The Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer

The Monkes Tale.

Here biginneth the Monkes Tale, de Casibus Virorum Illustrium.

I wol biwayle in maner of Tragedie

The harm of hem that stode in heigh degree,

And fillen so that ther nas no remedie

To bringe hem out of hir adversitee;

3185

For certein, whan that fortune list to flee,

Ther may no man the cours of hir withholde;

Lat no man truste on blind prosperitee;

Be war by thise ensamples trewe and olde.

Heading. From E. (E. Heere).   3188. E. Pt. of; rest by.

Lucifer.

At Lucifer, though he an angel were,

3190

And nat a man, at him I wol biginne;

(11)

For, thogh fortune may non angel dere,

From heigh degree yet fel he for his sinne

Doun in-to helle, wher he yet is inne.

O Lucifer! brightest of angels alle,

3195

Now artow Sathanas, that maist nat twinne

Out of miserie, in which that thou art falle.

3191. E. though; Hn. thogh.

Adam.

Lo Adam, in the feld of Damassene,

With goddes owene finger wroght was he,

And nat bigeten of mannes sperme unclene,

3200

And welte al Paradys, saving o tree.

(21)

Had never worldly man so heigh degree

As Adam, til he for misgovernaunce

Was drive out of his hye prosperitee

To labour, and to helle, and to meschaunce.

3197. Cm. Hl. Damassene; E. Hn. Damyssene.

Sampson.
3205

Lo Sampson, which that was annunciat

By thangel, longe er his nativitee,

And was to god almighty consecrat,

And stood in noblesse, whyl he mighte see.

Was never swich another as was he,

3210

To speke of strengthe, and therwith hardinesse;

(31)

But to his wyves tolde he his secree,

Through which he slow him-self, for wrecchednesse.

3206. Hl. Cp. thangel; Hn. Pt. Ln. the aungel; E. Cm. angel.

Sampson, this noble almighty champioun,

Withouten wepen save his hondes tweye,

3215

He slow and al to-rente the leoun,

Toward his wedding walking by the weye.

His false wyf coude him so plese and preye

Til she his conseil knew, and she untrewe

Un-to his foos his conseil gan biwreye,

3220

And him forsook, and took another newe.

(41)

Three hundred foxes took Sampson for ire,

And alle hir tayles he togider bond,

And sette the foxes tayles alle on fire,

For he on every tayl had knit a brond;

3225

And they brende alle the cornes in that lond,

And alle hir oliveres and vynes eek.

A thousand men he slow eek with his hond,

And had no wepen but an asses cheek.

Whan they were slayn, so thursted him that he

3230

Was wel my lorn, for which he gan to preye

(51)

That god wolde on his peyne han som pitee,

And sende him drinke, or elles moste he deye;

And of this asses cheke, that was dreye,

Out of a wang-tooth sprang anon a welle,

3235

Of which he drank y-nogh, shortly to seye,

Thus heelp him god, as Iudicum can telle.

3235. E. anon; rest ynogh, ynough, ynouhe, &c.

By verray force, at Gazan, on a night,

Maugree Philistiens of that citee,

The gates of the toun he hath up-plight,

3240

And on his bak y-caried hem hath he

(61)

Hye on an hille, that men mighte hem see.

O noble almighty Sampson, leef and dere,

Had thou nat told to wommen thy secree,

In al this worlde ne hadde been thy pere!

3245

This Sampson never sicer drank ne wyn,

Ne on his heed cam rasour noon ne shere,

By precept of the messager divyn,

For alle his strengthes in his heres were;

And fully twenty winter, yeer by yere,

3250

He hadde of Israel the governaunce.

(71)

But sone shal he wepen many a tere,

For wommen shal him bringen to meschaunce!

3245. E. Hn. ciser (for sicer); Hl. siser; Cm. Pt. Ln. sythir; Cp. cyder.

Un-to his lemman Dalida he tolde

That in his heres al his strengthe lay,

3255

And falsly to his fo-men she him solde.

And sleping in hir barme up-on a day

She made to clippe or shere his heer awey,

And made his fo-men al his craft espyen;

And whan that they him fonde in this array,

3260

They bounde him faste, and putten out his yën.

3257. E. Hl. heres; rest heer, here.   3258. E. Hn. this craft; rest his craft.

(81)

But er his heer were clipped or y-shave,

Ther was no bond with which men might him binde;

But now is he in prisoun in a cave,

Wher-as they made him at the querne grinde.

3265

O noble Sampson, strongest of mankinde,

O whylom Iuge in glorie and in richesse,

Now maystow wepen with thyn yën blinde,

Sith thou fro wele art falle in wrecchednesse.

3261. E. were; rest was; see l. 3328.

Thende of this caytif was as I shal seye;

3270

His fo-men made a feste upon a day,

(91)

And made him as hir fool bifore hem pleye,

And this was in a temple of greet array.

But atte laste he made a foul affray;

For he two pilers shook, and made hem falle,

3275

And doun fil temple and al, and ther it lay,

And slow him-self, and eek his fo-men alle.

3271. E. Cm. a; rest hire, here.   3274. E. the; rest two.

This is to seyn, the princes everichoon,

And eek three thousand bodies wer ther slayn

With falling of the grete temple of stoon.

3280

Of Sampson now wol I na-more seyn.

(101)

Beth war by this ensample old and playn

That no men telle hir conseil til hir wyves

Of swich thing as they wolde han secree fayn,

If that it touche hir limmes or hir lyves.

Hercules.
3285

Of Hercules the sovereyn conquerour

Singen his workes laude and heigh renoun;

For in his tyme of strengthe he was the flour.

He slow, and rafte the skin of the leoun;

He of Centauros leyde the boost adoun;

3290

He Arpies slow, the cruel briddes felle;

(111)

He golden apples rafte of the dragoun;

He drow out Cerberus, the hound of helle:

He slow the cruel tyrant Busirus,

And made his hors to frete him, flesh and boon;

3295

He slow the firy serpent venimous;

Of Achelois two hornes, he brak oon;

And he slow Cacus in a cave of stoon;

He slow the geaunt Antheus the stronge;

He slow the grisly boor, and that anoon,

3300

And bar the heven on his nekke longe.

3294. E. flessh.   3296. E. Cm. hornes two; rest two hornes.

(121)

Was never wight, sith that the world bigan,

That slow so many monstres as dide he.

Thurgh-out this wyde world his name ran,

What for his strengthe, and for his heigh bountee,

3305

And every reaume wente he for to see.

He was so strong that no man mighte him lette;

At bothe the worldes endes, seith Trophee,

In stede of boundes, he a piler sette.

3308. E. stide; pileer.

A lemman hadde this noble champioun,

3310

That highte Dianira, fresh as May;

(131)

And, as thise clerkes maken mencioun,

She hath him sent a sherte fresh and gay.

Allas! this sherte, allas and weylaway!

Envenimed was so subtilly with-alle,

3315

That, er that he had wered it half a day,

It made his flesh al from his bones falle.

3310, 2. E. fressh.   3316. E. flessh.

But nathelees somme clerkes hir excusen

By oon that highte Nessus, that it maked;

Be as be may, I wol hir noght accusen;

3320

But on his bak this sherte he wered al naked,

(141)

Til that his flesh was for the venim blaked.

And whan he sey noon other remedye,

In hote coles he hath him-selven raked,

For with no venim deyned him to dye.

3325

Thus starf this worthy mighty Hercules;

Lo, who may truste on fortune any throwe?

For him that folweth al this world of prees,

Er he be war, is ofte y-leyd ful lowe.

Ful wys is he that can him-selven knowe.

3330

Beth war, for whan that fortune list to glose,

(151)

Than wayteth she hir man to overthrowe

By swich a wey as he wolde leest suppose.

Nabugodonosor (Nebuchadnezzar).

The mighty trone, the precious tresor,

The glorious ceptre and royal magestee

3335

That hadde the king Nabugodonosor,

With tonge unnethe may discryved be.

He twyes wan Ierusalem the citee;

The vessel of the temple he with him ladde.

At Babiloyne was his sovereyn see,

3340

In which his glorie and his delyt he hadde.

3336. Hl. vnnethes.

(161)

The fairest children of the blood royal

Of Israel he leet do gelde anoon,

And maked ech of hem to been his thral.

Amonges othere Daniel was oon,

3345

That was the wysest child of everichoon;

For he the dremes of the king expouned,

Wher-as in Chaldey clerk ne was ther noon

That wiste to what fyn his dremes souned.

This proude king leet make a statue of golde,

3350

Sixty cubytes long, and seven in brede,

(171)

To which image bothe yonge and olde

Comaunded he to loute, and have in drede;

Or in a fourneys ful of flambes rede

He shal be brent, that wolde noght obeye.

3355

But never wolde assente to that dede

Daniel, ne his yonge felawes tweye.

3351. E. The; rest To.   E. Hn. Cm. he bothe; rest omit he.   3352. E. Hn. Cm. omit he.

This king of kinges proud was and elaat,

He wende that god, that sit in magestee,

Ne mighte him nat bireve of his estaat:

3360

But sodeynly he loste his dignitee,

(181)

And lyk a beste him semed for to be,

And eet hay as an oxe, and lay ther-oute;

In reyn with wilde bestes walked he,

Til certein tyme was y-come aboute.

3365

And lyk an egles fetheres wexe his heres,

His nayles lyk a briddes clawes were;

Til god relessed him a certein yeres,

And yaf him wit; and than with many a tere

He thanked god, and ever his lyf in fere

3370

Was he to doon amis, or more trespace;

(191)

And, til that tyme he leyd was on his bere,

He knew that god was ful of might and grace.

3365. Wexe is the right reading, whence Cm. wexsyn, and Hl. Cp. were (for wexe); E. Hn. wax; Pt. Ln. was (for wax).

Balthasar (Belshazzar).

His sone, which that highte Balthasar,

That heeld the regne after his fader day,

3375

He by his fader coude nought be war,

For proud he was of herte and of array;

And eek an ydolastre was he ay.

His hye estaat assured him in pryde.

But fortune caste him doun, and ther he lay,

3380

And sodeynly his regne gan divyde.

3377. E. he was; rest was he.

(201)

A feste he made un-to his lordes alle

Up-on a tyme, and bad hem blythe be,

And than his officeres gan he calle —

‘Goth, bringeth forth the vessels,’ [tho] quod he,

3385

‘Which that my fader, in his prosperitee,

Out of the temple of Ierusalem birafte,

And to our hye goddes thanke we

Of honour, that our eldres with us lafte.’

3384. I supply tho.   For vessels, see 3391, 3416, 3418.

His wyf, his lordes, and his concubynes

3390

Ay dronken, whyl hir appetytes laste,

(211)

Out of thise noble vessels sundry wynes;

And on a wal this king his yën caste,

And sey an hond armlees, that wroot ful faste,

For fere of which he quook and syked sore.

3395

This hond, that Balthasar so sore agaste,

Wroot Mane, techel, phares, and na-more.

In al that lond magicien was noon

That coude expoune what this lettre mente;

But Daniel expouned it anoon,

3400

And seyde, ‘king, god to thy fader lente

(221)

Glorie and honour, regne, tresour, rente:

And he was proud, and no-thing god ne dradde,

And therfor god gret wreche up-on him sente,

And him birafte the regne that he hadde.

3400. Hn. lente; rest sente (but see l. 3403).

3405

He was out cast of mannes companye,

With asses was his habitacioun,

And eet hey as a beste in weet and drye,

Til that he knew, by grace and by resoun,

That god of heven hath dominacioun

3410

Over every regne and every creature;

(231)

And thanne had god of him compassioun,

And him restored his regne and his figure.

Eek thou, that art his sone, art proud also,

And knowest alle thise thinges verraily,

3415

And art rebel to god, and art his fo.

Thou drank eek of his vessels boldely;

Thy wyf eek and thy wenches sinfully

Dronke of the same vessels sondry wynes,

And heriest false goddes cursedly;

3420

Therfor to thee y-shapen ful gret pyne is.

(241)

This hand was sent from god, that on the walle

Wroot mane, techel, phares, truste me;

Thy regne is doon, thou weyest noght at alle;

Divyded is thy regne, and it shal be

3425

To Medes and to Perses yeven,’ quod he.

And thilke same night this king was slawe,

And Darius occupyeth his degree,

Thogh he therto had neither right ne lawe.

3422. E. Hn. Cp. Hl. truste; Pt. trest; Ln. trust; Cm. trust to.   See B. 4214.   3425. E. om. yeven.

Lordinges, ensample heer-by may ye take

3430

How that in lordshipe is no sikernesse;

(251)

For whan fortune wol a man forsake,

She bereth awey his regne and his richesse,

And eek his freendes, bothe more and lesse;

For what man that hath freendes thurgh fortune,

3435

Mishap wol make hem enemys, I gesse:

This proverbe is ful sooth and ful commune.

3435. E. as I; the rest omit as.

Cenobia (Zenobia).

Cenobia, of Palimerie quene,

As writen Persiens of hir noblesse,

So worthy was in armes and so kene,

3440

That no wight passed hir in hardinesse,

(261)

Ne in linage, ne in other gentillesse.

Of kinges blode of Perse is she descended;

I seye nat that she hadde most fairnesse,

But of hir shape she mighte nat been amended.

3437. So E. Hn. Cm.; and Cp. has the heading — De Cenobia Palymerie regina.   3441. Cp. Pt. Ln. Hl. ne in; E. nor in; Hn. ne; Cm. nor; (ne in = n'in).

3445

From hir childhede I finde that she fledde

Office of wommen, and to wode she wente;

And many a wilde hertes blood she shedde

With arwes brode that she to hem sente.

She was so swift that she anon hem hente,

3450

And whan that she was elder, she wolde kille

(271)

Leouns, lepardes, and beres al to-rente,

And in hir armes welde hem at hir wille.

She dorste wilde beestes dennes seke,

And rennen in the montaignes al the night,

3455

And slepen under a bush, and she coude eke

Wrastlen by verray force and verray might

With any yong man, were he never so wight;

Ther mighte no-thing in hir armes stonde.

She kepte hir maydenhod from every wight,

3460

To no man deigned hir for to be bonde.

3455. E. Hn. Cm. the; rest a. E. bussh.

(281)

But atte laste hir frendes han hir maried

To Odenake, a prince of that contree,

Al were it so that she hem longe taried;

And ye shul understonde how that he

3465

Hadde swiche fantasyes as hadde she.

But nathelees, whan they were knit in-fere,

They lived in Ioye and in felicitee;

For ech of hem hadde other leef and dere.

3462. E. Hn. Cm. Onedake; Cp. Ln. Hl. Odenake; Pt. Odonak.   3468. E. oother lief.

Save o thing, that she never wolde assente

3470

By no wey, that he sholde by hir lye

(291)

But ones, for it was hir pleyn entente

To have a child, the world to multiplye;

And al-so sone as that she mighte espye

That she was nat with childe with that dede,

3475

Than wolde she suffre him doon his fantasye

Eft-sone, and nat but ones, out of drede.

And if she were with childe at thilke cast,

Na-more sholde he pleyen thilke game

Til fully fourty dayes weren past;

3480

Than wolde she ones suffre him do the same.

(301)

Al were this Odenake wilde or tame,

He gat na-more of hir, for thus she seyde,

‘It was to wyves lecherye and shame

In other cas, if that men with hem pleyde.’

3481. E. Hn. Cm. Onedake; rest Odenake.

3485

Two sones by this Odenake hadde she,

The whiche she kepte in vertu and lettrure;

But now un-to our tale turne we.

I seye, so worshipful a creature,

And wys therwith, and large with mesure,

3490

So penible in the warre, and curteis eke,

(311)

Ne more labour mighte in werre endure,

Was noon, thogh al this world men sholde seke.

3485. E. om. this.   E. Hn. Cm. Onedake; rest Odenake.   3492. E. though; Hn. thogh.   E. wolde; rest sholde (schulde).

Hir riche array ne mighte nat be told

As wel in vessel as in hir clothing;

3495

She was al clad in perree and in gold,

And eek she lafte noght, for noon hunting,

To have of sondry tonges ful knowing,

Whan that she leyser hadde, and for to entende

To lernen bokes was al hir lyking,

3500

How she in vertu mighte hir lyf dispende.

(321)

And, shortly of this storie for to trete,

So doughty was hir housbonde and eek she,

That they conquered many regnes grete

In the orient, with many a fair citee,

3505

Apertenaunt un-to the magestee

Of Rome, and with strong hond helde hem ful faste;

Ne never mighte hir fo-men doon hem flee,

Ay whyl that Odenakes dayes laste.

3501. E. proces; rest storie.   3508. Hl. Odenakes; rest Onedakes, Odenake.

Hir batailes, who-so list hem for to rede,

3510

Agayn Sapor the king and othere mo,

(331)

And how that al this proces fil in dede,

Why she conquered and what title had therto,

And after of hir meschief and hir wo,

How that she was biseged and y-take,

3515

Let him un-to my maister Petrark go,

That writ y-nough of this, I undertake.

3511. E. omits that.   3512. Cp. Pt. Ln. Hl. had; which E. Hn. Cm. omit.

When Odenake was deed, she mightily

The regnes heeld, and with hir propre honde

Agayn hir foos she faught so cruelly,

3520

That ther nas king ne prince in al that londe

(341)

That he nas glad, if that he grace fonde,

That she ne wolde up-on his lond werreye;

With hir they made alliaunce by bonde

To been in pees, and lete hir ryde and pleye.

3517. So Cp. Pt. Ln. Hl.; E. Hn. Cm. Onedake.   3518. E. honde; Pt. honde; Ln. hande; rest hond.   3523. Mss. made; read maden?

3525

The emperour of Rome, Claudius,

Ne him bifore, the Romayn Galien,

Ne dorste never been so corageous,

Ne noon Ermyn, ne noon Egipcien,

Ne Surrien, ne noon Arabien,

3530

Within the feld that dorste with hir fighte

(351)

Lest that she wolde hem with hir hondes slen,

Or with hir meynee putten hem to flighte.

3530. Cp. feeld; Hl. feld; Ln. felde; Pt. feelde; E. Hn. Cm. feeldes.

In kinges habit wente hir sones two,

As heires of hir fadres regnes alle,

3535

And Hermanno, and Thymalaö

Her names were, as Persiens hem calle.

But ay fortune hath in hir hony galle;

This mighty quene may no whyl endure.

Fortune out of hir regne made hir falle

3540

To wrecchednesse and to misaventure.

(361)

Aurelian, whan that the governaunce

Of Rome cam in-to his hondes tweye,

He shoop up-on this queen to do vengeaunce,

And with his legiouns he took his weye

3545

Toward Cenobie, and, shortly for to seye,

He made hir flee, and atte laste hir hente,

And fettred hir, and eek hir children tweye,

And wan the lond, and hoom to Rome he wente.

Amonges othere thinges that he wan,

3550

Hir char, that was with gold wrought and perree,

(371)

This grete Romayn, this Aurelian,

Hath with him lad, for that men sholde it see.

Biforen his triumphe walketh she

With gilte cheynes on hir nekke hanging;

3555

Corouned was she, as after hir degree,

And ful of perree charged hir clothing.

3553. Mss. Biforn, Bifore (Hl. Bifore this).   3555. E. omits as.

Allas, fortune! she that whylom was

Dredful to kinges and to emperoures,

Now gaureth al the peple on hir, allas!

3560

And she that helmed was in starke stoures,

(381)

And wan by force tounes stronge and toures,

Shal on hir heed now were a vitremyte;

And she that bar the ceptre ful of floures

[T. 14380.

Shal bere a distaf, hir cost for to quyte.

3560. E. shoures.   3562. Hl. wyntermyte.   3564. Hn. Cm. Ln. cost; Pt. coste; E. Cp. costes; Hl. self.

(Nero follows in T.; see p. 259.)

De Petro Rege Ispannie.
[T. 14685.

O noble, o worthy Petro, glorie of Spayne,

3566

Whom fortune heeld so hy in magestee,

Wel oughten men thy pitous deeth complayne!

Out of thy lond thy brother made thee flee;

And after, at a sege, by subtiltee,

3570

Thou were bitrayed, and lad un-to his tente,

(391)

Wher-as he with his owene hond slow thee,

Succeding in thy regne and in thy rente.

3570. E. Hn. Cm. bitraysed.

[T. 14693.

The feeld of snow, with thegle of blak ther-inne,

Caught with the lymrod, coloured as the glede,

3575

He brew this cursednes and al this sinne.

The ‘wikked nest’ was werker of this nede;

Noght Charles Oliver, that ay took hede

Of trouthe and honour, but of Armorike

Genilon Oliver, corrupt for mede,

3580

Broghte this worthy king in swich a brike.

3577. E. Hn. Cm. took ay; rest ay took.

De Petro Rege de Cipro.
(401)

O worthy Petro, king of Cypre, also,

That Alisaundre wan by heigh maistrye,

Ful many a hethen wroghtestow ful wo,

Of which thyn owene liges hadde envye,

3585

And, for no thing but for thy chivalrye,

They in thy bedde han slayn thee by the morwe.

Thus can fortune hir wheel governe and gye,

[T. 14708.

And out of Ioye bringe men to sorwe.

De Barnabo de Lumbardia.

Of Melan grete Barnabo Viscounte,

3590

God of delyt, and scourge of Lumbardye,

(411)

Why sholde I nat thyn infortune acounte,

Sith in estaat thou clombe were so hye?

Thy brother sone, that was thy double allye,

For he thy nevew was, and sone-in-lawe,

3595

With-inne his prisoun made thee to dye;

But why, ne how, noot I that thou were slawe.

De Hugelino, Comite de Pize.

Of the erl Hugelyn of Pyse the langour

Ther may no tonge telle for pitee;

But litel out of Pyse stant a tour,

3600

In whiche tour in prisoun put was he,

(421)

And with him been his litel children three.

The eldeste scarsly fyf yeer was of age.

Allas, fortune! it was greet crueltee

Swiche briddes for to putte in swiche a cage!

3597. E. Pyze; Hn. Pize; Cp. Pyse; Pt. Ln. Hl. Pise.   3599. E. Hn. Cm. Pize; Cp. Pyse; Pt. Ln. Hl. Pise.

3605

Dampned was he to deye in that prisoun,

For Roger, which that bisshop was of Pyse,

Hadde on him maad a fals suggestioun,

Thurgh which the peple gan upon him ryse,

And putten him to prisoun in swich wyse

3610

As ye han herd, and mete and drink he hadde

(431)

So smal, that wel unnethe it may suffyse,

And therwith-al it was ful povre and badde.

3606. E. Hn. Pize; Cm. Pyze; Cp. Pyse; Pt. Ln. Hl. Pise.   3611. E. Pt. omit wel.

And on a day bifil that, in that hour,

Whan that his mete wont was to be broght,

3615

The gayler shette the dores of the tour.

He herde it wel — but he spak right noght,

And in his herte anon ther fil a thoght,

That they for hunger wolde doon him dyen.

‘Allas!’ quod he, ‘allas! that I was wroght!’

3620

Therwith the teres fillen from his yën.

3616. E. Hn. spak right; Cp. Hl. saugh it; Pt. seegh it; Ln. sawe it.

(441)

His yonge sone, that three yeer was of age,

Un-to him seyde, ‘fader, why do ye wepe?

Whan wol the gayler bringen our potage,

Is ther no morsel breed that ye do kepe?

3625

I am so hungry that I may nat slepe,

Now wolde god that I mighte slepen ever!

Than sholde nat hunger in my wombe crepe;

Ther is no thing, save breed, that me were lever.’

3622. E. Hn. repeat fader.   3628. Ln. Hl. saue; Cp. Pt. sauf; E. Hn. but.

Thus day by day this child bigan to crye,

3630

Til in his fadres barme adoun it lay,

(451)

And seyde, ‘far-wel, fader, I moot dye,’

And kiste his fader, and deyde the same day.

And whan the woful fader deed it sey,

For wo his armes two he gan to byte,

3635

And seyde, ‘allas, fortune! and weylaway!

Thy false wheel my wo al may I wyte!’

3632. E. Hl. dyde; Hn. Cp. deyde; see l. 3644.

His children wende that it for hunger was

That he his armes gnow, and nat for wo,

And seyde, ‘fader, do nat so, allas!

3640

But rather eet the flesh upon us two;

(461)

Our flesh thou yaf us, tak our flesh us fro

And eet y-nough:’ right thus they to him seyde,

And after that, with-in a day or two,

They leyde hem in his lappe adoun, and deyde.

3640. E. flessh.   3641. E. flessh.   E. Hn. omit vs after yaf.

3645

Him-self, despeired, eek for hunger starf;

Thus ended is this mighty Erl of Pyse;

From heigh estaat fortune awey him carf.

Of this Tragedie it oghte y-nough suffyse.

Who-so wol here it in a lenger wyse,

3650

Redeth the grete poete of Itaille,

(471)

That highte Dant, for he can al devyse

[T. 14772.

Fro point to point, nat o word wol he faille.

3646. See note to l. 3597.

(For T. 14773, see p. 269; for T. 14380, see p. 256.)

Nero.
[T. 14381.

Al-though that Nero were as vicious

As any feend that lyth ful lowe adoun,

3655

Yet he, as telleth us Swetonius,

This wyde world hadde in subieccioun,

Both Est and West, South and Septemtrioun;

Of rubies, saphires, and of perles whyte

Were alle his clothes brouded up and doun;

3660

For he in gemmes greetly gan delyte.

3653. E. Hn. Cm. omit as.   3654. E. in helle; rest full lowe.   3657. E. Hn. Cm. North (but read South); Cp. Pt. Ln. Hl omit!

(481)

More delicat, more pompous of array,

More proud was never emperour than he;

That ilke cloth, that he had wered o day,

After that tyme he nolde it never see.

3665

Nettes of gold-thred hadde he gret plentee

To fisshe in Tybre, whan him liste pleye.

His lustes were al lawe in his decree,

For fortune as his freend him wolde obeye.

He Rome brende for his delicacye;

3670

The senatours he slow up-on a day.

(491)

To here how men wolde wepe and crye;

And slow his brother, and by his sister lay.

His moder made he in pitous array;

For he hir wombe slitte, to biholde

3675

Wher he conceyved was; so weilawey!

That he so litel of his moder tolde!

3673, 6. E. mooder.

No tere out of his yën for that sighte

Ne cam, but seyde, ‘a fair womman was she.’

Gret wonder is, how that he coude or mighte

3680

Be domesman of hir dede beautee.

(501)

The wyn to bringen him comaunded he,

And drank anon; non other wo he made.

Whan might is Ioyned un-to crueltee,

Allas! to depe wol the venim wade!

3682. E. noon oother.

3685

In youthe a maister hadde this emperour,

To teche him letterure and curteisye,

For of moralitee he was the flour,

As in his tyme, but-if bokes lye;

And whyl this maister hadde of him maistrye,

3690

He maked him so conning and so souple

(511)

That longe tyme it was er tirannye

Or any vyce dorste on him uncouple.

This Seneca, of which that I devyse,

By-cause Nero hadde of him swich drede,

3695

For he fro vyces wolde him ay chastyse

Discreetly as by worde and nat by dede; —

‘Sir,’ wolde he seyn, ‘an emperour moot nede

Be vertuous, and hate tirannye’—

For which he in a bath made him to blede

3700

On bothe his armes, til he moste dye.

3694. Cm. Bycause that.   3695. Hn. Cm. ay; rest omit.   [3699. Misnumbered 520 in the Aldine Edition; but corrected further on.]

(521)

This Nero hadde eek of acustumaunce

In youthe ageyn his maister for to ryse,

Which afterward him thoughte a greet grevaunce;

Therfor he made him deyen in this wyse.

3705

But natheles this Seneca the wyse

Chees in a bath to deye in this manere

Rather than han another tormentyse;

And thus hath Nero slayn his maister dere.

3703. E. (only) omits a.   3707. E. any oother.

Now fil it so that fortune list no lenger

3710

The hye pryde of Nero to cheryce;

(531)

For though that he were strong, yet was she strenger;

She thoughte thus, ‘by god, I am to nyce

To sette a man that is fulfild of vyce

In heigh degree, and emperour him calle.

3715

By god, out of his sete I wol him tryce;

When he leest weneth, sonest shal he falle.’

3711. E. Hn. was; the rest were.

The peple roos up-on him on a night

For his defaute, and whan he it espyed,

Out of his dores anon he hath him dight

3720

Alone, and, ther he wende han ben allyed,

(541)

He knokked faste, and ay, the more he cryed,

The faster shette they the dores alle;

Tho wiste he wel he hadde him-self misgyed,

And wente his wey, no lenger dorste he calle.

3723. E. Hn. wrongly repeat l. 3731 here.

3725

The peple cryde and rombled up and doun,

That with his eres herde he how they seyde,

‘Wher is this false tyraunt, this Neroun?’

For fere almost out of his wit he breyde,

And to his goddes pitously he preyde

3730

For socour, but it mighte nat bityde.

(551)

For drede of this, him thoughte that he deyde,

And ran in-to a gardin, him to hyde.

And in this gardin fond he cherles tweye

That seten by a fyr ful greet and reed,

3735

And to thise cherles two he gan to preye

To sleen him, and to girden of his heed,

That to his body, whan that he were deed,

Were no despyt y-doon, for his defame.

Him-self he slow, he coude no better reed,

3740

Of which fortune lough, and hadde a game.

3733. E. Hn. foond.   3734. E. Hn. Cm. omit ful.

De Oloferno (Holofernes).
(561)

Was never capitayn under a king

That regnes mo putte in subieccioun,

Ne strenger was in feeld of alle thing,

As in his tyme, ne gretter of renoun,

3745

Ne more pompous in heigh presumpcioun

Than Oloferne, which fortune ay kiste

So likerously, and ladde him up and doun

Til that his heed was of, er that he wiste.

Nat only that this world hadde him in awe

3750

For lesinge of richesse or libertee,

(571)

But he made every man reneye his lawe.

‘Nabugodonosor was god,’ seyde he,

‘Noon other god sholde adoured be.’

Ageyns his heste no wight dar trespace

3755

Save in Bethulia, a strong citee,

Wher Eliachim a prest was of that place.

3751. E. Hn. Cm. Hl. omit he.   3753. E. Hn. Cm. adoured; Cp. Pt. Ln. Hl. honoured.   3754. E. Hn. dorste; rest dar.

But tak kepe of the deeth of Olofern;

Amidde his host he dronke lay a night,

With-inne his tente, large as is a bern,

3760

And yit, for al his pompe and al his might,

(581)

Iudith, a womman, as he lay upright,

Sleping, his heed of smoot, and from his tente

Ful prively she stal from every wight,

And with his heed unto hir toun she wente.

De Rege Anthiocho illustri.
3765

What nedeth it of King Anthiochus

To telle his hye royal magestee,

His hye pryde, his werkes venimous?

For swich another was ther noon as he.

Rede which that he was in Machabee,

3770

And rede the proude wordes that he seyde,

(591)

And why he fil fro heigh prosperitee,

And in an hil how wrechedly he deyde.

Fortune him hadde enhaunced so in pryde

That verraily he wende he mighte attayne

3775

Unto the sterres, upon every syde,

And in balance weyen ech montayne,

And alle the flodes of the see restrayne.

And goddes peple hadde he most in hate,

Hem wolde he sleen in torment and in payne,

3780

Wening that god ne mighte his pryde abate.

3777. Cm. flodys; rest floodes.   3778. E. Hn. moost.

(601)

And for that Nichanor and Thimothee

Of Iewes weren venquisshed mightily,

Unto the Iewes swich an hate hadde he

That he bad greithe his char ful hastily,

3785

And swoor, and seyde, ful despitously,

Unto Ierusalem he wolde eft-sone,

To wreken his ire on it ful cruelly;

But of his purpos he was let ful sone.

3784. E. greithen; Hn. greithe; Cm. ordeyne.   E. Hn. chaar; Cm. char.

God for his manace him so sore smoot

3790

With invisible wounde, ay incurable,

(611)

That in his guttes carf it so and boot

That his peynes weren importable.

And certeinly, the wreche was resonable,

For many a mannes guttes dide he peyne;

3795

But from his purpos cursed and dampnable

For al his smert he wolde him nat restreyne;

But bad anon apparaillen his host,

And sodeynly, er he of it was war,

God daunted al his pryde and al his bost.

3800

For he so sore fil out of his char,

(621)

That it his limes and his skin to-tar,

So that he neither mighte go ne ryde,

But in a chayer men aboute him bar,

Al for-brused, bothe bak and syde.

3797, 9. E. hoost, boost.   3801. E. lemes; Hn. Cp. Hl. lymes; Cm. lymys; Ln. limes.

3805

The wreche of god him smoot so cruelly

That thurgh his body wikked wormes crepte;

And ther-with-al he stank so horribly,

That noon of al his meynee that him kepte,

Whether so he wook or elles slepte,

3810

Ne mighte noght for stink of him endure.

(631)

In this meschief he wayled and eek wepte,

And knew god lord of every creature.

3807. E. om. so; E. horriblely.   3809. E. Hn. Cm. so; Pt. Hl. that; Cp. Ln. so that.   3810. E. Hn. for; rest the.

To al his host and to him-self also

Ful wlatsom was the stink of his careyne;

3815

No man ne mighte him bere to ne fro.

And in this stink and this horrible peyne

He starf ful wrecchedly in a monteyne.

Thus hath this robbour and this homicyde,

That many a man made to wepe and pleyne,

3820

Swich guerdon as bilongeth unto pryde.

De Alexandro.
(641)

The storie of Alisaundre is so comune,

That every wight that hath discrecioun

Hath herd somwhat or al of his fortune.

This wyde world, as in conclusioun,

3825

He wan by strengthe, or for his hye renoun

They weren glad for pees un-to him sende.

The pryde of man and beste he leyde adoun,

Wher-so he cam, un-to the worldes ende.

3827. beste] Hl. bost.

Comparisoun might never yit be maked

3830

Bitwixe him and another conquerour;

(651)

For al this world for drede of him hath quaked,

He was of knighthode and of fredom flour;

Fortune him made the heir of hir honour;

Save wyn and wommen, no-thing mighte aswage

3835

His hye entente in armes and labour;

So was he ful of leonyn corage.

3830. E. Hn. Bitwixen.   3832. E. Hn. Cm. omit was.   3834. E. man: rest thing.

What preys were it to him, though I yow tolde

Of Darius, and an hundred thousand mo,

Of kinges, princes, erles, dukes bolde,

3840

Whiche he conquered, and broghte hem in-to wo?

(661)

I seye, as fer as man may ryde or go,

The world was his, what sholde I more devyse?

For though I write or tolde you evermo

Of his knighthode, it mighte nat suffyse.

3837. Cm. preys; E. Hn. pris: Cp. Pt. Ln. Hl. pite.   3843. Hl. omits.

3845

Twelf yeer he regned, as seith Machabee;

Philippes sone of Macedoyne he was,

That first was king in Grece the contree.

O worthy gentil Alisaundre, allas!

That ever sholde fallen swich a cas!

3850

Empoisoned of thyn owene folk thou were;

(671)

Thy sys fortune hath turned into as;

And yit for thee ne weep she never a tere!

3851. E. Hn. Cm. aas; Cp. Pt. Hl. an aas; Ln. an as.   3852. E. Hn. Cm. omit yit; Hl. has right.

Who shal me yeven teres to compleyne

The deeth of gentillesse and of fraunchyse,

3855

That al the world welded in his demeyne,

And yit him thoughte it mighte nat suffyse?

So ful was his corage of heigh empryse.

Allas! who shal me helpe to endyte

False fortune, and poison to despyse,

3860

The whiche two of al this wo I wyte?

De Iulio Cesare.
(681)

By wisdom, manhede, and by greet labour

Fro humble bed to royal magestee,

Up roos he, Iulius the conquerour,

That wan al thoccident by lond and see,

3865

By strengthe of hond, or elles by tretee,

And un-to Rome made hem tributarie;

And sitthe of Rome the emperour was he,

Til that fortune wex his adversarie.

3861. E. Cp. Pt. Ln. omit greet.   3862. E. Hn. Cm. Hl. humble bed; Pt. Cp. Ln. humblehede.

O mighty Cesar, that in Thessalye

3870

Ageyn Pompeius, fader thyn in lawe,

(691)

That of thorient hadde al the chivalrye

As fer as that the day biginneth dawe,

Thou thurgh thy knighthode hast hem take and slawe,

Save fewe folk that with Pompeius fledde,

3875

Thurgh which thou puttest al thorient in awe.

Thanke fortune, that so wel thee spedde!

3870. Mss. Pompeus, Pompius.

But now a litel whyl I wol biwaille

This Pompeius, this noble governour

Of Rome, which that fleigh at this bataille;

3880

I seye, oon of his men, a fals traitour,

(701)

His heed of smoot, to winnen him favour

Of Iulius, and him the heed he broghte.

Allas, Pompey, of thorient conquerour,

That fortune unto swich a fyn thee broghte!

[3881. Misnumbered 700 in the Aldine edition.]

3885

To Rome ageyn repaireth Iulius

With his triumphe, laureat ful hye,

But on a tyme Brutus Cassius,

That ever hadde of his hye estaat envye,

Ful prively hath maad conspiracye

3890

Ageins this Iulius, in subtil wyse,

(711)

And cast the place, in whiche he sholde dye

With boydekins, as I shal yow devyse.

3887. So in the Mss.; observe hath in l. 3889.

This Iulius to the Capitolie wente

Upon a day, as he was wont to goon,

3895

And in the Capitolie anon him hente

This false Brutus, and his othere foon,

And stikede him with boydekins anoon

With many a wounde, and thus they lete him lye;

But never gronte he at no strook but oon,

3900

Or elles at two, but-if his storie lye.

(721)

So manly was this Iulius at herte

And so wel lovede estaatly honestee,

That, though his deedly woundes sore smerte,

His mantel over his hippes casteth he,

3905

For no man sholde seen his privitee.

And, as he lay on deying in a traunce,

And wiste verraily that deed was he,

Of honestee yit hadde he remembraunce.

3904. Cm. castyth; rest caste, cast.   3906. Cm. on deyinge; Pt. on dyinge; Ln. in deynge; E. Hn. of dyyng.

Lucan, to thee this storie I recomende,

3910

And to Sweton, and to Valerie also,

(731)

That of this storie wryten word and ende,

How that to thise grete conqueroures two

Fortune was first freend, and sithen fo.

No man ne truste up-on hir favour longe,

3915

But have hir in awayt for ever-mo.

Witnesse on alle thise conqueroures stronge.

3910. Hl. Valirien; rest Valerius; ed. 1561, Valerie.   3911. The Mss. have word (for ord); see the note.   3913. E. sitthe; Hl. siththen; Hn. Cm. siththe a.

Cresus.

This riche Cresus, whylom king of Lyde,

Of whiche Cresus Cyrus sore him dradde,

Yit was he caught amiddes al his pryde,

3920

And to be brent men to the fyr him ladde.

(741)

But swich a reyn doun fro the welkne shadde

That slow the fyr, and made him to escape;

But to be war no grace yet he hadde,

Til fortune on the galwes made him gape.

3925

Whan he escaped was, he can nat stente

For to biginne a newe werre agayn.

He wende wel, for that fortune him sente

Swich hap, that he escaped thurgh the rayn,

That of his foos he mighte nat be slayn;

3930

And eek a sweven up-on a night he mette,

(751)

Of which he was so proud and eek so fayn,

That in vengeaunce he al his herte sette.

Up-on a tree he was, as that him thoughte,

Ther Iuppiter him wesh, bothe bak and syde,

3935

And Phebus eek a fair towaille him broughte

To drye him with, and ther-for wex his pryde;

And to his doghter, that stood him bisyde,

Which that he knew in heigh science habounde,

He bad hir telle him what it signifyde,

3940

And she his dreem bigan right thus expounde.

3936. Cm. Pt. Ln. wex; rest wax.

(761)

‘The tree,’ quod she, ‘the galwes is to mene,

And Iuppiter bitokneth snow and reyn,

And Phebus, with his towaille so clene,

Tho ben the sonne stremes for to seyn;

3945

Thou shalt anhanged be, fader, certeyn;

Reyn shal thee wasshe, and sonne shal thee drye;’

Thus warned she him ful plat and ful pleyn,

His doughter, which that called was Phanye.

3944. E. bemes; rest stremes.   3947. Pt. Ln. Hl. she; rest omit.

Anhanged was Cresus, the proude king,

3950

His royal trone mighte him nat availle. —

(771)

Tragedie is noon other maner thing,

Ne can in singing crye ne biwaille,

But for that fortune alwey wol assaille

With unwar strook the regnes that ben proude;

3955

For when men trusteth hir, than wol she faille,

[See p. 256.

And covere hir brighte face with a cloude.

Explicit Tragedia.

Here stinteth the Knight the Monk of his Tale.

3951. Cm. Tragedy is; so Cp. Pt.; Ln. Tregedrye in; E. Hn. Tragedies; Hl. Tegredis(!).   3953. Cm. Hl. for; rest omit.   [3956. Reckoned as 775 in the Aldine edition; but really 776.]   After l. 3956, E. Hn. Cm. have ll. 3565-3652.   Colophon. From E. Hn. Here is ended the Monkes tale.

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