The Fardle of Facions, by Johannes Boemus

The xii. Chapitre.

Of the Christians, of their firste commyng vp, their Ceremonies, and ordenaunces.

Christe Iesu, the eternalle and verie sonne of thalmightie father, the seconde persone in the holie inseparable, equalle, and euerlastyng Trinitie: Of a sette purpose, and spiritualle secrete, not reuealed from the beginning of tyme, and aboue mannes capacitie: was by the meane of the holy ghost, conceiued and borne manne. In Iewrie, of a Virgine, of the stocke of Dauid, a thousande fiue hundred, and twentie yeres gone37. To sette vs miserable, and vnhappie menne on foote againe, whiche ware in Adam and Eue, by the sinne of disobedience ouerthrowen. And to bryng vs againe, vnto our heauenlie natiue countrie, from the whiche we haue by so many ages, for that presumpcion bene banished. Finally, to repaire and supplie in heauen againe ones, the ruine and fal of those spirites, whiche a space afore our creacion, ware thurste doune fro thence. For the whiche purpose, we chiefly ware made. This Iesus, from thirtie yeres of age, vntill thirtie and fowre (in the whiche, throughe the maliciousnes of the Iewes, he suffred on the galowe tree) traueillyng all Iewrie ouer: first moued and exhorted the Iewes, and then other peoples, from the olde Lawe of Moses, and their wicked Image worshippe, to his newe ordenaunce and trade. And as many as would folowe, and doe aftre hym, he called theim his scholers or disciples. Out of the whiche, he gaue vnto xij. that he had specially chosen, Commission aftre his death (when he had appered to them on liue again, as he had forwarned them that he would) to go as Legates, or Embassatours into the whole world, and to preache vnto all creatures, what so euer thei had sene or learned of him. Simon Petre (to whom longe afore he had surrendred the gouernaunce and chiefteinshippe of his Church, as in reuercion aftre him) when aftre the comyng of the holy ghoste some wente into one coste, and some into another, euery manne his waie, as thei ware allotted and commaunded: came first vnto Antioche. And there setting vp the first and chief chaire of the Churche, kepte a counsaille with the other Apostles, whiche often tymes came to hym. In this Counsaille among other thinges it was decreed, that asmany as should receiue, and cleaue vnto the doctrine, and righte perswasion of Christes godlines: should fro thence furthe be called Christianes. This Seate of superioritie, beyng afterwarde translated to Rome: bothe he and his Successours, tooke it for their chief charge and businesse, to put the rude and rawe secte of their Christe, and the folowers of the same, in some good ordre and trade of gouernaunce. Bothe aftre the manor of Moses Lawe (whiche Christe came not to breake, but to consummate and finishe) and the state of the Romain gouernaunce, the Greke, and Egipcian: and also by paterne of the Ceremonies, obseruances, lawes, and ordenaunces Ecclesiasticalle and Temporalle, of many other peoples: But specially aftre the doctrine, of Christe Iesu, and the woorkyng of the holy ghoste, to bring them in to frame and facion. When thei ware entred in the mattier: As thei sawe that men not emong the Hebrues alone, but emong other peoples also, ware diuided into Ecclesiasticalle and Temporalle Spiritualtie and Laietie: and eche of them in mooste goodly wise, into their dignities and degrees (The Romain Emperour then being gouernour of the whole worlde alone) to haue Consulles, Fathers or Senatours: at whose becke all thinges ware deuised and doone: And in the residewe of the earthe to bee many Kynges, many Dukes, Erles, Presidentes, and Deputies of countries, and their Lieutenauntes: Maresshalles of the fielde, and highe Conestables for the communes, Pretours or Prouostes, Standerdbearers roialle, Centurianes, and Disners, Seriauntes, Conestables, Collectours, Serueiours, Porters, Scribes, Listers, and many other persones without office, bothe menne and women. And in the Temples of their Goddes, a Sacrificer roialle, whiche is to saie in effecte, a highe Prieste of the dignitie of a kyng. Archeflamines, Flamines of honour, and other Flamines inferiour and laste in degree their Priestes. And by like ordre emong the Hebrues: an highe Bisshoppe, and interiour Priestes, Leuites, Nazareis, candle quenchers, commaunders of Spirites, Churche Wardeines, and Syngers, whiche wee calle Chantours aftre the Frenche. And among the Grekes: Capiteines, or heades ouer a thousands, ouer an hundred, ouer fiuetie, ouer tenne, and ouer fiue. And that there ware yet beside these, bothe emong the Hebrues, and the Romaines, many couentes, or compaignies of menne and women religious. As Sadduceis, Esseis, and Phariseis emong the Hebrues: Salios, Diales, and Vestalles, emong the Romaines: The moste holy Apostles did all consente, that Petre, and thei that should folowe him in the seate of Rome, should for euermore be called Papa. As who would saie, father of fathers, the vniuersalle, Apostollicalle, moste holy, and moste highe bisshoppe. And that he should at Rome be Presidente ouer the vniuersalle Churche, as the Emperour there, was ruler of the vniuersall worlde. And to matche the Consulles (which ware euer twaine) thei appoincted fowre head Fathers, in the Greke named Patriarches, one at Constantinople, another at Antioche, a thirde at Alexandrie, and the fowrthe at Hierusalem. In the place of the Senatours, thei took the Cardinalles. To matche their kynges, whiche had three Dukes at commaundemente, thei deuised Primates: To whom ware subiecte thre Archebishoppes. So that the Archebishoppe or Metropolitane, standeth in the place of a Duke. For as the Duke had certein Erles or Barones at his commaundemente: so haue the Archbisshoppes, other inferiour Bisshopes at theirs, which also by reason muste countreuaile an Erle. The Bisshoppes coadiutor or Suffragane, came into the Presidentes place. Thordenarie into the Deputies, then did the Officialle matche with the Mareshalle. And with the high conestable for the communes, the Bisshoppes Chauncelour. And for the Pretour or Prouoste, thei sette vp an Archedeacon. In stede of the Centuriane, was a Deane appoincted. And for the Disnere, the Persone or Vicare. For the Aduocates, crepte in the Parisshe Prieste, Soule Prieste, Chaunterie Prieste, Morowe Masse Prieste, and suche other. The Deacon standeth for the Surueiour. The Subdeacon for the Serieaunte. For the two Conestables, came in the two Commaunders of Spirites, called Exorcistæ in the Greke. The Collectours office, was matched with the Churche wardeines. The Porter became the Sexteine. The Chauntour, scribe, and Lister, kiepe stille their name. The Acholite, whiche we calle Benet and Cholet, occupieth the roume of Candlebearer.

All these by one commune name, thei called Clerj, of the Greke woorde Cleros, that is to saie, a Lotte. For that thei ware firste from among the people, so alloted vnto God. Thereof cometh our terme Clerque, and his cosine Clergie. Neuerthelesse, this name Clergie, was not so commune vnto all: but that it siemed moste proprely to reste in the seuen degrees, that the Pope of Rome vsed for his Ministres, when he saied Masse in persone him self. That is to saie, the Bishoppe, the Priest, the Deacon, and subdeacon, the Acholite, and the Chauntour. Vnto euery of these gaue thei in the churche their seueralle dignities officies, and appareile.

To the Bishoppe was giuen aucthoritie, to ordeine and make other Clerckes. To enueile virgines, and to hallow them. [That is to saie, to make Nunnes.] To consecrate their likes, and their superiours also. To laie handes vpon them. To confirme and Bisshoppe children. To hallowe Churches. To put Priestes from their Priesthode: and to degrade theim, when thei deserue it. To kiepe Conuocacions and Sinodes. To make holy oile: to hallowe the ornamentes and vess [Transcriber’s note: gap in text about 3–4 words long. vess(els) . . .?] And to do also other thinges, that the inferiour Priestes doe. To enstructe those that be newly come to the faithe. To Christiane, to make the Sacramente of the Altare, and to giue it to other. To absolue the repentaunte of their sinnes, and to fettre the stubberne more streighte. To shewe furthe the Gospelle. To enioyne all Priestes to shaue their heades in the croune, like a circle of iiij. fingres brode, after the maner of the Nazareis. To kepe their heare shorte, to weare no bearde. And to liue chaste for euer.

Their liuyng onely to rise of the firste fruictes, tenthes, and offringes: and vttrely to be voide of all temporalle and Laiemennes cares and businesse. To be honestlie appareiled, and accordyngly to vse their passe and conuersacion. Onely to serue God and the churche. Diligently, to plye the reading of holy scripture, that they themselues mighte perfectly knowe all thinges perteining to Christian religion, wherin thei are bound to enstructe other. The companies or couentes of religious, aswel men as women: are Benedictines, Preachers, Franciscanes, Augustines, Barnardines, Anthonines, Iohannites, Cisternois, and innumerable other. Whiche al haue their habite, and maner of liuing by them selfe: acordinge to the rule that echeone priuately prescribed to them selues. And liued for the moste parte a solitary life, professing chastitie, pouretie, and perpetualle obedience. And for their solitarines the Greke called them Monarchi. Some of these haue for the heades Abbotes, some Priours: whiche are either subiecte to the Pope onely, or to the bishoppes. Al these vsed coules, much aftre one facion, but in colour diuers, and abstained fro fleshe. The bisshoppes when thei say masse, haue xv. holy garmentes, aftre the maner of Moyses lawe, for the perfection of them. His boatewes, his Amice, an Albe, a Girdle, a Stole, a Maniple, a Tunicle of violette in graine fringed, his gloues, ringe, and chesible or vestimente, a Sudari, a cope, a mitre and a crosse staffe. [Marginal Note: The Latine calleth it a shiepe hooke.] And a chaire at the Aultares ende, wherein he sitteth. Of the whiche, vi. are commune to euery inferiour prieste: the Amice, the Albe, the girdle, the stole, the Maniple, and the vestiment. But ouer, and aboue all these the Pope, by the gifte of Constantine the greate, hath libertie to weare al the ornamentes Imperialle. That is to saye a kirtle of skarlet, a robe of Purple, a sceptre, and a close corone. With the whiche aftre he hath rauisshed him selfe in the vestrie, vppon solempne feastes, when he entendeth to do masse: he commeth forth to the aultare, hauing on the right side a prieste, on the lefte side a Deacon, a Subdeacon going before him with a booke faste shutte, two candle bearers, and an encensour with the censoure in his hande smoking. When he is comen to the griessinges, the stayers, or foote of the aultare: putting of his mitre, he maketh open confession [Marginal note: That is, he saieth confiteor.] of his sinnes together with his company.

That done he goeth vp to the aultare, openeth the booke, lieng vpon the lefte corner of the same, kysseth it, and so procedeth in the Solempnisacion of the Masse. The subdeacon readeth the epistle, and the Deacon the godspelle. Priestes of al degrees, are charged to prayse God seuen times a daie, and to praye with ordenarie oraisons. Towarde the eueninge, euensonge: and compline more late. Matines in the morninge, and incontinente prime, and howres, in ordre of tyme, as thei stande in ordre38 of name. And this humbly before the aultare, if he maye conueniently, with his face towarde the Easte. The pater nostre and the Crede, said thei, onely at the beginning of their seruice, as the commune people do nowe a daies also. Saincte Ierome, at the vrgent request of Pope Damasus, parted out the Psalmes acording to the daies of the wieke. And appoincted for euery houre a porcion of propre psalmes. For the nighte houres on the holy daye, ix. and on the working daye, xii. For laudes in the morning, v. for euensonge as many, and for eche other houre but thre. He also ordeined the Epistles, Godspelles, and other seruice, vsed to be red out of the olde or newe testament, in maner altogether, sauing the note. The Anthemes (which Ambrose, Bysshoppe of Millayne wrate, and endited) Damasus put ordre that the quiere should sing side aftre side, and added to euery psalmes ende. Gloria patri, &c. The lessons and Himpnes that go before eche one of the howres did the counceiles of Thoulouse and Agathone aucthorise. The orisons, the grailes, the tractes, the Alleluya, thoffertorie, the Communions in the Masse, the Anthemes, Versicles, repitions, and other thinges, either songe or redde by nyghte or by daye, to the beautifieng, and praysing of God: did Gregory, Gelasius, Ambrose, and many other holy fathers, deuise, and put furthe, not at one time but at sondry. The Masse (so terme thei the sacrifice) was firste vsed to be done in suche simple sorte, as yet is accustomed, vppon good Friday, and Easter euen, with certeine lessons before it. But then Pope Celestinus put to the office of the Masse. Thelesphorus, Gloria in excelsis: But Hilarius of Pictauia made the Et in terra. Simachus ordeined it to be songue. The Salutacions, which by the terme of Dominus vobiscum, be made seuen tymes in a Masse, ware taken out of the booke of Ruthe, by Clemente and Anaclete, and put in, in their places. Gelasius made vp all the reste to the Offertory, in the same ordre thei be vsed. Excepte the Sequences and the Crede: wherof Nicolas put in the firste, and Damasus the nexte: acordinge to the Sinode of Constantinople. The bidding of the beades, with the collacion that was wonte to be made in the pulpite on Sondaies, and halydaies: raither grewe to a custome by the example of Nehemias, and Esdras, then was by any aucthorised. In this collation at the firste comming vp therof, when so many as ware presente at the Masse did receiue the communion, acording as was ordeyned by a decree: thei that ware at any discorde ware exhorted to concorde, and agremente. And that thei should receiue the sacrament of the aulter cleane from the filthe of sinne, vppon the whiche consideracion at this daye it endeth with confiteor, or an open confession. There ware thei wonte to teache the instrumentes of the olde lawe, and the newe. The ten commaundementes. The xii. articles of our beleue. The seuen sacramentes, holy folkes liues, and Martirdomes, holy dayes, doctrines, and disciplines: vertues, and vices, and what soeuer are necessary beside forthe, for a Christiane to knowe. Gregory linked on the offertorie. Leo the prefaces. Gelasius the greate Canon, and the lesse. The Sanctus blessed Sixtus. And Gregory the Pater noster out of the Gospelle of sainte Mathewe. Martialle the scholer of blessed Peter, deuised that Bysshoppes should gyue their benediction at the Agnus. And as for other inferiour priestes, Innocentius commaunded them to giue the paxe, that is to saye peace. Sergius tacked on the Agnus, and Gregory the poste communion. The closing vp of all with Ite missa est, Benedicamus, Deos gratias: was Leoes inuencion.

The xii. articles of our beleue, whiche the blessed Apostles would euery manne not onely to confesse with mouthe, but to beleue also in harte, are these.

Firste, that ther is one God in Trinitie, the father almighty maker of heauen and earthe. The seconde, Iesus Christe, his onely sonne our Lorde. The thirde, the same beinge conceiued of the holye ghoste, to haue bene borne of the Virgine Marie. The fourthe, to haue suffred vndre Ponce Pilate, to haue bene crucified, deade, bewried, and to haue descended in to helle. The fiueth, to haue risen agayne the thirde daye fro the deade. The sixteth, to haue ascended vp into the heauens, and to sitte on the right hande of God the father almighty. The seuenth, that he shall come fro thence like a triumpher, to iudge the quicke and the deade. The eight, that ther is an holy ghoste. The nineth, that there is an holy churche vniuersalle, the communion of the godly and good. The tenthe, forgiuenesse of sinnes. Thee eleuenth, the rising againe of the flesshe. The twelueth, aftre our departing, life in another worlde euerlasting.

The tenne commaundementes, which God wrate with his owne finger, and gaue vnto the Israelites by Moses, whiche thapostles willed vs also to kiepe. The firste, thou shalte haue none other Goddes but me. The seconde, thou shalte not make any grauen Image, or likenesse of any thing that is in heauen aboue, in the earthe benethe, or in the water vnder the earthe, thou shalt not bowe doune to them, nor worshippe them. The third, thou shalt not take the name of thy lorde God in vaine. The fowrthe, remembre that thou kiepe holie thy Sabboth daie. The fiueth, honour thy father and mother. The sixteth, thou shalte doe no murdre. The seuenth, thou shalte not commit adulterie. The eight, thou shalte not steale. The nineth, thou shalt beare no false witnesse against thy neighbour. The tenthe, thou shalte not desyre thy neighbours home, his wife, his seruaunte, his maide, his Oxe, nor his Asse, nor any thing that is thy neighbours.

The seuen Sacramentes of the churche, which are contained in the fiue laste Articles of our beleue, and commaunded vs by the holie fathers to be beleued.

The firste, diepyng into the water, called Baptisyng, aftre the Greke. This, by canonicalle decree, in time paste was not wonte to be giuen (excepte greate necessitie soner required it) but to those that had bene scholers a space afore, to learne the thinges appertinent to Christendome. Yea, and that aftre thei had bene exceadingly welle enstructed in the faithe: and proufe taken of their profityng, by seuen examinations, which ware made vpon seuen seueralle daies in the Lente, and so ware thei Baptissed vpon Easter euen, and Whitesondaie euen. Vpon whiche daies, thei ware accustomed to hallowe the christening watre, in euery Paroche. But because this specially of all other, is chiefly necessarie vnto euerlasting saluation: leasse any bodie should die without it, thei decreed that assone as the childe was borne, godfathers should be sought for it, as it ware for witnesses or sureties whiche should bryng the childe vnto the Churche doore, and there to stande without. And then the Priest should enquire, before the childe be dieped in the Fonte, whether it haue renounced Sathan and all his pompe and pride. If it beleue certeinely and wholie, all the Articles of the Christiane faithe. And the Godfathers answering, yea: for it, the Prieste breathyng thrise vpon his face, exorciseth it, and catechiseth it. Aftre that, doeth he seuen thinges to the childe in ordre. Firste, he putteth into the mouth hallowed salt. Secondely, he mingleth earthe and his spattle toguether, and smereth the eyes, eares, and nosethrilles of the childe. Thirdly, giuyng it suche name as it shall euer aftre bee called by: he marketh it on the breaste and backe with holie oile, aftre the facion of a crosse. Fourthly, he diepeth it thrise in the Watre, or besprinkleth it with watre thrise, in maner of a crosse, in the name of the holie Trinitie, the father, the sonne, and holie ghoste. In the whiche, name also, all thother Sacramentes are ministred. Fiuethly, weting his thumbe in the holie ointement, he maketh therewith a Crosse on the childes foreheade. Sixthly, he putteth a white garment vppon it. Seuenthly, he taketh it in the hande a Candle brennyng. The Iewes before thei be Christened (by the determinacion of the counsaile holden at Agathone), are cathechised, that is to saie, are scholers at the enstruction of our beleue nine monethes. And are bound to fast fourtie daies: to dispossesse them selues of all that euer thei haue, and to make free their bonde men. And looke whiche of their children thei haue Circumcised, acording to Moses lawe: hym are thei bounde to banishe their companie. No merueile therefore if thei come so vnwillingly to christendome.

Bishopping, whiche the Latines calle Confirmacion, a confirming, a ratifieng, establishyng, auethorisyng, or allowyng of that went before: is the second Sacramente. And is giuen of the Bishoppe onely, before the Aultare in the Churche, to suche as are of growen yeres, and fastyng (if it maie be) aftre this maner. As many as shalbe Confirmed, come all together with euery one a godfather. And the Bishoppe aftre he hath saied one orasion ouer them all, wetyng his thumbe in the holie oile, maketh a crosse vpon eche of their foreheades: In the name of the father, sonne, and holie ghoste. And giueth hym a blowe on the lefte chieke, for a remembraunce of the Sacrament, that he come not for it againe. The godfathers, to the ende the enoilyng should not droppe awaie, or by negligence bee wiped awaie, clappe on a faire filette on the foreheade, whiche ther iudge to be unlawfully taken awaie, before the seuenth daie. The holie fathers estemed this Sacrament so highly, that if the name giuen to the childe at his Christendome, siemed not good: the Bishoppe at the giuyng hereof mighte chaunge it.

The thirde Sacramente is holie Ordres whiche in the firste Churche, was giuen likewise of the Bishoppe, onely in the monethe of Decembre. But now at sixe seueralle tymes of the yere: that is to saie, the fowre Saturdaies in the embre wekes (whiche ware purposely ordeined therefore) vpon the Saturdaie, whiche the Churche menne calle Sitientes, because the office of the Masse for that daie appoineted, beginneth with that woorde, and vpon Easter euen. This Sacrament was giuen onely to menne: and but to those neither, whose demeanour and life, disposition of bodie, and qualitie of minde, ware sufficiently tried and knowen. Aftre the opinion of some, there were seuen ordres, or degrees, wherby the holy fathers would vs to beleue that there ware seuen speciall influences, as it ware printed in the soule of the receiuer, wherby eche one for eche ordre, was to be compted an hallowed manne. Aftre the mindes of other there ware nine. That is to saie, Musicens (whiche encludeth singing and plaieng) Doore kiepers, Reders Exorcistes, Acholites, Subdeacon, Deacon, Prieste and Bishop. And for all this, it is compted but one Sacramente, by the reason that all these tende to one ende, that is to saie, to consecrate the Lordes bodie. To euery one of these did the Counsaile of Toledo in Spaine, appoinete their seueralle liueries, and offices in the Churche. The Dorekepers had the office of our Common Sexteine, to open the churche dores, to take hede to the churche, and to shutte the dores. And had therfore a keie giuen vnto theim, when thei ware admitted to this ordre. The Reader, in signe and token of libertie to reade the Bible, and holie stories, had a greate booke giuen, him. The Exorcistes, serued to commaunde euille sprites oute of menne, and in token therof, had a lesse booke giuen them. The Acholite, had the bearyng and the orderyng of the Tapers, Candelstickes, and Cruettes at the Altare: and therfore had a Candelsticke, a Taper, and two emptie Cruorettes deliuered hym. The Subdeacon, mighte take the offring, and handle the Chalice, and the Patine, carie theim to the Altare, and fro the Altare, and giue the Deacon Wine and water, out of the Cruettes. And therfore the Bishoppe deliuereth hym an emptie Chalice with a Patine, and the Archdeacon one Cruet full of wine, and another full of watre, and a Towelle. To the Deacons, is the preachyng of Goddes Gospelle to the people committed, and to helpe the priest in al holy ministracion. He hath the Gospelle booke deliuered hym, and a towell hanged vppon his one shouldre, like a yoke. The Prieste hath power to consecrate the Lordes bodie, to praie for sinners, and to reconcile them againe to God by Penaunce enioined them. He hath deliuered hym a Chalice with Wine, the Patine, with a singyng cake, a stole vpon bothe shouldres, and a Chesible. What Ornamentes the Bisshoppe hath giuen vnto hym, ye haue heard afore. He maie not be made Bisshoppe, but on the Sondaie about the iii. houre aftre Prime, betwene thoffice of the Masse and the Gospelle: at the whiche tyme twoo Bisshoppes, and a Metropolitane, laie their handes vpon his heade and a booke. The Bisshoppes in the firste Churche, did litle or nothyng diffre from other Priestes, and ware ruled by the commune Counsailes of the Churche, before that dissencion and deuision entred emong the people, causing theim in sondrie sortes, to cleaue vnto sondrie names, euery sorte as thei fortuned to be conuerted and Christened of a sondrie persone. As whom Paule Baptised, thei would be called Paulines. Whom Appollo, Appollonians, Whome Cephas, Cephites, and so of other. To auoide therefore these breaches of concorde, and for an vniformitie, the holy fathers ware driuen to decree and stablish that asmany as should aftreward be baptised, should be called Christianes of Christe. And that ouer euery Countie or Shiere, there should be sette one Prieste or moe, acordyng to the greatnesse of the same, suche as ware best tried. Whiche should haue to name, Ouersears in Englishe: in Greke, Episcopj. Whom we cal Bishopes, by chaungyng of P. into B. and leauing out the E. for shortnes, acordyng to the nature of our tongue. These mighte not then gouerne their Clergie, and other their Diocesans, at their owne pleasure, as thei did before: but acording to the decrees of the Churche of Rome, and the holie Counsailes of the fathers assembled. Then began thei firste (by the suffraunce and helpe of deuoute princes) to deuide all Christendome into Dioceses, and the Diocesse into Conuocacions or Chaptres, and those againe into Paroches, and to set that goodly ordre, that yet continueth, aswell emong the clergie as the laietie. That the parishe should obeie their lawfull Persone, the Persone the Deane: the Deane the Bishoppe: the Bishoppe, the Archebishoppe. The Archebishoppe, the Primate or Patriarche: the Primate or Patriarche, the Legate: the Legate, the Pope: the Pope the generalle Counsaille: the generalle Counsaile, God alone.

For the fourthe Sacramente it is holden, that euery prieste rightly priested, acordyng to the keies of the Churche, hauing an entente to consecrate, and obseruynge the fourme of the woordes: hathe power, of wheaten breade to make the very bodie of Christe, and of wine to make his very bloude.

Christe our Lorde hym selfe, the daye before he suffred, kepte it solemnly with his disciples, and consecrated, and ordeined it continually to be celebrated, and eaten in the remembraunce of him selfe. And about this mattier a man had nede of a great faythe. Firste to beleue the breade to be chaunged into the body, and the wine into the bloude of Christe. Againe thoughe this be done euery daye that yet Christ for all that should growe neuer a whitte the bigger for the making, nor the lesse for the eatinge. Thirdely that the Sacrament being deuyded into many partes, Christ should yet remaine whole in euery cromme. Fourthly that thoughe the wicked eate it, yet should not it be defiled. Fiuethly, that it bringeth to as many euyll as receiue it, death; and to the good euerlasting life. Sixthly that it tourneth not into the nature of the eater to his nourisshemente as other meate dothe: but turneth the eater contrariwise into the nature of it selfe. And yet being eaten, that it is rapte into heauen, vnhurte or vntouched. Seuenthly that in so smalle a syse of breade and wine, the infinite, and incomprehensible Christe, God and manne shoulde be comprehended. Then, that one, and the self same bodye of Christe, at one very instaunte, shoulde be in many places, and of many menne receiued at ones, and in sondrye parcelles. Ninethly that thoughe the bread it selfe be chaunged into the very flesshe of Christe, and the wine into his bloude, that yet to all the sences thei remaine breade and wine, and neither flesshe ne bloud. Further that all these commodities conteined in these verses folowing should happen vnto those that worthely eate it.

It putteth in mynde and kindleth, encreaseth hope, and strengtheneth. Mainteineth; clenseth, restoreth, giues life, and vniteth. Stablissheth beliefe, abates the foode of sinne, and all vnclennes quencheth.

Finally, to be very profitable for the saluacion aswell of those liuyng as deade, for whom it is specially offred by the priest in the Masse. And therefore to haue to name Eucharistia communio.

In the beginning of the Christianne faithe (and yet amonge certeine schismatiques as thei saye) one whole lofe was consecrated, of suche bigguenesse, as when the Priest had broken it in a platter into smalle pieces, it, mighte suffise the whole multitude that ware at the masse to participate of. For in time paste the Christianes came euery day to communicate by a speciall commaundemente, and ordenaunce. Aftrewarde but ones in a wieke and that on the Sonday. But whan it began to be skant well kepte vppon the Sonday neither: then was it commaunded that euery manne should receiue it thrise in the yere, or ones at the leaste, at euery Easter. And that euery Christian manne, when he stode in any daungier of death, beyng whole of minde, should receiue it as a waifaring viande, to staye him by the waye: with as good preparation of bodye and soule, as he possibly mighte.

Matrimonie (whiche is the lawefulle coupling of the manne and the woman) broughte in by the lawe of nature, the lawe of God, the lawe of all peoples, and the lawe ciuille, is the fiueth Sacrament. The holy fathers woulde haue but one mariage at ones, and that not in secrete but with open solemnitie eyther in the churche, or in the churche porche, and so that the priest be called to the matier. Who shold firste examine the man, and then the womanne, whether thei bothe consent to be maried together. Yf thei be agreed (whiche is chiefely in this case requisite) he taking them bothe by the right handes: coupleth them together in the name of the holy and vnseperable trinitie, the father, the sonne, and the holy ghoste. And commaundeth, and exhorteth them that thei alwaye remembring this their coupling of their owne free wille and consent: as longe as they liue, neuer forsake one another but loue and honour one another, be debonaire and buxome one to another, giuing them selues to procreacion, and not to lecherous luste. And that thei honestly and diligently bringe vp, suche children as God sendeth them of theyr bodies. Aftre that he affiaunceth them both with one ringe. And sprinckling holy water vpon them, reacheth them a stole, and leadeth them into the churche, where (yf thei ware not blessed afore) he blesseth them knieling before the altare. The woman hath on a redde fillet or frontelette, and ouer that a white veile, withoute the whiche it is not lawfulle for her fro that daye forwarde, to go oute of doores abrode, or to sitte by any manne. Twelue thinges ther be, whiche the holy fathers woulde haue to barre persons from contracting of matrimonie, and to disseuer them againe, yf thei be contracted. Errour of person, that is to saye, mistaking one for another. A betrowthing vpon a condicion, Consanguinitie or kindred, An open crime, Diuersitie of secte, Force, or constrainte, Holy ordres, a Bonde or former contracte, Commune or open honestie, Affinitie, and Disshabilitie of engendrure.

The sixteth Sacramente is penaunce or repentaunce, giuen of Christe as it ware for a wracke boorde, wherby men are preserued fro drowninge. Eche Christian oughte vndoubtedly to beleue that this consisteth in foure poinctes. To saie, in Repentaunce of our sinnes, Canonicaile confession, Absolucion, and Satisfaction, or amendes. Firste let him sorowe, not with a lighte forthinckinge, but with a moste earneste and bittre repentaunce in the botome of his conscience: for the puritie and innocencie that he had gotten eyther by baptisme or the benefite of former repentaunce, and nowe hathe eftsones loste, and forgone throughe sinne. And let him hope with this repentaunce, to be reconciled to the fauour of God againe. And let him humbly, and truly with his owne mouthe, confesse to a wise prieste, in the steade of God: all those offences wherwith he knoweth him selfe to haue loste his innocencie and clennesse, and to haue prouoked the wrathe of GOD againste him selfe. And let him assuredly beleue that the same prieste, hath power giuen him of Christe (as beinge his vienre, or deputie on earthe) to absolue him of all his sinnes. Finally, for satisfaction or amendes making for the faulte: lette him not with grudginge, but chierfully, and gladly doe, what so euer he shalbe commaunded. Beleuing with vndoubted faith, that he is absolued, and quyte of all, assone as the priest in dewe forme of wordes, hath pronounced the absolucion.

The seuenth, and the laste Sacrament is the laste enoynting, by an oyle that is made to this vse, by the bishope in euery diocesse, by an yerely custome vpon Maundy Thursdaie, like as the chrismatory oyle is. And this by the precepte of sainte Iames the Apostle, and by the ordinaunce of Felix, the fourthe Pope after Sainte Peter: was giuen only to them that laie in dyeng, being of full age, and requyring it. Thei vse to enoynte with a prescripte fourme of wordes; and with often inuocacion of sainetes: those partes of the bodie, wher our fiue wittes or senses: the hearing, seyng, smelling, tasting and touching, beare moste stroke, and with whiche man is iudged chiefely to sinne. That is, the eares, the eyes, the nosthrilles, the mouthe, the handes, and the fete. Whereby the holy fathers would vs to beleue, that there was not onely purchased cleane forgiuenesse of all smaller offences, or venialle sinnes: but also either presente recouerie, or a riper and gentler deathe. All the feastes and holydaies, throughout the yere, which the churche hath commaunded to be obserued and kept: beginne at the Aduente, or approache of Christe our Lorde. Whiche Peter the Apostle instituted to be obserued in Decembre, with fasting and praier, thre wiekes and a haulfe before Christemas, when we close vp the last. viii. daies of that moneth, with greate ioye and feaste. Thei deuided the yere into two and fiuetie wekes, and xii. seueral monthes. The monethes commonly into xxx. daies. The firste daye of Ianuary the churche recordeth how Christe was circumcised acordinge to Moyses lawe. The iii. daye aftre, howe he was worshipped of the thre Sages, with thre sondry presentes: and howe beinge baptissed of Iohn in Iordaine the floude, he laide the foundacion of the newe Lawe. The seconde of Februarie, how his mother vnspotted, obeyeng the maner of her country: brought hym into the temple, and suffred her self to be purified or clensed, whiche we calle churching of childe. In memorie wherof the churche vseth that daye, solempne procession, and halowing of candles, The fiue and twentieth of Marche, how the aungel brought woorde to the virgin Marie, that Christ shoulde be borne of her, being conceyued in her wombe; by the ouershadowing of the holy ghoste. At the whiche time they willed vs to faste the fourtie daies that he fasted him selfe, being with vs vppon earth, and to renewe the remembraunce of his passion, and deathe, which he willingly susteined to deliuer vs fro the yoke and bondage of the deuell. The laste day of that faste, which oftentimes falleth in Aprille, to celebrate the highest featte in althe yere: in remembraunce howe he ouer came deathe, descended into helle, vanquisshed the deuell, and retourned againe on liue, and appeared in glorious wyse vnto his scholers, or disciples. In Maye, how all those his scholers loking vpon him, he by his owne vertue and mighte, stied vp into the heauens. At the whiche time, by thordenaunce of saincte Mamerte, bishoppe of Vienne: there be made ganginges with the lesse Letanies from one Churche to another, all Christendome ouer. In Iune, and somtime in Maie, how the holy ghoste, promised to the disciples, giuen from aboue, appered to them like glowing tongues: and gaue them to vndrestande, and to speake the tonges of al nacions. Theight daie folowing, Trinitie Sondaie. The fiueth daie aftre that, how Christe in his laste supper, for a continualle remembraunce of himself, instituted the moste holsome Sacramente of his bodie and bloud, vndre the fourme of breade and wine leauyng it to be sene and eaten of his. The fiuetenth of Iuly, how the blessed Apostles, acordyng as thei ware commaunded, the twelueth yere aftre the Ascension of their Master into heauen: wente their waies into the vniuersalle worlde, to Preache vnto all people. The departyng of Christes mother out of this life, the fiuetenth daie of Auguste. And her Natiuitie, theight of Septembre. And thone and twentie of Nouembre, how she from, thre yeres of age (at the whiche tyme she was presented to the temple) vntill she was mariage able, remained there seruing God stil a peace. And theight of Decembre, how she was of her parentes begotten, that longe afore had bene barreine. The second daie of Iulie, how Elisabethe passyng the Mounteines, visited her kindeswoman.

There ware also certeine holie daies appoincted to the xii. Apostles. To certeine Martyres, Confessours, and Virgines As the fowre and twentieth of Februarie to saincte Matthie. To saincte Marke the Euangeliste, the xxv. of Aprille. Vpon the whiche daie, Gregorie ordeined the greate Letanies to be songe. The firste of Maie is hallowed for Philippe and Iames the more. The xxix. of Iune, for Petre and Paule: and the xxiiii. of the same, for the Natiuitie of S. Ihon Baptiste. The xxv. of Iuly, for Iames the lesse. For Bartholomewe the fowre and twentie of August. For Mathewe, the one and twentie of Septembre. And the eight and twentie of Octobre, for Simon and Iude. The last of Nouembre, for S. Andrewe. The one and twentie of Decembre, for saincte Thomas. And the vii. and twentie of thesame moneth for Ihon the Euangeliste. The daie before, for Stephin the firste Martire. And the daie aftre for the Innocentes. The tenth of August for sainct Laurence. And the thre and twentie of Aprille, for saincte George. Of all the Confessours, there are no moe that haue holidaies appoincted, but S. Martine and saincte Nicholas. The firste, on the eleuenth of Nouembre: and the other the sixteth of Decembre. Katherine the virgine, the fiue and twentie of Nouembre, and Marie Magdalene the twentie and two of Iuly. There is also vndre the name of saincte Michael alone, the xxix. of Septembre: a holy daie for all blessed Angelles. And one other in commune for all the sainctes, and chosen of GOD, the firste of Nouembre.

Thei would also that euery seuenthe daie, should be hallowed of the Christianes, by the name of Sondaie, as the Iewes doe their Sabboth: restyng from all worldly woorke, and beyng onely occupied with praising of GOD, and the deuine Seruice in the Churched. To learne by the Priestes preachyng, the Gospelle and the commaundementes of our faith. And by what meanes so euer we thinke in our conscience we haue prouoked the wrathe of God against us all the wieke afore: that, this daie to amende, to sette cliere, and aske pardone for. In time past euery Thursdaie also was kepte as the Sondaie. But because we might sieme therein, somewhat to gratifie the Heathen (whiche that daie kepte solempne holie daie, to Iupiter their Idolle) it was laied doune againe. More ouer the clerkes and the people, vsed bothe Thursdaie and Sondaie before Masse, to go rounde aboute the Churche a Procession, and the Prieste, to sprinckle the people with holy watre. Agapitus instituted the one and the other. The Thursdaie, in remembraunce of Christes Ascencion, and the Sondaie, of his glorious Resurrection: which we celebrate fro Sondaie to Sondaie continually, ones euery eight daies. The night afore euery ordenary holidaie or feastefull daie: the whole clergie, and the people, ware bounde to kiepe Vigile in euery churche. That is to saie, to wake all nighte, in deuine seruice and praier. But vpon consideracion of many slaunderous crimes and offences, that ware by diuers naughtie and malicious persones committed, by the oportunitie of the darke: this maner was taken awaie, and ordeined that the daie before the feaste, should be fasted, whiche yet kiepeth stille the name of Vigile. The fathers decreed that the churche in the whole yere should renue the memorie of fiue thynges.

Fro the Sondaie called Septuagesima (because there are seuentie daies, betwiene that and the octaues of Easter) thei would vs to renue the memorie of Christes Fasting, Passion, Death and Bewrialle. The miserable falle also of our first parentes, and those extreme errours of mankinde, by the whiche thei ware ledde awaie fro the knowledge and worshippe of one verie GOD: to the wicked supersticion and honour of Idolles and deuelles. And further, the greuous and intollerable bondage that the people of Israeli suffred vndre the Pharao of Egipte. Vpon whiche consideracion, the bookes of Genesis and Exodus be redde in the seruice of the churche. Whiche sheweth then in all her demeanour, and appareilyng, heauinesse and sorowe.

From the octaues of Easter, to the octaues of Whitsontide, Christes Resurrection, and Ascencion, with the commyng of the holy Ghoste. And together with that, the redempcion, reconclliacion, and atonement of mankinde with God the father, throughe Iesus Christe: and the restoryng againe of the children of Israeli, to the lande of beheste. Wherein was prefigured our reconciliacion and redempcion aforesaid. For that cause is all the seruice out of the newe Testament, and al thinges done with ioie and gladnes.

From the octaues of Whitsontide, till Aduente, xx. wiekes space, and more, thei would haue to bee celebrated the conuersation of Christ here in the worlde, with his miracles and woorkes of wondre. And ouer and beside that, the longe pilgrimage, that mankinde, by longe reuolucion maketh, from one generacion to another, from the tyme of our redempcion, saluacion, and sauing, vntill the laste daie of time. Wherefore duryng this while, vpon consideracion of the diverse happe and hasarde, wherwith the Churche is tossed, like a Shippe in the troubled Seas, she neither greatly reioiceth, ne sorroweth, but redeth grcate chaunge of bookes, oute of the olde and newe Testamente: to the ende she maie walke the warelier, and the bettre wijnde her self out of the stormes, that are ready to assaile her.

From Aduente to Christemas, to remembre the tyme from Moses, to the commyng of Messias. In the whiche mankinde certefied of saluacion, bothe by the lawe and the Prophetes, awaited with moste earneste desires for his comming, and the kingdome that he shold haue. Wherefore thei ordeined that the Prophecies should be redde, and fasting exercised. That the churche the bettre enstructed, and abled by these, mighte the worthelier receiue the Birthe daie of Christ her Lorde (whiche euer falleth the fowerth wieke aftre) and from thens holde on with feaste, and continuall gladnesse vntill Septuagessima. Reioisyng that he was now come: whiche should bee the sauluiour of the worlde. Their oratories Temples, or places of praier (whiche we calls Churches) might not be built without the good will of the Bisshoppe of the Diocese. And when the Timbre was redy to be framed, and the foundacion digged: it behoued; them to send for the Bishoppe, to hallowe the firste corner stone of the foundacion, and to make the signe of the crosse thervpon, and to laie it, and directe, it iuste Easte and Weste. And then might the Masons sette vpon the reste, but not afore. This Churche did thei vse to builde, aftre the facion of a crosse, and not vnlike the shape of a manne. The Chauncelle (in the whiche is conteined the highe Altare and the Quiere) directe full into the East, representeth the heade. And therefore ought to be made somwhat rounde, and muche shorter then the body of the churche. And yet vpon respecte that the heade is the place for the eyes, it ought to be of more lighte, and to bee separate with a particion, in the steade of a necke, from the body of the Churche. This particion the Latine calleth Cancelli; and out of that cometh our terme, Chauncelle. On eche side of this chauncelle peraduenture (for so fitteth it beste) should stand a Turret, as it ware for two eares. And in these the Belles to be hanged, to calle the people to Seruice, by daie and by night. Vndre one of these Turretes, is there commonly a voulte, whose doore openeth into the quiere. And in this are laid vp, the hallowed vesselles and ornamentes, and other vtensiles of the church. We calle it a vestrie. The other parte oughte so to be fitted, that hauing as it ware on eche side an arme, the reste maye resemble the bodye with the fete stretched in breadthe, and in lengthe. On eche side of the bodye the pillers to stonde. Vpon whose coronettes or heades the vaulte or rophe of the churche maye reste. And to the foote beneth, aulters to be ioyned.

Those aulters to be ordrely alway couered with two aulter clothes, and garnisshed with the crosse of Christe, or some little cofre of reliques. At eche ende a canlesticke: and a booke towarde the myddes. The walles to be parieted without, and within, and diuersly paincted. That thei also should haue in euery parisshe a faire sounde stone, made holowe and fitte to holde water: in the whiche the water consecrate for baptisme, may be kept for the christening of children. Vpon the right hande of the highe aulter, that ther should be an almorie, either cutte into the walle, or framed vpon it: in the whiche thei woulde haue the Sacrament of the Lordes bodye, the holy oyle for the sicke, and the Chrismatorie, alwaie to be locked. Furthermore thei woulde that ther should be a pulpite in the middes of the churche, wherein the prieste maye stonde vpon Sondaies and holidayes, to teache the people those thinges that it behoueth them to knowe. The chauncelle to serue onely for the priestes, and clerkes. The rest of the temporalle multitude to be in the body of the church. Separate notwithstonding, the men on the ryghte side, and the women, on the lefte. And eche of them to be sobre and honest in apparelle and behauour. Whatsoeuer is contrary to good facion or Christiane religion, with greate dilligence to shonne it. It was the maner in the first churche, both among men and women, to lette their heare growe, to shewe out their naked skinne, and very litle or nothing to diffre in apparelle. Sainct Peter put first ordre, that women should couer their heades, and menne rounde their heare, and either of them to go in seueralle and sondrye apparelle. Moreouer that to euery churche, shold be laid out a churchyarde, of the grounde adioyning, in the whiche all Christen mennes bodies mighte indifferently bebewried. The same to be consecrate, or halowed by the bishoppe, and to enioye all the priuilegies that the churche may enioye.

The funeralle for the deade, thei kepe not in euery place ylike. Some mourne and kiepe dirige and Masse seuen daies continualle together, some ix. some xxx. or fourtye some, fiuetie, and a hundred, and other a whole yere, wrapped vp in blacke. The counseile of Toledo ordeined that the corps beinge firste wasshed, and then wrapped vp in a shiete, shoulde be caried forthe with singing by menne of his owne condicion or sorte, clerkes by clerkes, and laye menne of laye menne. And aftre what time the priest hath sensed the corps, throwen holy water vppon it, and said certeine prayers, to laye it into the graue with the face vpwarde, and the heade into the Weaste. Then to throwe in the earth again, and in token that ther is a Christian ther bewried, to sette vp a crosse of wodde, garnisshed with yvie, cipres, or laurelle. These be the ordres and facions of the Christiane religion.


37 It appereth by this place that this was written xxxv. yeres gone.

38 Hora prima, tertia, sexta, nona.

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