, for ourselues haue with the water of those seas made salt, because we desired to know whether the benefit of the sunne were the cause of this cogulation, what better confirmation then can there be then this.

Island is likewise inhabited and yeldeth haukes in great store, as falcons, Ierfalcons, lanardes and sparrow haukes, rauens, crowes, beares, hares and foxes, with horses and other kinde of cattell, vpon which coast in August and September the yse is vtterly dissolued, all which the premises are certainly verified by such as trade thither from Lubec, Hambro, Amsterdam and England yerely, then why should wee dread this fayned distemperature: from cold regions come our most costly furres as sables beeing esteemed for a principall ornament and the beastes that yeld us those furres are chiefly hunted in the winter, how grieuous then shall we thinke the winter to be, or howe insufferable the ayre, where this little tender beast liueth so well, and where the hunters may search the dennes and hauntes of such beastes through the woods and snow.

Vpsaliensis affirmeth that he hath felt the Sommer nights in Gotland scarcely tollerable for heate, whereas in Rome he hath felt them cold.

The Mountaynes of Norway and Swethland are fruitefull of mettalls in which siluer and copper are concoct and molten in veines, which may scarcely bee done with fornaces, by which reason also the vapors and hot exhalations pearcing the earth and the waters and through both those natures breathing forth into the ayre, tempereth the quantitie thereof making it tollerable, as wyttnes the huge bignes of whales in those seas, with the strength of body and long life of such beastes as liue on the land, which thing could not bee except all thinges were there comodiously nourished, by the benefit of the heauen and the ayre, for nothing that in time of increase is hindred by any iniury or that is euill seed all the time it liueth can prosper well.

Also it is a thing vndoubtedly knowne by experience that vpon the coastes of newfounde land, (as such as the yse remayneth vndissolued vpon those shores,) the wind being esterly, comming from the seas, causeth very sharpe colde, and yet the same is sufferable, but comming from the shore, yt presently yeldeth heat aboundantly according to the true nature of the scituation of the place, whereby it plainly appeareth that the very breth of the yse is rather the cause of this cold, then the distempreture of the ayre.

Wherefore if in winter where is aboundance of yse and snowe the ayre is so sufferable, as that traueling and hunting may be exercised how much rather may wee iudge the seas to be Nauigable, and that in the deepest of winter, where there is neither yse nor snow that may yeld any such damps or cold breathings to the anoiance of such as shall take these interprises in hand. And therefore the Summer in no sort to be feared, but some curious witt may obiect that the naturall anoyance of cold is preuented by reason of the trauell of the body with other artificiall prouisions to defend the fury thereof, as also the whot vapors which the earth may yeld, whereof experience vrgeth confession, but vpon the seas it cannot be sith it is a cold body subiect to yeld great dampes and cold brethinges most offensiue to nature. To the which I answere in the vniuersall knowledge of all creatures that God the most glorious incomprehensible and euer being sole creatour of all thinges visible, invisible, rationall, irrationall, momentory and eternall in his diuine prouidence hath made nothing vncommunicable, but hath giuen such order vnto all things, whereby euery thing may be tollerable to the next, the extremities of ellements consent with their next the ayre is grosse about the earth and water, but thinn and hot about the fyer, by this prouidence in nature the sea is very salt, and salt (sayth Plinie) yeldeth the fatnes of oyle, but oyle by a certayne natiue heate is of propertie agreeable to fire, then being all of such qualitie by reason of the saltnes thereof moueth and stirreth vp generatiue heate, &c. Whereby the sea hath a working force in the dissolution of yse for things of so great contrariety as heate and cold haue togeather no affinitye in coniunction, but the one must of necessitye auoyde, the seas not being able by the bandes of nature to step backe, doth therefore cause the coldnesse of the ayre (by reason of his naturall heate) to giue place, whereby extremities being auoyded, the ayre must of necessitie remayne temperate, for in nature the ayre is hote and moyst, the colde then being but accidentall is the soner auoided, and natures wrongs with ease redressed.

That vnder the Pole is the place of greatest dignitie.

Reason teacheth vs and experience confirmeth the same, that the Sun is the onely sufficient cause of heat through the whole world and therefore in such places where the Sunne hath longest continuance, the ayre there receueth the greatest impression of heat, as also in his absence it is in like sort afflicted with colde. And as the heate in all clymates is indurable, by the eternall ordinance of the creator, so likewise the cold is sufferable by his euerlasting decree, for otherwise nature should bee monstrous and his creation wast, as it hath beene ydly affirmed by the most Cosmographicall writers, distinguishing the sphere into fiue Zones haue concluded three of them to be wast, as vaynely created, the burning zone betweene the two tropikes, and the two frozen Zones, but experience hauing reprooued the grosenes of that errour it shall be needlesse to say further therein. For although in the burning Zone the sun beames are at such right angles as that by the actuall reuerberation thereof the lower region of the ayre is greatly by that reflexion warmed, yet his equall absence breadeth such mitigation as that there we find the ayre tollerable, and the countries pleasant and fruitfull, being populos and well inhabited: so likewise vnder the pole being the center of the supposed frozen Zone, during the time that the Sunne is in the South signes, which is from the thirteenth of September vnto the 10 of March, it is there more cold then in any place of the world, because the Sunne in all that time doth neuer appeare aboue the Horyzon, but during the time that the Sunne is in the North signes which is from the tenth of March vnto the thirteenth of September he is in continuall view to all such as posses that place, by which his continuall presence, he worketh that notable effect, as that therby all the force of frysing is wholy redressed and vtterly taken away, working then and there more actuall then in any other part of the world. In which place there continuall day from the Sunne rising to the sunne setting is equall with twenty sixe weekes and fiue dayes, after our rate: and their night is equall with twenty fiue weekes and three dayes such as we haue, so that our whole yeere is with them but one night and one day, a wonderfull difference from al the rest of the world, and therefore no doubt but those people haue a wonderfull excellencie and an exceeding prorogatiue aboue all nations of the earth and this which is more to be noted. In all other places of the world the absence and presence of the Sun is in equall proportion of time, hauing as much night as day, but vnder the Pole their artificiall day (that is the continuall presence of the Sunne before he sett) is nine of our naturall dayes or two hundreth 16 houres longer then is their night, whereby it appeareth that they haue the life, light and comfort of nature in a higher measure then all the nations of the earth. How blessed then may we thinke this nation to be: for they are in perpetuall light, and neuer know what darknesse meaneth, by the benefit of twylight and full moones, as the learned in Astronomie doe very well knowe, which people if they haue the notice of their eternitie by the comfortable light of the Gospel, then are they blessed and of all nations most blessed. Why then doe we neglect the search of this excellent discouery, agaynst which there can be nothing sayd to hinder the same. Why doe we refuse to see the dignity of Gods Creation, sith it hath pleased his diuine Maiestie to place vs the nerest neighbor therevnto. I know there is no true Englishman that can in conscience refuse to be a contributer to procure this so great a happines to his country, whereby not onely the Prince and mightie men of the land shall be highly renowned, but also the Merchant, tradesman and artificer mightily inriched.

And now as touching the last obiection that the want of skill in Nauigation with curious instrumentes, should be the hinderance or ouerthrow of this action. I holde that to bee so friuolous as not worth the answering, for it is wel knowne that we haue globes in the most excellent perfection of arte, and haue the vse of them in as exquisite sort, as master Robert Hues in his book of the globes vse, lately published hath at large made knowne, and for Horizontall paradox and great circle sayling I am myself a witnesse in the behalfe of many, that we are not ignorant of them, as lately I haue made knowne in a briefe treatis of Nauigation naming it the Seamans Secreats. And therfore this as the rest breadeth no hinderance to this most commodious discouery.

What benefits would growe vnto Englande by this passage being discouered.

The benefits which may growe by this discouery, are copious and of two sorts, a benifit spirituall and a benifit corporall. Both which sith by the awes of God and nature we are bound to regard, yet principally we are admonished first to seeke the Kingdome of God and the righteousnes thereof and all thinges shall be giuen vnto vs. And therfore in seeking the Kingdome of God we are not onely tied to the depe search of Gods sacred word and to liue within the perfect lymits of Christianity, but also by al meanes we are bound to multiply, and increase the flocke of the faithfull. Which by this discouery wil be most aboundantly perfourmed to the preseruation of many thousands which now most miserably are couered vnder the lothsome vayle of ignorance, neither can we in any sort doubt of their recouery by this passage discouered, Gods prouidence therein being considered who most mercifully sayth by the mouth of his prophet Esaias 66 I will come to gather all people and tongues, then shall they come and see my glory, of them that shall be saued. I will send some to the Gentils in the sea and the yls far of that haue not heard speak of me, and haue not sene my glory, shall preach my peace among the Gentiles.

And in this 65 Chapter he farther sayth, They seeke me that hitherto haue not asked for me, they find me that hitherto haue not sought me.

And againe chapter 49 I wil make waies vpon al my mountains and my footpathes shall be exalted, and behold these shall come from farre, some from the North and West, some from the land of Symis which is in the South. Then sith it is so appointed that there shal be one shepheard and one flocke, what hindreth vs of England, (being by Gods mercy for the same purpose at this present most aptly prepared,) not to attempt that which God himselfe hath appointed to be performed, there is no doubt but that wee of England are this saued people by the eternal and infallible presence of the Lord predestinated to be sent vnto these Gentiles in the sea, to those ylls and femous Kingdoms ther to preach the peace of the Lorde, for are not we onely set vpon Mount Sion to giue light to all the rest of the world, haue not we the true handmayd of the Lord to rule vs, vnto whom the eternall maiestie of God hath reueled his truth and supreme power of excellencye, by whom then shall the truth be preached, but by them vnto whom the truth shall be reueled, it is onely we therefore that must be these shining messengers of the Lord and none but we for as the prophet sayth, O how beautifull are the feet of the messenger that bringeth the message from the mountain, that proclameth peace, that bringeth the good tidings and preacheth health and sayth to Sion thy God is King, so that hereby the spirituall benefit arising by this discouery is most apparant, for which if there were no other cause wee are all bound to labour with purse and minde for the discouery of this notable passage. And nowe as touching the corporall and worldly benefits which will thereby arise, our owne late experience leadeth vs to the full knowledge thereof, as by the communitie of trade groweth the mightines of riches, so by the kinde and guide of such tradinges may grow the multiplication of such benifits, with assurance how the same may in the best sort be continued. In the consideration whereof it is first to bee regarded with what commodities our owne country aboundeth either naturall or artificiall, what quantity may be spared, and wher the same may with the easiest rate be gained, and how in his best nature vnto vs returned, all which by this passage shall be vnto vs most plentifully effected, and not onely that, but this also which is most to be regarded that in our thus trading wee shall by no meanes inrich the next adioyning states vnto vs, for riches bread dread, and pouertie increaseth feare, but here I cease fering to offend, yet it is a question whether it were better by an easy rate to vent our commodities far of or by a more plentifull gayne to passe them to our neerer neighbours, and those therby more inriched then ourselues, the premises considered wee finde our country to abound with woll, and wollen cloth, with lead, tin, copper and yron, matters of great moment, wee also knowe our soyle to be fertill, and would if trad did so permit haue equal imploiment with any of our neighbours, in linnen cloth, fustians, seys, grograms or any other forraine artificiall commodities, besides the excellent labours of the artsman, either in metallyne mechanicall faculties, or other artificiall ornaments, whereof India is well knowne to receiue all that Europe can afford, rating our commodities in the highest esteeme of valewe, which by this passage is speedily perfourmed, and then none of these should lie dead vpon our handes as now they doe, neither should we bee then ignorant as now we are in many excellent practices into which by trade wee shoulde bee drawne. And by the same passage in this ample vent, we should also at the first hand receiue all Indian commodities both naturall and artificial in a far greter measure by an easier rate and in better condition, then nowe they are by many exchaunges brought vnto vs, then would all nations of Europe repayre vnto England not only for these forraine merchandizes by reason of their plenty, perfection and easy rates, but also to passe away that which God in nature hath bestowed vpon them and their countrie, wherby her maiestie and her highnes successors for euer, should be monarks of the earth and commaunders of the Seas, through the aboundance of trade her coustomes would be mightily augmented, her state highly inriched, and her force of shipping greatly aduanced, as that thereby shee should be to all nations moste dredful, and we her subiects through imploiment should imbrace aboundance and be clothed with plenty. The glory whereof would be a deadly horrer to her aduersaries, increase friendly loue with al and procure her maiestie stately and perpetuall peace, for it is no small aduantage that ariseth to a state by the mightines of trade: being by necessity linked to no other nation, the same also beeing in commodities of the highest esteeme, as gold, siluer, stones of price, iuels, pearls, spice, drugs, silkes raw and wrought, veluetts, cloth of gold, besides many other commodities with vs of rare and high esteeme, whereof as yet our countrie is by nature depriued, al which India doth yeld at reasonable rates in great aboundance receiuing ours in the highest esteeme, so that hereby plenty retourning by trade abroade, and no smale quantity prouided by industry at home, all want then banished in the aboundance of her maiesties royalty, so through dred in glory, peace and loue, her maiesty should be the commaunding light of the world, and we her subiects the stars of wonder to al nations of the earth. Al which the premises considered it is impossible that any true English hart should be staied from willing contribution to the performance of this so excellent a discouery, the Lords and subiectes spirituall for the sole publication of Gods glorious gospell. And the Lords and subiectes temporal for the renowne of their prince and glory of their nation should be thervnto most vehemently effected. Which when it shall so please God in the mightines of his mercy, I beseech him to effect. Amen.

434Hakluyt has published an extract from this treatise in his Collection of Voyages; but the original work is so very rare and occupies so small a space that it has been deemed eligible to reprint it entire. EDIT.

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