Britannia, by William Camden

Herefordshire.

Big H HErefordshire, call’d by the Britains Ereinuc, is in a manner of a circular form: bounded on the East with the counties of Worcester and Glocester; on the South with Monmouthshire; on the West with Radnorshire and Breknockshire; and on the North with Shropshire. ⌈Being as it were a Frontier in all the Wars between the English and Welsh, it has upon that account been very remarkable for its number of Forts and Castles (no fewer than twenty eight,) the greatest part whereof have now little to shew, besides the name.⌉ A Country it is (besides its pleasantness) of an excellent Soil throughout, both for feeding of Cattel, and produce of Corn; and admirably well provided with all necessaries for life. Insomuch, that it may disdain to come behind any County in England, in point of Fertility. ⌈But its present peculiar eminence, is in Fruit of all sorts, which give them an opportunity, particularly, of making such vast quantities of Sydercider, as not only to serve their own families (for it is their common and ordinary Drink,) but also to furnish London and other parts of England; their Red-streak (from a sort of Apple of that name) being extreamly valu’d.⌉ To these excellencies are to be added, its fine rivers, the Wye, the Lug, and the Munow, which after they have water’d the verdant flow’ry meadows, and fruitful corn-fields, at last meet together, and pass in one chanel to the Severn-Sea. ⌈For the making two of these (namely Wye and Lug) Navigable, Stat.14 Car.2. n.47.
7 W.3. c.14
two Statutes have been passed in Parliament, since the Restoration of King Charles the second.⌉

Hereford Shire map, left Hereford Shire map, right

Hereford Shire

The MunowThe River Munow. has its rise in Hatterell-hills, which shooting up aloft, like a Chair, are a sort of Wall to this Shire on the South-west-side. Hence, the river descending, first struggles Southward along the foot of the hills, to Blestium,Blestium. a Town so plac’d by Antoninus, that both for situation and distance, it can be no other than that which stands upon this river, and is by the Britains call’d Castle-Hean, that is, the Old Castle, and by us The old Town.Old Town. It is an inconsiderable Village, but nevertheless this new name makes much for its Antiquity, for in both tongues it signifies an Old Castle or Town. Next to this, lies Alterynnis,Alterynnis, the Seat of the Cecils. surrounded with water, and as it were a River-Island; the seat in former ages of the ancient and knightly family of the Sitsilters or Cecils; whence was descended my right honourable Patron, highly accomplish’d with all the Ornaments of Virtue, Wisdom, and Nobility, Sir William Cecil, Baron of Burghley, and † † In the time of Queen Elizabeth.Lord High Treasurer of England.

From hence, the Munow turning Eastward, for a good way parts this County from Monmouthshire, and is augmented by the river Dore, at a Castle call’d Map-Harald or Harald Ewias.Herald Ewias. This Ewias-Castle (to give you the words of King William the first’s Book)The Family Ewias. was repair’d by Alured of Marleberg. Afterwards, it belonged to one Harald a Nobleman, who,Their Arms. in a Shield Argent, bore a Fess, Gules, between three Estoiles, Sable; from whom it began to be call’d Harold-Ewias: but Sibyll his * * Proneptis.Great-grand-daughter, and coheir, transfer’d it by marriage to the Lords Tregoz,Lords Tregoze and Grandison. from whom it came at length to the Lords of Grandison, who were originally of Burgundy; of whom elsewhere.

Now the Dore (falling down from the North, by Snotthill,Snotthill. a Castle, and sometime the Barony of Robert Chandois, where there is a Quarry of excellent Marble) cuts its way through the middle of the Valley, which the Britains, from the river, call Diffrin Dore; but the English, that they might seem to express the force of that word, have call’d it The Gilden Vale.Gilden Vale. Which name it may well be thought to deserve, for its golden, rich, and pleasant Fertility. For the hills that encompass it on both sides, are cloathed with woods; under the woods lie corn-fields on each hand; and under those fields, lovely and fruitful meadows. In the middle, between them, glides a clear and crystal river, upon which, Robert Earl of Ewias erected a beautiful Monastery, wherein very many of the Nobility and Gentry of these parts were buried.

Part of this County, which bends towards the East from hence, now call’d Irchenfeld,Irchenfeld. in Domesday Archenfeld, was (as Historians write) laid waste with fire and sword by the Danes, in the year 715; Camalac, a British Bishop, being then carried away captive. Herein, stood KilpecKilpec. a noted Castle, the seat of the noble family of the Kilpecs, who, as some report, were Champions of the Kings of England, in the beginning of the Normans; which I also readily believe. In the reign of Edward the first, Robert Wallerond liv’d here, whose * * Nepos.nephew Alan Plugenet was honour’d with the title of a Baron. In this Archenfeld likewise, as we read in Domesday-book, certain Revenues were assigned by an old custom to one or two Priests, on this condition, that they should go on Embassies for the Kings of England into Wales; and, to use the words of the said Book, The men of Archenfeld, whenever the Army marches against the Enemy, by custom make the Avauntward, and in the return homeward, the Rereward.

As the Munow runs along the lower part of this County, so the WyeThe River Wye. with a winding course cuts it in the middle: upon which, in the Western bound, stands Clifford-castle,Clifford-Castle. which William Fitz-Osborn Earl of Hereford built upon his own WasteClivus fortis. (these are the very words of Domesday-book,) but Ralph de Todeny held it. It is suppos’d, that it came afterwards to Walter the son of Richard Punt, a Norman; for his sirname was de Clifford, and from him the illustrious family of the Cliffords, Earls of Cumberland, did originally descend. But in King Edward the first’s time,Inq. 26 E.1. John Giffard held it, who married the heir of Walter Clifford. Thence the Wye, with a crooked and winding stream rolls along by Whitney,Whitney. which has given name to a noted family; next by Bradwardin-Castle,Bradwardin-Castle. which gave both original and name to the famous Thomas Bradwardin Archbishop of Canterbury, who for his great variety of knowledge, and his admirable proficiency in the most abstruse parts of learning, was in that age honour’d with the title of † † The profound Doctor.Doctor profundus. ⌈Upon the same river, two miles from Hereford, is Eaton-wall,Eaton. * * Aubr. MS.a Camp, containing about thirty or forty acres. The works of it are single, except a little on the West-side. And about two miles from hence, and a mile from Kenchester, is Creden-hill;Creden-hill. upon which, is a very great Camp, and mighty works: the graff here is inwards as well as outwards; and the whole contains by estimation about forty acres.⌉ At length, the Wye comes to Hereford, the Metropolis of this County.

How far that little Tract, Arcenfeld, reach’d, I know not; but the affinity between these names, Ereinuc, Arcenfeld, Ariconium (the Town mention’d by Antoninus in these parts,) and Hareford or Hereford,Hereford. the present Metropolis of this Shire; have by degrees induced me to think that all the rest are derived from Ariconium. And yet I do not believe Ariconium and Hereford the same; but as Basle in Germany has the name of Augusta Rauracorum, and Baldach in Assyria the name of Babylon (because, as this had its original from the ruins of Babylon, so that had it from those of Augusta;) just so our Hariford (for thus the common people call it) had its name and original, in my opinion, from its neighbour Ariconium; which at this day has no clear marks of a Town, having been destroyed, as is reported, by an Earthquake. Only, it still retains a slight shadow of the name, being call’d Kenchester,Kenchester. and shews some ruins of old Walls call’d Kenchester-Walls, about which are often dug-up stones of inlaid Chequer-work, British Bricks, Roman Coyns, &c. ⌈Here, about the year 1669. was found in a wood, a great vault, with tables of plaster in it. The vault it self was paved with stone; and, thereabouts, were dug-up also many pieces of Roman Coins, with large Bones, leaden Pipes, several Roman Urns with ashes in them, and other vessels, the use whereof was unknown. Aubr. MS. And upon another view of the place, in the year 1670, was discovered a Bath; and the brick-pipes which heated it, remained entire.⌉ But Hareford her daughter † † Carries, C.would carry more express remains of the name; ⌈if this indeed were the true name. But it is really of a pure Saxon original, implying no more than a ford of the Army: nor ought the vulgar’s pronouncing it Hariford to be of any weight, when it appears by * * See the Glossary, and the several places wherein it is mention’d.our most ancient Annals, that it was constantly written Saxon hereford. Which interpretation doth also well suit the situation of the place; the Severn being for many hundred years the frontier between two Nations almost always at War.⌉

This City stands eastward, scarce three Italian miles from Kenchester, amongst Meadows extremely pleasant, and Corn-fields very fruitful; encompass’d almost with rivers; by an anonymous one, on the north and west-sides, and on the south, by the Wye, which hastens hither out of Wales. It is supposed to have first sprung-up, when the Saxon Heptarchy was in its glory; founded, as some write, by Edward the Elder: and indeed there is no mention of it more ancient. For the Britains, before the name of Hereford was known, called the place Trefawith, from Beech-trees; and Henford, from an Old way: and the Saxons themselves, Saxon fern-leg, from Fern. It owes, if I mistake not, it’s greatest encrease and growth, to Religion, and the Martyrdom of Ethelbert, King of the East-Angles; who (whilst in person he courted793. the daughter of Offa King of the Mercians) was villainously way-laid and murder’d by Quendreda, Offa’s wife, who longed more for the Kingdom of the East-Angles, than to see her daughter honourably married. He was thereupon taken into the CatalogueS. Ethelbert Martyr. of Martyrs, and had a Church here built and dedicated to him by Milfrid a petty King of the Country; which being soon after adorn’d with a Bishop’s See, grew very rich, by the liberality, first of the Mercian, and afterwards of the West-Saxon, Kings. For they at length were possessed of this City, as may be gather’d from William of Malmesbury; where he writes, that Athelstan the West-Saxon had reduced the Princes of Wales in this City, to such streights, that they agreed to pay him tribute (besides hounds and hawks) viz. twenty pound weight of Gold, and three hundred pound of Silver, every year. This City, as far as my reading has carry’d me, had never any misfortune, unless it were in the year of our Lord 1055, when Gryffin Prince of South Wales, and Algar an Englishman, rebelling against Edward the Confessor, and having routed Earl Ralph, sacked the City, destroy’d the Cathedral, and carried away captive Leofgar the Bishop. But Harold, having soon suppress’d this rebellion, fortified it, as Floriacensis informs us, with a broad and high Rampire. Upon this account it is, that Malmesbury ¦ ¦ Lib. de Pontificibus.writes thus; Hereford is no great City, and yet by the high and formidable ruins of its steep and broken Bulwarks, it shews that it has been considerable: and as it appears by Domesday-book, there were in all but one hundred and three men, within and without the walls. The Normans afterwards built a very large and strong Castle (on the east-side of the Cathedral, along the river Wye;) the work, as some report, of Earl Miles; which is now ruin’d by time, and falling to decay. ⌈Leland * * Itinerar. MS.says, that this Castle, by the ruins, appear’d to have been one of the fairest, largest, and strongest in England. The walls were high, and firm, and full of great towers; and where the river was not a sufficient defence for it, there it was strongly ditch’d. It had two Wards, each of them surrounded with water: the Dungeon was high and exceeding well fortify’d, having, in the outward wall or ward, ten towers of a semi-circular figure, and one great tower in the inner ward. Some think (says the same writer) that Heraldus began this Castle, after that he had conquer’d the rebellion of the Welshmen in King Edward the Confessor’s time. Some think, that the Lacies Earls of Hereford were the great makers of it, and the Bohuns Earls of Hereford.⌉ Afterwards, they wall’d the City about. In the reign of King Henry the first, the present beautiful Church was founded by Bishop Reinelm; which his successors enlarged by adding to it a neat College, and fine houses for the Prebendaries. For, besides the Bishop (who has three hundred and two Churches in his Diocese) there are in this Church, a Dean, two Archdeacons, a PræcentorPraecentor, a Chancellour, a Treasurer, and twenty eight Prebendaries. I saw scarce any Monuments in it, besides those of the Bishops: and I have heard, that Thomas Cantlow the Bishop, a person nobly born, had there a stately and magnificent tomb; who being canonized for his holiness, wanted little of out-shining the Royal Martyr Ethelbert: so great was the opinion of his piety and devotion. ⌈The City is pretty large, and had once six Parish-Churches; but two of these were demolished in the late Civil wars. It is govern’d by a Mayor and six Aldermen, a Recorder, &c. and has an Hospital liberally endow’d for the maintenance of twelve poor people; which had like to have gone to ruin, had not the care of two † † Mr. Gregory and Mr. Diggs.worthy Persons prevented it.⌉ According to Geographers, the Longitude of this City is twenty degrees, twenty-four minutes; Latitude fifty two degrees, six minutes.

⌈ Above the City, in the Parish of Dinder, * * Aubr. MS. is a Roman Camp call’d Oyster-hill;Oyster-hill. which name may perhaps retain some footsteps of Ostorius Scapula, who commanded in those parts; unless it shall appear to have some known and special relation to the Shell-fish of that name.⌉

The Wye has scarce gone three miles from this City, but it meets the river Lug;Lug, riv. which having run with a rapid stream from Radnor-Hills, glides with a still course through this County, from north-west to south-east. At the first entrance, it has a distant prospect of Brampton Brian,Brampton Brian. a Castle which a famous family (hence sirnam’d de Brampton, whose Christian name was usually Brian) held by a continu’d succession to the time of King Edward the first, when by heirs-female it came to R. Harley. ⌈About the borders between Shropshire and this County, near Lanterdin, † † Aubr. MS.is a perfect Roman Camp, call’d Brandon,Brandon. very commodiously situated for water, by reason of the nearness of the river Teme. It is a single square-work with four ports. And about half a mile from hence, on the other side of the river, was the British Camp (now cover’d with great Oaks,) call’d Coxall. It hath been observ’d in some old Deeds of the Harleys (of Brampton-Bryan-castle hard by) that it is written Coxwall, not Coxall or Coxhall; so that the place seems to have had the latter part of the name from this vallum or wall; in like manner, as the Wall in Wiltshire, Walton in Surrey, Eaton’s-wall, and Walford under Brandon. A quarter of a mile from Brandon, † † Aubr. MS.are two barrows. One of them was caus’d to be dug in the year 1662. when they met with a great deal of Coals and some pieces of burnt Bones. Also, in the middle, they found an Urn about two foot and a half high, full of coals and ashes, with some pieces of burnt bones.⌉ But the Wye has a nearer view of Wigmore,Wigmore. in Saxon Saxon wyginga-mere, which was repair’d in ancient times by King Edward the elder, and afterwards fortify’d with a Castle by William Earl of Hereford, in the wast of a ground (for so it is in Domesday-book) which was called Marestun, in the tenure of Ranulph de Mortimer, from whom those Mortimers who were afterwards Earls of March, were descended: but of these, more in Radnorshire. Three miles off, there is another neighbouring Castle call’d Richard’s-Castle,Richards-Castle. which was possessed, first by the Sayes, then by the Mortimers, and afterwards by the Talbots.Lords of Richards-Castle. At length, by the daughters of J. Talbot, the inheritance was divided betwixt Guarin Archdeacon and Matthew Gurnay. ⌈It stands on the top of a very rocky hill, well wooded; but even in Leland’s time the walls and towers of it were going to decay.⌉ Beneath this Castle, Nature ⌈which no where sports her self more in shewing wonders, than in the waters,) hath brought-forth a little Well, which is always full of small fish-bones (or as others think, small frog-bones,) notwithstanding it is ever now and then emptied and clear’d of them; whence it is commonly call’d Bone-Well.Bone-Well. And not far off stands Croft-Castle, belonging to the famous and very ancient and knightly family of the Crofts. ⌈In the Park, is a large Camp with two great ditches, call’d the Ambry: from whence is a very lovely prospect.⌉

Thence the Wye goes on to Lemster,Leinster. called also Leonminster and Leonis Monasterium, from a Lion that appear’d in a Vision ⌈to King Merwald, * * Lel. Itiner.upon which he began his Nunnery here,⌉ as some have dream’d. But by the Britains it is called Lhan-Lieni; which, signifying a Church of Nuns, and it being certain that Merewalch a Mercian King founded here a Church for Nuns (which was afterwards a Cell belonging to the Monastery of Reading;) to seek after another Original of the name, would be labour in vain. And yet there are some who derive it from Linum Flax; the best kind of which, grows here. ⌈In this place (according to tradition)Ibid. King Merwald or Merwalsh, and some of his Successors, had a Castle or Palace, on a hill-side by the Town; the place (says Leland) is now call’d Comfor-castle, and there are to be seen tokens of ditches where buildings have been.⌉ But now it glories chiefly in the Wool of the neighbouring parts (commonly called Lemster Ore,)Lemster-Ore, the best Wool. which, excepting that of Apulia and Tarentum, is by all Europe accounted the best. It is so famous also for Wheat, and the finest White-bread, that Lemster-BreadLemster-Bread and Webly-Ale. and Weably-Ale (a Town belonging to the noble family of D’Eureux,) are grown into a Proverb. By reason of these Commodities, the Markets of Lemster were very much frequented; and they of Hereford and Worcester observing it, were so Envious, that they obliged them, by Virtue of the King’s Authority, to alter their Market-day; complaining that the confluence of people thither, impair’d their Markets. ⌈From this place, William Farmer, Lord Lemster, was created a Baron of this Realm, in the fourth year of King William and Queen Mary.⌉ I have nothing more to add concerning it, but that William Breosa Lord of Brecknock, when he revolted from King John, set it on fire, and defaced it. As for Webley,Webley. it is seated more within the Country, and was the Barony of the Verdons; the first of which family,Barons Verdon. Bertram de Verdon, came into England with the Normans, and his posterity, by marriage with one of the heirs of the Laceys of Trim in Ireland, were for some time hereditary Constables of Ireland: but at last, the estate devolved, by daughters, to the Furnivials, Burghersh, the Ferrers of Groby, and Crophull; and from the Crophulls, by the Ferrars of Chartley, to the D’Evereux’s Earls of Essex. Near neighbours to Webly, but more westward, are, Huntingdon-Castle,Huntingdon-Castle. which formerly belong’d to the Bohuns, Earls of Hereford and Essex; Kinnersley,Kinnersley. which belong’d to the ancient House of De-la-bere; and Erdsley,Erdsley. the habitation, for a long time, of the famous and ancient family of the Baskerviles;Baskervile. which bred in old time so many noted Knights:See Gemitic. lib. ult. they deduce their original from a † Nepti.Niece of Gunora, the most celebrated Norman Lady, and flourished long since in this County, and its neighbour Shropshire; and held (to note so much by the by)Fines Hilarii
20 E. 3.
the Hamlet of Lanton in Capite, as of the Honour of Montgomery, by the service of giving the King one barbed Arrow as often as he came into those parts to hunt in Cornedon-Chace.

Now, the Lug hastens to the Wye, first, by Hampton,Hampton. where Rowland Lenthall, Master of the Wardrobe to King Henry the fourth, who married one of the heirs of Thomas Earl of Arundel, built a very fine House, which the Coningsbeys, a family of great note in these parts, have a good while inhabited. ⌈Of this Family, Thomas Coningsby hath not long since been advanced to the dignity of a Baron, and Earl of this Realm; and his daughter, Margaret Coningsby, hath also been created Baroness and Viscountess Coningsby of Hampton-Court.⌉ Thence, the Lug runs by Marden,Marden. and Southon, or Sutton:Sutton. of which, Sutton shews some small remains of King Offa’s Palace, infamous for the murder of King Ethelbert; and Marden is noted for the tomb of the said King Ethelbert, who for a long time lay bury’d here in obscurity, before he was translated to Hereford. ⌈Between Sutton and Hereford, in a common Meadow call’d the Wergins,Wergins. were plac’d two large Stones for a water-mark; one erected upright, and the other laid athwart. In the late Civil wars, about the year 1652, they were remov’d to about twelve score paces distance, and no body knew how; which gave occasion to a common Opinion, That they were carry’d thither by the Devil. When they were set in their places again, one of them requir’d nine yoke of Oxen to draw it.⌉ Near the conflux of the Lug and the Wye, eastward, a Hill, which they call Marcley-Hill,Marcley-Hill. did in the year 1575. rowse itself as it were out of sleep, and for three days togetherA moving Mountain. shoving its prodigious body forward with a horrible roaring noise, and overturning every thing in its way, rais’d it self (to the great astonishment of the beholders) to a higher place; by that kind of Earthquake, I suppose, which the Naturalists call Brasmatia. Not far from hence, towards the East likewise, under Malvern-hills (by which the east-side of this County is here bounded,) stands Ledbury,Ledbury. upon the river Ledden; a Town of note, which † Walter Mapes calls him Alvodus, and says he was the son of Edricus Sylvester. Lib. de Nug. Curial.2. cap.11.Edwin the Saxon, a person of great power, gave to the Church of Hereford, out of a persuasion, that he was cured of the Palsie by the intercession of St. Ethelbert. ⌈At this place, an Hospital was founded by Hugh Folliot Bishop of Hereford; for the retrieving of which, when it was greatly decayed and impoverished, a Statute passed in Parliament in the 23 year of Queen Elizabeth.⌉ As for the Military Entrenchment on the neighbouring hill, I need say nothing of it, since in this tract (which was a Frontier, and the seat of war, first between the Romans and the Britains, and afterwards between the Britains and the Saxons) the like are to be seen in many places. ⌈Not far from Lidbury, is Colwal;Colwal. near which, upon the Waste, as a Countryman was digging a ditch about his Cottage, he found a Crown or Coronet of gold, with gems set deep in it. It was of a size large enough to be drawn over the arm, with the sleeve. The Stones of it are said to have been so valuable, as to be sold by a Jeweller for fifteen hundred pounds.⌉

Now, the Wye, enlarg’d by the Lug, fetches a winding compass, first by Holme Lacy,Holme Lacy. the seat of the ancient and noble family of Scudamores,Scudamore, or Escudamore. which was much advanced by matching with an heiress of the House of Ewias in this County, and with Huntercombe, &c. elsewhere; ⌈and, of later years, by enjoying the title of Viscount Sligoe in the Kingdom of Ireland.⌉ From hence, the Wye passes ⌈by Brockhampton;Brockhampton. near which, upon Capellar-hill, is a very large squarish Camp, called Wobury.Wobury. It is double-trenched, and near half a mile long, but narrow. Then, it runs⌉ between Rosse,Rosse. noted for Smiths, and WiltonWilton.
Baron Grey of Wilton.
over-against it, a very ancient Castle of the Greys, from which so many famous persons of that sirname have had their original. It was built, as the common report goes, by Hugh Long-champ: but publick Records assure us, that King John gave Wilton, with the Castle, to Henry Long-champ, and that it came by marriage to William Fitz-Hugh, and likewise, not long after (in King Edward the first’s time) to Reginald Grey. After the Wye has run a little further, and saluted Goderich-Castle,Goderich-Castle. which King John gave to William Earl Marshal, and which was afterwards the principal seat of the Talbots; it takes leave of Herefordshire, and goes into the County of Monmouth. ⌈In the South limit of this County, is DowardDoward. (in the parish of Whitchurch) a pretty high hill, on the top whereof, one would guess by the ditches, that there had been an ancient fortification; and what makes it more probable, is, that in digging there for Iron-ore and Lime-stone, broad Arrow-heads have been found of late years; and not long ago, the greatest part of the bones of a Gigantick person were found here inter’d, in a place which seem’d to be arch’d over.giant The length of all the joints were twice the length of others of this age; and were given by two † † Capt. Scudamore, and Mr. White.neighbouring Gentlemen to a Surgeon in Bristol.⌉

In the declension of the Saxon Government, RalphEarls of Hereford. son of Walter Medantin by Goda King Edward the Confessor’s sister, govern’d this County as an Officiary Earl. But the Normans divested him of this honour, and substituted in his room William the son of Osbern of Crepon, or, as the Normans call’d him, Fitz-Osbern, a person very nearly allied to the Dukes of Normandy. He being slain in the wars in Flanders, was succeeded by his son Roger sirnam’d de Bretevill, who dy’d * * Proscriptus.outlaw’d, leaving no legitimate issue. Then, King Stephen restor’d to Robert le Bossu Earl of Leicester, son of the heir of Emma de Bretevill (I speak out of the very original) the Borough of Hereford, and the Castle, and the whole County of Hereford, to descend by inheritance; but to no purpose. For Maud the Empress, who contended with Stephen for the Crown, advanced Miles, son of Walter, Constable of Glocester, to that honour, and made him Constable of England.Constables of England. Nevertheless, King Stephen afterwards divested him of these honours. This Miles had five sons, Roger, Walter, Henry, William, and Mahel, all persons of great note; and who dy’d untimely deaths, after they had all, except William, succeeded one another in their father’s estate, without any issue. King Henry, amongst other things, gave to RogerGirald. Cambriæ Itin. l.1. c.2. The Mote of Hereford, with the whole Castle, and the third penny of the revenues of the Pleas of the whole County of Hereford, of which he made him Earl.cambriae But upon Roger’s death, if we may credit Robert Montensis, the same King1156. kept the Earldom of Hereford to himself. Margaret the eldest sister of those, was marry’d to Humphrey Bohun, the third of that name, and his Posterity were Constables of England, viz. Humphrey Bohun the fourth, and Henry his son, to whom King John granted2 Par. Chart. An.1 Reg. Joan. Twenty pound, to be receiv’d yearly of the third penny of the County of Hereford, whereof he made him Earl.Matth. Paris.
Lib. Waldensis.
Lib. Monasterii Lanthony.
This Henry marry’d the sister and heir of William Mandevill Earl of Essex, and dy’d in the fourth year of King Henry the third. Humphrey the fifth of that name, his son; who was also Earl of Essex, and had Humphrey the sixth, who dy’d before his father, having first begot Humphrey the seventh upon a daughter and one of the heirs of William Breos Lord of Brecknock. His son Humphrey the eighth was slain at Boroughbrig, leaving by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of King Edward the first, and dowager of the Earl of Holland, a numerous issue, viz. John Bohun, Humphrey the ninth, both Earls of Hereford and Essex, who dy’d without issue; and William, Earl of Northampton, who had, by Elizabeth, sister, and one of the heirs of Giles Lord Badlesmer, Humphrey Bohun (the tenth and last of the Bohuns,) Earl of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton, and also Constable of England. He left two daughters, Eleanor wife of Thomas de Woodstock Duke of Glocester, and Mary marry’d to Henry the fourth King of England.Henry of Lancaster Earl of Derby, who was created Duke of Hereford, and was afterwards crown’d King of England. After this, the Staffords Dukes of Buckingham took the title of Earls of Hereford: they were descended from a daughter of Thomas of Woodstock; which daughter was afterwards marry’d to William Bourchier, call’d Earl of Ew. But † † So said, ann. 1607.in our memory, King Edward the sixth honour’d Walter D’Eureux, descended by the Bourchiers from the Bohuns, with the title of Viscount Hereford, whose grandchild by a son was afterwards created Earl of Essex by Queen Elizabeth. ⌈And since, this title came by the said Walter into the family of D’Eureux, it has been possess’d first by a grandson of the same name, and then by two Roberts, also Earls of Essex. But upon the death of the last (who was likewise the last Earl of that family,) Sir Walter D’Eureux, son and heir to Sir Edward Devereux, who was the only son of Walter Viscount Hereford before-mention’d, succeeded in the title of Viscount Hereford. After him, it was enjoy’d by his son and grandson (both Leicesters;) and after them, by Edward Devereux, brother to the last. Who dying without issue, the Honour devolv’d upon Price Devereux, descended from Sir George Devereux, brother of the last Walter, before-mention’d.⌉

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Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06