The Fardle of Facions, by Johannes Boemus

The x. Chapiter.

Of Tartarie, and the maners and power of the Tartarians.

Tartaria, otherwyse called Mongal: As Vincentius wryteth, is in that parte of the earthe where the Easte and the Northe ioyne together. It had vpon the Easte, the londe of the Katheorines and Solangores, on the South, the Saracenes: on the Weste the Naymaniens, and on the Northe is enclosed with the occean. It hath the name of the floude Tartar that ronneth by it. A country very hilly, and full of mountaines. And where it is champein, myngled with sande and grauelle. Barreine, except it be in places where it is moysted with floodes, which are very fewe. And therfore it is muche waaste, and thinly enhabited. Ther is not in it one Citie, ne one village beside Cracuris. And wood in the moste parte of the country so skante, that the enhabitauntes are faine to make their fyre, and dresse their meate with the drie donge of neate and horses. The ayer intemperate and wonderfulle. Thondre, and lightening in somer so terrible, that sondry do presently die for very feare. Nowe is it broiling hote, and by and by bittre colde, and plenty of snowe. Suche stronge windes sometime, that it staieth horse and man, and bloweth of the rider: teareth vp trees by the rootes, and doeth muche harme. In wintre it neuer raineth ther, and in Somer very often. But so slendrely, that the earthe is skante wette with al. And yet is ther great store of Cattaile: as Camelles, neate, &c. And horses and mares, in suche plentie, as I beleue no parte of the earth hath againe. It was first enhabited of foure peoples. Of the Ieccha Mongalles that is to saye, the greate Mongalles. The Sumongalles, that is to say the watre Mongalles, whiche called them selues Tartares, of the floude Tartar whose neighbours thei are.

The thirde people ware called Merchates, and the fourthe Metrites. There was no difference betwixte them eyther in body or language, but al aftre one sorte and facion. Their behauour was in the beginning very brute, and farre oute of ordre, without lawe or discipline, or any good facion. Thei liued amonge the Scithians, and kept herdes of cattalle in very base state and condition: and ware tributaries to all their neighbours. But within a while aftre, thei deuided them selues as it ware into wardes, to euery of the which was appointed a capitaine: in whose deuises and consentes consisted thordre of the whole. Yet ware thei tributaries to the Naimannes (their next neighbours) vntyll Canguista by a certaine prophecie was chosen their kynge. He assone as he had receiued the gouernaunce, abolished all worshippe of deuilles, and commaunded by commune decree that all the whole nacion should honour the highe God euerlasting: by whose prouidence he would seme to haue receiued the kingdome. It was further decreed that as manye as ware of age to beare armour, should be preste, and ready with the king at a certeyne daye. The multitude that serued for their warres, was thus distributed. Their capitaines ouer ten (which by a terme borowed of the Frenche, we calle Diseners) are at the commaundemente of the Centurians. And the Centuriane obeied the Millenarie, that had charge of a thousande. And he againe was subiecte to the grande Coronelle that had charge ouer ten thousande: aboue the whiche nombre thei mounted no degree of captaines.

This done, to proue the obedience of his subiectes, he commaunded seuen sonnes of the Princes or Dukes whiche before had gouerned the people: to be slaine by the handes of their owne fathers, and mothers. Whiche thinge althoughe it ware muche againste their hartes, and an horrible diede, yet did thei it. Partely vppon the feare of the residew of the people: and partly vpon conscience of their obedience. For why, the people thoughte when thei sawe him begyn aftre this sorte: thei had had a god amongest them. So that in disobeyinge of his commaundemente, thei thoughte thei should not haue disobeied a king but God him selfe.

Canguista takinge stomake with this power, firste subdued those Scithians that bordred vpon him, and made them tributaries. And where other afore had bene tributaries also vnto them: now receiued he in that one peoples righte, tribute of many. Then settinge vpon those that ware further off, he had suche prosperous successe that from Scithia to the sonne risinge, and fro thence to the middle earthe sea, and beyonde: he broughte all together vndre his subiection. So that he moughte nowe worthely wryte him selfe highe Gouernour, and Emperour of the Easte.

The Tartares are very deformed, litle of bodie for the moste parte, hauyng great stiepe eyes: and yet so heary on the eye liddes, that there sheweth but litle in open sight. Platter faced and beardlesse, sauyng vpon the vpper lippe, and a litle about the poincte of the chinne thei haue a feawe heares as it were pricked in with Bodkins. Thei be communely all slendre in the waste. Thei shaue the hindre haulfe of the heade, rounde aboute by the croune, from one eare to another: compassyng towarde the nape of the necke after suche a facion, that the polle behind sheweth muche like the face of a bearded manne. On the other parte, thei suffre their heare to growe at lengthe like our women: whiche thei deuide into two tresses, or braudes, and bryng aboute to fasten behinde their eares. And this maner of shauyng, do thei vse also that dwelle among theim, of what nacion so euer thei be. Thei theim selues are very light and nimble: good on Horse, but naughte on foote. All from the moste to the leaste, as well the women as the menne: doe ride either vpon Geldynges, or Kien, where so euer thei become. For stoned Horses thei occupie none, ne yet Gelding that is a striker, and lighte of his heles. Their bridelles are trimmed with muche gold, siluer, and precious stones. And it is compted a ioly thyng among theim: to haue a great sort of siluer sounded belles, gynglyng aboute their horse neckes. Their speache is very chourlishe and loude. Their singyng is like the bawlynge of Woulues. When thei drinke, thei shake the heade: and drincke thei do very often euen vnto dronckennesse, wherein thei glorie muche. Their dwellyng is neither in tounes ne Bouroughes. But in the fieldes abrode, aftre the maner of thauncient Scithians in tentes. And the ratherso, for that thei are all moste generally catteill mastres. In the wintre time thei are wont to drawe to the plaines, and in the Somer season, to the mounteignes and hillie places for the better pasture. Thei make theim Tentes, or elles rounde cotages of wickres, or of Felte vndersette with smothe poles. In the middes thei make a round windowe that giueth them lighte, and letteth out the smoke. In the middes of the Tent, is their fire, aboute the whiche their wife and their children doe sitte. The menne delight muche in dartyng, shootyng, and wrastelyng. Thei are merueilous good hunters, to the whiche thei go armed at all pieces. And assone as thei espie the beaste, thei come costing together rounde aboute and enclose her. And when euery manne hath throwen his darte, or shotte his arrowe: whilest the beast is troubled and amased with the stripes, thei steppe in to her and slea her. Thei neither vse breade ne bakyng: table clothe ne napkin.

Thei belieue that there is one GOD that made all thynges, bodily and ghostly, sene or vnsene, and hym thei honour: but not with any maner of Sacrifice or ceremonie. Thei make theim selues litle pupettes of silke or of felte, or of thrumme, like unto menne: whiche thei sette vp vpon eche side of their Tentes, and do them muche reuerence, beseching them to take hede to their catteille. To these thei offre the first milke of all their milche catteill, of what kinde so euer thei be. And before thei begin either to eate or drinke aught, thei sette a porcion thereof before theim. Looke what beaste thei kille to be eaten, thei reserue the harte all nighte in some couered cuppe, and the nexte mornynge seath it and eate it.

Thei worshippe also and Sacrifice to the Sonne, Moone, and elementes fowre. To Cham also their Lorde and Kyng, thei do very deuoute honour and Sacrifice: supposyng him to be the sonne of God, and to haue no piere in the whole worlde: neither can they abide to heare any other manne name hym.

This people so despiseth al other men, and thincke theim selues so farre to surmount them in wisedome and goodnes: that thei abhorre to speake to theim, or to compaignie with theim. Thei calle the Pope and all Christen menne, Doggues and Idolatres: because thei honour stones and blocques. And thei theim selues (beyng giuen to deuelishe supersticions) are markers of dreames, and haue dreame readers emong theim: as well to enterpreate their sweuens, 36 as to aske knoweledge of Idolles. In whom thei are perswaded that God speaketh: and therefore acordyng to their answeres, frame them selues to do. Thei marke many seasons, and specially haue regarde to the chaunges of the Moone. Yet make thei for no season, ne chaunge, any singular holidaie or obseruance: but ilike for them all indifferently. Thei are of so gredie a coueitousenesse, and desire, that if any of them se aughte, that he coueiteth to haue, and cannot obtein with the good wille of the owner: if it apperteigne to no Tartarre, he will haue it by force. And thei thincke (through a certein ordenaunce that their Kyng made) thei offende not therein. For suche a commaundemente had thei of Canguista, and Cham, their firste Kynges: That if it fortune any Tartarre, or Tartarres seruaunt, to finde in his waie, horse, man, or woman, without the kinges lettres or his saulfconduite: he should take it, him, her, or them as his owne for euer.

To suche as lacke money thei lende, but for shamefull gaines: that is to saie, two shillynges of the pounde for euery Monethe. And if it fortune ye to faile to make paiemente at the dale: ye shall also be forced to paie the enterest, acording to the rate of the Vsurie. That is to saie, of euery tenth penie, one.

Thei do so polle and oppresse their tributaries, with subsidies, taxes and tallages, as neuer did people but thei, that euer manne redde of. It is beyonde belief to saie. Thei euer coueite, and as Lordes of all, do rape, and rende from other, and neuer recompence aught. No, the begger that liueth on almose, getteth not an aguelette of hym. Yet haue thei this one praise worthie propretie, that if he fortune to finde them at meate: thei neither shutte the doore against hym, ne thruste him out, if he be disposed to eate, but charitably bidde them, and parte with them suche as thei haue. But thei fiede the vnclenliest in the worlde, as I haue saied, without tableclothe, napkinne, or towell to couer the borde, or to wipe at meate, or aftre. For thei neither washe hande, face, ne body, ne any garmente that thei weare. Thei nether eate bread, nor make bread, nor sallottes nor potage, nor any kinde of Pultz. But no maner of flesshe cometh to them amisse. Dogges, Cattes, Horses and rattes. Yea, sometime to shewe their crueltie, and to satisfie their vengeaunce, the bodies of suche their enemies, as thei haue taken, thei vse to roste by a greate fire: and when thei bee asembled a good nombre together, thei teare theim of the spittes like Wolues, with their tiethe, and deuoure them. And aftreward drincke vp the bloude, whiche thei reserue afore hande for the nones. Otherwise thei vse to drincke Milke. Thei haue no wine of the countrie it self, but suche as is brought into them thei drincke very gredilie. Thei vse to Lowse one anothers heade, and euer as thei take a Lowce to eate her, saieng: thus wille I doe to our enemies. It is compted a greate offence emong them to suffre drincke, or a piece of meate to be loste. Thei neuer therfore giue the bone to the Dogge, till they haue eaten out the marrowe. Thei neuer eate beaste (suche vile niggardes thei are) as long as the same is sounde and in good likyng: but when it fortuneth to be hurte, sicke, or febled by age, then bewrie they it in their bealies. Thei are greate sparers, and contente with smalle chaunge, and litle foode. Thei drincke in the mornyng, a goblet full of Milke or twaine, whiche serueth theim sometyme for their whole daies foode.

The menne and the women moste communely are appareilled ylike. The men weare vpon their heades shallowe copin tackes, comming but behinde with a taile of a handefull and a haulfe long, and as muche in breadth: whiche thei fasten vnder their chinnes, for falling or blowing of, with a couple of strynges of ribbande lace, as we doe our nighte cappes. Their married women wear on their heades, fine wickre Basquettes of a foote and a haulf long: rounde, and flatte on the toppe like a barrelle. Whiche are either garnished with chaungeable silkes, or the gaiest parte of the Pecockes feathers, and sette with golde and stones of sondrie sortes. Asfor the residue of their bodie, thei wear acording to their abilitie, bothe men and women, Skarlet or Veluet, or other silkes. Thei weare coates of a straunge facion, open on the left side, whiche thei put on acordingly, and fasten with fowre or five Buttons. Their Somer wiedes are all communely blacke: and those that thei weare in Winter and foule weather, white: and neuer lower then the knee. Wearing furres (wherein thei muche delight) thei weare not the furre inwarde, as we communely doe: but contrariwise the heare outwarde, that thei maie enioie the pleasure of the shewe.

It is harde to discerne by the appareile the maide, fro the wife, or the woman fro the manne: so like araied do the menne and the women go. Thei weare brieches, the one and the other. When they shal go to the skirmishe, or to battaille, some couer their armes (whiche at all other tymes are naked) with plates of iron, buckeled together alonge, in many pieces, that thei may the easelier sturre their armes. Some doe thesame with many foldes of Leather: wherwith thei also arme their head. Thei cannot handle a target: nor but fewe of theim a launce or a long sweard. Thei haue curtilasses of iii. quarters longe: not double edged but backed. Thei fighte all with a quarter blowe, and neither right downe, ne foyning. Thei be very redy on horsebacke, and very skilful archers. He is counted moste valeaunte, that best obserueth the commaundement and the obedience dewe to his capitaine. Thei haue no wages for their souldie, yet are they prest and ready in all affaires, and all commaundementes. In battayle, and otherwise wher oughte is to be done, very politike and experte. The princes and capitaines entre not the battle, but standyng aloofe, crye vnto their men, and harten them on: lookinge diligently aboute on euery side what is nedefull to be done. Sometime to make the armye sieme the greater, and the more terrible to the ennemy: thei set vpon horsebacke their wiues and their children, yea and men made of cloutes. It is no vilany amonge them to flye: if any thinge maye eyther be saued or wonne by it. When thei will shoote, thei vnarme their righte arme, and then let thei flye with suche violence, that it pearceth all kinde of armour. Thei giue the onset flockinge in plumpes, and likewise in plompes they flie. And in the flighte thei so shoote backe warde behinde them, that thei slea many of their ennemies pursuinge the chase. And when thei perceiue their ennemies dispersed by pursuinge the chase, or not to fighte any thing wholie together: soudeinly retourninge, the beginne a newe onset with a hayle of shotte, neither sparing horse ne man. So that oftetimes thei ouercome when thei are thoughte to be vanquisshed. When thei come to enuade any quartre or countrie, thei deuide their armie, and sette vpon it on euery parte: so that the inhabitours can neither haue laisure to assemble and resiste, ne waye to escape. Thus are thei alway sure of the victory, whiche thei knytte vp with moste proude crueltie. Neither sparinge manne woman ne childe, olde ne younge sauing the artificer onely, whom thei reserue for their own vses. And this slaughter make thei aftre this maner. When they haue all taken them, thei distribute them to their Centurians: who committe them againe to the slaues: to euery one fewer or more acordinge to the multitude. And when the slaues haue all slayne them as bouchers kylle hogges: then for a terrour to al other ther about: of euery thousande of the dead thei take one, and hange him vp by the hieles vpon a stake, amydde these deade bodies: and so ordre his heade as though it appiered by his facion or maner of hanginge, that he yet bothe harkened the complainte of his felowes, and lessened them againe. Many of the Tartarres when the bodies lie freshe bliedinge on the grounde, laye them downe alonge, and sucke of the bloud a full gloute.

Thei kepe faithe to no manne, howe depely so euer thei binde them selues thervnto. Thei deale yet wourse with those that thei ouer come with force. The maidens and younge women thei deflowre, and defile as thei come to hande, neither do thei iudge it any dishonestie. The beautifuller sorte thei lead away with them: and in extreame misery, constraine them to be their slaues all their lyfe longe. Of all other thei are moste vnbrideled in leachery. For althoughe they marye as many wiues as they luste, and are able to kepe: no degre prohibited, but mother, doughter, and sister: yet are thei as rancke bouguers with mankinde, and with beastes, as the Saracenes are, and no punishmente for it amonge them. The woman that thei marie, thei neuer take as wife, ne receiue any dowrie with her, vntill she haue borne a childe. So that if she be barren he maye caste her vp, and mary another.

This is a notable meruaile, that though amonge theim manye women haue but one manne: yet thei neuer lightely falle out, ne brawle one with another for him. And yet are the menne parcialle in theyr loue: shewing muche more fauour to one then another, and goynge fro the bedde of the one, streighte to the bedde of an other. The women haue their seuerall tentes and householdes: And yet liue verye chastely, and true to their housebandes. For bothe the manne and the women taken in adultery, suffre death by the lawe.

Those that are not occupied for the warres, driue the catteile a fielde, and there kepe them. Thei hunte, and exercise themselues in wrastlinge, other thing doe thei not. The care of prouision for meate and drincke, appareille and householde, they betake to the women. This people hath many superstitious toyes. It is a heinous matter with them, to touche the fier, or take fleshe out of a potte with a knife. Thei hewe or choppe no maner of thing by the fire, leasse by any maner of meanes, thei might fortune to hurte the thing which alway they haue in reuerence, and iudge to be the clenser, and purifier of al thinges. To laye them downe to reste vppon the whippe that thei stirre theyr horse with (for spurres thei vse none) or to touche their shaftes therewith, in no wise thei wylle not. Thei neither kille younge birdes, ne take them in the neste or other waies. Thei beate not the horse with the bridle. Thei breake not one bone with another. Thei are ware, not to spill any spone meate, or drincke, specially milke. No manne pisseth within the compasse of their soiourning place. And if any one of self willed stubbornesse should do it, he ware sure withoute all mercy to die for it. But if necessitie constraine them to do it (as it often happeneth) then the tente of hym that did it, with all that is in it, muste be clensed and purified after this maner. They make two fires, thre strides one from another. And by eche fire thei pitche downe a Iaueline. Vpon them is tied a lyne stretching fro the one to the other, and couered ouer with buckerame. Betwene these ii. Iauelins, as throughe a gate, muste all thinges passe that are to be purified. Two women (to whome this office belongeth) stande, on either side one, sprinckelinge on watre, and mumblinge certaine verses. No straungier, of what dignitie so euer he be, or of howe greate importance so euer the cause of his comming be: is admitted to the kinges sighte before he be purified. He that treadeth vppon the thressholde of the tente wherein their kinge, or anye of his chiefteines lyeth, dieth for it in the place. If any manne bite a gobet, greater than he is able to swallowe, so that he be constrained to put it out of his mouth againe: thei by and by make a hole vndre the tent, and ther drawe him out, and cruelly slea him. Many other thinges ther are which thei compte for faultes beyonde all forgiuenesse. But to slea a man, to enuade a nother mannes country, contrary to all righte and reason, to bereue them of their goodes and possessions, to breake the preceptes of God, thei estieme as nothinge. Thei haue a beliefe that aftre this life thei shal liue for euer in another worlde (but what maner of worlde thei cannot telle) and ther receiue rewarde for their well doinges. When any of them falleth sicke, and lieth at the pointe of deathe, thei sticke vp a Iaueline with a piece of blacke clothe at the dore of the tente wher he lieth, that none come in as they passe by. For no manne when he seeth this, dare entre thether vncalled.

Aftre what time the sicke is dead, his whole house gather together, and priuely conueighe the corps into some place withoute the tente, chosen for the purpose. Ther cut they out a trenche, broade and diepe enoughe to sette vp another lytle tent in: so that the toppe of the tent maye be well within the grounde. In that thei prepare a table with a banket: at the whiche thei sette the deade bodye in his beste appareille. And so together, as it ware with one hande, couer all with earth againe. Thei bewry with him also some beaste of bourden, and a horse ready sadled and appointed to ride. The gentlemen by their life time, appointe out a slaue (whome thei marke with their brande) to be specially bewried with him when he dieth. And this do thei vpon perswasion of a life in a nother worlde, wher thei woulde be loth to lacke these necessaries. Then doe the deades friendes take another horse, and slea him. And when they haue eaten the fleshe, thei stuffe the hide full of haye, and sowe it againe together and sette it vp ouer the graue vpon foure poles, in remembraunce of the deade. The bones do the two ordenarie women burne, for the clensinge and purifienge of the soule. But the gentlemen, and thei of higher degree, handle the hide aftre another maner. Thei cut it out into very fine thonges, to asmuche lengthe as thei can, and measure oute asmuche grounde about the Sepulchre as the thonge wille stretche vnto. For so muche ground thincke thei shall the deade haue in another worlde. At the thirtieth daye thei ende their mourning.

Certaine of the Tartarres, professing the name of Christe, yet farre from his righteousnes: when their parentes waxe aged, to haste their death, crame them with gobins of fatte. When thei die thei burne them to pouldre, whiche thei reserue as a precious Iewelle, to strawe vppon their meate euery daie. But to declare with what solempnitie and ioifulnes thei sette vp their newe Kynge, aftre the death of tholde: because it ware to longe a thyng, bothe for the reader and writer to set out at length, I will shewe you in brief theffecte.

Abrode in the fieldes, in a faire plaine ordenary for the purpose: all the Dukes, Erles, Barons, Lordes, and the reste of the nobilitie, together with the people of the whole kyngdome, do assemble. Then take thei hym, to whom the croune is due, either by succession, or by election. And when thei haue set hym vp in a throne of Golde: thei all fall doune on their knees, and together with one voice crie out a loude, aftre this maner. We require the, yea, we will and commaunde the, to take the rule and gouernaunce of vs. He answereth, if ye will haue me doe so, then must ye of necessitie be redy to do whatsoeuer I commaunde ye. To come when I calle ye, to go whether so euer I sende ye, to slea whom so euer I commaunde ye, without staieng or stackering. And to put the whole kingdome and rule in my handes, when thei haue aunswered, we are content: Saieth he againe, from hencefurthe then the speache of my mouth, shalbe my swearde. To this the people yealde with greate shoutes, and reioisynges. In the meane while the princes and the nobles, taking the king out of his throne, spread abrode on the grounde a piece of felte: vpon the whiche, thei cause hym in simple sorte to sitte doune, and thus saie to hym. Looke vp, and remembre GOD aboue the. And now looke doune also, and behold this felt vndre the. If thou gouerne welle, thou shalte haue all euen as thou wouldest wisshe it. But if contrary wise, thou shalt so be broughte doune againe, and so nighe be bereued of all: that thou shalte not haue so muche, as this poore felte left the, whervpon thou sittest. This ones saied, thei sette in to hym, of all his wiues the dierest derlyng. And liftyng vp the felte alofte, haile hym by the name of Emperour, and her by the name of Empresse. Then, come there presentes streight from al countries, and peoples of his dominion: and all the Threasoures that the kyng, his predecessour lefte, are brought him. Of the whiche he giueth giftes to al the princes and high estates: commaundyng the reste to be kepte for himself, and so dissolueth the Parlament as it ware.

In his hande and power is then altogether, no manne can: or though he can, he dare not saie this is myne, or this is his. No man maie dwelle in any part of the lande, but in that wherevnto he is appoincted. The Emperour hymself appoincteth the Dukes: the Dukes, the Millenaries: the Millenaries, the Centurianes: and they the Disniers: and the Disniers the residewe. The seale that he vseth hath this superscription. GOD in heauen, and Chutchuth Cham in earth, the force of God, and Emperour of all menne. He hath fiue armies of greate multitude and force: and fiue chiefteines, by whom he subdueth all that stande against hym. He hymself neuer speaketh to any foreine ambassadours, nor admitteth them to his presence, as is aboue saied: excepte bothe thei and their giftes (without the whiche specially thei maie not come) bee purified by the ordenarie women. The Kyng aunswereth by another mannes mouthe. And the persone by whome he aunswereth, be he neuer so honourable, for the tyme that he becommeth the kynges mouthe, kneleth on his knees and giueth so diligent care, that he swarueth not from the Kyng in one woorde. For it is not lawefull for any manne, to chaunge the kynges woordes: ne for any man in any wise, to replie against suche sentence as he giueth. He neuer drincketh in open presence, but some body first sing to hym, or plaie vpon some instrumente of Musicque.

The gentlemen and menne of honour when thei ride, haue a phannell borne afore them, on a Iauelines ende, to kiepe awaie the Sonne. And as it is saied, the women likewise. These ware the maners and facions of the Tartarres, for a two hundred yeres paste.

The Georgians, whom the Tartarres aboute the same tyme did subdue: ware Christians, aftre the fourme of the Greke Churche. Thei ware neighbours to the Persians. Their dominions stretched out a great length, from Palestine in Iewrie to the mounteignes called Caspij. Thei had eightene Bishopries: and one Catholicque: that is to saie, one generall bishoppe, whiche was to them, as our Metropolitane to vs. At the firste thei ware subiecte to the Patriarche of Antioche. Menne of greate courage and hardinesse. Thei all shaued their crounes: the Laietie square, the Clercques rounde. Their women (certeine of theim) had the ordre of Knighthode, and ware trained to the warres. The Georgianes when thei ware sette, ordered, and raunged in the fielde, and ware at poinct to ioyne the batteill: vsed to drincke of a gourdfull of strong wine, aboute the bigguenes of a mannes fiste. And to sette vpon their ennemies: muche amended in courage.

Their Clercques, whiche we calle the Spiritualtie, mighte vse bothe Simonie and vsurie at their wille. There was continuall hatred betwixte Tharmenians and them. For the Armenians ware also Christians, before the Tartarres had subdued the Georgianes and them. But thei differed in many thinges, from the belief and facions of the true Churche. Thei knewe no Christemas daie, no vigilles, nor the fowre quartre festes, whiche we call Embryng dales. Thei fasted not on Easter euen, because (saie thei), that Christ rose that daie aboute euen tide. Vpon euerie Saturdaie, betwixte Easter and Whitsontide, thei did eate flesshe. Thei ware greate fasters, and beganne their Lente thre wekes afore vs: and so streightly fasted it, that vpon the Wednesdaie and Fridaie, thei neither eate any kinde of fisshe, ne aughte wherin was wine, or oile. Belieuing that he that drancke wine on those twoo daies: synned more then if he had bene at the stewes with a whore. On the Monedaie thei absteined from all maner of meate. On Tewsdaie and Thursdaie, thei did eate but one meale. Wedensdaie and Fridaie, nothyng at al. Saturdaie and Sondaie, thei eate flesshe and made lustie chiere. Throughe their whole Lente, no manne said Masse but on Saturdaies and Sondaies. Nor yet on the Fridaies throughout the whole yere: for thei thought then, that thei brake their fast. Thei admitted to the houseale, aswell children of two monethes olde, as all other indifferently. When thei went to Masse, thei vsed to put no watre in the wine. Thei absteined from Hares flesshe, Beaws flesshe, Crowes, and suche other as the Grekes did, and Iewes do. Their Chalices ware of Glasse, and of Tree. Some said Masse without either albe or vestement, or any maner suche ornament. Some onely with thornamentes of Deacon or Subdeacon. Thei ware all busie vsurers, and Simonites: bothe spirituall and Temporall, as the Georgianes ware. Their priestes studied Sothesaieng and Nigromancie. Their Spiritualtie vsed Iunckettyng oftener then the Laietie.

Thei maried, but aftre the death of the wife, it was not lawefull for the housebande to marie againe, nor for the wife, aftre the death of the housebande. If the wife ware a whore, the Bisshoppe gaue hym leaue to put her awaie, and marie another. As for the fire of Purgatorie thei knewe nothing of it. Thei denied also verie stifly, that there ware two natures in Christe. The Georgianes saied that thei swarued from the truthe of Christes Religion, in thirtie poinctes or articles.

36 From the Saxon, meaning a dream. See Bailey’s Dict., London, 1737.

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