Britannia, by William Camden

Nottinghamshire.

sherwood Big T THE County of Nottingham borders upon that of Lincoln on the west, but is of much less extent; call’d by the Saxons Saxon snottengaham-scyre, ⌈by the ancient Annals Saxon snotingahamscyre,⌉ and by us Nottingham-shire. It is bounded on the north, by Yorkshire, on the west by Derbyshire, and in some parts by Yorkshire; and on the south by the County of Leicester. The south and east parts are enrich’d by the noble river Trent and the rivulets which run into it. The west-part is entirely taken up with the forest of Shirwood, which is very large. This part, because it is sandy, the inhabitants call the Sand; the other, because it is clayish, they call the Clay; and thus have they divided their County into two parts.

Nottingham Shire map, left Nottingham Shire map, right

Nottingham Shire

⌈Going out of Leicestershire, the Foss-wayFoss-way. (which is the best, if not only direction, for what we principally look after) leads us into the south-part of this County, and carries us along the east of it, into Lincolnshire. And first, Willoughby on the Wold,Willoughby on the Wold. in the Hundred of Ruscliff, on the south-edge of this County, may pretend to something of antiquity. For it lies near the Foss; and in a field belonging to it are the ruins (as the inhabitants say) of a town call’d Long-Billington, which has been a great while demolish’d. Hereabouts the plow-men and shepherds commonly gather-up coins of the Romans, in great numbers. And its distance from Caer-lerion, i.e. Leicester, and from Vernometum or Burrough-hill (for it is 9 miles from each) is a further confirmation of its Antiquity. All which, put together, would tempt us to believe, that this had been a Roman station; and Dr. Gale, in his Comment upon the Itinerary, makes it the Margidunum of Antoninus.

From hence, the Foss passes north-east thro’ the vale of Belvoir, and therein thro’ the field of East-Bridgford,East-Bridgford. or Bridgford on the hill, in which are still the remains of a Roman station, near a spring, call’d The Old-wark-spring; and the field in Bridgford (in which, part of this camp lies) is call’d to this day Burrow-field. A † † Mr. Foxcroft.learned Antiquary also (to whose skill and diligence, the discovery of those places is in great measure owing) affirms that he has seen a fair silver coin of Vespasian which was found there, and that others are sometimes plough’d up by the inhabitants of that town. What further confirms the conjecture of a station here, is its distance from Willoughby, of about eight miles; and near the same space from Long-Collingham,Long Collingham. about three miles beyond Newark; near which, in a large field, there is some reason to fix another station. The Foss-road, indeed, lies above a mile from it, but it receives a sufficient testimony of Antiquity, from several of Constantine’s Coins which have been found there, as well as it’s distance from Lincoln (viz. nine miles) where was another Station. By this means (if these conjectures may be allow’d any colour of truth, as I see no great objection that lies against them,) that vast breach between Leicester and Lincoln, along the Fosse, is pretty well fill’d up. From Leicester to Willoughby, nine miles; from Willoughby to East Bridgford about 8 miles; from thence to Long-Collingham, nine miles; and from hence to Lincoln, nine more: And, accordingly, Dr. Gale in his Comment upon the Itinerary, has fix’d them; viz. the Margidunum of Antoninus here at Willoughby on the Wold; Ad Pontem, at East-Bridgford, and Crococolana at Collingham.

Having follow’d the Foss thus far toward the North, for the more convenient clearing of this point; we are drawn a little out of our road, and must return to the south-part.⌉

The Trent,The Trent. in Saxon Saxon Treonta (which some Antiquaries of less note have call’d in Latin Triginta, from its likeness to the French word which signifies this number,) after it has run a long way, and then enter’d this County, passes by Steanford,Steanford. where are many remains of Antiquity, and many Roman Coins are found, as I am inform’d. ⌈But now its greatest ornament is a Church, lately repair’d and beautify’d at the great expence of † Thomas Lewes, Esq;.the Patron thereof.⌉ Then it runs by Clifton,Clifton. which hath given both seat and name to the ancient family of the Cliftons, ⌈who have remained here above six hundred years, as appears by an Inscription upon a Monument in the Chancel of this Church.⌉ Then the Trent receives the little river LinLin, riv. from the west, which rises near Newsted;Newsted. i.e. a new place, where formerly King Henry the second built a small Monastery. Now it is the seat of the Byrons,Byrons. an ancient family, descended from Ralph de Buron, who in the beginning of the Norman times flourish’d in great state both in this County and Lancashire; ⌈and whose descendants, in the reign of King Charles the first, were advanced to the dignity of Barons.⌉ Next, the Lin runs near Wollaton, where * * In this age, C.Wollaton.in the last age, Sir Francis Willoughby Knight, out of ostentation, and to show his great wealth, did at vast charges build a very noble House, both for prospect and workmanship; ⌈now the seat of Thomas Willoughby, Baron Middleton, to which Honour he was advanced by her Majesty Queen Anne.⌉ After this, it washes Lenton, formerly famous for a Monastery, builtLenton. in honour of the Holy Trinity by William Peverel, natural son of William the Conqueror; at present only noted for a throng Fair there. ⌈This, * * Burton, Itin. p.204.Mr. Talbot, for some reasons, was inclin’d to believe the ancient Lindum of Antoninus. I take it for granted, it was the affinity of the two names, which first led him to this conjecture, and that drew on other imaginations, which might seem in any wise to confirm his opinion. As, that the river which runs through Nottingham into Trent, is at this day call’d Lin or rather Lind; but then, Lenton lying at some distance from it, he is forc’d to back it with another Conjecture, that Lenton might be sometimes part of Nottingham; tho’ they are a mile asunder one from the other. What he says by way of reason why the old Town might possibly be at Lenton, is very true, That it is a thing frequently observ’d, that famous towns have degenerated into little villages, and that therefore its present meanness is no objection against it; but then, it can derive no authority from the river Lin or Lind. Besides, the obscurity of a place is a real prejudice to its antiquity, unless the discovery of camps, coins, bricks, or some such remains, demonstrate its former eminence. Nothing therefore that he has said in favour of this opinion, taken from distances and the like, is of force enough to draw the ancient Lindum from Lincoln. On the other side, is Wilford,Wilford. in the field whereof a large Pot was dug-up some years ago, with a very great number of Copper Coins. At a little distance from hence, stands, in a large field, a Church with a spire-steeple, call’d Flawford Church,Flawford. the burying-place of Reddington, a great Country-town above half a mile west from it. But this having a large Chapel of its own, the Church is the more neglected, and has much rubbish in it. Among it, there have been many ancient Monuments; no doubt of great note formerly. Some considerable ones are yet remaining both in the chancel and south-isle; part whereof by the manner of them, seem to imply, that the persons to whom they belong, have been engag’d in the Holy War. North-east from whence, is Aslakton, famous for the birth of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury.⌉

On the other shore, almost at the confluence of the Lin and Trent, and on the side of a hill, stands Nottingham,Nottingham. which gave name to the County, and is the chief Town in it; the word being only a contraction and a softening of Saxon Snottenga-ham. For so the Saxons call’d it, from the caves and passages under-ground, which the Ancients dug, for retreat and habitation, under those steep rocks in the south part, toward the little river Lin.Gausennae ⌈These, by the way, * * Itin. p.95.Dr. Gale will have to be the work of the Romans; and, to make good the distances in the Itinerary, he places here the Gausennæ of Antoninus. From these Caves⌉ Asser renders the Saxon word Saxon Snottengaham, Speluncarum domusFlor. Wigorn. ann. 890. in Latin, and in British Tui ogo bauc, which signifies the very same, namely, a house of dens. In respect of situation, the Town is very pleasant: on one side to the river are very large meadows; on the other side, hills of easie and gentle ascent: it is also plentifully provided with all necessaries. Shirewood supplies them with great store of wood for fire (though many burn Pit-coal, the smell whereof is very offensive,) and the Trent serves them plentifully with Fish. Hence this barbarous Verse,

Limpida sylva focum, ¦ ¦ Trent.Triginta dat mihi piscem.

Shirewood my fuel, Trent my fish supplies.

To wind up all; by its bigness, building, three neat Churches, a very fine Market-place, and a very strong Castle, the Town is render’d really beautiful. ⌈Here is also an * * Built by Henry Hanley, Esq; and endowed with 100l. per ann.Alms-house well endowed for twelve poor People.⌉ The Castle stands on the west-side of the Town, upon a steep rock; the very spot whereon that tower is believ’d to have stood, 868. which the Danes held against Æthered and Alfred who besieg’d it, till, without effecting any thing, they rose and ¦ ¦ Vasa conclamârint.retir’d. AEthered For when the Danes had got this Castle, Burthred ⌈or Burhred,⌉ King of the Mercians, and the Mercians (as Asser, ⌈and Florence⌉ say) sent messengers to Æthered King of the West-Saxons, and to Alfred his brother, humbly intreating that they would aid them; to the end they might be able to engage the said army. This request they easily obtain’d. For the two brothers having drawn together a great army from all parts with the dispatch they had promis’d, enter’d Mercia, and march’d as far as Snottenga-ham, with a joint and unanimous desire to fight them. But when the Pagans refus’d to give them battle, securing themselves in the castle; and the Christians were not able to batter down the walls of the castle; a Peace was concluded between the Mercians and the Pagans, and the two brothers return’d home with their forces. Afterwards, Edward the Elder built the village of BridgesfordBridgesford. over-against it, and rais’d a wall (now fallen) quite round the Town. The only remains of it, are on the west-side. A few years after this, namely in Edward the Confessor’s time (as it is in Domesday) there were reckon’d one hundred seventy three Burgesses in it, andDe duobus Monetariis.from the two Mints there were paid forty shillings to the King. Moreover, the water of Trent and the Foss-dike, and the way towards York, were all look’d after; that if any one hinder’d Ships from passing, * * Emendare habuit.he shou’d be amerc’d four pounds. As for the present Castle, both the Founder, and the Largeness, render it remarkable. For William the Norman built it to awe the English, ⌈unless we are rather to credit † † Dr. Thoroton.the learned Historiographer of this County, who is positive that it was built by Peverell, base son to William the Conqueror: for he, as it appears, had licence from the King to include ten acres (ad faciendum pomerium) thereabouts, which, after the forest-measure, contains above fifty Statute-acres; and that is near the proportion of the old Park at Nottingham. Besides, there is no mention of it in Domesday-book, which was made the year before the Conqueror’s death; and therefore it is probable that his son built it by order and commission from him.⌉ By Nature and Art together, it was so strong (as William of Newburrough tells us) That it seemed impregnable, except by Famine; provided it had a sufficient garrison in it. Afterwards, Edward the fourth repair’d it at great charge, and adorn’d it with curious buildings; to which Richard the third made some additions. Nor has it in any revolution undergone the common fate of great Castles; for it was never * * Expugnatum.taken by storm. Once it was besieg’d in vain by Henry of Anjou; at which time the garrison burnt down all the buildings about it. It was also once taken, by surprize, by 1175. Rog. Hoveden, p.307.Robert Count de Ferrars, in the Barons war, who depriv’d the Townsmen of all they had. Those of the Castle tell many strange stories of David King of Scotland, a prisoner here; and of Roger Mortimer Earl of March, as taken in this place by means of a * * Subterraneus meatus.subterraneous Maze, and afterwards hang’d for betraying his Country to the Scots for money, and for other ambitious and villanous designs. In the first court of this Castle, they still go down a great many steps with candle-light, into a vault under-ground, and rooms cut out of the very stone; in the walls whereof the History of Christ’s passion, and other matters are engraved, by David the second King of Scotland (as they say) who was kept prisoner there. In the upper part of the Castle also, which stands very high upon the rock, we went down many stairs into another vault underground; which they call Mortimer’s-hole,Mortimer’s-Hole. because Roger Mortimer absconded in it, when he found the just reward of his Wickedness coming upon him. ⌈While this Castle was in the hands of the Earl of Rutland, many of the good buildings were pull’d down, and the Iron and other materials sold; yet, in the beginning of the Civil wars, King Charles the first made choice of it as the fittest place for † † Circ. Aug. 2. 1642.setting up his Royal Standard. Shortly after, it became a Garrison for the Parliament; and in the end of the war, Orders were given to pull it down: but it was not quite demolish’d. Since the return of King Charles the second, the Duke of Buckingham (whose mother was only daughter and heir of Francis Earl of Rutland) sold it to the then Marquiss, afterwards Duke, of New-Castle, who in 1674. began to clear the foundations of the old tower, and erected a most stately fabrick in the place of part of it, which is greatly improved and adorned by the present Duke.⌉ As for position, this place is fifty three degrees in Latitude, and twenty two degrees, fourteen minutes, in Longitude.Petrae

From hence, the Trent runs gently by Holme, call’d from its Lords Holme Pierpount,Holme-Pierpount. a noble and ancient family, of whom, Robert de Petræ Ponte or Pierpount was summon’d among the Barons in Parliament by Edward the third; ⌈and whose descendants have been at several times advanced, first to the honour of Barons of this place, and that of Viscounts Newark; and afterwards to the higher Titles of Earl of Kingston, Marquiss of Dorchester, and Duke of Kingston.⌉The Barony of Shelford. Then, the Trent runs to Shelford, the seat of the famous family of the Stanhops, Knights, of great state and eminence in these parts; Vid. Chevening in Kent.⌈of which Family, and a great Ornament to it, is the Right Honourable James Stanhope, Principal Secretary of State; to whose great Abilities, and unwearied Application, his Country is indebted in a very eminent manner.⌉ It was formerly the Barony of Ralph Hanselin, by whose daughters it came to the Bardolphs and Everinghams. ⌈As to Shelford; in the Civil wars, it was a Garrison for the King, and commanded by Colonel Philip Stanhope, a younger son to Philip the first Earl of Chesterfield; which being taken by storm, he and many of his soldiers were therein slain, and the house afterwards burnt. Aubr. Mon. MS. Over-against this, is Barton;Barton. in the fields of which, upon a hill, is a fair Camp, supposed to be British. On the top of the hill (where several Coins have been found) were large Fortifications, which have been level’d, in this age, for the convenience of plowing; but on the side of it, the Works remain, one above another, like great Waves.⌉

Hence, the Trent goes to Stoke,Stoke. a small Village; but remarkable for no small slaughter: for here, John de la Pole, Earl of LincolnBattle of Stoke, 1447. (who was design’d for the Crown by Richard the third) when he saw himself excluded from the throne by Henry the seventh, rebelliously fought for a counterfeit Prince against his lawful King, and, after a stout defence, was cut off with his whole party. Not far from hence, stands Southwell,Southwell. a Collegiate-Church of Prebendaries, dedicated to the Virgin Mary; not very splendid, but strong, and ancient, and of great note. Paulinus, the first Archbishop of York, is said to have built it, after he had baptiz’d the people of this Country in the river Trent. From that time, the Archbishops of York † † Have had, C.had a large Palace here, with three Parks adjoyning, well stor’d with Deer; ⌈which hath been long in ruins, and the Estate demised in Lease.⌉ That this is the City which Bede calls Tio vul-Fingacester,Tio vul-Finga­cester. I the rather believe, because those things which he relates of Paulinus’s baptizing in the Trent near Tio-vul-Fingacester, are positively said to have been done here, by the private History of this Church. ⌈I will subjoin an Inscription upon a Pillar in the Church here, both because I do not observe it to be set down by Dr. Thoroton, and because it contains a sort of historical account of the place (a). From this Town, the family of the Southwells took their name, and were anciently seated here. For mention is made in the * * Thorot.
Nottingham­shire.
Records, of Simon Southwell under Henry the third, and of Sir John under Edward the first, and of several others, down to Henry the sixth; when they spread themselves into Norfolk and Suffolk. In the reign of King Charles the second, Sir Robert Southwell went into Glocestershire, where his Family is now seated, at Kings-weston.⌉

(a) Reges & Reginæ erunt nutrices tuæ.
Hanc
Collegiatam & Parochialem Ecclesiam
Religiosa Antiquitas
Fundavit.

Rex Henricus 8.
Illustrissimus
}
restauravit
1543.
{
Edwardo Lee Archiepiscopo Ebor.
piissimo
}
petente:
Regina Elizabetha
Religiosissima
}
sancivit
1584.
{
Edwino Sandys Archiepiscopo Ebor.
dignissimo
}
intercedente:
Monarcha Jacobus
Præpotentissimus
}
stabilivit
1604.
{
Henrico Howard, Comite Northamptoniensi
prænobilissimo
}
mediante.
A Domino factum est istud:
Da gloriam Deo
Honorem Regi.
Sint sicut Oreb & Zeb, & Zebe & Salmana
qui dicunt possideamus Sanctuarium Dei.
Psal. 83. 11.
Det Deus hoc sanctum sanctis; sit semper Asylum
Exulis, Idolatras sacrilegósque ruat.
* * From hence it is commonly call’d Lees-pillar.Gervas. Lee
In piam gratámque Mæcenatum memoriam
posuit
1608.
That is,
Kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and Queens, thy nursing Mothers.
This
Collegiate and Parochial Church
Religious Antiquity
Founded.
The Illustrious Prince,
Henry 8.
}
repair’d it
1543.
{
Edward Lee, the most pious Archbishop
of York.
}
requesting:
The most Religious Queen
Elizabeth.
}
confirm’d it
1584.
{
Edwin Sandys, the most worthy Archbishop
of York
}
interceding:
The most potent Monarch,
James
}
establish’d it
1604.
{
Henry Howard, the most noble Earl of
Northampton
}
mediating.
This is the Lord’s doing:
Give Glory to God:
Honour to the King.
Let them be as Oreb and Zeb, and like as Zebe and Salmana
Who say, let us take to our selves the Houses of God in possession.
Psal. 83. 11.
This holy place let holy men enjoy,
A Refuge to the banish’d and distress’d,
But Ruin to Idolatry, and Sacrilege.
Gervase Lee
To the pious and grateful memory of his Patrons
Placed this,
1608.

Hence, from the east, the Snite,Snite, riv. a small river, runs into the Trent; which, being yet shallow, runs to Langer,Langer. famous for its Lords the Tibetots or Tiptofts, afterwards Earls of Worcester. ⌈But that name hath had no relation to this place, since the time of King Edward the third. For in the 46th year of his reign, Robert, the last of the Tibetots, dying without heir-male; the custody of all his lands, and the care of his three daughters, were committed to Richard le Scrope; and he marrying Margaret, the eldest, to his son Roger, brought that seat to the name of the Lords Scrope, wherein it continu’d down to Emanuel,who was created Earl of Sunderland, 3 Car. 1. But he having no issue by his wife Elizabeth, that and the rest of his estate was settled upon his natural issue (three daughters;) and Annabella, the third of them (to whose share this manour fell in the division) marrying John Howe, second son of Sir John Howe of Compton in Glocestershire, brought it into that name.†⌉† Now, Viscounts in Ireland. Then, the Snite runs to Wiverton,Wiverton. which, from Heriz, formerly a famous man in these parts, came by the Bretts and Caltosts to the Chaworths,Chaworths, or de Cadurcis Cahorsin.
Quercy.
who derive their name from the Cadurci in France, and their pedigree from the Lords de Walchervill.

Now, the Trent divides itself ⌈near Haram,Haram. the seat of the Lord Lexington,⌉ and then washes Newark,Newark. a pretty large Town; so call’d, as if one should say, A new work, from the new castle there, very pleasant and curiously built (as Henry of Huntingdon describes it) by Alexander the munificent Bishop of Lincoln; ⌈or, as † † Pag. 197.Dr. Thoroton thinks) only repair’d by him.⌉ He (to use the words of an old historian,) being of a very generous temper, built this and another castle, at vast expence. And, because buildings of this nature seem’d less agreeable to the character of a Bishop; to extinguish the envy of them, and as it were to expiate that offence, he built an equal number of Monasteries, and fill’d them with religious societies. However, the profuseness of this military Bishop was soon punish’d as it deserv’d. For King Stephen, who had no better means to establish the sinking state of his kingdom, than the possessing himself of the fortify’d places, oblig’d the Bishop, by imprisonment and famine, to deliver into his hands, both this castle and that other at Sleford. Here is nothing else memorable,1216. but that King John ended the course of a very troublesome and uneasy Life, in this Castle. From hence the river, uniting again, flows directly to the north, by many villages. ⌈First by Collingham,Collingham. where (as we before observed) the marks of Antiquity, together with the distances, make it probable that the Crococolana of Antoninus is to be placed: and then, at some distance, by Tuxford,Tuxford. where Charles Read, Esq; built a curious Free-school, and endow’d it with fifty pounds per ann. The like he did at Corby in Lincolnshire; and at Drax in Yorkshire; to which last he added an Hospital, and endow’d that also with fifty pounds per annum.⌉ But the Trent sees nothing ⌈very⌉ remarkable, till it comes to Littleborrough,Little-borrough. a small town (and so, exactly answerable to the name;) where, as there is at this day a ferry much us’d, so was there formerly * * Statio sive Mansio.a famous Station which Antoninus mentions twice; and which is variously read, in some copies, Agelocum,Agelocum, or Segelocum. and in others, Segelocum. Formerly, I sought this place hereabouts in vain, but now I verily believe I have found it; both because this stands upon a military way, and because the marks of an old wall are plainly discernible in the neighbouring field, where many coins of the Roman Emperors are daily found by the plow-men. These are call’d Swines penniesSwines-pennies. by the Country-people, because they are often discover’d by the grubbing of the Swine there. ⌈Besides which, and the pieces of Urns and other Vessels, which have been taken up here; there hath been lately found a Roman Stylus, an Agate-Stone with a Roman figure, many Cornelians with Roman Engravings, and two Roman Altars, with other Antiquities.⌉ The People imagin, according to their poor sense of things, that their forefathers enclos’d the field with the stone-wall, to keep the water from overflowing it in winter. ⌈Talbot fixes this Station at Aulerton in Sherwood; and Fulk (contrary to Antoninus, who makes it distant from Lindum fourteen miles at least) at Agle, almost six miles from that place. Dr. Thoroton seems inclin’d to reduce it to the bank of the river Idle (on which, a ** Ann. 1594. former Edition of this work, had placed it;) where Eaton stands, which may upon that account as well be call’d Idleton; and, Id or Yd in the British signifying corn (as Ydlan doth a granary,) there may seem to be some affinity between that and Segelocum, as if it were a place of corn. But then, it is scarce fair, to bring it to Idleton upon the likeness in sound with Agelocum; and afterwards to settle it there upon a nearness in signification to Segelocum; one of which readings must be false, and by consequence both may not be made use of, as true, to confirm the same thing. Mr. Burton approves the placing of it here; and, to reconcile Agelocum and Segelocum, has ingeniously rank’d these two amongst the words, to which the Romans sometimes prefix’d an S or Sibilus, and sometimes omitted it. So (says he) they call’d the Alpes, which in Lycophron’s Cassandra we find written Greek salpies: and they who are call’d Greek text Insulae by Dionysius in his Periegesis, the same in Strabo are Greek text; lying in the British Sea.Caesar Salamantica of Spain is call’d by Polybius Greek text, and Cæsar’s Suessiones, in Ptolemy are Greek text. To add one common Noun out of Dioscorides, what in Virgil’s Eclogues is Saliunca, in him is Greek text.⌉

In the west part of this County (call’d the Sand,) where the Erwash, a small river, runs toward the Trent; we see StrelleyStrelley. ⌈(otherwise called Stradlegh and Straley,⌉ heretofore Strellegh) which hath given name and seat to the Strellies Knights (commonly call’d Sturly,) one of the most ancient and famous families of the County. More inward, lies Shirewood,Shirewood. which some interpret a clear Wood, others a famous Wood; formerly one close continu’d shade, with the boughs of trees so entangled in one another, that one could hardly walk single in the paths. At present, it is much thinner; and feeds an infinite number of Deer and Stags; and has some Towns in it, whereof MansfieldMansfield. is the chief. This is a very plentiful Market; the name of which is made an argument by some for the Antiquity of the family of Mansfeld in Germany, and they say, the first Earl of Mansfeld * * Mensam rotundam celebrasse.was at the Feast of the Round Table with our Arthur; and that he was born here. Our Kings were formerly wont to retire hither for the diversion of hunting, and, in the words of an old Inquisition, Henry Fauconberge held the manour of Cukeney in this County, by Serjeanty, to shoe the King’s horse when he came to Mansfeld. Many small rivers spring out of this wood, and run towards the Trent; the chief of them is Idle,Idle. upon which, near Idleton in the year 616, the Fortune of Ethered, a most potent King of the Northumbrians, stop’d and left him. For whereas before he had ever fought with success, here Fortune turn’d, and he was cut off; being defeated by Redwald King of the East-Angles, who placed Edwin (excluded then, and depriv’d of the throne of his Ancestors,) over Northumberland. ⌈Not far from the Idle, to the east, is Laxton,Laxton. or Lexington, which gives the title of Baron to the ancient and honourable family of Sutton; of which family, Robert Sutton was, in consideration of his eminent Services to King Charles the first, as also of his being descended from an heir-female of the family of Lexington, advanced to the dignity of a Baron of this Realm (21 Car. 1.) by the title of Lord Lexington of Aram.⌉ The course of this little river Idle lies at no great distance from Markham,Markham. a small village; which yet gave name to the Markhams, a family very famous heretofore, both for antiquity and valour; the greatest ornament of which, was J. Markham, who was Lord Chief Justice of England, and temper’d his Judgments with so much Equity (as you may read in the Histories of England,) that his name will endure, as long as Time it self. ⌈He dy’d (as appears from an Inscription in this Church) on St. Silvester’s day, anno 1409.⌉ Six miles from hence, to the west, stands Workensop,Workensop. noted for its great produce of liquorice,Liquorice. and famous for the * * Now the Duke of Norfolk’s.Earl of Shrewsbury’s house, built in † † So said, ann. 1607.our memory, by George Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury, with the magnificence becoming so great an Earl, and yet below Envy. To the Talbots, it came with a great estate from the Lovetofts, the first Lords of it under the Normans, by the Furnivals, and Nevils. Of these Lovetofts, G. Lovetoft in Henry the first’s time built a Monastery in this place; the Ruins of which are still to be seen among very pleasant meadows on the east-side of the town: but the west-part of the Church remains entire, with two towers very fair and beautiful. ⌈About a mile and half from Workensop, is Welbeck-Abbey,Welbeck-Abbey. now a very noble Building, seated in the lowest part of a fine park surrounded with trees of excellent timber; and was the delightful seat of William and Henry, Dukes of Newcastle; as it was afterwards of John Holles, Marquiss of Clare, and Duke of Newcastle, who marry’d Margaret, daughter and one of the coheirs of Henry aforesaid. And about six miles east from hence, stood the Abbey of Rughford;Rughford-Abbey. the noble and pleasant seat of the late Marquisses of Hallifax.⌉

A little higher ⌈than Workensop,⌉ upon the same river, I saw Blithe,Blithe. a noted market-town, which was fortify’d with a castle (as I am inform’d) by Bulley or Busly, a Nobleman of Norman Extraction; but † † Ann. 1607.at this day, hardly any Ruins appear: so destructive is age to every thing in this world. The little Monastery there, was built by Roger Busly and Foulk de Lisieurs; and this is almost the last town of Nottinghamshire to the North; except Scroby,Scroby. a little town belonging to the Archbishop of York, on the very edge of the County. ⌈Nor shall we say any more concerning the places in this neighbourhood; unless it be, that at Tyln, in the Parish of Hayton, near East-Retford, there has been lately found a Druid Amulet of an aqueous transparent colour, with streaks of yellow; and many Cornelians with Roman Engravings.⌉

William the ConquerorLords and Earls of Nottingham. made his natural son William Peverell Governor of this County, Lib. M. Linton.
Matth. Paris, p.126.
See the Earls of Derby.
Matth. Paris, p.204.
Hoveden, p.373. b.
Inq. 6 Ric. 2.
not by the title of Earl, but Lord, of Nottingham. He had a son, who dy’d during the life of his father; and this likewise a son of the same sirname, who was depriv’d of his estate by Henry the second, for † Venenum miscuerit.poysoning Ranulph Earl of Chester. About the same time, Robert de Ferrariis, who plunder’d Nottingham, us’d this title in the gift he made to the Church of Tuttesbury, ‘Robert the younger, Earl of Nottingham.’ But afterwards, King Richard the first gave and confirm’d to his brother John, the County and castle of Nottingham, with the whole Honour of Peverell. Long after that, Richard the second honour’d John de Mowbray with this title; but he, dying young and without issue, was succeeded by Thomas his brother; who, by Richard the second, was created Earl Marshal and Duke of Norfolk; and, being banish’d immediately after, he begat Thomas Earl Marshal, who was beheaded by Henry the fourth, and John Mowbray, who, as also his son and grandson, were successively Dukes of Norfolk, and Earls of Nottingham. But the issue-male of this family failing, and Richard, the infant-son of Edward the fourth, and Duke of York, having enjoy’d this title among others for a little time; Richard the third honour’d William Marquiss of Barkley, and Henry the eighth, Henry Fitz-Roy his natural son, with this title of Earl of Nottingham: but both dy’d without issue. And † Lately, in the year, C.in the year 1597. Queen Elizabeth solemnly invested Charles Howard, Lord High Admiral of England (who ¦ ¦ Is, C.was descended from the Mowbrays) with this honour, for his faithful and successful services by sea (as the Charter of Creation has it) against the Spaniard, in the year 1588, and for his taking of Cadiz in the year 1596; he having the command by Sea, as the Earl of Essex had by Land. ⌈Which Charles, dying Anno 1624, was succeeded by his second son Charles; William the elder brother dying before him, without issue-male. This Charles was succeeded by a son of his own name, who was likewise his second son, James the elder dying unmarry’d. In the 33d year of King Charles the second, Sir Heneage Finch, Lord Finch of Daventry and Keeper of the Great Seal, was advanced to the dignity of Earl of Nottingham; whose son, the Right Honourable Daniel Finch,See Burly in Rutlandshire. doth now enjoy the same Honours.⌉

There are 168 Parish-Churches in this County.

More rare Plants growing wild in Nottinghamshire.

Caryophyllus minor repens nostras. An Betonica coronaria, sive caryophyllata repens rubra J. B. Purple creeping Mountain-Pink. By the road-side on the sandy hill you ascend going from Lenton to Nottingham, plentifully; and in other sandy grounds in this County.

Gramen tremulum medium elatius, albis glumis non descriptum. Said to grow in a hollow lane between Peasely and Mansfield by P. B. I have not seen this sort of grass my self, nor do I much rely on the authority of this book: only I propose it to be searched out by the curious.

Glycyrrhiza vulgaris Ger. emac. Common English Liquorice. It is planted and cultivated for sale at Worksop in this County: which Camden also takes notice of.petraeum

Lychnis sylvestris alba nona Clusii Ger. emac. montana viscosa alba latifolia C. B. Sylvestris alba sive Ocimoides minus album Park. Polemonium petræum Gesneri J. B. White wild Catchfly. On the walls of Nottingham-castle, and on the grounds thereabout.

Verbascum pulverulentum flore luteo parvo J. B. Hoary Mullein with small flowers. About Wollaton-hall, the seat of my honoured Friend Sir Thomas Willoughby Baronet.

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Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06